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Cells in Our Body

Subject: Biology, 9th grade Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is for students to become aware of cells and their functions. After completing the assignment the student should be able to distinguish the difference between organelles in a plant cell and animal cell. Students should also be able to describe the difference between plant and animal cells.

Georgia Performance Standards

SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids). d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion). SCSh3. Students will identify and investigate problems scientifically. a. Suggest reasonable hypotheses for identified problems. b. Develop procedures for solving scientific problems. SCSh8. Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices: a. Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data. b. Scientific researchers are expected to critically assess the quality of data including possible sources of bias in their investigations hypotheses, observations, data analyses, and interpretations c. Scientists use practices such as peer review and publication to reinforce the integrity of scientific activity and reporting. d. The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory.

Required Materials: Access to a computer Assignment sheet pencil or pen Teacher Instructions: 1. Set up computers to be able to easily find webpage 2. Allow students to work on assignment 3. Answer questions that come up about the webpage and the assignment itself Special Needs Adaptation: I will work with the special education department to make the classroom a comfortable and nurturing environment for those who have disabilities. Interdisciplinary Skills: Students will have to have a basic knowledge of how to work a computer and the internet. They will also have to have writing skills and be able to follow directions give by the website.

Name:______________________________ Grade:


Differences between Animal and Plant Cells Web Activity Follow the following website to find a page with the choice of two cells, animal and plant cells. Your goal is to be able to find differences between the two, find the purpose of the organelles, and find their function. Answer all the questions provided. Animal 1. What is the purpose of the Cytoskeleton? It helps to maintain cell shape, but the primary importance is in cell motility. The movement of the cell could not take place without the cytoskeleton. 2. The cytoskeleton is made of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate fibers. 3.What organelle is enclosed in a double membrane and communicates with surrounding cytosol? Nucleus 4. True or False? The DNA is very different in every cell if the body. That's why a liver cell is different from a muscle cell and a muscle cell is different from a fat cell. 5. What does the nucleolus produce? Ribosomes 6. What is the cytosol made of? It is made of mostly water but is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including trandsction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors and transcriptin factors. 7. What is the job of the centrosome during cellular respiration? The centrioles replicate and the centrosome divides/ They move to opposite ends of the nucleus and from each centrosomes microtubules grow into a "spindle" which is responsible for seperating replicated chromosomes in the two daughter cells. 8. What contains hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion? Lysosomes 9. What is the purpose of Peroxisomes? These organelles are responsible for protecting the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide.

10. What is the cell membrane made of? Draw a labeled diagram. Made of a phospholipids bilayer, Hydrophillic head, and a hydrophobic tail

11. Mitochondrion provide what for the cell? They provide energy that a cell needs to move, divide, and produce secretorty products Plants 12. What is a vacuole? Its a membrane bound sac that plays a role in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products. 13. What organelle(s) to animal cells have that plant cells don't have? Centrioles 14. What organelle(s) do plants have that animals don't? Cell walls, chloroplasts and vacuoles 15. What are chloroplasts? They contain the plant cells chlorophyll responsible for the plants green color and the ability to absorb energy from sunlight. Label the diagrams

Ribosome Nucluolus Rough ER Centrole

Smooth ER Mitochondria Cell membrane


Cell Wall

Chloroplas t Golgi




Bonus! (Not on website) Where do you get your Mitochondrial DNA? It is directly descended from your mother What is apoptosis? The killing of a cell.