Petroleum Engineering Basic Course, TPG 4105
Production Engineering (Production/Well Technology and Processing)
LECTURE NOTES
Jon Steinar Gudmundsson November 2008 INTRODUCTION (Petroleum Production Engineering)  Flow and pressure in near wellbore formation  Flow and pressure in well/tubing  Wellhead and template conditions  Flowline, from template to platform or terminal  Processing subsea, platform or terminal PRODUCTION WELLS Deliverability  Analyze and then synthesize  Rate and pressure main parameters  Reservoir performance  Inflow performance  Outflow performance, tubing performance Pressure Profile and Pressure States in Reservoirs  Pressure profile from rw to re, from well radius to outer boundary
k = permeability φ = porosity c = compressibility h = reservoir thickness rw = well radius re = reservoir radius (radial system) e = exterior pw = pwf well flowing pressure pe = pressure at reservoir outer boundary pR = reservoir pressure (volume average) Steadystate (stasjonært tilstand), SS Pseudosteadystate (pseudostasjonært tilstand), PSS 1

Transient state (ikkestasjonært tilstand)

Reservoir is almost like a flat pancake with properties k, φ, h and c. Well has property s. Well testing gives the groups kh (permeability thickness), representing the flow capacity, while φch (porositycompressibility thickness) give the storage capacity (of oil and/or gas) GOC is the gasoil contact and WOC is the wateroil contact.
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thereby cancelling the minus sign.c.
u = Darcy velocity = filtering velocity (based on the whole area.PSS arises when pressure profiles meet.. not only on the pore spaces)
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p = pwf +
μ o qo Bo ⎛ r ⎞ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 2πkh ⎜ ⎝ rw ⎠
q = qs. Bo
Bo =
V Vs.c.
Darcy’s Law u=− k dp μ dr
q = uA A = 2πrh Integrating from r and p to rw and pwf. that is.
by using imaginary wells. the total compressibility is given by the expression ct = c f + So co + S g cg + S wcw
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. or with Np. The solutions to the diffusivity equation are linear. .pR decreases with time. If oil.The principle of superposition can also be used to take into account the presence of faults. f stands for formation. cumulative production . therefore can the pressure values be added. gas and water are produced. .Superposition .
Pressure in oil reservoir with cumulative time (cumulative production) .The total pressure drop at any point in a reservoir is the sum of the pressure drops at that point caused by the flow in each of the wells in the reservoir.The diffusivity equation describes the pressure distribution in a reservoir with time and distance.pi is initial reservoir pressure
N p Bo = V p ct ( pi − pR )
ct = c f + So co
pR = pi − qo Bo t Aφct h
ct is total compressibility = Soco+cf where S stands for saturation.Usual pressure state PSS (when no injection of gas or water) .
the well flowing pressure is similar to the reservoir pressure.PSS rate equation
qo =
2πkh( pR − pwf )
μ o Bo ⎢ln⎜ ⎜

⎡ ⎛ re ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 3 / 4 + s⎥ ⎟ ⎣ ⎝ rw ⎠ ⎦
Productivity index
qo = PI ( pR − pwf )
PI =
2πkh
μ o Bo ⎢ln⎜ ⎜

⎡ ⎛ re ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ − 3 / 4 + s⎥ ⎟ ⎣ ⎝ rw ⎠ ⎦
PSS pressure equation
pwf = pR −
⎤ μ o qo Bo ⎡ ⎛ re ⎞ ⎟ − + s 3 / 4 ⎢ln⎜ ⎥ ⎟ 2πkh ⎣ ⎜ ⎝ rw ⎠ ⎦
The figure above shows the inflow performance of an oil well.Oil inflow performance . At zero flow. The opposite applies to increasing skin. s.
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. With increasing kh the oil flows more easily into the wellbore.
c ⎟ ⎠ pwf ⎝ μ g z ⎠ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎜r ⎟ ⎝ w⎠
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. asphaltenes). The production tubing in the wells are identical. s>0
Deliverability .Skin factor .Geometric skin or partial penetration skin.Stimulated near wellbore formation.Inflow performance . results from uneven flow path from reservoir to perforations .Reservoir performance . the reservoir performance and the outflow performance of the two wells are the same. s >0 .Damaged near wellbore formation. but the inflow performances are different. One of the wells is fully penetrating while the other well is partially penetrating. Therefore.Deposits (BaSO4. this due to geometric skin.c ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ e ⎛ ⎜ p ⎟dp ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ∫ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ re ⎞ ⎝ T ⎠⎝ ps.Rate equation from Darcy’s Law
qg =
p ⎞ 2πkh ⎛ Ts.Outflow performance
Imagine two nearby wells in a heterogeneous reservoir.
Gas inflow performance . s<0 .
Pressure drop measured/calculated from wellhead to bottomhole (from pth to pwf) . the pressure function.Production rate given by point where inflow and outflow curves meet.
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.Outflow performance. one production tubing design) .Analytical equations and/or wellbore flow packages can be used for calculations .
Solution method. pressure function constant (same expression as for oil) " Δp" = pR − pwf
Outflow performance . also called vertical lift performance .Each curve for each wellhead pressure (and. because gas viscosity and zfactor change with pressure
⎛ p ⎞ ⎟ F ( p) = ⎜ ⎜μ z⎟ g ⎝ ⎠ Integration numerically between pR and pwf

Specific/limiting solutions Low pressure. pressure function increases linearly with pressure such that 2 2 " Δp" = pR − pwf High pressure.
Oilonly well .Reservoir temperature .
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.Gasonly well .Oil well with bubble point in wellbore
Hydrostatic pressure with depth . heat conduction (not convection) . Solved by iteration.Fourier’s Law.Liquidonly
p = ρgL
Gasonly (use average values of z and T).Temperature gradient with depth (heat flux constant)
q = − kA
dT dx
Pressure profiles in flowing wells .
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. D used for depth. In equations. L used for depth/length.⎡ gM p = po exp ⎢ ⎣ zRT
⎤ L⎥ ⎦
In figures above.
used to open and closed well) .Casing perforated in oil producing formation(s) .All wells feed to manifold. flow and pressure) .Production tubing inside the casing (annulus between) .Well design .Casing cemented from wellhead to bottom .Choke valve after the wing valve (controls the well. .Packer at bottom of tubing to seal between casing and tubing .Wing valve on horizontal leg.Production through perforations and up the tubing.One valve on top for logging operations (otherwise closed) .Downhole safety valve. typically at 200400 m depth
Wellhead and manifold . and after that to process separator .Two master valves (either fully open or fully closed) .Individual wells can be coupled from manifold and to test separator
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Bubbles can be made. the head necessary to prevent boiling. This is expressed by NPSH (=Net Positive Suction Head).Downhole pumping . Pumps must therefore be place well below the separator.Gas lisft Pumps . In the oil industry where oil is to be pumped from a separator. when these collapse.
With and without ESP (electrical submersible pump) pumping .Pressure in tubing pt . Characteristic curve of centrifugal pump.Dynamic (centrifugal) o Rate depends on wheel diameter o Pressure depends on number of wheels Ideal pump power (W) P = qΔp Real pump power (W) 1 P = qΔp
η
where η is efficiency.8 at design conditions.Wellhead pressure pth (= WHP)
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. the oil at the saturation point.
All pumps must have high enough suction pressure. otherwise the liquid will begin to “boil” upstream of the pump. which “eats away” the metal in the pump. Usually given in “head” based on p=ρgh where h is the head (height of fluid column).Artificial lift .Volumetric (piston pump) . typically 0. it is called cavitation.
.With and without gas lift (GL) . where pth is tubing head pressure (=WHP).
Downhole pump or compressor can increase the flowrate (Accelerate Recovery) and/lor increase the recoverable oil/gas (Increase Recovery).
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.Pressure up the production tubing pt shown in lefthandside drawing.Pressure in the middle of the perforations. well flowing pressurepwf shown on righhandside of drawing.
PROCESSING OF OIL AND GAS .On platforms .Surface Facilities.Terminals . shows what equipment used (same process as shown above)

PID (Piping and Instrument Diagram) shows valves and instruments. Jahn et al. flow diagram and PID . also flow steam number. with reference to tables with physical values Flow diagram for Nyhamna and Kristin
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Block diagram.Subsea .Block diagram. simple boxes with arrows between

Flow diagram.
965bar @ 30°C
Åsgard C
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.3 MSm³/sd 210 bar 50°C Pcric <105 barg
GT
Åsgard Transport
30°C
30°C
30°C
Kristin
87 bar 121°C 26 bar 2 bar
Meter
20000 Sm3/sd 67 bar 70°C
TVP 0. backup 31°C 25°C 26°C
Fuel Gas
Meter
18.6
Kristin Prosess
Scavenger.
(GCV=gross calorific value) Wobbe index (WI=GCV/ γ )
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. < 50 g/m3 .Gas Hydrocarbon (HC) dew point.Water Oil content. 510 C under ambient Water dew point.Oil TVP (true vapour pressure). RVP (Reid vapour pressure) BS&W (basic sediment & water) Temperature over pour point (wax) Salt content (NaCl etc.Characteristic curve

Surge control

Compressor power (ideal adiabatic compression) k −1 ⎡ ⎤ m ⎛ k ⎞ ⎢⎛ p2 ⎞ k ⎥ P= RT1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ − 1⎥ M ⎝ k − 1 ⎠ ⎢⎝ p1 ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
k −1 k
⎛ p2 ⎞ T2 = T1 ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ k= Cp Cv
Product specifications . 5 C under HC dew point Heating value. < 40 ppm when discharged to sea (more stringent regulations on way) Particles.) Sulphur (H2S etc.Compressors and compression .) .
Water can be produced water and/or condensed water. On production to the surface and along flowlines. natural gas. typically below 20 C and above 50 bara. This is the condensed water that combines with natural gas to form hydrate.Formed when natural gas and liquid water are in contact above the equilibrium curve.g.Equilibrium curve depends on composition of gas and liquid water phase
Natural gas at reservoir conditions contains water vapour.Typical composition. .


Prevention of hydrate formation Injection of antifreeze (glycol. according to diagram shown below (hand drawing of more accurate diagram from AGA).NonHC gases (i. from template to platform) Thermal insulation and electrical heating for medium long distances (DEH=direct electical heating) Cold flow for long distances (being developed) Hammerschmidts equation for antifreeze. water. 1 m3 hydrate contains 150180 m3 natural gas. H2S etc. 85% wt.e. CO2. 15% wt. Thereby reduces the “solubility” of water vapour in the natural gas and water condenses. .)
Gas hydrates . . MEG=monoetylenglycol) Thermal insulation for short distances (within field.Volume ratio. e. lowers the “freezing” point (hydrate equilibrium curve)
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. the pressure and temperature (main effect) will decrease. .
Temperature decreases exponentially with distance
⎡ − Uπd ⎤ T2 = T + (T1 − T ) exp ⎢ L⎥ ⎢ mC p ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

Insulated subsea pipelines.g. ΔT is shifting of equilibrium curve and x is mass fraction antifreeze in aqueous phase. surroundings (e.Inlet T1.Steadystate flow . outlet T2. Inhibitor MOH MEG DEG TEG NaCl M (kg/kmol) 32 62 106 150 58 K () 1297 1222 2425 3000 3000 ρ (kg/m3) 800 1110 1120 
Temperature in pipes (and wells) . 1 < U < 2 (W/m2K) Noninsulated subsea pipelines.ΔT =
K⎛ x ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ M ⎝1− x ⎠
Table – Properties of inhibitors (antifreeze) used to prevent hydrate formation. K empirical constant in Hammerschmidts equation and ρ density. 15 < U < 25 (W/m2K)
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. sea) T (=constant) . M molicular weight .
wall friction in horizontal pipe (not for vertical wellbore)
⎞ d A2 M d ⎛ p2 2 2 2 ⎟+L = 0 − − p p ln⎜ 2 1 2 ⎟ 2 ⎜ f ⎝ p1 ⎠ f m z RT
(
)
For typical long gas pipelines from Norway to the Continent and Great Britain. 75 d f ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦
n = 1 for liquids. k/d.316 Re 0. f L 2 Δp f = ρu 2d

Compressible fluids (gas). The table below gives typical roughness values for pipes.Pressure drop in pipes (and wells) . n = 3 for gases The table below shows how the friction factor in pipes depends on Reynolds number and on relative roughness. Blasius’ equation can be used for low Reynolds number. Haaland’s equation is recommended for general use.8 = − log ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ +⎜ n Re 3 . f =
0. 25
Re =
ρud μ
Pipes with rough walls. Re < 105. It means that the natural logarithm term is quite small and can be ignored.Total pressure drop is wall friction + hydrostatic + acceleration Δp = Δp f + Δp g + Δpa

DarcyWeisbach equation for incompressible fluids (oil and/or water) for wall friction. for example.11n ⎤ 1. 1
⎡⎛ 6. Thereby.
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. Friction factor f from empirical experiments.A2 has d4). the frictional pressure drop is on average 6 bar/100 km. the diameter can be found as the 5th root (note. Friction factor Hydraulically smooth pipes.9 ⎞ n ⎛ k ⎞1.
1 12.38×103 1.0 35.Horizontal and vertical separators based on gravitation .5 30.Material
Internally plastic coated pipeline Honed bare carbon steel Electropolished bare 13Cr Cement lining Bare carbon steel Fiberglass lining Bare 13Cr
Average Absolut Roughness (inch) 0. profiled plates in tank volume (drops coalesce)
Droplet mechanics .10×103
Average Absolut Roughness (µm) 5.General theoretical equation for drops
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.30×103 1.492×103 1. .Figure of separator below. uD .18×103 1. tank volume (secondary separation by gravitation) vortex preventer (liquid outlet).1 38.3
Separators and separasjon .200×103 0.TSV = terminal settling velocity. wire mesh (gas outlet).1 53.Gasliquid (oil and water) and oilwater separation. gasliquid separator: Inlet (primary separation).50×103 2.0 33.
15m / s NORSOK recommends ks = 0.05(m / s ) < k s < 0.137 m/s
Gas density and standard conditions
Real gas law
pV = znRT
Gas density
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.uD =
4 gd 3 fD
ρ L − ρG ρG

fD is friction factor (drag coefficient) for drop Following is a simplification.c. ⎠⎝ T ⎠ z ⎝
ρG
API recommends for vertical separator 0.c. for example. empirical When Stokes Law applies.11(m / s ) Horizontal separator
qG = AG k s
ρ L − ρG ⎛ L ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ρG ⎝ 6 ⎠
0 . the gravitational constant g can be replaced by (u2/r) where u is tangential velocity and r the hydrocyclon radius.Vertical separator
⎛ (qG )s. the exact solution of the general equation is
gd 2 ⎛ ρ L − ρ G ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 18 ⎜ ⎝ μG ⎠
uD =
When separation takes place in a hydrocyclon.
Gas capacity of separators . ⎞ 1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎜ p s . giving room for using empirical data
uD = ks
ρ L − ρG ρG

ks is separation constant. = AG k s ρ L − ρG ⎜ ⎜ p ⎞⎛ Ts. c . low Reynolds number. 58
API recommends for horizontal separator 0.12m / s < k S < 0.
n = ns.c. ⎠
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.c. ⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟z ⎜T ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ s. zRT zs. zs.c.c.c.c. = 1
⎛ ps.c. ⎜ T ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ s .c.c.c . ⎞⎛ T ⎞ ⎟ q = q s . ⎠ ⎛ ps.c. ⎠
Bg (=FVF gas) =
⎛ T ⎞⎛ ps. ⎞ V ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟z ⎟⎜ Vs.c. ⎜ ⎜ p ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟z ⎜ ⎝ ⎠⎝ Ts.c. R Ts. s.c. ⎞⎛ T ⎞ V = Vs.c.n (mol / kg ) = p V zRT
ρ (kg / m3 ) =
M (kg / kmol )
pM zRT
Standard conditions s. pV p V = s.c .
Fasediagram
.Real gas law pV = znRT .96 .APPENDIX PVT (pressurevolumetemperature) .a. figure from Rojey o.Pseudoreduced pressure and temperature (c=critical) p pr = pc
T Tc .Specific density of gas (=gravity) M γ = gass M luft
M gass = γ 28.Kay’s Rule (y is mole fraction) pc = ∑ pci yi Tr = Tc = ∑ Tci yi
i i

Corresponding states zfactor diagram (StandingKatz diagram. 1997)
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