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CONTENTS Introduction 1. The Path 2. Illumination And Ecstacy 3. The Gnosis 4. Divine Love 5. aints And !


". The #nitive tate $i%lio&ra'hy

INTRODUCTION The title o( this %oo) su((iciently e*'lains +hy it is included in a eries ,e*em'li(yin& the adventures and la%ours o( individual see)ers or &rou's o( see)ers in -uest o( reality., u(ism. the reli&ious 'hiloso'hy o( Islam. is descri%ed in the oldest e*tant de(inition as ,the a''rehension o( divine realities., and !ohammedan mystics are (ond o( callin& themselves Ahl al/0a--. ,the (ollo+ers o( the 1eal., 2Al/0a-- is the term &enerally used %y u(is +hen they re(er to God.3 In attem'tin& to set (orth their central doctrines (rom this 'oint o( vie+. I shall dra+ to some e*tent on materials +hich I have collected durin& the last t+enty years (or a &eneral history o( Islamic mysticism//a su%4ect so vast and many/sided that several lar&e volumes +ould %e re-uired to do it anythin& li)e 4ustice. 0ere I can only s)etch in %road outline certain 'rinci'les. methods. and characteristic (eatures o( the inner li(e as it has %een lived %y !oslems o( every class and condition (rom the ei&hth century o( our era to the 'resent day. Di((icult are the 'aths +hich they threaded. dar) and %e+ilderin& the 'athless hei&hts %eyond5 %ut even i( +e may not ho'e to accom'any the travellers to their 4ourney,s end. any in(ormation that +e have &athered concernin& their reli&ious environment and s'iritual history +ill hel' us to understand the stran&e e*'eriences o( +hich they +rite. In the (irst 'lace. there(ore. I 'ro'ose to o((er a (e+ remar)s on the ori&in and historical develo'ment o( u(ism. its relation to Islam. and its &eneral character. 6ot only are these matters interestin& to the student o( com'arative reli&ion5 some )no+led&e o( them is indis'ensa%le to any serious student o( u(ism itsel(. It may %e said. truly enou&h. that all mystical e*'eriences ultimately meet in a sin&le 'oint5 %ut that 'oint assumes +idely di((erent as'ects accordin& to the mystic,s reli&ion. race. and tem'erament. +hile the conver&in& lines o( a''roach admit o( almost in(inite variety. Thou&h all the &reat ty'es o( mysticism have somethin& in common. each is mar)ed %y 'eculiar characteristics resultin& (rom the circumstances in +hich it arose and (lourished. 7ust as the 8hristian ty'e cannot %e understood +ithout re(erence to 8hristianity. so the !ohammedan ty'e must %e vie+ed in conne*ion +ith the out+ard and in+ard develo'ment o( Islam. The +ord ,mystic., +hich has 'assed (rom Gree) reli&ion into Euro'ean literature. is re'resented in Ara%ic. Persian. and Tur)ish. the three chie( lan&ua&es o( Islam. %y , u(i., The terms. ho+ever. are not 'recisely synonymous. (or , u(i, has a s'eci(ic reli&ious connotation. and is restricted %y usa&e to those mystics +ho 'ro(ess the !ohammedan (aith. And the Ara%ic +ord. althou&h in course o( time it a''ro'riated the hi&h si&ni(icance o( the Gree)//li's sealed %y holy mysteries. eyes closed in visionary ra'ture//%ore a hum%ler meanin& +hen it (irst &ained currency 9a%out :;; A.D.<. #ntil recently its derivation +as in dis'ute. !ost u(is. (lyin& in the (ace o( etymolo&y. have derived it (rom an Ara%ic root +hich conveys the notion o( ,'urity,5 this +ould ma)e , u(i, mean ,one +ho is 'ure in heart, or ,one o( the elect., ome Euro'ean scholars identi(ied it +ith =so'h>s? in the sense o( ,theoso'hist., $ut 6@lde)e. in an article +ritten t+enty years a&o. sho+ed conclusively that the name +as derived (rom su( 9+ool<. and +as ori&inally a''lied to those !oslem ascetics +ho. in imitation o( 8hristian hermits. clad themselves in coarse +oollen &ar% as a si&n o( 'enitence and renunciation o( +orldly vanities. The earliest u(is +ere. in (act. ascetics and -uietists rather than mystics. An over+helmin& consciousness o( sin. com%ined +ith a dread//+hich it is hard (or us to realise//o( 7ud&ment Day and the torments o( 0ell/(ire. so vividly 'ainted in the Aoran. drove them to see) salvation in (li&ht (rom the +orld. Bn the other hand. the Aoran +arned them that salvation de'ended entirely on the inscruta%le +ill o( Allah. +ho &uides ari&ht the &ood and leads astray the +ic)ed. Their (ate +as inscri%ed on the eternal ta%les o( 0is 'rovidence. nothin& could alter it. Bnly this +as sure. that i( they +ere destined to %e saved %y (astin& and 'rayin& and 'ious +or)s//then they +ould %e saved. uch a %elie( ends naturally in -uietism. com'lete and un-uestionin& su%mission to the divine +ill. an attitude characteristic o( u(ism in its oldest (orm. The mains'rin& o( !oslem reli&ious li(e

durin& the ei&hth century +as (ear//(ear o( God. (ear o( 0ell. (ear o( death. (ear o( sin//%ut the o''osite motive had already %e&un to ma)e its in(luence (elt. and 'roduced in the saintly +oman 1a%iCa at least one cons'icuous e*am'le o( truly mystical sel(/a%andonment. DDD o (ar. there +as no &reat di((erence %et+een the u(i and the orthodo* !ohammedan Eealot. e*ce't that the u(is attached e*traordinary im'ortance to certain Aoranic doctrines. and develo'ed them at the e*'ense o( others +hich many !oslems mi&ht consider e-ually essential. It must also %e allo+ed that the ascetic movement +as ins'ired %y 8hristian ideals. and contrasted shar'ly +ith the active and 'leasure/lovin& s'irit o( Islam. In a (amous sentence the Pro'het denounced mon)ish austerities and %ade his 'eo'le devote themselves to the holy +ar a&ainst un%elievers5 and he &ave. as is +ell )no+n. the most convincin& testimony in (avour o( marria&e. Althou&h his condemnation o( celi%acy did not remain +ithout e((ect. the con-uest o( Persia. yria. and E&y't %y his successors %rou&ht the !oslems into contact +ith ideas +hich 'ro(oundly modi(ied their outloo) on li(e and reli&ion. Euro'ean readers o( the Aoran cannot (ail to %e struc) %y its author,s vacillation and inconsistency in dealin& +ith the &reatest 'ro%lems. 0e himsel( +as not a+are o( these contradictions. nor +ere they a stum%lin&/%loc) to his devout (ollo+ers. +hose sim'le (aith acce'ted the Aoran as the Ford o( God. $ut the ri(t +as there. and soon 'roduced (ar/reachin& results. 0ence arose the !ur4ites. +ho set (aith a%ove +or)s and em'hasised the divine love and &oodness5 the Gadarites +ho a((irmed. and the 7a%arites +ho denied. that men are res'onsi%le (or their actions5 the !uCtaEilites. +ho %uilt a theolo&y on the %asis o( reason. re4ectin& the -ualities o( Allah as incom'ati%le +ith 0is unity. and 'redestinarianism as contrary to 0is 4ustice5 and (inally the AshCarites. the scholastic theolo&ians o( Islam. +ho (ormulated the ri&id meta'hysical and doctrinal system that underlies the creed o( orthodo* !ohammedans at the 'resent time. All these s'eculations. in(luenced as they +ere %y Gree) theolo&y and 'hiloso'hy. reacted 'o+er(ully u'on u(ism. Early in the third century o( the 0e&ira//the ninth a(ter 8hrist//+e (ind mani(est si&ns o( the ne+ leaven stirrin& +ithin it. 6ot that u(is ceased to morti(y the (lesh and ta)e 'ride in their 'overty. %ut they no+ %e&an to re&ard asceticism as only the (irst sta&e o( a lon& 4ourney. the 'reliminary trainin& (or a lar&er s'iritual li(e than the mere ascetic is a%le to conceive. The nature o( the chan&e may %e illustrated %y -uotin& a (e+ sentences +hich have come do+n to us (rom the mystics o( this 'eriod. HLove is not to %e learned (rom menI it is one o( God,s &i(ts and comes o( 0is &race.H H6one re(rains (rom the lusts o( this +orld save him in +hose heart there is a li&ht that )ee's him al+ays %usied +ith the ne*t +orld.H HFhen the &nostic,s s'iritual eye is o'ened. his %odily eye is shutI he sees nothin& %ut God.H HI( &nosis +ere to ta)e visi%le sha'e all +ho loo)ed thereon +ould die at the si&ht o( its %eauty and loveliness and &oodness and &race. and every %ri&htness +ould %ecome dar) %eside the s'lendour thereo(.H 28om'are Plato. PhJdrus 97o+ett,s translation<I HKor si&ht is the )eenest o( our %odily senses5 thou&h not %y that is +isdom seen5 her loveliness +ould have %een trans'ortin& i( there had %een a visi%le ima&e o( her.H3 HGnosis is nearer to silence than to s'eech.H HFhen the heart +ee's %ecause it has lost. the s'irit lau&hs %ecause it has (ound.H

H6othin& sees God and dies. even as nothin& sees God and lives. %ecause 0is li(e is everlastin&I +hoever sees it is there%y made everlastin&.H HB God. I never listen to the cry o( animals or to the -uiverin& o( trees or to the murmurin& o( +ater or to the +ar%lin& o( %irds or to the rustlin& +ind or to the crashin& thunder +ithout (eelin& them to %e an evidence o( Thy unity and a 'roo( that there is nothin& li)e unto Thee.H DDD HB my God. I invo)e Thee in 'u%lic as lords are invo)ed. %ut in 'rivate as loved ones are invo)ed. Pu%licly I say. ,B my GodL, %ut 'rivately I say. ,B my $elovedL,H These ideas//Li&ht. Ano+led&e. and Love//(orm. as it +ere. the )eynotes o( the ne+ u(ism. and in the (ollo+in& cha'ters I shall endeavour to sho+ ho+ they +ere develo'ed. #ltimately they rest u'on a 'antheistic (aith +hich de'osed the Bne transcendent God o( Islam and +orshi''ed in 0is stead Bne 1eal $ein& +ho d+ells and +or)s every+here. and +hose throne is not less. %ut more. in the human heart than in the heaven o( heavens. $e(ore &oin& (urther. it +ill %e convenient to ans+er a -uestion +hich the reader may have as)ed himsel(//Fhence did the !oslems o( the ninth century derive this doctrineM !odern research has 'roved that the ori&in o( u(ism cannot %e traced %ac) to a sin&le de(inite cause. and has there%y discredited the s+ee'in& &eneralisations +hich re'resent it. (or instance. as a reaction o( the Aryan mind a&ainst a con-uerin& emitic reli&ion. and as the 'roduct. essentially. o( Indian or Persian thou&ht. tatements o( this )ind. even +hen they are 'artially true. i&nore the 'rinci'le that in order to esta%lish an historical conne*ion %et+een A and $. it is not enou&h to %rin& (or+ard evidence o( their li)eness to one another. +ithout sho+in& at the same time 91< that the actual relation o( $ to A +as such as to render the assumed (iliation 'ossi%le. and 92< that the 'ossi%le hy'othesis (its in +ith all the ascertained and relevant (acts. 6o+. the theories +hich I have mentioned do not satis(y these conditions. I( u(ism +as nothin& %ut a revolt o( the Aryan s'irit. ho+ are +e to e*'lain the undou%ted (act that some o( the leadin& 'ioneers o( !ohammedan mysticism +ere natives o( yria and E&y't. and Ara%s %y raceM imilarly. the advocates o( a $uddhistic or Nedantic ori&in (or&et that the main current o( Indian in(luence u'on Islamic civilisation %elon&s to a later e'och. +hereas !oslem theolo&y. 'hiloso'hy. and science 'ut (orth their (irst lu*uriant shoots on a soil that +as saturated +ith 0ellenistic culture. The truth is that u(ism is a com'le* thin&. and there(ore no sim'le ans+er can %e &iven to the -uestion ho+ it ori&inated. Fe shall have &one (ar. ho+ever. to+ards ans+erin& that -uestion +hen +e have distin&uished the various movements and (orces +hich moulded u(ism. and determined +hat direction it should ta)e in the early sta&es o( its &ro+th. Let us (irst consider the most im'ortant e*ternal. i.e. non/Islamic. in(luences. I. 801I TIA6ITO It is o%vious that the ascetic and -uietistic tendencies to +hich I have re(erred +ere in harmony +ith 8hristian theory and dre+ nourishment there(rom. !any Gos'el te*ts and a'ocry'hal sayin&s o( 7esus are cited in the oldest u(i %io&ra'hies. and the 8hristian anchorite 9rahi%< o(ten a''ears in the rPle o( a teacher &ivin& instruction and advice to +anderin& !oslem ascetics. Fe have seen that the +oollen dress. (rom +hich the name , u(i, is derived. is o( 8hristian ori&inI vo+s o( silence. litanies 9dhi)r<. and other ascetic 'ractices may %e traced to the same source. As re&ards the doctrine o( divine love. the (ollo+in& e*tracts s'ea) (or themselvesI H7esus 'assed %y three men. Their %odies +ere lean and their (aces 'ale. 0e as)ed them.

sayin&. ,Fhat hath %rou&ht you to this 'li&htM, They ans+ered. ,Kear o( the Kire., 7esus said. ,Oe (ear a thin& created. and it %ehoves God that 0e should save those +ho (ear., Then he le(t them and 'assed %y three others. +hose (aces +ere 'aler and their %odies leaner. and as)ed them. sayin&. ,Fhat hath %rou&ht you to this 'li&htM, They ans+ered. ,Lon&in& (or Paradise., 0e said. ,Oe desire a thin& created. and it %ehoves God that 0e should &ive you that +hich ye ho'e (or., Then he +ent on and 'assed %y three others o( e*ceedin& 'aleness and leanness. so that their (aces +ere as mirrors o( li&ht. and he said. ,Fhat hath %rou&ht you to thisM, They ans+ered. ,Bur love o( God., 7esus said. ,Oe are the nearest to 0im. ye are the nearest to 0im.,H The yrian mystic. Ahmad i%n al/0a+ari. once as)ed a 8hristian hermitI H,Fhat is the stron&est command that ye (ind in your cri'turesM, The hermit re'liedI ,Fe (ind none stron&er than thisI HLove thy 8reator +ith all thy 'o+er and mi&ht.H,H Another hermit +as as)ed %y some !oslem asceticsI H,Fhen is a man most 'erseverin& in devotionM, ,Fhen love ta)es 'ossession o( his heart., +as the re'ly5 ,(or then he hath no 4oy or 'leasure %ut in continual devotion.,H The in(luence o( 8hristianity throu&h its hermits. mon)s. and heretical sects 9e.&. the !essalians or EuchitJ< +as t+o(oldI ascetic and mystical. Briental 8hristian mysticism. ho+ever. contained a Pa&an elementI it had lon& a&o a%sor%ed the ideas and ado'ted the lan&ua&e o( Plotinus and the 6eo/'latonic school. II. 6EBPLATB6I ! Aristotle. not Plato. is the dominant (i&ure in !oslem 'hiloso'hy. and (e+ !ohammedans are (amiliar +ith the name o( Plotinus. +ho +as more commonly called ,the Gree) !aster, 9al/ hey)h al/Oaunani<. $ut since the Ara%s &ained their (irst )no+led&e o( Aristotle (rom his 6eo'latonist commentators. the system +ith +hich they %ecame im%ued +as that o( Por'hyry and Proclus. Thus the so/called Theolo&y o( Aristotle. o( +hich an Ara%ic version a''eared in the ninth century. is actually a manual o( 6eo'latonism. Another +or) o( this school deserves 'articular noticeI I mean the +ritin&s (alsely attri%uted to Dionysius the Areo'a&ite. the convert o( t. Paul. The 'seudo/Dionysius//he may have %een a yrian mon)//names as his teacher a certain 0ierotheus. +hom Krothin&ham has identi(ied +ith te'hen $ar udaili. a 'rominent yrian &nostic and a contem'orary o( 7aco% o( aru4 9451/521 A.D.<. Dionysius -uotes some (ra&ments o( erotic hymns %y this te'hen. and a com'lete +or). the $oo) o( 0ierotheus on the 0idden !ysteries o( the Divinity. has come do+n to us in a uni-ue manuscri't +hich is no+ in the $ritish !useum. The Dionysian +ritin&s. turned into Latin %y 7ohn cotus Eri&ena. (ounded medieval 8hristian mysticism in Festern Euro'e. Their in(luence in the East +as hardly less vital. They +ere translated (rom Gree) into yriac almost immediately on their a''earance. and their doctrine +as vi&orously 'ro'a&ated %y commentaries in the same ton&ue. HA%out :5; A.D. Dionysius +as )no+n (rom the Ti&ris to the Atlantic.H $esides literary tradition there +ere other channels %y +hich the doctrines o( emanation. illumination. &nosis. and ecstasy +ere transmitted. %ut enou&h has %een said to convince the reader that Gree) mystical ideas +ere in the air and easily accessi%le to the !oslem inha%itants o( Festern Asia and E&y't. +here the u(i theoso'hy (irst too) sha'e. Bne o( those +ho %ore the chie( 'art in

its develo'ment. Dhu Ql/6un the E&y'tian. is descri%ed as a 'hiloso'her and alchemist//in other +ords. a student o( 0ellenistic science. Fhen it is added that much o( his s'eculation a&rees +ith +hat +e (ind. (or e*am'le. in the +ritin&s o( Dionysius. +e are dra+n irresisti%ly to the conclusion 9+hich. as I have 'ointed out. is hi&hly 'ro%a%le on &eneral &rounds< that 6eo'latonism 'oured into Islam a lar&e tincture o( the same mystical element in +hich 8hristianity +as already stee'ed. III. G6B TI8I ! 28(. GoldEiher. H6eu'latonische und &nostische Elemente im 0adit.H in Reitschri(t (Sr Assyriolo&ie. **ii. 31T ((.3 Thou&h little direct evidence is availa%le. the cons'icuous 'lace occu'ied %y the theory o( &nosis in early u(i s'eculation su&&ests contact +ith 8hristian Gnosticism. and it is +orth notin& that the 'arents o( !aCru( al/Aar)hi. +hose de(inition o( u(ism as ,the a''rehension o( divine realities, +as -uoted on the (irst 'a&e o( this Introduction. are said to have %een a%ians. i.e. !andJans. d+ellin& in the $a%ylonian (enland %et+een $asra and Fasit. Bther !oslem saints had learned ,the mystery o( the Great 6ame., It +as communicated to I%rahim i%n Adham %y a man +hom he met +hile travellin& in the desert. and as soon as he 'ronounced it he sa+ the 'ro'het Ahadir 9Elias<. The ancient u(is %orro+ed (rom the !anichJans the term siddi-. +hich they a''ly to their o+n s'iritual ade'ts. and a later school. returnin& to the dualism o( !ani. held the vie+ that the diversity o( 'henomena arises (rom the admi*ture o( li&ht and dar)ness. HThe ideal o( human action is (reedom (rom the taint o( dar)ness5 and the (reedom o( li&ht (rom dar)ness means the sel(/consciousness o( li&ht as li&ht.H 2 hai)h !uhammad I-%al. The Develo'ment o( !eta'hysics in Persia 91U;:<. '. 15;.3 The (ollo+in& version o( the doctrine o( the seventy thousand veils as e*'lained %y a modern 1i(aCi dervish sho+s clear traces o( Gnosticism and is so interestin& that I cannot re(rain (rom -uotin& it hereI H eventy Thousand Neils se'arate Allah. the Bne 1eality. (rom the +orld o( matter and o( sense. And every soul 'asses %e(ore his %irth throu&h these seventy thousand. The inner hal( o( these are veils o( li&htI the outer hal(. veils o( dar)ness. Kor every one o( the veils o( li&ht 'assed throu&h. in this 4ourney to+ards %irth. the soul 'uts o(( a divine -ualityI and (or every one o( the dar) veils. it 'uts on an earthly -uality. Thus the child is %orn +ee'in&. (or the soul )no+s its se'aration (rom Allah. the Bne 1eality. And +hen the child cries in its slee'. it is %ecause the soul remem%ers somethin& o( +hat it has lost. Bther+ise. the 'assa&e throu&h the veils has %rou&ht +ith it (or&et(ulness 9nisyan<I and (or this reason man is called insan. 0e is no+. as it +ere. in 'rison in his %ody. se'arated %y these thic) curtains (rom Allah. DDD H$ut the +hole 'ur'ose o( u(ism. the Fay o( the dervish. is to &ive him an esca'e (rom this 'rison. an a'ocaly'se o( the eventy Thousand Neils. a recovery o( the ori&inal unity +ith The Bne. +hile still in this %ody. The %ody is not to %e 'ut o((5 it is to %e re(ined and made s'iritual//a hel' and not a hindrance to the s'irit. It is li)e a metal that has to %e re(ined %y (ire and transmuted. And the shei)h tells the as'irant that he has the secret o( this transmutation. ,Fe shall thro+ you into the (ire o( 'iritual Passion., he says. ,and you +ill emer&e re(ined.,H 2HThe FayH o( a !ohammedan !ystic. %y F. 0. T. Gairdner 9Lei'Ei&. 1U12<. ''. U (.3

IN. $#DD0I ! $e(ore the !ohammedan con-uest o( India in the eleventh century. the teachin& o( $uddha e*erted considera%le in(luence in Eastern Persia and Transo*ania. Fe hear o( (lourishin& $uddhist monasteries in $al)h. the metro'olis o( ancient $actria. a city (amous (or the num%er o( u(is +ho resided in it. Pro(essor GoldEiher has called attention to the si&ni(icant circumstance that the u(i ascetic. I%rahim i%n Adham. a''ears in !oslem le&end as a 'rince o( $al)h +ho a%andoned his throne and %ecame a +anderin& dervish//the story o( $uddha over a&ain. The u(is learned the use o( rosaries (rom $uddhist mon)s. and. +ithout enterin& into details. it may %e sa(ely asserted that the method o( u(ism. so (ar as it is one o( ethical sel(/culture. ascetic meditation. and intellectual a%straction. o+es a &ood deal to $uddhism. $ut the (eatures +hich the t+o systems have in common only accentuate the (undamental di((erence %et+een them. In s'irit they are 'oles a'art. The $uddhist moralises himsel(. the u(i %ecomes moral only throu&h )no+in& and lovin& God. The u(i conce'tion o( the 'assin&/a+ay 9(ana< o( individual sel( in #niversal $ein& is certainly. I thin). o( Indian ori&in. Its (irst &reat e*'onent +as the Persian mystic. $ayaEid o( $istam. +ho may have received it (rom his teacher. A%u CAli o( ind 9 cinde<. 0ere are some o( his sayin&sI H8reatures are su%4ect to chan&in& ,states., %ut the &nostic has no ,state., %ecause his vesti&es are e((aced and his essence annihilated %y the essence o( another. and his traces are lost in another,s traces.H HThirty years the hi&h God +as my mirror. no+ I am my o+n mirror.H i.e. accordin& to the e*'lanation &iven %y his %io&ra'her. Hthat +hich I +as I am no more. (or ,I, and ,God, is a denial o( the unity o( God. ince I am no more. the hi&h God is 0is o+n mirror.H HI +ent (rom God to God. until they cried (rom me in me. ,B Thou IL,H This. it +ill %e o%served. is not $uddhism. %ut the 'antheism o( the Nedanta. Fe cannot identi(y (ana +ith 6irvana unconditionally. $oth terms im'ly the 'assin&/a+ay o( individuality. %ut +hile 6irvana is 'urely ne&ative. (ana is accom'anied %y %a-a. everlastin& li(e in God. The ra'ture o( the u(i +ho has lost himsel( in ecstatic contem'lation o( the divine %eauty is entirely o''osed to the 'assionless intellectual serenity o( the Arahat. I em'hasise this contrast %ecause. in my o'inion. the in(luence o( $uddhism on !ohammedan thou&ht has %een e*a&&erated. !uch is attri%uted to $uddhism that is Indian rather than s'eci(ically $uddhisticI the (ana theory o( the u(is is a case in 'oint. Brdinary !oslems held the (ollo+ers o( $uddha in a%horrence. re&ardin& them as idolaters. and +ere not li)ely to see) 'ersonal intercourse +ith them. Bn the other hand. (or nearly a thousand years %e(ore the !ohammedan con-uest. $uddhism had %een 'o+er(ul in $actria and Eastern Persia &enerallyI it must. there(ore. have a((ected the develo'ment o( u(ism in these re&ions. Fhile (ana in its 'antheistic (orm is radically di((erent (rom 6irvana. the terms coincide so closely in other +ays that +e cannot re&ard them as %ein& alto&ether unconnected. Kana has an ethical as'ectI it involves the e*tinction o( all 'assions and desires. The 'assin&/a+ay o( evil -ualities and o( the evil actions +hich they 'roduce is said to %e %rou&ht a%out %y the continuance o( the corres'ondin& &ood -ualities and actions. 8om'are this +ith the de(inition o( 6irvana &iven %y Pro(essor 1hys DavidsI HThe e*tinction o( that sin(ul. &ras'in& condition o( mind and heart. +hich +ould other+ise. accordin& to the &reat mystery o( Aarma. %e the cause o( rene+ed individual e*istence. That e*tinction is to %e %rou&ht a%out %y. and runs 'arallel +ith. the &ro+th o( the o''osite condition o( mind and heart5 and it is com'lete +hen that o''osite condition is reached.H

A'art (rom the doctrine o( Aarma. +hich is alien to u(ism. these de(initions o( (ana 9vie+ed as a moral state< and 6irvana. a&ree almost +ord (or +ord. It +ould %e out o( 'lace to 'ursue the com'arison (urther. %ut I thin) +e may conclude that the u(i theory o( (ana +as in(luenced to some e*tent %y $uddhism as +ell as %y Perso/Indian 'antheism. The rece'tivity o( Islam to (orei&n ideas has %een reco&nised %y every un%iassed in-uirer. and the history o( u(ism is only a sin&le instance o( the &eneral rule. $ut this (act should not lead us to see) in such ideas an e*'lanation o( the +hole -uestion +hich I am no+ discussin&. or to identi(y u(ism itsel( +ith the e*traneous in&redients +hich it a%sor%ed and assimilated in the course o( its develo'ment. Even i( Islam had %een miraculously shut o(( (rom contact +ith (orei&n reli&ions and 'hiloso'hies. some (orm o( mysticism +ould have arisen +ithin it. (or the seeds +ere already there. B( course. +e cannot isolate the internal (orces +or)in& in this direction. since they +ere su%4ect to the la+ o( s'iritual &ravitation. The 'o+er(ul currents o( thou&ht dischar&ed throu&h the !ohammedan +orld %y the &reat non/lslamic systems a%ove mentioned &ave a stimulus to various tendencies +ithin Islam +hich a((ected u(ism either 'ositively or ne&atively. As +e have seen. its oldest ty'e is an ascetic revolt a&ainst lu*ury and +orldliness5 later on. the 'revailin& rationalism and sce'ticism 'rovo)ed counter/movements to+ards intuitive )no+led&e and emotional (aith. and also an orthodo* reaction +hich in its turn drove many earnest !oslems into the ran)s o( the mystics. 0o+. it may %e as)ed. could a reli&ion (ounded on the sim'le and austere monotheism o( !ohammed tolerate these ne+ doctrines. much less ma)e terms +ith themM It +ould seem im'ossi%le to reconcile the transcendent 'ersonality o( Allah +ith an immanent 1eality +hich is the very li(e and soul o( the universe. Oet Islam has acce'ted u(ism. The u(is. instead o( %ein& e*communicated. are securely esta%lished in the !ohammedan church. and the Le&end o( the !oslem aints records the +ildest e*cesses o( Briental 'antheism. Let us return (or a moment to the Aoran. that in(alli%le touchstone %y +hich every !ohammedan theory and 'ractice must %e 'roved. Are any &erms o( mysticism to %e (ound thereM The Aoran. as I have said. starts +ith the notion o( Allah. the Bne. Eternal. and Almi&hty God. (ar a%ove human (eelin&s and as'irations//the Lord o( 0is slaves. not the Kather o( 0is children5 a 4ud&e metin& out stern 4ustice to sinners. and e*tendin& 0is mercy only to those +ho avert 0is +rath %y re'entance. humility. and unceasin& +or)s o( devotion5 a God o( (ear rather than o( love. This is one side. and certainly the most 'rominent side. o( !ohammed,s teachin&5 %ut +hile he set an im'assa%le &ul( %et+een the +orld and Allah. his dee'er instinct craved a direct revelation (rom God to the soul. There are no contradictions in the lo&ic o( (eelin&. !ohammed. +ho had in him somethin& o( the mystic. (elt God %oth as (ar and near. %oth as transcendent and immanent. In the latter as'ect. Allah is the li&ht o( the heavens and the earth. a $ein& +ho +or)s in the +orld and in the soul o( man. HI( !y servants as) thee a%out !e. lo. I am nearH 9Aor. 2.1:2<5 HFe 9God< are nearer to him than his o+n nec)/veinH 95;.15<5 HAnd in the earth are si&ns to those o( real (aith. and in yourselves. FhatL do ye not seeMH 951.2;/21<. It +as a lon& time ere they sa+. The !oslem consciousness. haunted %y terri%le visions o( the +rath to come. slo+ly and 'ain(ully a+o)e to the si&ni(icance o( those li%eratin& ideas. The verses +hich I have -uoted do not stand alone. and ho+ever un(avoura%le to mysticism the Aoran as a +hole may %e. I cannot assent to the vie+ that it su''lies no %asis (or a mystical inter'retation o( Islam. This +as +or)ed out in detail %y the u(is. +ho dealt +ith the Aoran in very much the same +ay as Philo treated the Pentateuch. $ut they +ould not have succeeded so thorou&hly in %rin&in& over the mass o( reli&ious !oslems to their side. unless the cham'ions o( orthodo*y had set a%out constructin& a system o( scholastic 'hiloso'hy that reduced the divine

nature to a 'urely (ormal. chan&eless. and a%solute unity. a %are +ill devoid o( all a((ections and emotions. a tremendous and incalcula%le 'o+er +ith +hich no human creature could have any communion or 'ersonal intercourse +hatsoever. That is the God o( !ohammedan theolo&y. That +as the alternative to u(ism. There(ore. Hall thin)in&. reli&ious !oslems are mystics.H as Pro(essor D. $. !acdonald. one o( our %est authorities on the su%4ect. has remar)ed. And he addsI HAll. too. are 'antheists. %ut some do not )no+ it.H The relation o( individual u(is to Islam varies (rom more or less entire con(ormity to a merely nominal 'ro(ession o( %elie( in Allah and 0is Pro'het. Fhile the Aoran and the Traditions are &enerally ac)no+led&ed to %e the unaltera%le standard o( reli&ious truth. this ac)no+led&ment does not include the reco&nition o( any e*ternal authority +hich shall decide +hat is orthodo* and +hat is heretical. 8reeds and catechisms count (or nothin& in the u(i,s estimation. Fhy should he concern himsel( +ith these +hen he 'ossesses a doctrine derived immediately (rom GodM As he reads the Aoran +ith studious meditation and ra't attention. lo. the hidden meanin&s//in(inite. ine*hausti%le//o( the 0oly Ford (lash u'on his in+ard eye. This is +hat the u(is call istin%at. a sort o( intuitive deduction5 the mysterious in(lo+ o( divinely revealed )no+led&e into hearts made 'ure %y re'entance and (illed +ith the thou&ht o( God. and the out(lo+ o( that )no+led&e u'on the inter'retin& ton&ue. 6aturally. the doctrines elicited %y means o( istin%at do not a&ree very +ell either +ith !ohammedan theolo&y or +ith each other. %ut the discord is easily e*'lained. Theolo&ians. +ho inter'ret the letter. cannot %e e*'ected to reach the same conclusions as mystics. +ho inter'ret the s'irit5 and i( %oth classes di((er amon&st themselves. that is a merci(ul dis'ensation o( divine +isdom. since theolo&ical controversy serves to e*tin&uish reli&ious error. +hile the variety o( mystical truth corres'onds to the mani(old de&rees and modes o( mystical e*'erience. In the cha'ter on the &nosis I shall enter more (ully into the attitude o( the u(is to+ards 'ositive reli&ion. It is only a rou&h/and/ready account o( the matter to say that many o( them have %een &ood !oslems. many scarcely !oslems at all. and a third 'arty. 'erha's the lar&est. !oslems a(ter a (ashion. Durin& the early !iddle A&es Islam +as a &ro+in& or&anism. and &radually %ecame trans(ormed under the in(luence o( diverse movements. o( +hich u(ism itsel( +as one. !ohammedan orthodo*y in its 'resent sha'e o+es much to GhaEali. and GhaEali +as a u(i. Throu&h his +or) and e*am'le the u(istic inter'retation o( Islam has in no small measure %een harmonised +ith the rival claims o( reason and tradition. %ut 4ust %ecause o( this he is less valua%le than mystics o( a 'urer ty'e to the student +ho +ishes to )no+ +hat u(ism essentially is. Althou&h the numerous de(initions o( u(ism +hich occur in Ara%ic and Persian %oo)s on the su%4ect are historically interestin&. their chie( im'ortance lies in sho+in& that u(ism is unde(ina%le. 7alaluddin 1umi in his !asnavi tells a story a%out an ele'hant +hich some 0indoos +ere e*hi%itin& in a dar) room. !any 'eo'le &athered to see it. %ut. as the 'lace +as too dar) to 'ermit them to see the ele'hant. they all (elt it +ith their hands. to &ain an idea o( +hat it +as li)e. Bne (elt its trun). and said that the animal resem%led a +ater/'i'e5 another (elt its ear. and said it must %e a lar&e (an5 another its le&. and thou&ht it must %e a 'illar5 another (elt its %ac). and declared that the %east must %e li)e an immense throne. o it is +ith those +ho de(ine u(ismI they can only attem't to e*'ress +hat they themselves have (elt. and there is no conceiva%le (ormula that +ill com'rise every shade o( 'ersonal and intimate reli&ious (eelin&. ince. ho+ever. these de(initions illustrate +ith convenient %revity certain as'ects and characteristics o( u(ism. a (e+ s'ecimens may %e &iven. DDD H u(ism is thisI that actions should %e 'assin& over the u(i 9i.e. %ein& done u'on him< +hich are )no+n to God only. and that he should al+ays %e +ith God in a +ay that is )no+n to God only.H

H u(ism is +holly sel(/disci'line.H H u(ism is. to 'ossess nothin& and to %e 'ossessed %y nothin&.H H u(ism is not a system com'osed o( rules or sciences %ut a moral dis'osition5 i.e. i( it +ere a rule. it could %e made one,s o+n %y strenuous e*ertion. and i( it +ere a science. it could %e ac-uired %y instruction5 %ut on the contrary it is a dis'osition. accordin& to the sayin&. ,Korm yourselves on the moral nature o( God,5 and the moral nature o( God cannot %e attained either %y means o( rules or %y means o( sciences.H H u(ism is (reedom and &enerosity and a%sence o( sel(/constraint.H HIt is thisI that God should ma)e thee die to thysel( and should ma)e thee live in 0im.H HTo %ehold the im'er(ection o( the 'henomenal +orld. nay. to close the eye to everythin& im'er(ect in contem'lation o( 0im +ho is remote (rom all im'er(ection//that is u(ism.H H u(ism is control o( the (aculties and o%servance o( the %reaths.H DDD HIt is u(ism to 'ut a+ay +hat thou hast in thy head. to &ive +hat thou hast in thy hand. and not to recoil (rom +hatsoever %e(alls thee.H The reader +ill 'erceive that u(ism is a +ord unitin& many diver&ent meanin&s. and that in s)etchin& its main (eatures one is o%li&ed to ma)e a sort o( com'osite 'ortrait. +hich does not re'resent any 'articular ty'e e*clusively. The u(is are not a sect. they have no do&matic system. the tari-as or 'aths %y +hich they see) God Hare in num%er as the souls o( menH and vary in(initely. thou&h a (amily li)eness may %e traced in them all. Descri'tions o( such a Protean 'henomenon must di((er +idely (rom one another. and the im'ression 'roduced in each case +ill de'end on the choice o( materials and the 'rominence &iven to this or that as'ect o( the many/sided +hole. 6o+. the essence o( u(ism is %est dis'layed in its e*treme ty'e. +hich is 'antheistic and s'eculative rather than ascetic or devotional. This ty'e. there(ore. I have 'ur'osely 'laced in the (ore&round. The advanta&e o( limitin& the (ield is o%vious enou&h. %ut entails some loss o( 'ro'ortion. In order to (orm a (air 4ud&ment o( !ohammedan mysticism. the (ollo+in& cha'ters should %e su''lemented %y a com'anion 'icture dra+n es'ecially (rom those moderate ty'es +hich. (or +ant o( s'ace. I have unduly ne&lected.

CHAPTER I THE PATH !ystics o( every race and creed have descri%ed the 'ro&ress o( the s'iritual li(e as a 7ourney or a 'il&rima&e. Bther sym%ols have %een used (or the same 'ur'ose. %ut this one a''ears to %e almost universal in its ran&e. The u(i +ho sets out to see) God calls himsel( a ,traveller, 9sali)<5 he advances %y slo+ ,sta&es, 9ma-amat< alon& a ,'ath, 9tari-at< to the &oal o( union +ith 1eality 9(ana (i Ql/0a--<. hould he venture to ma)e a ma' o( this interior ascent. it +ill not corres'ond e*actly +ith any o( those made %y 'revious e*'lorers. uch ma's or scales o( 'er(ection +ere ela%orated %y u(i teachers at an early 'eriod. and the unluc)y !oslem ha%it o( systematisin& has 'roduced an enormous a(tercro'. The ,'ath, e*'ounded %y the author o( the Aita% al/LumaC. 'erha's the oldest com'rehensive treatise on u(ism that +e no+ 'ossess. consists o( the (ollo+in& seven ,sta&es,. each o( +hich 9e*ce't the (irst mem%er o( the series< is the result o( the ,sta&es, immediately 'recedin& it//9l< 1e'entance. 92< a%stinence. 93< renunciation. 94< 'overty. 95< 'atience. 9"< trust in God. 9T< satis(action. The ,sta&es, constitute the ascetic and ethical disci'line o( the u(i. and must %e care(ully distin&uished (rom the so/called ,states, 9ah+al. 'lural o( hal<. +hich (orm a similar 'sycholo&ical chain. The +riter +hom I have 4ust -uoted enumerates ten ,states,//!editation. nearness to God. love. (ear. ho'e. lon&in&. intimacy. tran-uillity. contem'lation. and certainty. Fhile the ,sta&es, can %e ac-uired and mastered %y one,s o+n e((orts. the ,states, are s'iritual (eelin&s and dis'ositions over +hich a man has no controlI HThey descend (rom God into his heart. +ithout his %ein& a%le to re'el them +hen they come or to retain them +hen they &o.H The u(i,s ,'ath, is not (inished until he has traversed all the ,sta&es., ma)in& himsel( 'er(ect in every one o( them %e(ore advancin& to the ne*t. and has also e*'erienced +hatever ,states, it 'leases God to %esto+ u'on him. Then. and only then. is he 'ermanently raised to the hi&her 'lanes o( consciousness +hich u(is call ,the Gnosis, 9maCri(at< and ,the Truth, 9ha-i-at<. +here the ,see)er, 9tali%< %ecomes the ,)no+er, or ,&nostic, 9Cari(<. and realises that )no+led&e. )no+er. and )no+n are Bne. DDD 0avin& s)etched. as %rie(ly as 'ossi%le. the e*ternal (rame+or) o( the method %y +hich the u(i a''roaches his &oal. I shall no+ try to &ive some account o( its inner +or)in&s. The 'resent cha'ter deals +ith the (irst 'ortion o( the three(old 4ourney//the Path. the Gnosis. and the Truth//%y +hich the -uest o( 1eality is o(ten sym%olised. The (irst 'lace in every list o( ,sta&es, is occu'ied %y re'entance 9ta+%at<. This is the !oslem term (or ,conversion., and mar)s the %e&innin& o( a ne+ li(e. In the %io&ra'hies o( eminent u(is the dreams. visions. auditions. and other e*'eriences +hich caused them to enter on the Path are usually related. Trivial as they may seem. these records have a 'sycholo&ical %asis. and. i( authentic. +ould %e +orth studyin& in detail. 1e'entance is descri%ed as the a+a)enin& o( the soul (rom the slum%er o( heedlessness. so that the sinner %ecomes a+are o( his evil +ays and (eels contrition (or 'ast diso%edience. 0e is not truly 'enitent. ho+ever. unless 91< he at once a%andons the sin or sins o( +hich he is conscious. and 92< (irmly resolves that he +ill never return to these sins in the (uture. It he should (ail to )ee' his vo+. he must a&ain turn to God. +hose mercy is in(inite. A certain +ell/ )no+n u(i re'ented seventy times and (ell %ac) into sin seventy times %e(ore he made a lastin& re'entance. The convert must also. as (ar as lies in his 'o+er. satis(y all those +hom he has in4ured. !any e*am'les o( such restitution mi&ht %e culled (rom the Le&end o( the !oslem aints.

Accordin& to the hi&h mystical theory. re'entance is 'urely an act o( divine &race. comin& (rom God to man. not (rom man to God. ome one said to 1a%iCaI HI have committed many sins5 i( I turn in 'enitence to+ards God. +ill 0e turn in mercy to+ards meMH H6ay.H she re'lied.H %ut i( 0e shall turn to+ards thee. thou +ilt turn to+ards 0im.H The -uestion +hether sins ou&ht to %e remem%ered a(ter re'entance or (or&otten illustrates a (undamental 'oint in u(i ethicsI I mean the di((erence %et+een +hat is tau&ht to novices and disci'les and +hat is held as an esoteric doctrine %y ade'ts. Any !ohammedan director o( souls +ould tell his 'u'ils that to thin) hum%ly and remorse(ully o( one,s sins is a soverei&n remedy a&ainst s'iritual 'ride. %ut he himsel( mi&ht very +ell %elieve that real re'entance consists in (or&ettin& everythin& e*ce't God. HThe 'enitent.H says 0u4+iri. His a lover o( God. and the lover o( God is in contem'lation o( GodI in contem'lation it is +ron& to remem%er sin. (or recollection o( sin is a veil %et+een God and the contem'lative.H in a''ertains to sel(/e*istence. +hich itsel( is the &reatest o( all sins. To (or&et sin is to (or&et sel(. This is only one a''lication o( a 'rinci'le +hich. as I have said. runs throu&h the +hole ethical system o( u(ism and +ill %e more (ully e*'lained in a su%se-uent cha'ter. Its dan&ers are evident. %ut +e must in (airness allo+ that the same theory o( conduct may not %e e-ually suita%le to those +ho have made themselves 'er(ect in moral disci'line and to those +ho are still strivin& a(ter 'er(ection. Bver the &ate o( re'entance it is +rittenI HAll sel( a%andon ye +ho enter hereLH The convert no+ %e&ins +hat is called %y 8hristian mystics the Pur&ative Fay. I( he (ollo+s the &eneral rule. he +ill ta)e a director 9 hey)h. Pir. !urshid<. i.e. a holy man o( ri'e e*'erience and 'ro(ound )no+led&e. +hose least +ord is a%solute la+ to his disci'les. A ,see)er, +ho attem'ts to traverse the ,Path, +ithout assistance receives little sym'athy. B( such a one it is said that ,his &uide is atan., and he is li)ened to a tree that (or +ant o( the &ardener,s care %rin&s (orth ,none or %itter (ruit., 'ea)in& o( the u(i hey)hs. 0u4+iri saysI HFhen a novice 4oins them. +ith the 'ur'ose o( renouncin& the +orld. they su%4ect him to s'iritual disci'line (or the s'ace o( three years. I( he (ul(il the re-uirements o( this disci'line. +ell and &ood5 other+ise. they declare that he cannot %e admitted to the ,Path., The (irst year is devoted to service o( the 'eo'le. the second year to service o( God. and the third year to +atchin& over his o+n heart. 0e can serve the 'eo'le. only +hen he 'laces himsel( in the ran) o( servants and all others in the ran) o( masters. i.e. he must re&ard all. +ithout e*ce'tion. as %ein& %etter than himsel(. and must deem it his duty to serve all ali)e. And he can serve God. only +hen he cuts o(( all his sel(ish interests relatin& either to the 'resent or to the (uture li(e. and +orshi's God (or God,s sa)e alone. inasmuch as +hoever +orshi's God (or any thin&,s sa)e +orshi's himsel(. not God. And he can +atch over his heart. only +hen his thou&hts are collected and every care is dismissed. so that in communion +ith God he &uards his heart (rom the assaults o( heedlessness. Fhen these -uali(ications are 'ossessed %y the novice. he may +ear the mura--aCat 9the 'atched (roc) +orn %y dervishes< as a true mystic. not merely as an imitator o( others.H

hi%li +as a 'u'il o( the (amous theoso'hist 7unayd o( $a&hdad. Bn his conversion. he came to 7unayd. sayin&I HThey tell me that you 'ossess the 'earl o( divine )no+led&eI either &ive it me or sell it.H 7unayd ans+eredI HI cannot sell it. (or you have not the 'rice thereo(5 and i( I &ive it you. you +ill have &ained it chea'ly. Oou do not )no+ its value. 8ast yoursel( headlon&. li)e me. into this ocean. in order that you may +in the 'earl %y +aitin& 'atiently.H hi%li as)ed +hat he must do. HGo.H said 7unayd. Hand sell sul'hur.H At the end o( a year he said to hi%liI HThis tradin& ma)es you +ell )no+n. $ecome a dervish and occu'y yoursel( solely +ith %e&&in&.H Durin& a +hole year hi%li +andered throu&h the streets o( $a&hdad. %e&&in& o( the 'assers/%y. %ut no one heeded him. Then he returned to 7unayd. +ho e*claimedI H ee no+L Oou are nothin& in 'eo'le,s eyes. 6ever set your mind on them or ta)e any account o( them at all. Kor some timeH 9he continued< Hyou +ere a cham%erlain and acted as &overnor o( a 'rovince. Go to that country and as) 'ardon o( all those +hom you have +ron&ed.H hi%li o%eyed and s'ent (our years in &oin& (rom door to door. until he had o%tained an ac-uittance (rom every 'erson e*ce't one. +hom he (ailed to trace. Bn his return. 7unayd said to himI HOou still have some re&ard to re'utation. Go and %e a %e&&ar (or one year more.H Every day hi%li used to %rin& the alms that +ere &iven him to 7unayd. +ho %esto+ed them on the 'oor and )e't hi%li +ithout (ood until the ne*t mornin&. Fhen a year had 'assed in this +ay. 7unayd acce'ted him as one o( his disci'les on condition that he should 'er(orm the duties o( a servant to the others. A(ter a year,s service. 7unayd as)ed himI HFhat thin) you o( yoursel( no+MH hi%li re'liedI HI deem mysel( the meanest o( God,s creatures.H H 6o+.H said the master. Hyour (aith is (irm.H I need not d+ell on the details o( this trainin&//the (asts and vi&ils. the vo+s o( silence. the lon& days and ni&hts o( solitary meditation. all the +ea'ons and tactics. in short. o( that %attle a&ainst one,s sel( +hich the Pro'het declared to %e more 'ain(ul and meritorious than the 0oly Far. Bn the other hand. my readers +ill e*'ect me to descri%e in a &eneral +ay the characteristic theories and 'ractices (or +hich the ,Path, is a convenient desi&nation. These may %e treated under the (ollo+in& headsI Poverty. !orti(ication. Trust in God. and 1ecollection. Fhereas 'overty is ne&ative in nature. involvin& detachment (rom all that is +orldly and unreal. the three remainin& terms denote the 'ositive counter'art o( that 'rocess. namely. the ethical disci'line %y +hich the soul is %rou&ht into harmonious relations +ith 1eality. The (atalistic s'irit +hich %rooded dar)ly over the childhood o( Islam//the (eelin& that all human actions are determined %y an unseen Po+er. and in themselves are +orthless and vain//caused renunciation to %ecome the +atch+ord o( early !oslem asceticism. Every true %eliever is %ound to a%stain (rom unla+(ul 'leasures. %ut the ascetic ac-uires merit %y a%stainin& (rom those +hich are

la+(ul. At (irst. renunciation +as understood almost e*clusively in a material sense. To have as (e+ +orldly &oods as 'ossi%le seemed the surest means o( &ainin& salvation. Da+ud al/TaQi o+ned nothin& e*ce't a mat o( rushes. a %ric) +hich he used as a 'illo+. and a leathern vessel +hich served him (or drin)in& and +ashin&. A certain man dreamed that he sa+ !ali) i%n Dinar and !ohammed i%n FasiC %ein& led into Paradise. and that !ali) +as admitted %e(ore his com'anion. 0e cried out in astonishment. (or he thou&ht !ohammed i%n FasiC had a su'erior claim to the honour. HOes.H came the ans+er. H%ut !ohammed i%n FasiC 'ossessed t+o shirts. and !ali) only one. That is the reason +hy !ali) is 're(erred.H The u(i ideal o( 'overty &oes (ar %eyond this. True 'overty is not merely lac) o( +ealth. %ut lac) o( desire (or +ealthI the em'ty heart as +ell as the em'ty hand. The ,'oor man, 9(a-ir< and the ,mendicant, 9dervish< are names %y +hich the !ohammedan mystic is 'roud to %e )no+n. %ecause they im'ly that he is stri''ed o( every thou&ht or +ish that +ould divert his mind (rom God. HTo %e severed entirely (rom %oth the 'resent li(e and the (uture li(e. and to +ant nothin& %esides the Lord o( the 'resent li(e and the (uture li(e//that is to %e truly 'oor.H uch a (a-ir is denuded o( individual e*istence. so that he does not attri%ute to himsel( any action. (eelin&. or -uality. 0e may even %e rich. in the common meanin& o( the +ord. thou&h s'iritually he is the 'oorest o( the 'oor5 (or. sometimes. God endo+s 0is saints +ith an out+ard sho+ o( +ealth and +orldliness in order to hide them (rom the 'ro(ane. 6o one (amiliar +ith the mystical +riters +ill need to %e in(ormed that their terminolo&y is am%i&uous. and that the same +ord (re-uently covers a &rou'. i( not a multitude. o( si&ni(ications diver&in& more or less +idely accordin& to the as'ect (rom +hich it is vie+ed. 0ence the con(usion that is a''arent in u(i te*t/%oo)s. Fhen ,'overty., (or e*am'le. is e*'lained %y one inter'reter as a transcendental theory and %y another as a 'ractical rule o( reli&ious li(e. the meanin&s cannot coincide. 1e&arded (rom the latter stand'oint. 'overty is only the %e&innin& o( u(ism. Ka-irs. 7ami says. renounce all +orldly thin&s (or the sa)e o( 'leasin& God. They are ur&ed to this sacri(ice %y one o( three motivesI 9a< 0o'e o( an easy rec)onin& on the Day o( 7ud&ment. or (ear o( %ein& 'unished5 9%< desire o( Paradise5 9c< lon&in& (or s'iritual 'eace and in+ard com'osure. Thus. inasmuch as they are not disinterested %ut see) to %ene(it themselves. they ran) %elo+ the u(i. +ho has no +ill o( his o+n and de'ends a%solutely on the +ill o( God. It is the a%sence o( ,sel(, that distin&uishes the u(i (rom the (a-ir. 0ere are some ma*ims (or dervishesI HDo not %e& unless you are starvin&. The 8ali'h Bmar (lo&&ed a man +ho %e&&ed a(ter havin& satis(ied his hun&er. Fhen com'elled to %e&. do not acce't more than you need.H H$e &ood/natured and uncom'lainin& and than) God (or your 'overty.H HDo not (latter the rich (or &ivin&. nor %lame them (or +ithholdin&.H HDread the loss o( 'overty more than the rich man dreads the loss o( +ealth.H HTa)e +hat is voluntarily o((eredI it is the daily %read +hich God sends to youI do not re(use God,s &i(t.H HLet no thou&ht o( the morro+ enter your mind. else you +ill incur everlastin& 'erdition.H HDo not ma)e God a s'rin&e to catch alms.H The u(i teachers &radually %uilt u' a system o( asceticism and moral culture +hich is (ounded on

the (act that there is in man an element o( evil//the lo+er or a''etitive soul. This evil sel(. the seat o( 'assion and lust. is called na(s5 it may %e considered %roadly e-uivalent to ,the (lesh., and +ith its allies. the +orld and the devil. it constitutes the &reat o%stacle to the attainment o( union +ith God. The Pro'het saidI HThy +orst enemy is thy na(s. +hich is %et+een thy t+o sides.H I do not intend to discuss the various o'inions as to its nature. %ut the 'roo( o( its materiality is too curious to %e omitted. !ohammed i%n C#lyan. an eminent u(i. relates that one day somethin& li)e a youn& (o* came (orth (rom his throat. and God caused him to )no+ that it +as his na(s. 0e trod on it. %ut it &re+ %i&&er at every )ic) that he &ave it. 0e saidI HBther thin&s are destroyed %y 'ain and %lo+sI +hy dost thou increaseMH H $ecause I +as created 'erverse.H it re'lied5 H+hat is 'ain to other thin&s is 'leasure to me. and their 'leasure is my 'ain.H The na(s o( 0alla4 +as seen runnin& %ehind him in the sha'e o( a do&5 and other cases are recorded in +hich it a''eared as a sna)e or a mouse. !orti(ication o( the na(s is the chie( +or) o( devotion. and leads. directly or indirectly. to the contem'lative li(e. All the hey)hs are a&reed that no disci'le +ho ne&lects this duty +ill ever learn the rudiments o( u(ism. The 'rinci'le o( morti(ication is that the na(s should %e +eaned (rom those thin&s to +hich it is accustomed. that it should %e encoura&ed to resist its 'assions. that its 'ride should %e %ro)en. and that it should %e %rou&ht throu&h su((erin& and tri%ulation to reco&nise the vileness o( its ori&inal nature and the im'urity o( its actions. 8oncernin& the out+ard methods o( morti(ication. such as (astin&. silence. and solitude. a &reat deal mi&ht %e +ritten. %ut +e must no+ 'ass on to the hi&her ethical disci'line +hich com'letes the Path. el(/morti(ication. as advanced u(is understand it. is a moral transmutation o( the inner man. Fhen they say. HDie %e(ore ye die.H they do not mean to assert that the lo+er sel( can %e essentially destroyed. %ut that it can and should %e 'ur&ed o( its attri%utes. +hich are +holly evil. These attri%utes//i&norance. 'ride. envy. uncharita%leness. etc.//are e*tin&uished. and re'laced %y the o''osite -ualities. +hen the +ill is surrendered to God and +hen the mind is concentrated on 0im. There(ore ,dyin& to sel(, is really ,livin& in God., The mystical as'ects o( the doctrine thus stated +ill occu'y a considera%le 'art o( the (ollo+in& cha'ters5 here +e are mainly interested in its ethical im'ort. The u(i +ho has eradicated sel(/+ill is said. in technical lan&ua&e. to have reached the ,sta&es, o( ,ac-uiescence, or ,satis(action, 9rida< and ,trust in God, 9ta+a))ul<. A dervish (ell into the Ti&ris. eein& that he could not s+im. a man on the %an) cried out. H hall I tell some one to %rin& you ashoreMH H6o.H said the dervish. HThen do you +ish to %e dro+nedMH H6o.H HFhat. then. do you +ishMH The dervish re'lied. HGod,s +ill %e doneL Fhat have I to do +ith +ishin&MH ,Trust in God., in its e*treme (orm. involves the renunciation o( every 'ersonal initiative and volition5 total 'assivity li)e that o( a cor'se in the hands o( the +asher +ho 're'ares it (or %urial5 'er(ect indi((erence to+ards anythin& that is even remotely connected +ith one,s sel(. A s'ecial class o( the ancient u(is too) their name (rom this ,trust., +hich they a''lied. so (ar as they +ere a%le. to matters o( everyday li(e. Kor instance. they +ould not see) (ood. +or) (or hire. 'ractise any trade. or allo+ medicine to %e &iven them +hen they +ere ill. Guietly they committed themselves to God,s care. never dou%tin& that 0e. to +hom %elon& the treasures o( earth and heaven. +ould 'rovide (or their +ants. and that their allotted 'ortion +ould come to them as surely as it comes to the %irds. +hich neither so+ nor rea'. and to the (ish in the sea. and to the child in the +om%.

These 'rinci'les de'end ultimately on the u(istic theory o( the divine unity. as is sho+n %y ha-io( $al)h in the (ollo+in& 'assa&eI HThere are three thin&s +hich a man is %ound to 'ractise. Fhosoever ne&lects any one o( them must needs ne&lect them all. and +hosoever cleaves to any one o( them must needs cleave to them all. trive. there(ore. to understand. and consider heed(ully. HThe (irst is this. that +ith your mind and your ton&ue and your actions you declare God to %e Bne5 and that. havin& declared 0im to %e Bne. and havin& declared that none %ene(its you or harms you e*ce't 0im. you devote all your actions to 0im alone. I( you act a sin&le 4ot o( your actions (or the sa)e o( another. your thou&ht and s'eech are corru't. since your motive in actin& (or another,s sa)e must %e ho'e or (ear5 and +hen you act (rom ho'e or (ear o( other than God. +ho is the lord and sustainer o( all thin&s. you have ta)en to yoursel( another &od to honour and venerate. H econdly. that +hile you s'ea) and act in the sincere %elie( that there is no God e*ce't 0im. you should trust 0im more than the +orld or money or uncle or (ather or mother or any one on the (ace o( the earth. HThirdly. +hen you have esta%lished these t+o thin&s. namely. sincere %elie( in the unity o( God and trust in 0im. it %ehoves you to %e satis(ied +ith 0im and not to %e an&ry on account o( anythin& that ve*es you. $e+are o( an&erL Let your heart %e +ith 0im al+ays. let it not %e +ithdra+n (rom 0im (or a sin&le moment.H The ,trustin&, u(i has no thou&ht %eyond the 'resent hour. Bn one occasion ha-i- as)ed those +ho sat listenin& to his discourseI HI( God causes you to die to/day. thin) ye that 0e +ill demand (rom you the 'rayers o( to/morro+MH They ans+eredI H6o5 ho+ should 0e demand (rom us the 'rayers o( a day on +hich +e are not aliveMH ha-i- saidI HEven as 0e +ill not demand (rom you the 'rayers o( to/morro+. so do ye not see) (rom 0im the 'rovender o( to/morro+. It may %e that ye +ill not live so lon&.H In vie+ o( the 'ractical conse-uences o( attem'tin& to live ,on trust., it is not sur'risin& to read the advice &iven to those +ho +ould 'er(ectly (ul(il the doctrineI HLet them di& a &rave and %ury themselves.H Later u(is hold that active e*ertion (or the 'ur'ose o( o%tainin& the means o( su%sistence is -uite com'ati%le +ith ,trust., accordin& to the sayin& o( the Pro'het. HTrust in God and tie the camel,s le&.H They de(ine ta+a))ul as an ha%itual state o( mind. +hich is im'aired only %y sel(/'leasin& thou&hts5 e.&. it +as accounted a %reach o( ,trust, to thin) Paradise a more desira%le 'lace than 0ell. Fhat ty'e o( character is such a theory li)ely to 'roduceM At the +orst. a useless drone and hy'ocrite 'reyin& u'on his (ello+/creatures5 at the %est. a harmless dervish +ho remains unmoved in the midst o( sorro+. meets 'raise and %lame +ith e-ual indi((erence. and acce'ts insults. %lo+s. torture. and death as mere incidents in the eternal drama o( destiny. This cold morality. ho+ever. is not the hi&hest o( +hich u(ism is ca'a%le. The hi&hest morality s'rin&s (rom nothin& %ut love. +hen sel(/surrender %ecomes sel(/devotion. B( that I shall have somethin& to say in due time. Amon& the 'ositive elements in the u(i disci'line there is one that !oslem mystics unanimously re&ard as the )eystone o( 'ractical reli&ion. I re(er to the dhi)r. an e*ercise +ell )no+n to Festern readers (rom the care(ul descri'tion &iven %y Ed+ard Lane in his !odern E&y'tians. and %y Pro(essor D. $. !acdonald in his recently 'u%lished As'ects o( Islam. The term dhi)r//,recollection, seems to me the most a''ro'riate e-uivalent in En&lish//si&ni(ies ,mentionin&., ,remem%erin&., or sim'ly ,thin)in& o(,5 in the Aoran the Kaith(ul are commanded to Hremem%er God o(ten.H a 'lain act o( +orshi' +ithout any mystical savour. $ut the u(is made a 'ractice o( re'eatin& the name o( God or some reli&ious (ormula. e.&. HGlory to AllahH 9su%han Allah<. HThere is no &od %ut AllahH 9la

ilaha illa Qllah<. accom'anyin& the mechanical intonation +ith an intense concentration o( every (aculty u'on the sin&le +ord or 'hrase5 and they attach &reater value to this irre&ular litany. +hich ena%les them to en4oy uninterru'ted communion +ith God. than to the (ive services o( 'rayer 'er(ormed. at (i*ed hours o( the day and ni&ht. %y all !oslems. 1ecollection may %e either s'o)en or silent. %ut it is %est. accordin& to the usual o'inion. that ton&ue and mind should co/o'erate. ahl i%n CA%dallah %ade one o( his disci'les endeavour to say HAllahL AllahLH the +hole day +ithout intermission. Fhen he had ac-uired the ha%it o( doin& so. ahl instructed him to re'eat the same +ords durin& the ni&ht. until they came (orth (rom his li's even +hile he +as aslee'. H6o+.H said he. H%e silent and occu'y yoursel( +ith recollectin& them.H At last the disci'le,s +hole %ein& +as a%sor%ed %y the thou&ht o( Allah. Bne day a lo& (ell on his head. and the +ords HAllah. AllahH +ere seen +ritten in the %lood that tric)led (rom the +ound. GhaEali descri%es the method and e((ects o( dhi)r in a 'assa&e +hich !acdonald has summarised as (ollo+sI HLet him reduce his heart to a state in +hich the e*istence o( anythin& and its non/e*istence are the same to him. Then let him sit alone in some corner. limitin& his reli&ious duties to +hat is a%solutely necessary. and not occu'yin& himsel( either +ith recitin& the Aoran or considerin& its meanin& or +ith %oo)s o( reli&ious traditions or +ith anythin& o( the sort. And let him see to it that nothin& save God most 0i&h enters his mind. Then. as he sits in solitude. let him not cease sayin& continuously +ith his ton&ue. ,Allah. Allah., )ee'in& his thou&ht on it. At last he +ill reach a state +hen the motion o( his ton&ue +ill cease. and it +ill seem as thou&h the +ord (lo+ed (rom it. Let him 'ersevere in this until all trace o( motion is removed (rom his ton&ue. and he (inds his heart 'erseverin& in the thou&ht. Let him still 'ersevere until the (orm o( the +ord. its letters and sha'e. is removed (rom his heart. and there remains the idea alone. as thou&h clin&in& to his heart. inse'ara%le (rom it. o (ar. all is de'endent on his +ill and choice5 %ut to %rin& the mercy o( God does not stand in his +ill or choice. 0e has no+ laid himsel( %are to the %reathin&s o( that mercy. and nothin& remains %ut to a+ait +hat God +ill o'en to him. as God has done a(ter this manner to 'ro'hets and saints. I( he (o11o+s the a%ove course. he may %e sure that the li&ht o( the 1eal +ill shine out in his heart. At (irst unsta%le. li)e a (lash o( li&htnin&. it turns and returns5 thou&h sometimes it han&s %ac). And i( it returns. sometimes it a%ides and sometimes it is momentary. And i( it a%ides. sometimes its a%idin& is lon&. and sometimes short.H Another u(i 'uts the &ist o( the matter in a sentence. thusI HThe (irst sta&e o( dhi)r is to (or&et sel(. and the last sta&e is the e((acement o( the +orshi''er in the act o( +orshi'. +ithout consciousness o( +orshi'. and such a%sor'tion in the o%4ect o( +orshi' as 'recludes return to the su%4ect thereo(.H 1ecollection can %e aided in various +ays. Fhen hi%li +as a novice. he +ent daily into a cellar. ta)in& +ith him a %undle o( stic)s. I( his attention (la&&ed. he +ould %eat himsel( until the stic)s %ro)e. and sometimes the +hole %undle +ould %e (inished %e(ore evenin&5 then he +ould dash his hands and (eet a&ainst the +all. The Indian 'ractice o( inhalin& and e*halin& the %reath +as )no+n to the u(is o( the ninth century and +as much used a(ter+ards. Amon& the Dervish Brders music. sin&in&. and dancin& are (avourite means o( inducin& the state o( trance called ,'assin&/a+ay, 9(ana<. +hich. as a''ears (rom the de(inition -uoted a%ove. is the clima* and raison d,Vtre o( the method. In ,meditation, 9mura-a%at< +e reco&nise a (orm o( sel(/concentration similar to the $uddhistic dhyana and samadhi. This is +hat the Pro'het meant +hen he said. HForshi' God as thou&h thou sa+est 0im. (or i( thou seest 0im not. yet 0e sees thee.H Anyone +ho (eels sure that God is al+ays +atchin& over him +ill devote himsel( to meditatin& on God. and no evil thou&hts or dia%olic

su&&estions +ill (ind their +ay into his heart. 6uri used to meditate so intently that not a hair on his %ody stirred. 0e declared that he had learned this ha%it (rom a cat +hich +as o%servin& a mouse/ hole. and that she +as (ar more -uiet than he. A%u aCid i%n A%i Ql/Ahayr )e't his eyes (i*ed on his navel. It is said that the Devil is smitten +ith e'ile'sy +hen he a''roaches a man thus occu'ied. 4ust as ha''ens to other men +hen the Devil ta)es 'ossession o( them. This cha'ter +ill have served its 'ur'ose i( it has %rou&ht %e(ore my readers a clear vie+ o( the main lines on +hich the 're'aratory trainin& o( the u(i is conducted. Fe must no+ ima&ine him to have %een invested %y his hey)h +ith the 'atched (roc) 9mura--aCat or )hir-at<. +hich is an out+ard si&n that he has success(ully emer&ed (rom the disci'line o( the ,Path., and is no+ advancin& +ith uncertain ste's to+ards the Li&ht. as +hen toil/+orn travellers. havin& &ained the summit o( a dee' &or&e. suddenly catch &lim'ses o( the sun and cover their eyes.

CHAPTER II ILLUMINATION AND ECSTASY God. +ho is descri%ed in the Aoran as Hthe Li&ht o( the heavens and the earth.H cannot %e seen %y the %odily eye. 0e is visi%le only to the in+ard si&ht o( the ,heart., In the ne*t cha'ter +e shall return to this s'iritual or&an. %ut I am not &oin& to enter into the intricacies o( u(i 'sycholo&y any (urther than is necessary. The ,vision o( the heart, 9ruQyat al/-al%< is de(ined as Hthe heart,s %eholdin& %y the li&ht o( certainty that +hich is hidden in the unseen +orld.H This is +hat CAli meant +hen he +as as)ed. HDo you see GodMH and re'liedI H0o+ should +e +orshi' Bne +hom +e do not seeMH The li&ht o( intuitive certainty 9ya-in< %y +hich the heart sees God is a %eam o( God,s o+n li&ht cast therein %y 0imsel(5 else no vision o( 0im +ere 'ossi%le. H,Tis the sun,s sel( that lets the sun %e seen.H Accordin& to a mystical inter'retation o( the (amous 'assa&e in the Aoran +here the li&ht o( Allah is com'ared to a candle %urnin& in a lantern o( trans'arent &lass. +hich is 'laced in a niche in the +all. the niche is the true %eliever,s heart5 there(ore his s'eech is li&ht and his +or)s are li&ht and he moves in li&ht. H0e +ho discourses o( eternity.H said $ayaEid. Hmust have +ithin him the lam' o( eternity.H The li&ht +hich &leams in the heart o( the illuminated mystic endo+s him +ith a su'ernatural 'o+er o( discernment 9(irasat<. Althou&h the u(is. li)e all other !oslems. ac)no+led&e !ohammed to %e the last o( the 'ro'hets 9as. (rom a di((erent 'oint o( vie+. he is the Lo&os or (irst o( created %ein&s<. they really claim to 'ossess a minor (orm o( ins'iration. Fhen 6uri +as -uestioned concernin& the ori&in o( mystical (irasat. he ans+ered %y -uotin& the Aoranic verse in +hich God says that 0e %reathed 0is s'irit into Adam5 %ut the more orthodo* u(is. +ho strenously com%at the doctrine that the human s'irit is uncreated and eternal. a((irm that (irasat is the result o( )no+led&e and insi&ht. meta'horically called ,li&ht, or ,ins'iration., +hich God creates and %esto+s u'on 0is (avourites. The Tradition. H$e+are o( the discernment o( the true %eliever. (or he sees %y the li&ht o( Allah.H is e*em'li(ied in such anecdotes as theseI A%u CA%dallah al/1aEi saidI HI%n al/An%ari 'resented me +ith a +oollen (roc). and seein& on the head o( hi%li a %onnet that +ould 4ust match it. I conceived the +ish that they +ere %oth mine. Fhen hi%li rose to de'art. he loo)ed at me. as he +as in the ha%it o( doin& +hen he desired me to (ollo+ him. o I (ollo+ed him to his house. and +hen +e had &one in. he %ade me 'ut o(( the (roc) and too) it (rom me and (olded it and thre+ his %onnet on the to'. Then he called (or a (ire and %urnt %oth (roc) and %onnet.H ari al/ a-ati (re-uently ur&ed 7unayd to s'ea) in 'u%lic. %ut 7unayd +as un+illin& to consent. (or he dou%ted +hether he +as +orthy o( such an honour. Bne Kriday ni&ht he dreamed that the Pro'het a''eared and commanded him to s'ea) to the 'eo'le. 0e a+o)e and +ent to ari,s house %e(ore day%rea). and )noc)ed at the door. ari o'ened the door and saidI HOou +ould not %elieve me until the Pro'het came and told you.H ahl i%n CA%dallah +as sittin& in the con&re&ational mos-ue +hen a 'i&eon. overcome %y the intense heat. dro''ed on the (loor. ahl e*claimedI HPlease God. hah al/Airmani has 4ust died.H They +rote it do+n. and it +as (ound to %e true. Fhen the heart is 'ur&ed o( sin and evil thou&hts. the li&ht o( certainty stri)es u'on it and ma)es it

a shinin& mirror. so that the Devil cannot a''roach it +ithout %ein& o%served. 0ence the sayin& o( some &nosticI HI( I diso%ey my heart. I diso%ey God.H It +as a man thus illuminated to +hom the Pro'het saidI H8onsult thy heart. and thou +ilt hear the secret ordinance o( God 'roclaimed %y the heart,s in+ard )no+led&e. +hich is real (aith and divinityH//somethin& much %etter than the learnin& o( divines. I need not antici'ate here the -uestion. +hich +ill %e discussed in the (ollo+in& cha'ter. ho+ (ar the claims o( an in(alli%le conscience are reconcila%le +ith e*ternal reli&ion and morality. The Pro'het. too. 'rayed that God +ould 'ut a li&ht into his ear and into his eye5 and a(ter mentionin& the di((erent mem%ers o( his %ody. he concluded. Hand ma)e the +hole o( me one li&ht.H 2The reader should %e reminded that most. i( not all. mystical Traditions ascri%ed to !ohammed +ere (or&ed and (athered u'on him %y the u(is. +ho re'resent themselves as the true inter'reters o( his esoteric teachin&.3 Krom illumination o( &radually increasin& s'lendour. the mystic rises to contem'lation o( the divine attri%utes. and ultimately. +hen his consciousness is +holly melted a+ay. he %ecomes transu%stantiated 9ta4a+hara< in the radiance o( the divine essence. This is the ,station, o( +ell/doin& 9ihsan<//(or HGod is +ith the +ell/doersH 9Aor. 2U."U<. and +e have Pro'hetic authority (or the statement that H+ell/doin& consists in +orshi''in& God as thou&h thou +ert seein& 0im.H I +ill not +aste the time and a%use the 'atience o( my readers %y endeavourin& to classi(y and descri%e these various &rades o( illumination. +hich may %e de'icted sym%olically %ut cannot %e e*'lained in scienti(ic lan&ua&e. Fe must allo+ the mystics to s'ea) (or themselves. Granted that their teachin& is o(ten hard to understand. it conveys more o( the truth than +e can ever ho'e to o%tain (rom analysis and dissection. 0ere are t+o 'assa&es (rom the oldest Persian treatise on u(ism. the Aash( al/!ah4u% o( 0u4+iriI HIt is related that ari al/ a-ati said. ,B God. +hatever 'unishment thou mayst in(lict u'on me. do not 'unish me +ith the humiliation o( %ein& veiled (rom Thee., %ecause. i( I am not veiled (rom Thee. my torment and a((liction +ill %e li&htened %y the recollection and contem'lation o( Thee5 %ut i( I am veiled (rom Thee. even Thy %ounty +ill %e deadly to me. There is no 'unishment in 0ell more 'ain(ul and hard to %ear than that o( %ein& veiled. I( God +ere revealed in 0ell to the 'eo'le o( 0ell. sin(ul. %elievers +ould never thin) o( Paradise. since the si&ht o( God +ould so (ill them +ith 4oy that they +ould not (eel %odily 'ain. And in Paradise there is no 'leasure more 'er(ect than unveiledness. I( the 'eo'le there en4oyed all the 'leasures o( that 'lace and other 'leasures a hundred(old. %ut +ere veiled (rom God. their hearts +ould %e utterly %ro)en. There(ore it is the +ay o( God to let the hearts o( those +ho love 0im have vision o( 0im al+ays. in order that the deli&ht thereo( may ena%le them to endure every tri%ulation5 and they say in their visions. ,Fe deem all torments more desira%le than to %e veiled (rom Thee. Fhen Thy %eauty is revealed to our hearts. +e ta)e no thou&ht o( a((liction.,H HThere are really t+o )inds o( contem'lation. The (ormer is the result o( 'er(ect (aith. the latter o( ra'turous love. (or in the ra'ture o( love a man attains to such a de&ree that his +hole %ein& is a%sor%ed in the thou&ht o( his $eloved and he sees nothin& else. !uhammad i%n FasiC saidI ,I never sa+ anythin& +ithout seein& God therein., i.e. throu&h 'er(ect (aith. hi%li saidI ,I never sa+ anythin& e*ce't God., i.e. in the ra'ture o( love and the (ervour o( contem'lation. Bne mystic sees the act +ith his %odily eye. and. as he loo)s. %eholds the A&ent +ith his s'iritual eye5 another is ra't %y love o( the A&ent (rom all thin&s else. so that he sees only the A&ent. The one method is demonstrative. the other is ecstatic. In the (ormer case. a mani(est 'roo( is derived (rom the evidences o( God5 in the latter case. the seer is enra'tured and trans'orted %y desireI evidences are a veil to him. %ecause he +ho )no+s a thin& does not care (or au&ht %esides. and he +ho loves a thin& does not re&ard au&ht %esides. %ut renounces contention +ith God and inter(erence +ith 0im in 0is decrees and acts. Fhen the lover turns his eye a+ay (rom created thin&s. he +ill inevita%ly see the 8reator +ith his heart. God hath said. ,Tell the %elievers to close their eyes, 9Aor. 24.3;<. i.e. to close

their %odily eyes to lusts and their s'iritual eyes to created thin&s. 0e +ho is most sincere in sel(/ morti(ication is most (irmly &rounded in contem'lation. ahl i%n CA%dallah o( Tustar saidI ,I( any one shuts his eye to God (or a sin&le moment. he +ill never %e ri&htly &uided all his li(e lon&., %ecause to re&ard other than God is to %e handed over to other than God. and one +ho is le(t at the mercy o( other than God is lost. There(ore the li(e o( contem'latives is the time durin& +hich they en4oy contem'lation5 time s'ent in ocular vision they do not rec)on as li(e. (or that to them is really death. Thus. +hen $ayaEid +as as)ed ho+ old he +as. he re'lied. ,Kour years., They said to him. ,0o+ can that %eM, 0e ans+ered. ,I have %een veiled (rom God %y this +orld (or seventy years. %ut I have seen 0im durin& the last (our yearsI the 'eriod in +hich one is veiled does not %elon& to one,s li(e.,H I ta)e the (ollo+in& -uotation (rom the !a+a-i( o( 6i((ari. an author +ith +hom +e shall %ecome %etter ac-uainted as +e 'roceedI HGod said to me. ,The least o( the sciences o( nearness is that you should see in everythin& the e((ects o( %eholdin& !e. and that this vision should 'revail over you more than your &nosis o( !e.,H E*'lanation %y the commentatorI H0e means that the least o( the sciences o( nearness 9'ro*imity to God< is that +hen you loo) at anythin&. sensi%ly or intellectually or other+ise. you should %e conscious o( %eholdin& God +ith a vision clearer than your vision o( that thin&. There are diverse de&rees in this matter. ome mystics say that they never see anythin& +ithout seein& God %e(ore it. Bthers say. ,+ithout seein& God a(ter it., or ,+ith it,5 or they say that they see nothin& %ut God. A certain u(i said. ,I made the 'il&rima&e and sa+ the AaC%a. %ut not the Lord o( the AaC%a., This is the 'erce'tion o( one +ho is veiled. Then he said. ,I made the 'il&rima&e a&ain. and I sa+ %oth the AaC%a and the Lord o( the AaC%a., This is contem'lation o( the el(/su%sistence throu&h +hich everythin& su%sists. i.e. he sa+ the AaC%a su%sistin& throu&h the Lord o( the AaC%a. Then he said. ,I made the 'il&rima&e a third time. and I sa+ the Lord o( the AaC%a. %ut not the AaC%a., This is the ,station, o( +a-(at 9'assin&/a+ay in the essence<. In the 'resent case the author is re(errin& to contem'lation o( the el(/su%sistence.H o much concernin& the theory o( illumination. $ut. as !e'histo'heles says. H&rau ist alle TheorieH5 and thou&h to most o( us the livin& e*'erience is denied. +e can hear its loudest echoes and (eel its +armest a(ter&lo+ in the 'oetry +hich it has created. Let me translate 'art o( a Persian ode %y the dervish/'oet. $a%a Auhi o( hiriE. +ho died in 1;5; A.D. HIn the mar)et. in the cloister//only God I sa+. In the valley and on the mountain//only God I sa+. 0im I have seen %eside me o(t in tri%ulation5 In (avour and in (ortune//only God I sa+. In 'rayer and (astin&. in 'raise and contem'lation. In the reli&ion o( the Pro'het//only God I sa+. 6either soul nor %ody. accident nor su%stance. Gualities nor causes//only God I sa+. I o'ed mine eyes and %y the li&ht o( 0is (ace around me In all the eye discovered//only God I sa+. Li)e a candle I +as meltin& in 0is (ireI Amidst the (lames out(lashin&//only God I sa+. !ysel( +ith mine o+n eyes I sa+ most clearly. $ut +hen I loo)ed +ith God,s eyes//only God I sa+. I 'assed a+ay into nothin&ness. I vanished. And lo. I +as the All/livin&//only God I sa+.H

The +hole o( u(ism rests on the %elie( that +hen the individual sel( is lost. the #niversal el( is (ound. or. in reli&ious lan&ua&e. that ecstasy a((ords the only means %y +hich the soul can directly communicate and %ecome united +ith God. Asceticism. 'uri(ication. love. &nosis. saintshi'//all the leadin& ideas o( u(ism//are develo'ed (rom this cardinal 'rinci'le. Amon& the meta'horical terms commonly em'loyed %y the u(is as. more or less. e-uivalent to ,ecstasy, are (ana 9'assin&/a+ay<. +a4d 9(eelin&<. samaC 9hearin&<. dha+- 9taste<. shir% 9drin)in&<. &hay%at 9a%sence (rom sel(<. 4adh%at 9attraction<. su)r 9into*ication<. and hal 9emotion<. It +ould %e tedious and not. I thin). s'ecially instructive to e*amine in detail the de(initions o( those terms and o( many others a)in to them +hich occur in u(i te*t/%oo)s. Fe are not %rou&ht a''recia%ly nearer to understandin& the nature o( ecstasy +hen it is descri%ed as Ha divine mystery +hich God communicates to true %elievers +ho %ehold 0im +ith the eye o( certainty.H or as Ha (lame +hich moves in the &round o( the soul and is 'roduced %y love/desire.H The !ohammedan theory o( ecstasy. ho+ever can hardly %e discussed +ithout re(erence to t+o o( the a%ove/mentioned technical e*'ressions. namely. (ana and samaC. As I have remar)ed in the Introduction 9''. 1T/1U<. the term (ana includes di((erent sta&es. as'ects. and meanin&s. These may %e summarised as (ollo+sI 1. A moral trans(ormation o( the soul throu&h the e*tinction o( all its 'assions and desires. 2. A mental a%straction or 'assin&/a+ay o( the mind (rom all o%4ects o( 'erce'tion. thou&hts. actions. and (eelin&s throu&h its concentration u'on the thou&ht o( God. 0ere the thou&ht o( God si&ni(ies contem'lation o( the divine attri%utes. 3. The cessation o( all conscious thou&ht. The hi&hest sta&e o( (ana is reached +hen even the consciousness o( havin& attained (ana disa''ears. This is +hat the u(is call ,the 'assin&/a+ay o( 'assin&/a+ay, 9(ana al/(ana<. The mystic is no+ ra't in contem'lation o( the divine essence. The (inal sta&e o( (ana. the com'lete 'assin&/a+ay (rom sel(. (orms the 'relude to %a-a. ,continuance, or ,a%idin&, in God. and +ill %e treated +ith &reater (ullness in 8ha'ter NI. The (irst sta&e closely resem%les the $uddhistic 6irvana. It is a ,'assin&/a+ay, o( evil -ualities and states o( mind. +hich involves the simultaneous ,continuance, o( &ood -ualities and states o( mind. This is necessarily an ecstatic 'rocess. inasmuch as all the attri%utes o( ,sel(, are evil in relation to God. 6o one can ma)e himsel( 'er(ectly moral. i.e. 'er(ectly ,sel(less., This must %e done (or him. throu&h ,a (lash o( the divine %eauty, in his heart. Fhile the (irst sta&e re(ers to the moral ,sel(., the second re(ers to the 'erci'ient and intellectual ,sel(., #sin& the classi(ication &enerally ado'ted %y 8hristian mystics. +e may re&ard the (ormer as the consummation o( the Pur&ative Li(e. and the latter as the &oal o( the Illuminative Li(e. The third and last sta&e constitutes the hi&hest level o( the 8ontem'lative Li(e. B(ten. thou&h not invaria%ly. (ana is accom'anied %y loss o( sensation. ari al/ a-ati. a (amous u(i o( the third century. e*'ressed the o'inion that i( a man in this state +ere struc) on the (ace +ith a s+ord. he +ould not (eel the %lo+. A%u Ql/Ahayr al/A-taC had a &an&rene in his (oot. The 'hysicians declared that his (oot must %e am'utated. %ut he +ould not allo+ this to %e done. 0is disci'les said. H8ut it o(( +hile he is 'rayin&. (or he is then unconscious.H The 'hysicians acted on their advice. and +hen A%u Ql/Ahayr (inished his 'rayers he (ound that the am'utation had ta)en 'lace. It is di((icult to see ho+ any one (ar advanced in (ana could %e ca'a%le o( )ee'in& the reli&ious la+//a 'oint on +hich the orthodo* mystics lay &reat em'hasis. 0ere the doctrine o( saintshi' comes in. God ta)es care to 'reserve 0is elect (rom diso%edience to 0is commands. Fe are told that $ayaEid. hi%li. and other saints +ere continually in a state o( ra'ture until the hour o( 'rayer arrived5 then

they returned to consciousness. and a(ter 'er(ormin& their 'rayers %ecame enra'tured a&ain. In theory. the ecstatic trance is involuntary. althou&h certain conditions are reco&nised as %ein& s'ecially (avoura%le to its occurrence. HIt comes to a man throu&h vision o( the ma4esty o( God and throu&h revelation o( the divine omni'otence to his heart.H uch. (or instance. +as the case o( A%u 0amEa. +ho. +hile +al)in& in the streets o( $a&hdad and meditatin& on the nearness o( God. suddenly (ell into an ecstasy and +ent on his +ay. neither seein& nor hearin&. until he recovered his senses and (ound himsel( in the desert. Trances o( this )ind sometimes lasted many +ee)s. It is recorded o( ahl i%n CA%dallah that he used to remain in ecstasy t+enty/(ive days at a time. eatin& no (ood5 yet he +ould ans+er -uestions 'ut to him %y the doctors o( theolo&y. and even in +inter his shirt +ould %e dam' +ith s+eat. $ut the u(is soon discovered that ecstasy mi&ht %e induced arti(icially. not only %y concentration o( thou&ht. recollection 9dhi)r<. and other innocent methods o( autohy'nosis. %ut also %y music. sin&in&. and dancin&. These are included in the term samaC. +hich 'ro'erly means nothin& more than audition. That !oslems are e*traordinarily susce'ti%le to the s+eet in(luences o( sound +ill not %e dou%ted %y any one +ho remem%ers ho+. in the Ara%ian 6i&hts. heroes and heroines ali)e s+oon u'on the sli&htest 'rovocation a((orded %y a sin&in&/&irl touchin& her lute and trillin& a (e+ lines o( 'assionate verse. The (iction is true to li(e. Fhen u(i +riters discuss the analo&ous 'henomena o( ecstasy. they commonly do so in a cha'ter entitled ,8oncernin& the amaC., #nder this headin& 0u4+iri. in the (inal cha'ter o( his Aash( al/!ah4u%. &ives us an e*cellent summary o( his o+n and other !ohammedan theories. to&ether +ith numerous anecdotes o( 'ersons +ho +ere thro+n into ecstasy on hearin& a verse o( the Aoran or a heavenly voice 9hati(< or 'oetry or music. !any are said to have died (rom the emotion thus aroused. I may add %y +ay o( e*'lanation that. accordin& to a +ell/)no+n mystical %elie(. God has ins'ired every created thin& to 'raise 0im in its o+n lan&ua&e. so that all the sounds in the universe (orm. as it +ere. one vast choral hymn %y +hich 0e &lori(ies 0imsel(. 8onse-uently those +hose hearts 0e has o'ened and endo+ed +ith s'iritual 'erce'tion hear 0is voice every+here. and ecstasy overcomes them as they listen to the rhythmic chant o( the mueEEin. or the street cry o( the sa--a shoulderin& his +aters)in. or. 'erchance. to the noise o( +ind or the %leatin& o( a shee' or the 'i'in& o( a %ird. Pytha&oras and Plato are res'onsi%le (or another theory. to +hich the u(i 'oets (re-uently allude. that music a+a)ens in the soul a memory o( celestial harmonies heard in a state o( 're/e*istence. %e(ore the soul +as se'arated (rom God. Thus 7alaluddin 1umiI HThe son& o( the s'heres in their revolutions Is +hat men sin& +ith lute and voice. As +e all are mem%ers o( Adam. Fe have heard these melodies in Paradise. Thou&h earth and +ater have cast their veil u'on us. Fe retain (aint reminiscences o( these heavenly son&s5 $ut +hile +e are thus shrouded %y &ross earthly veils. 0o+ can the tones o( the dancin& s'heres reach usMH 2E. 0. Fhin(ield. a%rid&ed translation o( the !asnavi. '. 1:2.3 The (ormal 'ractice o( samaC -uic)ly s'read amon&st the u(is and 'roduced an acute cleava&e o( o'inion. some holdin& it to %e la+(ul and 'raise+orthy. +hilst others condemned it as an a%omina%le innovation and incitement to vice. 0u4+iri ado'ts the middle vie+ e*'ressed in a sayin& o( Dhu Ql/6un the E&y'tianI H!usic is a divine in(luence +hich stirs the heart to see) GodI those +ho listen to it s'iritually attain unto God. and those +ho listen to it sensually (all into un%elie(.H

0e declares. in e((ect. that audition is neither &ood nor %ad. and must %e 4ud&ed %y its results. HFhen an anchorite &oes into a tavern. the tavern %ecomes his cell. %ut +hen a +ine/%i%%er &oes into a cell. that cell %ecomes his tavern.H Bne +hose heart is a%sor%ed in the thou&ht o( God cannot %e corru'ted %y hearin& musical instruments. o +ith dancin&. HFhen the heart thro%s and ra'ture &ro+s intense. and the a&itation o( ecstasy is mani(ested. and conventional (orms are &one. this is not dancin& nor %odily indul&ence. %ut a dissolution o( the soul.H 0u4+iri. ho+ever. lays do+n several 'recautionary rules (or those +ho en&a&e in audition. and he con(esses that the 'u%lic concerts &iven %y dervishes are e*tremely demoralisin&. 6ovices. he thin)s. should not %e 'ermitted to attend them. In modern times these or&iastic scenes have (re-uently %een descri%ed %y eye/+itnesses. I +ill no+ translate (rom 7ami,s Lives o( the aints the account o( a similar 'er(ormance +hich too) 'lace a%out seven hundred years a&o. HThere +as a certain dervish. a ne&ro called Ran&i $ash&irdi. +ho had attained to such a hi&h de&ree o( s'irituality that the mystic dance could not %e started until he came out and 4oined in it. Bne day. in the course o( the samaC. he +as seiEed +ith ecstasy. and risin& into the air seated himsel( on a lo(ty arch +hich overloo)ed the dancers. In descendin& he lea'ed on to !a4duddin o( $a&hdad. and encircled +ith his le&s the nec) o( the hey)h. +ho nevertheless continued to s'in round in the dance. thou&h he +as a very (rail and slender man. +hereas the ne&ro +as tall and heavy. Fhen the dance +as (inished. !a4duddin said. ,I did not )no+ +hether it +as a ne&ro or a s'arro+ on my nec)., Bn &ettin& o(( the hey)h,s shoulders. the ne&ro %it his chee) so severely that the scar remained visi%le ever a(ter. !a4duddin o(ten used to say that on the Day o( 7ud&ment he +ould not %oast o( anythin& e*ce't that he %ore the mar) o( this ne&ro,s teeth on his (ace.H Grotes-ue and i&no%le (eatures//not to s'ea) o( &rosser de(ormities//must a''ear in any (aith(ul delineation o( the ecstatic li(e o( Islam. 6othin& is &ained %y concealin& their e*istence or %y minimisin& their im'ortance. I(. as 7alaluddin 1umi saysI H!en incur the re'roach o( +ine and dru&s That they may esca'e (or a +hile (rom sel(/consciousness. ince all )no+ this li(e to %e a snare. Nolitional memory and thou&ht to %e a hell.H let us ac)no+led&e that the trans'orts o( s'iritual into*ication are not al+ays su%lime. and that human nature has a tric) o( aven&in& itsel( on those +ho +ould cast it o((.

CHAPTER III THE GNOSIS T0E u(is distin&uish three or&ans o( s'iritual communicationI the heart 9-al%<. +hich )no+s God5 the s'irit 9ruh<. +hich loves 0im5 and the inmost &round o( the soul 9sirr<. +hich contem'lates 0im. It +ould ta)e us into dee' +aters i( +e +ere to em%ar) u'on a discussion o( these terms and their relation to each other. A (e+ +ords concernin& the (irst o( the three +ill su((ice. The -al%. thou&h connected in some mysterious +ay +ith the 'hysical heart. is not a thin& o( (lesh and %lood. #nli)e the En&lish ,heart., its nature is rather intellectual than emotional. %ut +hereas the intellect cannot &ain real )no+led&e o( God. the -al% is ca'a%le o( )no+in& the essences o( all thin&s. and +hen illumined %y (aith and )no+led&e re(lects the +hole content o( the divine mind5 hence the Pro'het said. H!y earth and !y heaven contain !e not. %ut the heart o( !y (aith(ul servant containeth !e.H This revelation. ho+ever. is a com'aratively rare e*'erience. 6ormally. the heart is ,veiled., %lac)ened %y sin. tarnished %y sensual im'ressions and ima&es. 'ulled to and (ro %et+een reason and 'assionI a %attle(ield on +hich the armies o( God and the Devil contend (or victory. Throu&h one &ate. the heart receives immediate )no+led&e o( God5 throu&h another. it lets in the illusions o( sense. H0ere a +orld and there a +orld.H says 7alaluddin 1umi. HI am seated on the threshold.H There(ore man is 'otentially lo+er than the %rutes and hi&her than the an&els. HAn&el and %rute man,s +ondrous leaven com'ose5 To these inclinin&. less than these he &ro+s. $ut i( he means the an&el. more than those.H Less than the %rutes. %ecause they lac) the )no+led&e that +ould ena%le them to rise5 more than the an&els. %ecause they are not su%4ect to 'assion and so cannot (all. 0o+ shall a man )no+ GodM 6ot %y the senses. (or 0e is immaterial5 nor %y the intecllect. (or 0e is unthin)a%le. Lo&ic never &ets %eyond the (inite5 'hiloso'hy sees dou%le5 %oo)/learnin& (osters sel(/ conceit and o%scures the idea o( the Truth +ith clouds o( em'ty +ords. 7alaluddin 1umi. addressin& the scholastic theolo&ian. as)s scorn(ullyI HDo you )no+ a name +ithout a thin& ans+erin& to itM 0ave you ever 'luc)ed a rose (rom 1. B. . EM Oou name 0is name5 &o. see) the reality named %y itL Loo) (or the moon in the s)y. not in the +aterL I( you desire to rise a%ove mere names and letters. !a)e yoursel( (ree (rom sel( at one stro)e. $ecome 'ure (rom all attri%utes o( sel(. That you may see your o+n %ri&ht essence. Oea. see in your o+n heart the )no+led&e o( the Pro'het. Fithout %oo). +ithout tutor. +ithout 'rece'tor.H This )no+led&e comes %y illumination. revelation. ins'iration. HLoo) in your o+n heart.H says the u(i. H(or the )in&dom o( God is +ithin you.H 0e +ho truly )no+s himsel( )no+s God. (or the heart is a mirror in +hich every divine -uality is re(lected. $ut 4ust as a steel mirror +hen coated +ith rust loses its 'o+er o( re(le*ion. so the in+ard s'iritual sense. +hich u(is call the eye o( the heart. is %lind to the celestial &lory until the dar) o%struction

o( the 'henomenal sel(. +ith all its sensual contaminations. has %een +holly cleared a+ay. The clearance. i( it is to %e done e((ectively. must %e the +or) o( God. thou&h it demands a certain in+ard co/o'eration on the 'art o( man. HFhosoever shall strive (or Bur sa)e. Fe +ill &uide him into Bur +aysH 9Aor. 2U."U<. Action is (alse and vain. i( it is thou&ht to 'roceed (rom one,s sel(. %ut the enli&htened mystic re&ards God as the real a&ent in every act. and there(ore ta)es no credit (or his &ood +or)s nor desires to %e recom'ensed (or them. Fhile ordinary )no+led&e is denoted %y the term Cilm. the mystic )no+led&e 'eculiar to the u(is is called maCri(at or Cir(an. As I have indicated in the (ore&oin& 'ara&ra'hs. maCri(at is (undamentally di((erent (rom Cir(an. and a di((erent +ord must %e used to translate it. Fe need not loo) (ar (or a suita%le e-uivalent. The maCri(at o( the u(is is the ,&nosis, o( 0ellenistic theoso'hy. i.e. direct )no+led&e o( God %ased on revelation or a'ocaly'tic vision. It is not the result o( any mental 'rocess. %ut de'ends entirely on the +ill and (avour o( God. +ho %esto+s it as a &i(t (rom 0imsel( u'on those +hom 0e has created +ith the ca'acity (or receivin& it. It is a li&ht o( divine &race that (lashes into the heart and over+helms every human (aculty in its daEElin& %eams. H0e +ho )no+s God is dum%.H The relation o( &nosis to 'ositive reli&ion is discussed in a very remar)a%le treatise on s'eculative mysticism %y 6i((ari. an un)no+n +anderin& dervish +ho died in E&y't in the latter hal( o( the tenth century. 0is +or). consistin& o( a series o( revelations in +hich God addresses the +riter and instructs him concernin& the theory o( &nosis. is couched in a%struse lan&ua&e and +ould scarcely %e intelli&i%le +ithout the commentary +hich accom'anies it5 %ut its value as an ori&inal e*'osition o( advanced u(ism +ill su((iciently a''ear (rom the e*cer'ts &iven in this cha'ter. 2I am no+ en&a&ed in 're'arin& an edition o( the Ara%ic te*t. to&ether +ith an En&lish translation and commentary.3 Those +ho see) God. says 6i((ari. are o( three )indsI (irstly. the +orshi''ers to +hom God ma)es 0imsel( )no+n %y means o( %ounty. i.e. they +orshi' 0im in the ho'e o( +innin& Paradise or some s'iritual recom'ense such as dreams and miracles5 secondly. the 'hiloso'hers and scholastic theolo&ians. to +hom God ma)es 0imsel( )no+n %y means o( &lory. i.e. they can never (ind the &lorious God +hom they see). +here(ore they assert that 0is essence is un)no+a%le. sayin&. HFe )no+ that +e )no+ 0im not. and that is our )no+led&eH5 thirdly. the &nostics. to +hom God ma)es 0imsel( )no+n %y means o( ecstasy. i.e. they are 'ossessed and controlled %y a ra'ture that de'rives them o( the consciousness o( individual e*istence. 6i((ari %ids the &nostic 'er(orm only such acts o( +orshi' as are in accordance +ith his vision o( God. thou&h in so doin& he +ill necessarily diso%ey the reli&ious la+ +hich +as made (or the vul&ar. 0is in+ard (eelin& must decide ho+ (ar the e*ternal (orms o( reli&ion are &ood (or him. HGod said to me. As) !e and say. ,B Lord. ho+ shall I cleave to Thee. so that +hen my day 9o( 4ud&ment< comes. Thou +ilt not 'unish me nor avert Thy (ace (rom meM, Then I +ill ans+er thee and say. ,8leave in thy out+ard theory and 'ractice to the unna 9the rule o( the Pro'het<. and cleave in thy in+ard (eelin& to the &nosis +hich I have &iven thee5 and )no+ that +hen I ma)e !ysel( )no+n to thee. I +ill not acce't (rom thee anythin& o( the unna %ut +hat !y &nosis %rin&s to thee. %ecause thou art one o( those to +hom I s'ea)I thou hearest !e and )no+est that thou hearest !e. and thou seest that I am the source o( all thin&s.,H The commentator o%serves that the unna. %ein& &eneral in sco'e. ma)es no distinction %et+een individuals. e.&. see)ers o( Paradise and see)ers o( God. %ut that in reality it contains e*actly +hat each 'erson re-uires. The 'ortion s'ecially a''ro'riate in every case is discerned either %y means o( &nosis. +hich God communicates to the heart. or %y means o( &uidance im'arted %y a s'iritual director.

HAnd 0e said to me. ,!y e*oteric revelation does not su''ort !y esoteric revelation.,H This means that the &nostic need not %e dismayed i( his inner e*'erience con(licts +ith the reli&ious la+. The contradiction is only a''arent. 1eli&ion addresses itsel( to the common herd o( men +ho are veiled %y their minds. %y lo&ic. tradition. and so on5 +hereas &nosis %elon&s to the elect. +hose %odies and s'irits are %athed in the eternal Li&ht. 1eli&ion sees thin&s (rom the as'ect o( 'lurality. %ut &nosis re&ards the all/em%racin& #nity. 0ence the same act is &ood in reli&ion. %ut evil in &nosis//a truth +hich is %rie(ly stated thusI HThe &ood deeds o( the 'ious are the ill deeds o( the (avourites o( God.H Althou&h +or)s o( devotion are not incom'ati%le +ith &nosis. no one +ho connects them in the sli&htest de&ree +ith himsel( is a &nostic. This is the theme o( the (ollo+in& alle&ory. 6i((ari seldom +rites so lucidly as he does here. yet I (ancy that (e+ o( my readers +ill (ind the e*'lanations 'rinted +ithin s-uare %rac)ets alto&ether su'er(luous. T0E 1ENELATIB6 BK T0E EA HGod %ade me %ehold the ea. and I sa+ the shi's sin)in& and the 'lan)s (loatin&5 then the 'lan)s too +ere su%mer&ed.H WThe ea denotes the s'iritual e*'eriences throu&h +hich the mystic 'asses in his 4ourney to God. The 'oint at issue is thisI +hether he should 're(er the reli&ious la+ or disinterested love. 0ere he is +arned not to rely on his &ood +or)s. +hich are no %etter than sin)in& shi's and +ill never %rin& him sa(ely to 'ort. 6o5 i( he +ould attain to God. he must rely on God alone. I( he does not rely entirely on God. %ut lets himsel( trust ever so little in anythin& else. he is still clin&in& to a 'lan). Thou&h his trust in God is &reater than %e(ore. it is not yet com'lete.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,Those +ho voya&e are not saved.,H WThe voya&er uses the shi' as a means o( crossin& the seaI there(ore he relies. not on the Kirst 8ause. %ut on secondary causes.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,Those +ho instead o( voya&in& cast themselves into the ea ta)e a ris).,H WTo a%andon all secondary causes is li)e 'lun&in& in the sea. The mystic +ho ma)es this venture is in 4eo'ardy. (or t+o reasonsI he may re&ard himsel(. not God. as initiatin& and carryin& out the action o( a%andonment.//and one +ho renounces a thin& throu&h ,sel(, is in +orse case than i( he had not renounced it.//or he may a%andon secondary causes 9&ood +or)s. ho'e o( Paradise. etc.<. not (or God,s sa)e. %ut (rom sheer indi((erence and lac) o( s'iritual (eelin&.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,Those +ho voya&e and ta)e no ris) shall 'erish.,H W6ot+ithstandin& the dan&ers re(erred to. he must ma)e God his sole o%4ect or (ail.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,In ta)in& the ris) there is a 'art o( salvation.,H WBnly a 'art o( salvation. %ecause 'er(ect sel(lessness has not yet %een attained. The +hole o( salvation consists in the e((acement o( all secondary causes. all 'henomena. throu&h the ra'ture +hich results (rom vision o( God. $ut this is &nosis. and the 'resent revelation is addressed to mystics o( a lo+er &rade. The &nostic ta)es no ris). (or he has nothin& to lose.X

HAnd the +ave came and li(ted those %eneath it and overran the shore.H WThose %eneath the +ave are they +ho voya&e in shi's and conse-uently su((er shi'+rec). Their reliance on secondary causes casts them ashore. i.e. %rin&s them %ac) to the +orld o( 'henomena +here%y they are veiled (rom God.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,The sur(ace o( the ea is a &leam that cannot %e reached.,H WAnyone +ho de'ends on e*ternal rites o( +orshi' to lead him to God is (ollo+in& a +ill/o,/the/ +is'.X HAnd its %ottom is a dar)ness im'enetra%le.H WTo discard 'ositive reli&ion. root and %ranch. is to +ander in a 'athless maEe.X HAnd %et+een the t+o are (ishes +hich are to %e (eared.H W0e re(ers to the middle +ay %et+een 'ure e*otericism and 'ure esotericism. The ,(ishes, are its 'erils and o%stacles.X HDo not voya&e on the ea. lest I cause thee to %e veiled %y the vehicle.H WThe ,vehicle, si&ni(ies the ,shi'., i.e. reliance on somethin& other than God.X HAnd do not cast thysel( into the ea. lest I cause thee to %e veiled %y thy castin& thysel(.H WFhoever re&ards any act as his o+n act and attri%utes it to himsel( is (ar (rom God.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,In the ea are %oundariesI +hich o( them +ill %ear thee onM,H WThe ,%oundaries, are the various de&rees o( s'iritual e*'erience. The mystic ou&ht not to rely on any o( these. (or they are all im'er(ect.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,I( thou &ivest thysel( to the ea and sin)est therein. thou +ilt (all a 'rey to one o( its %easts.,H WI( the mystic either relies on secondary causes or a%andons them %y his o+n act. he +ill &o astray.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,I deceive thee i( I direct thee to au&ht save !ysel(.,H WI( the mystic,s in+ard voice %ids him turn to anythin& e*ce't God. it deceives him.X HAnd 0e said to me. ,I( thou 'erishest (or the sa)e o( other than !e. thou +ilt %elon& to that (or +hich thou hast 'erished., HAnd 0e said to me. ,This +orld %elon&s to him +hom I have turned a+ay (rom it and (rom +hom I have turned it a+ay5 and the ne*t +orld %elon&s to him to+ards +hom have %rou&ht it and +hom I have %rou&ht to+ards !ysel(.,H W0e means to say that everlastin& 4oy is the 'ortion o( those +hose hearts are turned a+ay (rom this +orld and +ho have no +orldly 'ossessions. They really en4oy this +orld. %ecause it cannot se'arate them (rom God. imilarly. the true o+ners o( the ne*t +orld are those +ho do not see) it. inasmuch as it is not the real o%4ect o( their desire. %ut contem'late God alone.X

The &nostic descries the element o( reality in 'ositive reli&ion. %ut his &nosis is not derived (rom reli&ion or (rom any sort o( human )no+led&eI it is 'ro'erly concerned +ith the divine attri%utes. and God 0imsel( reveals the )no+led&e o( these to 0is saints +ho contem'late 0im. Dhu Ql/6un o( E&y't. +hose mystical s'eculations mar) him out as the (ather o( !oslem theoso'hy. said that &nostics are not themselves. and do not su%sist throu&h themselves. %ut so (ar as they su%sist. they su%sist throu&h God. HThey move as God causes them to move. and their +ords are the +ords o( God +hich roll u'on their ton&ues. and their si&ht is the si&ht o( God +hich has entered their eyes.H The &nostic contem'lates the attri%utes o( God. not 0is essence. (or even in &nosis a small trace o( duality remainsI this disa''ears only in (ana al/(ana. the total 'assin&/a+ay in the undi((erentiated Godhead. The cardinal attri%ute o( God is unity. and the divine unity is the (irst and last 'rinci'le o( &nosis. 2Accordin& to some mystics. the &nosis o( unity constitutes a hi&her sta&e +hich is called ,the Truth, 9ha-i-at<. ee a%ove. '. 2U.3 $oth !oslem and u(i declare that God is Bne. %ut the statement %ears a di((erent meanin& in each instance. The !oslem means that God is uni-ue in 0is essence. -ualities. and acts5 that 0e is a%solutely unli)e all other %ein&s. The u(i means that God is the Bne 1eal $ein& +hich underlies all 'henomena. This 'rinci'le is carried to its e*treme conse-uences. as +e shall see. I( nothin& e*ce't God e*ists. then the +hole universe. includin& man. is essentially one +ith God. +hether it is re&arded as an emanation +hich 'roceeds (rom 0im. +ithout im'airin& 0is unity. li)e sun%eams (rom the sun. or +hether it is conceived as a mirror in +hich the divine attri%utes are re(lected. $ut surely a God +ho is all in all can have no reason (or thus revealin& 0imsel(I +hy should the Bne 'ass over into the !anyM The u(is ans+er//a 'hiloso'her +ould say that they evade the di((iculty// %y -uotin& the (amous TraditionI HI +as a hidden treasure and I desired to %e )no+n5 there(ore I created the creation in order that I mi&ht %e )no+n.H In other +ords. God is the eternal $eauty. and it lies in the nature o( %eauty to desire love. The mystic 'oets have descri%ed the sel(/mani(estation o( the Bne +ith a 'ro(usion o( s'lendid ima&ery. 7ami says. (or e*am'leI HKrom all eternity the $eloved unveiled 0is %eauty in the solitude o( the unseen5 0e held u' the mirror to 0is o+n (ace. 0e dis'layed 0is loveliness to 0imsel(. 0e +as %oth the s'ectator and the s'ectacle5 no eye %ut 0is had surveyed the #niverse. All +as Bne. there +as no duality. no 'retence o( ,mine, or ,thine., The vast or% o( 0eaven. +ith its myriad incomin&s and out&oin&s. +as concealed in a sin&le 'oint. The 8reation lay cradled in the slee' o( non/e*istence. li)e a child ere it has %reathed. The eye o( the $eloved. seein& +hat +as not. re&arded nonentity as e*istent. Althou&h 0e %eheld 0is attri%utes and -ualities as a 'er(ect +hole in 0is o+n essence. Oet 0e desired that they should %e dis'layed to 0im in another mirror. And that each one o( 0is eternal attri%utes should %ecome mani(est accordin&ly in a diverse (orm. There(ore 0e created the verdant (ields o( Time and 'ace and the li(e/&ivin& &arden o( the +orld. That every %ranch and lea( and (ruit mi&ht sho+ (orth 0is various 'er(ections.

The cy'ress &ave a hint o( 0is comely stature. the rose &ave tidin&s o( 0is %eauteous countenance. Fherever $eauty 'ee'ed out. Love a''eared %eside it5 +herever $eauty shone in a rosy chee). Love lit his torch (rom that (lame. Fherever $eauty d+elt in dar) tresses. Love came and (ound a heart entan&led in their coils. $eauty and Love are as %ody and soul5 $eauty is the mine and Love the 'recious stone. They have al+ays %een to&ether (rom the very (irst5 never have they travelled %ut in each other,s com'any.H In another +or) 7ami sets (orth the relation o( God to the +orld more 'hiloso'hically. as (ollo+sI HThe uni-ue u%stance. vie+ed as a%solute and void o( all 'henomena. all limitations and all multi'licity. is the 1eal 9al/0a--<. Bn the other hand. vie+ed in 0is as'ect o( multi'licity and 'lurality. under +hich 0e dis'lays 0imsel( +hen clothed +ith 'henomena. 0e is the +hole created universe. There(ore the universe is the out+ard visi%le e*'ression o( the 1eal. and the 1eal is the inner unseen reality o( the universe. The universe %e(ore it +as evolved to out+ard vie+ +as identical +ith the 1eal5 and the 1eal a(ter this evolution is identical +ith the universe.H Phenomena. as such. are not/%ein& and only derive a contin&ent e*istence (rom the -ualities o( A%solute $ein& %y +hich they are irradiated. The sensi%le +orld resem%les the (iery circle made %y a sin&le s'ar) +hirlin& round ra'idly. !an is the cro+n and (inal cause o( the universe. Thou&h last in the order o( creation he is (irst in the 'rocess o( divine thou&ht. (or the essential 'art o( him is the 'rimal Intelli&ence or universal 1eason +hich emanates immediately (rom the Godhead. This corres'onds to the Lo&os//the animatin& 'rinci'le o( all thin&s//and is identi(ied +ith the Pro'het !ohammed. An interestin& 'arallel mi&ht %e dra+n here %et+een the 8hristian and u(i doctrines. The same e*'ressions are a''lied to the (ounder o( Islam +hich are used %y t. 7ohn. t. Paul. and later mystical theolo&ians concernin& 8hrist. Thus. !ohammed is called the Li&ht o( God. he is said to have e*isted %e(ore the creation o( the +orld. he is adored as the source o( all li(e. actual and 'ossi%le. he is the Per(ect !an in +hom all the divine attri%utes are mani(ested. and a u(i tradition ascri%es to him the sayin&. H0e that hath seen me hath seen Allah.H In the !oslem scheme. ho+ever. the Lo&os doctrine occu'ies a su%ordinate 'lace. as it o%viously must +hen the +hole duty o( man is %elieved to consist in realisin& the unity o( God. The most distinctive (eature o( Briental as o''osed to Euro'ean mysticism is its 'ro(ound consciousness o( an omni'resent. all/'ervadin& unity in +hich every vesti&e o( individuality is s+allo+ed u'. 6ot to %ecome li)e God or 'ersonally to 'artici'ate in the divine nature is the u(i,s aim. %ut to esca'e (rom the %onda&e o( his unreal sel(hood and there%y to %e reunited +ith the Bne in(inite $ein&. Accordin& to 7ami. #ni(ication consists in ma)in& the heart sin&le//that is. in 'uri(yin& and divestin& it o( attachment to au&ht e*ce't God. %oth in res'ect o( desire and +ill and also as re&ards )no+led&e and &nosis. The mystic,s desire and +ill should %e severed (rom all thin&s +hich are desired and +illed5 all o%4ects o( )no+led&e and understandin& should %e removed (rom his intellectual vision. 0is thou&hts should %e directed solely to+ards God. he should not %e conscious o( anythin& %esides. o lon& as he is a ca'tive in the snare o( 'assion and lust. it is hard (or him to maintain this relation to God. %ut +hen the su%tle in(luence o( that attraction %ecomes mani(est in him. e*'ellin& 'reoccu'ation +ith o%4ects o( sense and co&nition (rom his in+ard %ein&. deli&ht in that divine communion 'revails over %odily 'leasures and s'iritual 4oys5 the 'ain(ul tas) o( sel(/morti(ication is

ended. and the s+eetness o( contem'lation enravishes his soul. Fhen the sincere as'irant 'erceives in himsel( the %e&innin& o( this attraction. +hich is deli&ht in the recollection o( God. let him (i* his +hole mind on (osterin& and stren&thenin& it. let him )ee' himsel( aloo( (rom +hatsoever is incom'ati%le +ith it. and deem that even thou&h he +ere to devote an eternity to cultivatin& that communion. he +ould have done nothin& and +ould not have dischar&ed his duty as he ou&ht. HLove thrilled the chord o( love in my soul,s lute. And chan&ed me all to love (rom head to (oot. ,T+as %ut a moment,s touch. yet shall Time ever To me the de%t o( than)s&ivin& im'ute.H It is an a*iom o( the u(is that +hat is not in a man he cannot )no+. The &nostic//!an 'ar e*cellence//could not )no+ God and all the mysteries o( the universe. unless he (ound them in himsel(. 0e is the microcosm. ,a co'y made in the ima&e o( God., ,the eye o( the +orld +here%y God sees 0is o+n +or)s., In )no+in& himsel( as he really is. he )no+s God. and he )no+s himsel( throu&h God. +ho is nearer to everythin& than its )no+led&e o( itsel(. Ano+led&e o( God 'recedes. and is the cause o(. sel(/)no+led&e. Gnosis. then. is uni(ication. realisation o( the (act that the a''earance o( ,otherness, %eside Bneness is a (alse and deludin& dream. Gnosis lays this s'ectre. +hich haunts unenli&htened men all their lives5 +hich rises. li)e a +all o( utter dar)ness. %et+een them and God. Gnosis 'roclaims that ,I, is a (i&ure o( s'eech. and that one cannot truly re(er any +ill. (eelin&. thou&ht. or action to one,s sel(. 6i((ari heard the divine voice sayin& to himI HFhen thou re&ardest thysel( as e*istent and dost not re&ard !e as the 8ause o( thy e*istence. I veil !y (ace and thine o+n (ace a''ears to thee. There(ore consider +hat is dis'layed to thee. and +hat is hidden (rom theeLH WI( a man re&ards himsel( as e*istin& throu&h God. that +hich is o( God in him 'redominates over the 'henomenal element and ma)es it 'ass a+ay. so that he sees nothin& %ut God. I(. on the contrary. he re&ards himsel( as havin& an inde'endent e*istence. his unreal e&oism is dis'layed to him and the reality o( God %ecomes hidden (rom him.X H1e&ard neither !y dis'layin& nor that +hich is dis'layed. else thou +ilt lau&h and +ee'5 and +hen thou lau&hest and +ee'est. thou art thine. not !ine.H W0e +ho re&ards the act o( divine revelation is &uilty o( 'olytheism. since revelation involves %oth a revealin& su%4ect and a revealed o%4ect5 and he +ho re&ards the revealed o%4ect +hich is 'art o( the created universe. re&ards somethin& other than God. Lau&hter si&ni(ies 4oy (or +hat you have &ained. and +ee'in& denotes &rie( (or +hat you have lost. $oth are sel(ish actions. The &nostic neither lau&hs nor +ee's.X HI( thou dost not 'ut %ehind thee all that I have dis'layed and am dis'layin&. thou +ilt not 'ros'er5 and unless thou 'ros'er. thou +ilt not %ecome concentrated u'on !e.H WPros'erity is true %elie( in God. +hich re-uires com'lete a%straction (rom created thin&s.X Lo&ically. these doctrines annul every moral and reli&ious la+. In the &nostic,s vision there are no divine re+ards and 'unishments. no human standards o( ri&ht and +ron&. Kor him. the +ritten +ord

o( God has %een a%ro&ated %y a direct and intimate revelation. HI do not say.H e*claimed A%u Ql/0asan Ahur-ani. Hthat Paradise and 0ell are non/e*istent. %ut I say that they are nothin& to me. %ecause God created them %oth. and there is no room (or any created o%4ect in the 'lace +here I am.H Krom this stand'oint all ty'es o( reli&ion are e-ual. and Islam is no %etter than idolatry. It does not matter +hat creed a man 'ro(esses or +hat rites he 'er(orms. HThe true mos-ue in a 'ure and holy heart Is %uildedI there let all men +orshi' God5 Kor there 0e d+ells. not in a mos-ue o( stone.H Amidst all the variety o( creeds and +orshi''ers the &nostic sees %ut one real o%4ect o( +orshi'. HThose +ho adore God in the sunH 9says I%n al/CAra%i< H%ehold the sun. and those +ho adore 0im in livin& thin&s see a livin& thin&. and those +ho adore 0im in li(eless thin&s see a li(eless thin&. and those +ho adore 0im as a $ein& uni-ue and un'aralleled see that +hich has no li)e. Do not attach yoursel(H 9he continues< Hto any 'articular creed e*clusively. so that you dis%elieve in all the rest5 other+ise. you +ill lose much &ood. nay. you +ill (ail to reco&nise the real truth o( the matter. God. the omni'resent and omni'otent. is not limited %y any one creed. (or 0e says 9Aor. 2.1;U<. ,Fheresoever ye turn. there is the (ace o( Allah., Every one 'raises +hat he %elieves5 his &od is his o+n creature. and in 'raisin& it he 'raises himsel(. 8onse-uently he %lames the %elie(s o( others. +hich he +ould not do i( he +ere 4ust. %ut his disli)e is %ased on i&norance. I( he )ne+ 7unayd,s sayin&. ,The +ater ta)es its colour (rom the vessel containin& it., he +ould not inter(ere +ith other men,s %elie(s. %ut +ould 'erceive God in every (orm o( %elie(.H And 0a(iE sin&s. more in the s'irit o( the (reethin)er. 'erha's. than o( the mysticI HLove is +here the &1ory (alls B( Thy (ace//on convent +alls Br on tavern (loors. the same #ne*tin&uisha%le (lame. Fhere the tur%aned anchorite 8hanteth Allah day and ni&ht. 8hurch %ells rin& the call to 'rayer And the 8ross o( 8hrist is there.H u(ism may 4oin hands +ith (reethou&ht//it has o(ten done so//%ut hardly ever +ith sectarianism. This e*'lains +hy the vast ma4ority o( u(is have %een. at least nominally. attached to the catholic %ody o( the !oslem community. CA%dallah Ansari declared that o( t+o thousand u(i hey)hs +ith +hom he +as ac-uainted only t+o +ere hiCites. A certain man +ho +as a descendant o( the 8ali'h CAli. and a (anatical hiCite. tells the (ollo+in& storyI HKor (ive years.H he said. Hmy (ather sent me daily to a s'iritual director. I learned one use(ul lesson (rom himI he told me that I should never )no+ anythin& at all a%out u(ism until I &ot com'letely rid o( the 'ride +hich I (elt on account o( my linea&e.H u'er(icial o%servers have descri%ed $a%ism as an o((shoot o( u(ism. %ut the do&matism o( the one is naturally o''osed to the %road eclecticism o( the other. In 'ro'ortion as the u(i &ains more )no+led&e o( God. his reli&ious 're4udices are diminished. hey)h CA%d al/1ahim i%n al/ a%%a&h.

+ho at (irst disli)ed livin& in #''er E&y't. +ith its lar&e 7e+ish and 8hristian 'o'ulation. said in his old a&e that he +ould as readily em%race a 7e+ or 8hristian as one o( his o+n (aith. Fhile the innumera%le (orms o( creed and ritual may %e re&arded as havin& a certain relative value in so (ar as the in+ard (eelin& +hich ins'ires them is ever one and the same. (rom another as'ect they seem to %e veils o( the Truth. %arriers +hich the Eealous #nitarian must strive to a%olish and destroy. HThis +orld and that +orld are the e&&. and the %ird +ithin it Is in dar)ness and %ro)en/+in&ed and scorned and des'ised. 1e&ard un%elie( and (aith as the +hite and the yol) in this e&&. $et+een them. 4oinin& and dividin&. a %arrier +hich they shall not 'ass. Fhen 0e hath &raciously (ostered the e&& under 0is +in&. In(idelity and reli&ion disa''earI the %ird o( #nity s'reads its 'inions.H The &reat Persian mystic. A%u aCid i%n A%i Ql/Ahayr. s'ea)in& in the name o( the 8alendars or +anderin& dervishes. e*'resses their iconoclastic 'rinci'les +ith astonishin& %oldnessI H6ot until every mos-ue %eneath the sun Lies ruined. +ill our holy +or) %e done5 And never +ill true !usalman a''ear Till (aith and in(idelity are one.H uch o'en declarations o( +ar a&ainst the !ohammedan reli&ion are e*ce'tional. 6ot+ithstandin& the %readth and de'th o( the &ul( %et+een (ull/%lo+n u(ism and orthodo* Islam. many. i( not most. u(is have 'aid homa&e to the Pro'het and have o%served the out+ard (orms o( devotion +hich are incum%ent on all !oslems. They have invested these rites and ceremonies +ith a ne+ meanin&5 they have alle&orised them. %ut they have not a%andoned them. Ta)e the 'il&rima&e. (or e*am'le. In the eyes o( the &enuine u(i it is null and void unless each o( the successive reli&ious acts +hich it involves is accom'anied %y corres'ondin& ,movements o( the heart., A man +ho had 4ust returned (rom the 'il&rima&e came to 7unayd. 7unayd saidI HKrom the hour +hen you (irst 4ourneyed (rom your home have you also %een 4ourneyin& a+ay (rom all sinsMH 0e said H6o.H HThen.H said 7unayd. Hyou have made no 4ourney. At every sta&e +here you halted (or the ni&ht did you traverse a station on the +ay to GodMH H 6o.H he re'lied. HThen.H said 7unayd. Hyou have not trodden the road. sta&e %y sta&e. Fhen you 'ut on the 'il&rim,s &ar% at the 'ro'er 'lace. did you discard the -ualities o( human nature as you cast o(( your clothesMH H6o.H HThen you have not 'ut on the 'il&rim,s &ar%. Fhen you stood at CAra(at. did you stand one moment in contem'lation o( GodMH H6o.H HThen you have not stood at CAra(at. Fhen you +ent to !uEdali(a and achieved your desire. did you renounce all sensual desiresMH H6o.H HThen you have not &one to !uEdali(a. Fhen you circumam%ulated the AaC%a. did you %ehold the immaterial %eauty o( God in the a%ode o( 'uri(icationMH H6o.H HThen you have not circumam%ulated the AaC%a. Fhen you ran %et+een a(a and !ar+a. did you attain to 'urity 9sa(a< and virtue 9muru++at<MH H6o.H HThen you have not run. Fhen you came to !ina. did all your +ishes 9muna< ceaseMH H6o.H HThen you have not yet visited !ina. Fhen you reached the slau&hter/'lace and o((ered sacri(ice. did you sacri(ice the o%4ects o( +orldly desireMH H6o.H HThen you have not sacri(iced. Fhen you thre+ the 'e%%les. did you thro+ a+ay +hatever sensual thou&hts +ere accom'anyin& youMH H6o.H HThen you have not yet thro+n the 'e%%les. and you have not yet 'er(ormed the 'il&rima&e.H

This anecdote contrasts the outer reli&ious la+ o( theolo&y +ith the inner s'iritual truth o( mysticism. and sho+s that they should not %e divorced (rom each other. HThe La+ +ithout the Truth.H says 0u4+iri. His ostentation. and the Truth +ithout the La+ is hy'ocrisy. Their mutual relation may %e com'ared to that o( %ody and s'iritI +hen the s'irit de'arts (rom the %ody. the livin& %ody %ecomes a cor'se. and the s'irit vanishes li)e +ind. The !oslem 'ro(ession o( (aith includes %othI the +ords. ,There is no &od %ut Allah., are the Truth. and the +ords. ,!ohammed is the a'ostle o( Allah., are the La+5 any one +ho denies the Truth is an in(idel. and any one +ho re4ects the La+ is a heretic.H !iddle +ays. thou&h 'rover%ially sa(e. are di((icult to +al) in5 and only %y a tour de (orce can the Aoran %e %rou&ht into line +ith the esoteric doctrine +hich the u(is derive (rom it. #ndou%tedly they have done a &reat +or) (or Islam. They have dee'ened and enriched the lives o( millions %y ruthlessly stri''in& o(( the hus) o( reli&ion and insistin& that its )ernel must %e sou&ht. not in any (ormal act. %ut in cultivation o( s'iritual (eelin&s and in 'uri(ication o( the in+ard man. This +as a le&itimate and most (ruit(ul develo'ment o( the Pro'het,s teachin&. $ut the Pro'het +as a strict monotheist. +hile the u(is. +hatever they may 'retend or ima&ine. are theoso'hists. 'antheists. or monists. Fhen they s'ea) and +rite as %elievers in the do&mas o( 'ositive reli&ion. they use lan&ua&e +hich cannot %e reconciled +ith such a theory o( unity as +e are no+ e*aminin&. CA(i(uddin al/Tilimsani. (rom +hose commentary on 6i((ari I have &iven some e*tracts in this cha'ter. said roundly that the +hole Aoran is 'olytheism//a 'er(ectly 4ust statement (rom the monistic 'oint o( vie+. thou&h (e+ u(is have dared to %e so e*'licit. The mystic #nitarians admit the a''earance o( contradiction. %ut deny its reality. HThe La+ and the TruthH 9they mi&ht say< Hare the same thin& in di((erent as'ects. The La+ is (or you. the Truth (or us. In addressin& you +e s'ea) accordin& to the measure o( your understandin&. since +hat is meat (or &nostics is 'oison to the uninitiated. and the hi&hest mysteries ou&ht to %e 4ealously &uarded (rom 'ro(ane ears. It is only human reason that sees the sin&le as dou%le. and %alances the La+ a&ainst the Truth. Pass a+ay (rom the +orld o( o''osites and %ecome one +ith God. +ho has no o''osite.H The &nostic reco&nises that the La+ is valid and necessary in the moral s'here. Fhile &ood and evil remain. the La+ stands over %oth. commandin& and (or%iddin&. re+ardin& and 'unishin&. 0e )no+s. on the other hand. that only God really e*ists and actsI there(ore. i( evil really e*ists. it must %e divine. and i( evil thin&s are really done. God must %e the doer o( them. The conclusion is (alse %ecause the hy'othesis is (alse. Evil has no real e*istence5 it is not/%ein&. +hich is the 'rivation and a%sence o( %ein&. 4ust as dar)ness is the a%sence o( li&ht. HBnce.H said 6uri. HI %eheld the Li&ht. and I (i*ed my &aEe u'on it until I %ecame the Li&ht.H 6o +onder that such illuminated souls. su'remely indi((erent to the shado+/sho+s o( reli&ion and morality in a 'hantom +orld. are ready to cry +ith 7alaluddinI HThe man o( God is made +ise %y the Truth. The man o( God is not learned (rom %oo). The man o( God is %eyond in(idelity and (aith. To the man o( God ri&ht and +ron& are ali)e.H It must %e %orne in mind that this is a theory o( 'er(ection. and that those +hom it e*alts a%ove the La+ are saints. s'iritual &uides. and 'ro(ound theoso'hists +ho en4oy the s'ecial (avour o( God and 'resuma%ly do not need to %e restrained. coerced. or 'unished. In 'ractice. o( course. it leads in many instances to antinomianism and li%ertinism. as amon& the $e)tashis and other orders o( the so/called ,la+less, dervishes. The same theories 'roduced the same results in Euro'e durin& the !iddle A&es. and the im'artial historian cannot i&nore the corru'tions to +hich a 'urely su%4ective

mysticism is lia%le5 %ut on the 'resent occasion +e are concerned +ith the rose itsel(. not +ith its can)ers. 6ot all u(is are &nostics5 and. as I have mentioned %e(ore. those +ho are not yet ri'e (or the &nosis receive (rom their &nostic teachers the ethical instruction suita%le to their needs. 7alaluddin 1umi. in his collection o( lyrical 'oems entitled The Divan o( hamsi Ta%riE. &ives (ree rein to a 'antheistic enthusiasm +hich sees all thin&s under the (orm o( eternity. HI have 'ut duality a+ay. I have seen that the t+o +orlds are one5 Bne I see). Bne I )no+. Bne I see. Bne I call. I am into*icated +ith Love,s cu'. the t+o +orlds have 'assed out o( my )en5 I have no %usiness save carouse and revelry.H $ut in his !asnavi//a +or) so (amous and venerated that it has %een styled ,The Aoran o( Persia,// +e (ind him in a more so%er mood e*'oundin& the u(i doctrines and 4usti(yin& the +ays o( God to man. 0ere. thou&h he is a convinced o'timist and a&rees +ith GhaEali that this is the %est o( all 'ossi%le +orlds. he does not airily dismiss the 'ro%lem o( evil as somethin& outside reality. %ut endeavours to sho+ that evil. or +hat seems evil to us. is 'art o( the divine order and harmony. I +ill -uote some 'assa&es o( his ar&ument and leave my readers to 4ud&e ho+ (ar it is success(ul or. at any rate. su&&estive. The u(is. it +ill %e remem%ered. conceive the universe as a 'ro4ected and re(lected ima&e o( God. The divine li&ht. streamin& (orth in a series o( emanations. (alls at last u'on the dar)ness o( not/ %ein&. every atom o( +hich re(lects some attri%ute o( Deity. Kor instance. the %eauti(ul attri%utes o( love and mercy are re(lected in the (orm o( heaven and the an&els. +hile the terri%le attri%utes o( +rath and ven&eance are re(lected in the (orm o( hell and the devils. !an re(lects all the attri%utes. the terri%le as +ell as the %eauti(ulI he is an e'itome o( heaven and hell. Bmar Ahayyam alludes to this theory +hen he saysI H0ell is a s'ar) (rom our (ruitless 'ain. 0eaven a %reath (rom our time o( 4oyH //a cou'let +hich KitE Gerald moulded into the ma&ni(icent stanEaI H0eav,n %ut the Nision o( (ul(illed Desire. And 0ell the hado+ (rom a oul on (ire. 8ast on the Dar)ness into +hich Burselves o late emer&ed (rom. shall so soon e*'ire.H 7alaluddin. there(ore. does in a sense ma)e God the author o( evil. %ut at the same time he ma)es evil intrinsically &ood in relation to God//(or it is the re(le*ion o( certain divine attri%utes +hich in themselves are a%solutely &ood. o (ar as evil is really evil. it s'rin&s (rom not/%ein&. The 'oet assi&ns a di((erent value to this term in its relation to God and in its relation to man. In res'ect o( God not/%ein& is nothin&. (or God is real $ein&. %ut in man it is the 'rinci'le o( evil +hich constitutes hal( o( human nature. In the one case it is a 'ure ne&ation. in the other it is 'ositively and actively 'ernicious. Fe need not -uarrel +ith the 'oet (or comin& to &rie( in his lo&ic. There are some occasions +hen intense moral (eelin& is +orth any amount o( accurate thin)in&. It is evident that the doctrine o( divine unity im'lies 'redestination. Fhere God is and nau&ht %eside 0im. there can %e no other a&ent than 0e. no act %ut 0is. HThou didst not thro+. +hen thou thre+est. %ut God thre+H 9Aor. :.1T<. 8om'ulsion is (elt only %y those +ho do not love. To )no+

God is to love 0im5 and the &nostic may ans+er. li)e the dervish +ho +as as)ed ho+ he (aredI HI (are as one %y +hose ma4estic +ill The +orld revolves. (loods rise and rivers (lo+. tars in their courses move5 yea. death and li(e 0an& on his nod and (ly to the ends o( earth. 0is ministers o( mournin& or o( 4oy.H This is the Truth5 %ut (or the %ene(it o( such as cannot %ear it. 7alaluddin vindicates the 4ustice o( God %y assertin& that men have the 'o+er to choose ho+ they +ill act. althou&h their (reedom is su%ordinate to the divine +ill. A''roachin& the -uestion. HFhy does God ordain and create evilMH he 'oints out that thin&s are )no+n throu&h their o''osites. and that the e*istence o( evil is necessary (or the mani(estation o( &ood. H6ot/%ein& and de(ect. +herever seen. Are mirrors o( the %eauty o( all that is. The %one/setter. +here should he try his s)ill $ut on the 'atient lyin& +ith %ro)en le&M Fere no %ase co''er in the cruci%le. 0o+ could the alchemist his cra(t dis'layMH !oreover. the divine omni'otence +ould not %e com'letely realised i( evil had remained uncreated. H0e is the source o( evil. as thou sayest. Oet evil hurts 0im not. To ma)e that evil Denotes in 0im 'er(ection. 0ear (rom me A 'ara%le. The heavenly Artist 'aints $eauti(ul sha'es and u&lyI in one 'icture The loveliest +omen in the land o( E&y't GaEin& on youth(ul 7ose'h amorously5 And lo. another scene %y the same hand. 0ell/(ire and I%lis +ith his hideous cre+I $oth master/+or)s. created (or &ood ends. To sho+ 0is 'er(ect +isdom and con(ound The sce'tics +ho deny 0is mastery. 8ould 0e not evil ma)e. 0e +ould lac) s)ill5 There(ore 0e (ashions in(idel ali)e And !oslem true. that %oth may +itness %ear To 0im. and +orshi' Bne Almi&hty Lord.H In re'ly to the o%4ection that a God +ho creates evil must 0imsel( %e evil. 7alaluddin. 'ursuin& the analo&y dra+n (rom Art. remar)s that u&liness in the 'icture is no evidence o( u&liness in the 'ainter. A&ain. +ithout evil it +ould %e im'ossi%le to +in the 'roved virtue +hich is the re+ard o( sel(/ con-uest. $read must %e %ro)en %e(ore it can serve as (ood. and &ra'es +ill not yield +ine till they are crushed. !any men are led throu&h tri%ulation to ha''iness. As evil e%%s. &ood (lo+s. Kinally. much evil is only a''arent. Fhat seems a curse to one may %e a %lessin& to another5 nay. evil itsel( is turned to &ood (or the ri&hteous. 7alaluddin +ill not admit that anythin& is a%solutely %ad.

HKools %uy (alse coins %ecause they are li)e the true. I( in the +orld no &enuine minted coin Fere current. ho+ +ould (or&ers 'ass the (alseM Kalsehood +ere nothin& unless truth +ere there. To ma)e it s'ecious. ,Tis the love o( ri&ht Lures men to +ron&. Let 'oison %ut %e mi*ed Fith su&ar. they +ill cram it into their mouths. Bh. cry not that all creeds are vainL ome scent B( truth they have. else they +ould not %e&uile. ay not. ,0o+ utterly (antasticalL, 6o (ancy in the +orld is all untrue. Amon&st the cro+d o( dervishes hides one. Bne true (a)ir. earch +ell and thou +ilt (indLH urely this is a note+orthy doctrine. 7alaluddin died only a (e+ years a(ter the %irth o( Dante. %ut the 8hristian 'oet (alls (ar %elo+ the level o( charity and tolerance reached %y his !oslem contem'orary. 0o+ is it 'ossi%le to discern the soul o( &oodness in thin&s evilM $y means o( love. says 7alaluddin. and the )no+led&e +hich love alone can &ive. accordin& to the +ord o( God in the holy TraditionI H!y servant dra+s ni&h unto !e. and I love him5 and +hen I love him. I am his ear. so that he hears %y !e. and his eye. so that he sees %y !e. and his ton&ue. so that he s'ea)s %y !e. and his hand. so that he ta)es %y !e.H Althou&h it +ill %e convenient to treat o( mystical love in a se'arate cha'ter. the reader must not (ancy that a ne+ su%4ect is o'enin& %e(ore him. Gnosis and love are s'iritually identical5 they teach the same truths in di((erent lan&ua&e.

CHAPTER IV DIVINE LOVE A6O one ac-uainted. ho+ever sli&htly. +ith the mystical 'oetry o( Islam must have remar)ed that the as'iration o( the soul to+ards God is e*'ressed. as a rule. in almost the same terms +hich mi&ht %e used %y an Briental Anacreon or 0erric). The resem%lance. indeed. is o(ten so close that. unless +e have some clue to the 'oet,s intention. +e are le(t in dou%t as to his meanin&. In some cases. 'erha's. the am%i&uity serves an artistic 'ur'ose. as in the odes o( 0a(iE. %ut even +hen the 'oet is not deli%erately )ee'in& his readers sus'ended %et+een earth and heaven. it is -uite easy to mista)e a mystical hymn (or a drin)in&/son& or a serenade. I%n al/CAra%i. the &reatest theoso'hist +hom the Ara%s have 'roduced. (ound himsel( o%li&ed to +rite a commentary on some o( his 'oems in order to re(ute the scandalous char&e that they +ere desi&ned to cele%rate the charms o( his mistress. 0ere are a (e+ linesI HBh. her %eauty//the tender maidL Its %rilliance &ives li&ht li)e lam's to one travellin& in the dar). he is a 'earl hidden in a shell o( hair as %lac) as 4et. A 'earl (or +hich Thou&ht dives and remains unceasin&ly in the dee's o( that ocean. 0e +ho loo)s u'on her deems her to %e a &aEelle o( the sand/hills. %ecause o( her sha'ely nec) and the loveliness o( her &estures.H It has %een said that the u(is invented this (i&urative style as a mas) (or mysteries +hich they desired to )ee' secret. That desire +as natural in those +ho 'roudly claimed to 'ossess an esoteric doctrine )no+n only to themselves5 moreover. a 'lain statement o( +hat they %elieved mi&ht have endan&ered their li%erties. i( not their lives. $ut. a'art (rom any such motives. the u(is ado't the sym%olic style %ecause there is no other 'ossi%le +ay o( inter'retin& mystical e*'erience. o little does )no+led&e o( the in(inite revealed in ecstatic vision need an arti(icial dis&uise that it cannot %e communicated at all e*ce't throu&h ty'es and em%lems dra+n (rom the sensi%le +orld. +hich. im'er(ect as they are. may su&&est and shado+ (orth a dee'er meanin& than a''ears on the sur(ace. HGnostics.H says I%n al/CAra%i. Hcannot im'art their (eelin&s to other men5 they can only indicate them sym%olically to those +ho have %e&un to e*'erience the li)e.H Fhat )ind o( sym%olism each mystic +ill 're(er de'ends on his tem'erament and character. I( he %e a reli&ious artist. a s'iritual 'oet. his ideas o( reality are li)ely to clothe themselves instinctively in (orms o( %eauty and &lo+in& ima&es o( human love. To him the rosy chee) o( the %eloved re'resents the divine essence mani(ested throu&h its attri%utes5 her dar) curls si&ni(y the Bne veiled %y the !any5 +hen he says. HDrin) +ine that it may set you (ree (rom yoursel(.H he means. HLose your 'henomenal sel( in the ra'ture o( divine contem'lation.H I mi&ht (ill 'a&es +ith (urther e*am'les. This erotic and %acchanalian sym%olism is not. o( course. 'eculiar to the mystical 'oetry o( Islam. %ut no+here else is it dis'layed so o'ulently and in such 'er(ection. It has o(ten %een misunderstood %y Euro'ean critics. one o( +hom even no+ can descri%e the ecstasies o( the u(is as Hins'ired 'artly %y +ine and stron&ly tin&ed +ith sensuality.H As re&ards the +hole %ody o( u(is. the char&e is alto&ether (alse. 6o intelli&ent and un're4udiced student o( their +ritin&s could have made it. and +e ou&ht to have %een in(ormed on +hat sort o( evidence it is %ased. There are %lac) shee' in every (loc). and amon&st the u(is +e (ind many hy'ocrites. de%auchees. and drun)ards +ho %rin& discredit on the 'ure %rethren. $ut it is 4ust as un(air to 4ud&e u(ism in &eneral %y the e*cesses o( these im'ostors as it +ould %e to condemn all 8hristian mysticism on the &round that certain sects and individuals are immoral.

HGod is the a-i 28u'%earer3 and the FineI 0e )no+s +hat manner o( love is mine.H said 7alaluddin. I%n al/CAra%i declares that no reli&ion is more su%lime than a reli&ion o( love and lon&in& (or God. Love is the essence o( all creedsI the true mystic +elcomes it +hatever &uise it may assume. H!y heart has %ecome ca'a%le o( every (ormI it is a 'asture (or &aEelles and a convent (or 8hristian mon)s. And a tem'le (or idols. and the 'il&rim,s AaC%a. and the ta%les o( the Tora and the %oo) o( the Aoran. I (ollo+ the reli&ion o( Love. +hichever +ay his camels ta)e. !y reli&ion and my (aith is the true reli&ion. Fe have a 'attern in $ishr. the lover o( 0ind and her sister. and in Gays and Lu%na. and in !ayya and Ghaylan.H 8ommentin& on the last verse. the 'oet +ritesI HLove. -uY love. is one and the same reality to those Ara% lovers and to me5 %ut the o%4ects o( our love are di((erent. (or they loved a 'henomenon. +hereas I love the 1eal. They are a 'attern to us. %ecause God only a((licted them +ith love (or human %ein&s in order that 0e mi&ht sho+. %y means o( them. the (alseness o( those +ho 'retend to love 0im. and yet (eel no such trans'ort and ra'ture in lovin& 0im as de'rived those enamoured men o( their reason. and made them unconscious o( themselves.H !ost o( the &reat medieval u(is lived saintly lives. dreamin& o( God. into*icated +ith God. Fhen they tried to tell their dreams. %ein& men. they used the lan&ua&e o( men. I( they +ere also literary artists. they naturally +rote in the style o( their o+n day and &eneration. In mystical 'oetry the Ara%s yield the 'alm to the Persians. Any one +ho +ould read the secret o( u(ism. no lon&er encum%ered +ith theolo&ical articles nor o%scured %y meta'hysical su%tleties//let him turn to CAttar. 7alaluddin 1umi. and 7ami. +hose +or)s are 'artially accessi%le in En&lish and other Euro'ean lan&ua&es. To translate these +onder(ul hymns is to %rea) their melody and %rin& their soarin& 'assion do+n to earth. %ut not even a 'rose translation can -uite conceal the love o( Truth and the vision o( $eauty +hich ins'ired them. Listen a&ain to 7alaluddinI H0e comes. a moon +hose li)e the s)y ne,er sa+. a+a)e or dreamin&. 8ro+ned +ith eternal (lame no (lood can lay. Lo. (rom the (la&on o( Thy love. B Lord. my soul is s+immin&. And ruined all my %ody,s house o( clay. Fhen (irst the Giver o( the &ra'e my lonely heart %e(riended. Fine (ired my %osom and my veins (illed u'. $ut +hen 0is ima&e all mine eye 'ossessed. a voice descended. ,Fell done. B soverei&n Fine and 'eerless 8u'L,H The love thus sym%olised is the emotional element in reli&ion. the ra'ture o( the seer. the coura&e o( the martyr. the (aith o( the saint. the only %asis o( moral 'er(ection and s'iritual )no+led&e. Practically. it is sel(/renunciation and sel(/sacri(ice. the &ivin& u' o( all 'ossessions//+ealth. honour. +ill. li(e. and +hatever else men value//(or the $eloved,s sa)e +ithout any thou&ht o( re+ard. I have already re(erred to love as the su'reme 'rinci'le in u(i ethics. and no+ let me &ive some illustrations. HLove.H says 7alaluddin. His the remedy o( our 'ride and sel(/conceit. the 'hysician o( all our

in(irmities. Bnly he +hose &arment is rent %y love %ecomes entirely unsel(ish.H 6uri. 1a--am. and other u(is +ere accused o( heresy and sentenced to death. HFhen the e*ecutioner a''roached 1a--am. 6uri rose and o((ered himsel( in his (riend,s 'lace +ith the utmost cheer(ulness and su%mission. All the s'ectators +ere astounded. The e*ecutioner said. ,Ooun& man. the s+ord is not a thin& that 'eo'le are so ea&er to meet5 and your turn has not yet arrived., 6uri ans+ered. ,!y reli&ion is (ounded on unsel(ishness. Li(e is the most 'recious thin& in the +orldI I +ish to sacri(ice (or my %rethren,s sa)e the (e+ moments +hich remain.,H Bn another occasion 6uri +as overheard 'rayin& as (ollo+sI HB Lord. in Thy eternal )no+led&e and 'o+er and +ill Thou dost 'unish the 'eo'le o( 0ell +hom Thou hast created5 and i( it %e Thy ine*ora%le +ill to ma)e 0ell (ull o( man)ind. Thou art a%le to (ill it +ith me alone. and to send them to Paradise.H In 'ro'ortion as the u(i loves God. he sees God in all 0is creatures. and &oes (orth to them in acts o( charity. Pious +or)s are nau&ht +ithout love. H8heer one sad heartI thy lovin& deed +ill %e !ore than a thousand tem'les raised %y thee. Bne (reeman +hom thy )indness hath enslaved But+ei&hs %y (ar a thousand slaves set (ree.H The !oslem Le&end o( the aints a%ounds in tales o( 'ity sho+n to animals 9includin& the des'ised do&<. %irds. and even insects. It is related that $ayaEid 'urchased some cardamom seed at 0amadhan. and %e(ore de'artin& 'ut into his &a%erdine a small -uantity +hich +as le(t over. Bn reachin& $istam and recollectin& +hat he had done. he too) out the seed and (ound that it contained a num%er o( ants. ayin&. HI have carried the 'oor creatures a+ay (rom their home.H he immediately set o(( and 4ourneyed %ac) to 0amadhan//a distance o( several hundred miles. This universal charity is one o( the (ruits o( 'antheism. The ascetic vie+ o( the +orld +hich 'revailed amon&st the early u(is. and their vivid consciousness o( God as a transcendent Personality rather than as an immanent 'irit. caused them to crush their human a((ections relentlessly. 0ere is a short story (rom the li(e o( Kudayl i%n CIyad. It +ould %e touchin& i( it +ere not so edi(yin&. HBne day he had in his la' a child (our years old. and chanced to &ive it a )iss. as is the +ay o( (athers. The child said. ,Kather. do you love meM, ,Oes., said Kudayl. ,Do you love GodM, ,Oes., ,0o+ many hearts have youM, ,Bne., ,Then., as)ed the child. ,ho+ can you love t+o +ith one heartM, Kudayl 'erceived that the child,s +ords +ere a divine admonition. In his Eeal (or God he %e&an to %eat his head and re'ented o( his love (or the child. and &ave his heart +holly to God.H The hi&her u(i mysticism. as re'resented %y 7alaluddin 1umi. teaches that the 'henomenal is a %rid&e to the 1eal. HFhether it %e o( this +orld or o( that. Thy love +ill lead thee yonder at the last.H And 7ami says. in a 'assa&e +hich has %een translated %y Pro(essor $ro+neI HEven (rom earthly love thy (ace avert not. ince to the 1eal it may serve to raise thee. Ere A. $. 8 are ri&htly a''rehended.

0o+ canst thou con the 'a&es o( thy AoranM A sa&e 9so heard I<. unto +hom a student 8ame cravin& counsel on the course %e(ore him. aid. ,I( thy ste's %e stran&ers to love,s 'ath+ays. De'art. learn love. and then return %e(ore meL Kor. shouldst thou (ear to drin) +ine (rom Korm,s (la&on. Thou canst not drain the drau&ht o( the Ideal. $ut yet %e+areL $e not %y Korm %elatedI trive rather +ith all s'eed the %rid&e to traverse. I( to the %ourne thou (ain +ouldst %ear thy %a&&a&e. #'on the %rid&e let not thy (ootste's lin&er.,H Emerson sums u' the meanin& o( this +here he saysI H$eholdin& in many souls the traits o( the divine %eauty. and se'aratin& in each soul that +hich is divine (rom the taint +hich it has contracted in the +orld. the lover ascends to the hi&hest %eauty. to the love and )no+led&e o( the Divinity. %y ste's on this ladder o( created souls.H H!an,s love o( God.H says 0u4+iri. His a -uality +hich mani(ests itsel(. in the heart o( the 'ious %eliever. in the (orm o( veneration and ma&ni(ication. so that he see)s to satis(y his $eloved and %ecomes im'atient and restless in his desire (or vision o( 0im. and cannot rest +ith any one e*ce't 0im. and &ro+s (amiliar +ith the recollection o( 0im. and a%4ures the recollection o( everythin& %esides. 1e'ose %ecomes unla+(ul to him. and rest (lees (rom him. 0e is cut o(( (rom all ha%its and associations. and renounces sensual 'assion. and turns to+ards the court o( love. and su%mits to the la+ o( love. and )no+s God %y 0is attri%utes o( 'er(ection.H Inevita%ly such a man +ill love his (ello+/men. Fhatever cruelty they in(lict u'on him. he +ill 'erceive only the chastenin& hand o( God. H+hose %itters are very s+eets to the soul.H $ayaEid said that +hen God loves a man. 0e endo+s him +ith three -ualities in to)en thereo(I a %ounty li)e that o( the sea. a sym'athy li)e that o( the sun. and a humility li)e that o( the earth. 6o su((erin& can %e too &reat. no devotion too hi&h. (or the 'iercin& insi&ht and %urnin& (aith o( a true lover. I%n al/CAra%i claims that Islam is 'eculiarly the reli&ion o( love. inasmuch as the Pro'het !ohammed is called God,s %eloved 90a%i%<. %ut thou&h some traces o( this doctrine occur in the Aoran. its main im'ulse +as un-uestiona%ly derived (rom 8hristianity. Fhile the oldest u(i literature. +hich is +ritten in Ara%ic and un(ortunately has come do+n to us in a (ra&mentary state. is still dominated %y the Aoranic insistence on (ear o( Allah. it also %ears cons'icuous mar)s o( the o''osin& 8hristian tradition. As in 8hristianity. throu&h Dionysius and other +riters o( the 6eo'latonic school. so in Islam. and 'ro%a%ly under the same in(luence. the devotional and mystical love o( God soon develo'ed into ecstasy and enthusiasm +hich (inds in the sensuous ima&ery o( human love the most su&&estive medium (or its e*'ression. Dr. In&e o%serves that the u(is Ha''ear. li)e true Asiatics. to have attem'ted to &ive a sacramental and sym%olic character to the indul&ence o( their 'assions.H I need not a&ain 'oint out that such a vie+ o( &enuine u(ism is %oth su'er(icial and incorrect. Love. li)e &nosis. is in its essence a divine &i(t. not anythin& that can %e ac-uired. HI( the +hole +orld +ished to attract love. they could not5 and i( they made the utmost e((orts to re'el it. they could not.H Those +ho love God are those +hom God loves. HI (ancied that I loved 0im.H said $ayaEid. H%ut on consideration I sa+ that 0is love 'receded mine.H 7unayd de(ined love as the su%stitution o( the -ualities o( the $eloved (or the -ualities o( the lover. In other +ords. love si&ni(ies the 'assin&/a+ay o( the individual sel(5 it is an uncontrolla%le ra'ture. a God/sent &race +hich must %e sou&ht %y ardent 'rayer and as'iration.

HB Thou in +hose %at +ell/curved my heart li)e a %all is laid. 6or ever a hair%readth s+erved (rom Thy %iddin& nor diso%eyed. I have +ashed mine out+ard clean. the +ater I dre+ and 'oured5 !ine in+ard is Thy demesne//do Thou )ee' it stainless. LordLH 7alaluddin teaches that man,s love is really the e((ect o( God,s love %y means o( an a'olo&ue. Bne ni&ht a certain devotee +as 'rayin& aloud. +hen atan a''eared to him and saidI H0o+ lon& +ilt thou cry. ,B Allah,M $e -uiet. (or thou +ilt &et no ans+er.H The devotee hun& his head in silence. A(ter a little +hile he had a vision o( the 'ro'het Ahadir. +ho said to him. HAh. +hy hast thou ceased to call on GodMH H$ecause the ans+er ,0ere am I, came not.H he re'lied. Ahadir said. HGod hath ordered me to &o to thee and say thisI H,Fas it not I that summoned thee to serviceM Did not I ma)e thee %usy +ith !y nameM Thy callin& HAllahLH +as !y H0ere am I.H Thy yearnin& 'ain !y messen&er to thee. B( all those tears and cries and su''lications I +as the ma&net. and I &ave them +in&s.,H Divine love is %eyond descri'tion. yet its si&ns are mani(est. concernin& the nature o( love. ari al/ a-ati -uestioned 7unayd

H ome say.H he ans+ered. Hthat it is a state o( concord. and some say that it is altruism. and some say that it is so/and/so.H ari too) hold o( the s)in on his (orearm and 'ulled it. %ut it +ould not stretch5 then he said. HI s+ear %y the &lory o( God. +ere I to say that this s)in hath shrivelled on this %one (or love o( 0im. I should %e tellin& the truth.H Thereu'on he (ainted a+ay. and his (ace %ecame li)e a shinin& moon. Love.,the astrola%e o( heavenly mysteries., ins'ires all reli&ion +orthy o( the name. and %rin&s +ith it. not reasoned %elie(. %ut the intense conviction arisin& (rom immediate intuition. This inner li&ht is its o+n evidence5 he +ho sees it has real )no+led&e. and nothin& can increase or diminish his certainty. 0ence the u(is never +eary o( e*'osin& the (utility o( a (aith +hich su''orts itsel( on intellectual 'roo(s. e*ternal authority. sel(/interest. or sel(/re&ard o( any )ind. The %arren dialectic o( the theolo&ian5 the cantin& ri&hteousness o( the Pharisee rooted in (orms and ceremonies5 the less crude %ut e-ually undisinterested +orshi' o( +hich the motive is desire to &ain everlastin& ha''iness in the li(e herea(ter5 the relatively 'ure devotion o( the mystic +ho. althou&h he loves God. yet thin)s o( himsel( as lovin&. and +hose heart is not +holly em'tied o( ,otherness,//all these are ,veils, to %e removed. A (e+ sayin&s %y those +ho )no+ +ill %e more instructive than (urther e*'lanation. HB GodL +hatever share o( this +orld Thou hast allotted to me. %esto+ it on Thine enemies5 and +hatever share o( the ne*t +orld Thou hast allotted to me. %esto+ it on Thy (riends. Thou art enou&h (or me.H 91A$ICA.< HB GodL i( I +orshi' Thee in (ear o( 0ell. %urn me in 0ell5 and i( I +orshi' Thee in ho'e o( Paradise. e*clude me (rom Paradise5 %ut i( I +orshi' Thee (or Thine o+n sa)e. +ithhold not Thine everlastin& %eautyLH 91A$ICA.< H6ot+ithstandin& that the lovers o( God are se'arated (rom 0im %y their love. they have the essential thin&. (or +hether they slee' or +a)e. they see) and are sou&ht. and are not occu'ied +ith their o+n see)in& and lovin&. %ut are enra'tured in contem'lation o( the $eloved. It is a crime in

the lover to re&ard his love. and an outra&e in love to loo) at one,s o+n see)in& +hile one is (ace to (ace +ith the ou&ht.H 9$AOARID.< H0is love entered and removed all %esides 0im and le(t no trace o( anythin& else. so that it remained sin&le even as 0e is sin&le.H 9$AOARID.< HTo (eel at one +ith God (or a moment is %etter than all men,s acts o( +orshi' (rom the %e&innin& to the end o( the +orld.H 9 0I$LI.< HKear o( the Kire. in com'arison +ith (ear o( %ein& 'arted (rom the $eloved. is li)e a dro' o( +ater cast into the mi&htiest ocean.H 9D0# QL/6#6.< H#nless I have the (ace o( my heart to+ards Thee. I deem 'rayer un+orthy to %e rec)oned as 'rayer. I( I turn my (ace to the AaC%a. ,tis (or love o( Thine5 Bther+ise I am -uit %oth o( 'rayer and AaC%a.H 97ALAL#DDI6 1#!I.< Love. a&ain. is the divine instinct o( the soul im'ellin& it to realise its nature and destiny. The soul is the (irst/%orn o( GodI %e(ore the creation o( the universe it lived and moved and had its %ein& in 0im. and durin& its earthly mani(estation it is a stran&er in e*ile. ever 'inin& to return to its home. HThis is LoveI to (ly heaven+ard. To rend. every instant. a hundred veils5 The (irst moment. to renounce li(e5 The last ste'. to (are +ithout (eet5 To re&ard this +orld as invisi%le. 6ot to see +hat a''ears to one,s sel(.H All the love/romances and alle&ories o( u(i 'oetry//the tales o( Layla and !a4nun. Ousu( 97ose'h< and Rulay)ha. alaman and A%sal. the !oth and the 8andle. the 6i&htin&ale and the 1ose//are shado+/'ictures o( the soul,s 'assionate lon&in& to %e reunited +ith God. It is im'ossi%le. in the %rie( s'ace at my command. to &ive the reader more than a 'assin& &lim'se o( the treasures +hich the e*u%erant (ancy o( the East has hea'ed to&ether in every room o( this enchanted 'alace. The soul is li)ened to a moanin& dove that has lost her mate5 to a reed torn (rom its %ed and made into a (lute +hose 'laintive music (ills the eye +ith tears5 to a (alcon summoned %y the (o+ler,s +histle to 'erch a&ain u'on his +rist5 to sno+ meltin& in the sun and mountin& as va'our to the s)y5 to a (renEied camel s+i(tly 'lun&in& throu&h the desert %y ni&ht5 to a ca&ed 'arrot. a (ish on dry land. a 'a+n that see)s to %ecome a )in&. These (i&ures im'ly that God is conceived as transcendent. and that the soul cannot reach 0im +ithout ta)in& +hat Plotinus in a s'lendid 'hrase calls Hthe (li&ht o( the Alone to the Alone.H 7alaluddin saysI HThe motion o( every atom is to+ards its ori&in5 A man comes to %e the thin& on +hich he is %ent. $y the attraction o( (ondness and yearnin&. the soul and the heart Assume the -ualities o( the $eloved. +ho is the oul o( souls.H ,A man comes to %e the thin& on +hich he is %ent,I +hat. then does the u(i %ecomeM Ec)hart in one o( his sermons -uotes the sayin& o( t. Au&ustine that !an is +hat he loves. and adds this commentI HI( he loves a stone. he is a stone5 i( he loves a man. he is a man5 i( he loves God//I dare not

say more. (or i( I said that he +ould then %e God. ye mi&ht stone me.H The !oslem mystics en4oyed &reater (reedom o( s'eech than their 8hristian %rethren +ho o+ed alle&iance to the medieval 8atholic 8hurch. and i( they +ent too (ar the 'lea o( ecstasy +as &enerally acce'ted as a su((icient e*cuse. Fhether they em'hasise the out+ard or the in+ard as'ect o( uni(ication. the transcendence or the immanence o( God. their e*'ressions are %old and uncom'romisin&. Thus A%u aCidI HIn my heart Thou d+ellest//else +ith %lood I,ll drench it5 In mine eye Thou &lo+est//else +ith tears I,ll -uench it. Bnly to %e one +ith Thee my soul desireth// Else (rom out my %ody. %y hoo) or croo). I,ll +rench itLH 7alaluddin 1umi 'roclaims that the soul,s love o( God is God,s love o( the soul. and that in lovin& the soul God loves 0imsel(. (or 0e dra+s home to 0imsel( that +hich in its essence is divine. HBur co''er.H says the 'oet. Hhas %een transmuted %y this rare alchemy.H meanin& that the %ase alloy o( sel( has %een 'uri(ied and s'iritualised. In another ode he saysI HB my soul. I searched (rom end to endI I sa+ in thee nau&ht save the $eloved5 8all me not in(idel. B my soul. i( I say that thou thysel( art 0e.H And yet more 'lainlyI HOe +ho in search o( God. o( God. 'ursue. Oe need not search (or God is you. is youL Fhy see) ye somethin& that +as missin& ne,erM ave you none is. %ut you are//+here. oh. +hereMH Fhere is the lover +hen the $eloved has dis'layed 0imsel(M 6o+here and every+hereI his individuality has 'assed a+ay (rom him. In the %ridal cham%er o( #nity God cele%rates the mystical marria&e o( the soul.

CHAPTER V SAINTS AND MIRACLES LET us su''ose that the avera&e !oslem could read En&lish. and that +e 'laced in his hands one o( those admira%le volumes 'u%lished %y the ociety (or Psychical 1esearch. In order to sym'athise +ith his (eelin&s on such an occasion. +e have only to ima&ine +hat our o+n +ould %e i( a scienti(ic (riend invited us to study a treatise settin& (orth the evidence in (avour o( tele&ra'hy and recordin& +ell/attested instances o( tele&ra'hic communication. The !oslem +ould 'ro%a%ly see in the tele&ra'h some )ind o( s'irit//an a(reet or 4inni. Tele'athy and similar occult 'henomena he ta)es (or &ranted as sel(/evident (acts. It +ould never occur to him to investi&ate them. There is somethin& in the constitution o( his mind that ma)es it im'ervious to the idea that the su'ernatural may %e su%4ect to la+. 0e %elieves. %ecause he cannot hel' %elievin&. in the reality o( an unseen +orld +hich ,lies a%out us., not in our in(ancy alone. %ut al+ays and every/+here5 a +orld (rom +hich +e are in no +ise e*cluded. accessi%le and in some measure revealed to all. thou&h (ree and o'en intercourse +ith it is a 'rivile&e en4oyed %y (e+. !any are called %ut (e+ chosen. H 'irits every ni&ht (rom the %ody,s snare Thou (reest. and ma)est the ta%lets clean. 2$y erasin& all the sensuous im'ressions +hich (orm a veil %et+een the soul and the +orld o( reality.3 'irits are set (ree every ni&ht (rom this ca&e. Inde'endent. neither ruled nor rulin&. At ni&ht 'risoners (or&et their 'rison. At ni&ht )in&s (or&et their 'o+erI 6o sorro+. no %roodin& over &ain and loss. 6o thou&ht o( this 'erson or that 'erson. This is the state o( the &nostic. even +hen he is a+a)e5 God hath said. ,Thou +ouldst deem them a+a)e +hile they sle't., 2Aor. 1:.1T3 0e is aslee'. day and ni&ht. to the a((airs o( the +orld. Li)e a 'en in the controllin& hand o( the Lord.H The u(is have al+ays declared and %elieved themselves to %e God,s chosen 'eo'le. The Aoran re(ers in several 'laces to 0is elect. Accordin& to the author o( the Aita% al/LumaC. this title %elon&s. (irstly. to the 'ro'hets. elect in virtue o( their sinlessness. their ins'iration. and their a'ostolic mission5 and secondly. to certain !oslems. elect in virtue o( their sincere devotion and sel(/morti(ication and (irm attachment to the eternal realitiesI in a +ord. the saints. Fhile the u(is are the elect o( the !oslem community. the saints are the elect o( the u(is. The !ohammedan saint is commonly )no+n as a +ali 9'lural. a+liya<. This +ord is used in various senses derived (rom its root/meanin& o( ,nearness,5 e.&. ne*t o( )in. 'atron. 'rotector. (riend. It is a''lied in the Aoran to God as the 'rotector o( the Kaith(ul. to an&els or idols +ho are su''osed to 'rotect their +orshi''ers. and to men +ho are re&arded as %ein& s'ecially under divine 'rotection. !ohammed t+its the 7e+s +ith 'ro(essin& to %e 'rotZ&Zs o( God 9a+liya lillah<. 6ot+ithstandin& its some+hat e-uivocal associations. the term +as ta)en over %y the u(is and %ecame the ordinary desi&nation o( 'ersons +hose holiness %rin&s them near to God. and +ho receive (rom 0im. as to)ens o( 0is 'eculiar (avour. miraculous &i(ts 9)aramat. =char[smata?<5 they are 0is (riends. on +hom Hno (ear shall come and they shall not &rieveH 2Aor. 1;."335 any in4ury done to them is an act o( hostility a&ainst 0im.

The ins'iration o( the Islamic saints. thou&h ver%ally distin&uished (rom that o( the 'ro'hets and in(erior in de&ree. is o( the same )ind. In conse-uence o( their intimate relation to God. the veil shroudin& the su'ernatural. or. as a !oslem +ould say. the unseen +orld. (rom their 'erce'tions is +ithdra+n at intervals. and in their (its o( ecstasy they rise to the 'ro'hetic level. 6either dee' learnin& in divinity. nor devotion to &ood +or)s. nor asceticism. nor moral 'urity ma)es the !ohammedan a saint5 he may have all or none o( these thin&s. %ut the only indis'ensa%le -uali(ication is that ecstasy and ra'ture +hich is the out+ard si&n o( ,'assin&/a+ay, (rom the 'henomenal sel(. Anyone thus enra'tured 9ma4dhu%< is a +ali 2Faliyyat. i( the saint is a +oman.3. and +hen such 'ersons are reco&nised throu&h their 'o+er o( +or)in& miracles. they are venerated as saints not only a(ter death %ut also durin& their lives. B(ten. ho+ever. they live and die in o%scurity. 0u4+iri tells us that amon&st the saints Hthere are (our thousand +ho are concealed and do not )no+ one another and are not a+are o( the e*cellence o( their state. %ein& in all circumstances hidden (rom themselves and (rom man)ind.H The saints (orm an invisi%le hierarchy. on +hich the order o( the +orld is thou&ht to de'end. Its su'reme head is entitled the Gut% 9A*is<. 0e is the most eminent u(i o( his a&e. and 'resides over the meetin&s re&ularly held %y this au&ust 'arliament. +hose mem%ers are not ham'ered in their attendance %y the inconvenient (ictions o( time and s'ace. %ut come to&ether (rom all 'arts o( the earth in the t+in)lin& o( an eye. traversin& seas and mountains and deserts as easily as common mortals ste' across a road. $elo+ the Gut% stand various classes and &rades o( sanctity. 0u4+iri enumerates them. in ascendin& series. as (ollo+sI three hundred A)hyar 9Good<. (orty A%dal 9 u%stitutes<. seven A%rar 9Pious<. (our A+tad 9 u''orts<. and three 6u-a%a 9Bverseers<. HAll these )no+ one another and cannot act save %y mutual consent. It is the tas) o( the A+tad to &o round the +hole +orld every ni&ht. and i( there should %e any 'lace on +hich their eyes have not (allen. ne*t day some (la+ +ill a''ear in that 'lace. and they must then in(orm the Gut% in order that he may direct his attention to the +ea) s'ot and that %y his %lessin& the im'er(ection may %e remedied.H Fe are studyin& in this %oo) the mystical li(e o( the individual !oslem. and it is necessary to )ee' the su%4ect +ithin the narro+est %ounds. Bther+ise. I should have li)ed to d+ell on the e*ternal and historical or&anisation o( u(ism as a school (or saints. and to descri%e the 'rocess o( evolution throu&h +hich the +ali 'rivately conversin& +ith a small circle o( (riends %ecame. (irst. a teacher and s'iritual &uide &atherin& disci'les around him durin& his li(etime. and (inally the head o( a 'er'etual reli&ious order +hich %ore his name. The earliest o( these &reat (raternities date (rom the t+el(th century. In addition to their o+n mem%ers//the so/called ,dervishes,//each order has a lar&e num%er o( lay %rethren attached to it. so that their in(luence 'ervades all ran)s o( !oslem society. They are Hinde'endent and sel(/develo'in&. There is rivalry %et+een them5 %ut no one rules over the other. In (aith and 'ractice each &oes its o+n +ay. limited only %y the universal conscience o( Islam. Thus stran&e doctrines and &rave moral de(ects easily develo' unheeded. %ut (reedom is saved.H 2D. $. !acdonald. The 1eli&ious Li(e and Attitude in Islam. '. 1"4.3 B( course. the ty'ical +ali is inca'a%le o( (oundin& an order. %ut Islam has 'roduced no less (re-uently than 8hristendom men +ho com%ine intense s'iritual illumination +ith creative ener&y and a'titude (or a((airs on a &rand scale. The !ohammedan notion o( the saint as a 'erson 'ossessed %y God allo+s a very +ide a''lication o( the termI in 'o'ular usa&e it e*tends (rom the &reatest u(i theoso'hists. li)e 7alaluddin 1umi and I%n al/CAra%i. do+n to those +ho have &ained sanctity only %y losin& sanity// victims o( e'ile'sy and hysteria. hal(/+itted idiots and harmless lunatics. $oth Gushayri 2Author o( a (amous +or) desi&ned to close the %reach %et+een u(ism and Islam. 0e died in 1;T4 A.D.3 and 0u4+iri discuss the -uestion +hether a saint can %e conscious o( his saintshi'. and ans+er it in the a((irmative. Their o''onents ar&ue that consciousness o( saintshi' involves assurance o( salvation. +hich is im'ossi%le. since no one can )no+ +ith certainty that he

shall %e amon& the saved on the Day o( 7ud&ment. In re'ly it +as ur&ed that God may miraculously assure the saint o( his 'redestined salvation. +hile maintainin& him in a state o( s'iritual soundness and 'reservin& him (rom diso%edience. The saint is not immaculate. as the 'ro'hets are. %ut the divine 'rotection +hich he en4oys is a &uarantee that he +ill not 'ersevere in evil courses. thou&h he may tem'orarily %e led astray. Accordin& to the vie+ &enerally held. saintshi' de'ends on (aith. not on conduct. so that no sin e*ce't in(idelity can cause it to %e (or(eited. This 'erilous theory. +hich o'ens the door to antinomianism. +as miti&ated %y the em'hasis laid on (ul(ilment o( the reli&ious la+. The (ollo+in& anecdote o( $ayaEid al/$istami sho+s the o((icial attitude o( all the leadin& u(is +ho are cited as authorities in the !oslem te*t/%oo)s. HI +as told 9he said< that a saint o( God +as livin& in such/and/such a to+n. and I set out to visit him. Fhen I entered the mos-ue. he came (orth (rom his cham%er and s'at on the (loor. I turned %ac) +ithout salutin& him. sayin& to mysel(. ,A saint must )ee' the reli&ious la+ in order that God may )ee' him in his s'iritual state. 0ad this man %een a saint. his res'ect (or the la+ +ould have 'revented him (rom s'ittin& on the (loor. or God +ould have saved him (rom marrin& the &race vouchsa(ed to him.H !any +alis. ho+ever. re&ard the la+ as a cur% that is indeed necessary so lon& as one remains in the disci'linary sta&e. %ut may %e discarded %y the saint. uch a 'erson. they declare. stands on a hi&her 'lane than ordinary men. and is not to %e condemned (or actions +hich out+ardly seem irreli&ious. Fhile the older u(is insist that a +ali +ho %rea)s the la+ is there%y sho+n to %e an im'ostor. the 'o'ular %elie( in the saints and the ra'id &ro+th o( saint/+orshi' tended to a&&randise the +ali at the e*'ense o( the la+. and to (oster the conviction that a divinely &i(ted man can do no +ron&. or at least that his actions must not %e 4ud&ed %y a''earances. The classical instance o( this 4us divinum vested in the (riends o( God is the story o( !oses and Ahadir. +hich is related in the Aoran 91:."4/:;<. Ahadir or AhiEr//the Aoran does not mention him %y name is a mysterious sa&e endo+ed +ith immortality. +ho is said to enter into conversation +ith +anderin& u(is and im'art to them his God/&iven )no+led&e. !oses desired to accom'any him on a 4ourney that he mi&ht 'ro(it %y his teachin&. and Ahadir consented. only sti'ulatin& that !oses should as) no -uestions o( him. H o they %oth +ent on. till they em%ar)ed in a %oat and he 9Ahadir< staved it in. ,FhatL, cried !oses. ,hast thou staved it in that thou mayst dro+n its cre+M Nerily. a stran&e thin& hast thou done., H0e said. ,Did not I tell thee that thou couldst no +ay have 'atience +ith meM, HThen they +ent on until they met a youth. and he sle+ him. aid !oses. ,0ast thou slain him +ho is (ree (rom &uilt o( %loodM urely no+ thou hast +rou&ht an unheard/o( thin&L,H A(ter !oses had %ro)en his 'romise o( silence (or the third time. Ahadir resolved to leave him. H$ut (irst.H he said. HI +ill tell thee the meanin& o( that +ith +hich thou couldst not have 'atience. As to the %oat. it %elon&ed to 'oor men. toilers on the sea. and I +as minded to dama&e it. (or in their rear +as a )in& +ho seiEed on every %oat %y (orce. And as to the youth. his 'arents +ere %elievers. and I (eared lest he should trou%le them %y error and un%elie(.H The u(is are (ond o( -uotin& this unim'eacha%le testimony that the +ali is a%ove human criticism. and that his hand. as 7alaluddin asserts. is even as the hand o( God. !ost !oslems admit the claim to %e valid in so (ar as they shrin) (rom a''lyin& conventional standards o( morality to holy men. I have e*'lained its meta'hysical 4usti(ication in an earlier cha'ter. A miracle 'er(ormed %y a saint is termed )aramat. i.e. a ,(avour, +hich God %esto+s u'on him.

+hereas a miracle 'er(ormed %y a 'ro'het is called muC4iEat. i.e. an act +hich cannot %e imitated %y any one. The distinction ori&inated in controversy. and +as used to ans+er those +ho held the miraculous 'o+ers o( the saints to %e a &rave encroachment on the 'rero&ative o( the Pro'het. u(i a'olo&ists. +hile con(essin& that %oth )inds o( miracle are su%stantially the same. ta)e 'ains to di((erentiate the characteristics o( each5 they declare. moreover. that the saints are the Pro'het,s +itnesses. and that all their miracles 9li)e ,a dro' tric)lin& (rom a (ull s)in o( honey,< are in reality derived (rom him. This is the orthodo* vie+ and is su''orted %y those !ohammedan mystics +ho ac)no+led&e the La+ as +ell as the Truth. thou&h in some cases it may have amounted to little more than a 'ious o'inion. Fe have o(ten noticed the di((iculty in +hich the u(is (ind themselves +hen they try to ma)e a lo&ical com'romise +ith Islam. $ut the +ord ,lo&ic, is very misleadin& in this conne*ion. The %e&innin& o( +isdom. (or Euro'ean students o( Briental reli&ion. lies in the discovery that incon&ruous %elie(s//I mean. o( course. %elie(s +hich our minds cannot harmonise// d+ell 'eace(ully to&ether in the Briental %rain5 that their o+ner is -uite unconscious o( their incon&ruity5 and that. as a rule. he is a%solutely sincere. 8ontradictions +hich seem &larin& to us do not trou%le him at all. The thaumatur&ic element in ancient u(ism +as not so im'ortant as it a(ter+ards %ecame in the (ully develo'ed saint/+orshi' associated +ith the Dervish Brders. HA saint +ould %e none the less a saint.H says Gushayri. Hi( no miracles +ere +rou&ht %y him in this +orld.H In early !ohammedan NitJ anctorum it is not uncommon to meet +ith sayin&s to the e((ect that miraculous 'o+ers are com'aratively o( small account. It +as (inely said %y ahl i%n CA%dallah that the &reatest miracle is the su%stitution o( a &ood -uality (or a %ad one5 and the Aita% al/LumaC &ives many e*am'les o( holy men +ho disli)ed miracles and re&arded them as a tem'tation. HDurin& my novitiate.H said $ayaEid. HGod used to %rin& %e(ore me +onders and miracles. %ut I 'aid no heed to them5 and +hen 0e sa+ that I did so. 0e &ave me the means o( attainin& to )no+led&e o( 0imsel(.H 7unayd o%served that reliance on miracles is one o( the ,veils, +hich hinder the elect (rom 'enetratin& to the inmost shrine o( the Truth. This +as too hi&h doctrine (or the &reat mass o( !oslems. and in the end the vul&ar idea o( saintshi' trium'hed over the mystical and theoso'hical conce'tion. All such +arnin&s and scru'les +ere s+e't aside %y the same irresisti%le instinct +hich rendered vain the solemn asseverations o( !ohammed that there +as nothin& su'ernatural a%out him. and +hich trans(ormed the human Pro'het o( history into an omni'otent hiero'hant and ma&ician. The 'o'ular demand (or miracles (ar e*ceeded the su''ly. %ut +here the +alis (ailed. a vivid and credulous ima&ination came to their rescue and re'resented them. not as they +ere. %ut as they ou&ht to %e. Oear %y year the Le&end o( the aints &re+ more &lorious and +onder(ul as it continued to dra+ (resh tri%ute (rom the un(athoma%le ocean o( Briental romance. The 'retensions made %y the +alis. or on their %ehal(. steadily increased. and the stories told o( them +ere ever %ecomin& more (antastic and e*trava&ant. I +ill devote the remainder o( this cha'ter to a s)etch o( the +ali as he a''ears in the vast medieval literature on the su%4ect. The !oslem saint does not say that he has +rou&ht a miracle5 he says. Ha miracle +as &ranted or mani(ested to me.H Accordin& to one vie+. he may %e (ully conscious at the time. %ut many u(is hold that such ,mani(estation, cannot ta)e 'lace e*ce't in ecstasy. +hen the saint is entirely under divine control. 0is o+n 'ersonality is then in a%eyance. and those +ho inter(ere +ith him o''ose the Almi&hty Po+er +hich s'ea)s +ith his li's and smites +ith his hand. 7alaluddin 9+ho uses incidentally the rather dou%le/ed&ed analo&y o( a man 'ossessed %y a 'eri 2Bne o( the s'irits called collectively 7inn.3< relates the (ollo+in& anecdote concernin& $ayaEid o( $istam. a cele%rated Persian saint +ho several times declared in ecstatic (renEy that he +as no other than God. A(ter comin& to himsel( on one o( these occasions and learnin& +hat %las'hemous lan&ua&e he had uttered. $ayaEid ordered his disci'les to sta% him +ith their )nives i( he should o((end a&ain. Let me -uote the se-uel. (rom !r. Fhin(ield,s a%rid&ed translation o( the !asnavi 9'. 1U"<I

HThe torrent o( madness %ore a+ay his reason And he s'o)e more im'iously than %e(oreI ,Fithin my vesture is nau&ht %ut God. Fhether you see) 0im on earth or in heaven., 0is disci'les all %ecame mad +ith horror. And struc) +ith their )nives at his holy %ody. Each one +ho aimed at the %ody o( the hey)h// 0is stro)e +as reversed and +ounded the stri)er. 6o stro)e too) e((ect on that man o( s'iritual &i(ts. $ut the disci'les +ere +ounded and dro+ned in %lood.H 0ere is the 'oet,s conclusionI HAhL you +ho smite +ith your s+ord him %eside himsel(. Oou smite yoursel( there+ith. $e+areL Kor he that is %eside himsel( is annihilated and sa(e5 Oea. he d+ells in security (or ever. 0is (orm is vanished. he is a mere mirror5 6othin& is seen in him %ut the re(le*ion o( another. I( you s'it at it. you s'it at your o+n (ace. And i( you hit that mirror. you hit yoursel(. I( you see an u&ly (ace in it. ,tis your o+n. And i( you see a 7esus there. you are its mother !ary. 0e is neither this nor that//he is void o( (orm5 ,Tis your o+n (orm +hich is re(lected %ac) to you.H The li(e o( A%u Ql/0asan Ahur-ani. another Persian u(i +ho died in 1;33 A.D.. &ives us a com'lete 'icture o( the Briental 'antheist. and e*hi%its the min&led arro&ance and su%limity o( the character as clearly as could %e desired. ince the ori&inal te*t covers (i(ty 'a&es. I can translate only a small 'ortion o( it here. HBnce the hey)h said. ,This ni&ht a &reat many 'ersons 9he mentioned the e*act num%er< have %een +ounded %y %ri&ands in such/and/such a desert., Bn ma)in& in-uiry. they (ound that his statement +as 'er(ectly true. tran&e to relate. on the same ni&ht his son,s head +as cut o(( and laid u'on the threshold o( his house. yet he )ne+ nothin& o( it. 0is +i(e. +ho dis%elieved in him. cried. ,Fhat thin) you o( a man +ho can tell thin&s +hich ha''en many lea&ues a+ay. %ut does not )no+ that his o+n son,s head has %een cut o(( and is lyin& at his very doorM, ,Oes., the hey)h ans+ered. ,+hen I sa+ that. the veil had %een li(ted. %ut +hen my son +as )illed. it had %een let do+n a&ain.,H HBne day A%u Ql/0asan Ahur-ani clenched his (ist and e*tended the little (in&er and said. ,0ere is the -i%la 2The -i%la is the 'oint to +hich !oslems turn their (aces +hen 'rayin&. i.e. the AaC%a.3. i( any one desires to %ecome a u(i., These +ords +ere re'orted to the Grand hey)h. +ho. deemin& the co/e*istence o( t+o -i%las an insult to the divine #nity. e*claimed. , ince a second -i%la has a''eared. I +ill cancel the (ormer one., A(ter that. no 'il&rims +ere a%le to reach !ecca. ome 'erished on the +ay. others (ell into the hands o( ro%%ers. or +ere 'revented %y various causes (rom accom'lishin& their 4ourney. 6e*t year a certain dervish said to the Grand hey)h. ,Fhat sense is there in )ee'in& the (ol) a+ay (rom the 0ouse o( GodM, Thereu'on the Grand hey)h made a si&n. and the road %ecame o'en once more. The dervish as)ed. ,Fhose (ault is it that all these 'eo'le have 'erishedM, The Grand hey)h re'lied. ,Fhen ele'hants 4ostle each other. +ho cares i( a (e+

+retched %irds are crushed to deathM,H H ome 'ersons +ho +ere settin& (orth on a 4ourney %e&&ed Ahur-ani to teach them a 'rayer that +ould )ee' them sa(e (rom the 'erils o( the road. 0e said. ,I( any mis(ortune should %e(all you. mention my name., This ans+er +as not a&reea%le to them5 they set o((. ho+ever. and +hile travellin& +ere attac)ed %y %ri&ands. Bne o( the 'arty mentioned the saint,s name and immediately %ecame invisi%le. to the &reat astonishment o( the %ri&ands. +ho could not (ind either his camel or his %ales o( merchandise5 the others lost all their clothes and &oods. Bn returnin& home. they as)ed the hey)h to e*'lain the mystery. ,Fe all invo)ed God., they said. ,and +ithout success5 %ut the one man +ho invo)ed you vanished (rom %e(ore the eyes o( the ro%%ers., ,Oou invo)e God (ormally., said the hey)h. ,+hereas I invo)e 0im really. 0ence. i( you invo)e me and I then invo)e God on your %ehal(. your 'rayers are &ranted5 %ut it is useless (or you to invo)e God (ormally and %y rote.,H HBne ni&ht. +hile he +as 'rayin&. he heard a voice cry. ,0aL A%u Ql/0asanL Dost thou +ish !e to tell the 'eo'le +hat I )no+ o( thee. that they may stone thee to deathM, ,B Lord God., he re'lied. ,dost Thou +ish me to tell the 'eo'le +hat I )no+ o( Thy mercy and +hat I 'erceive o( Thy &race. that none o( them may ever a&ain %o+ to Thee in 'rayerM, The voice ans+ered. ,Aee' thy secret. and I +ill )ee' !ine.,H H0e said. ,B God. do not send to me the An&el o( Death. (or I +ill not &ive u' my soul to him. 0o+ should I restore it to him. (rom +hom I did not receive itM I received my soul (rom Thee. and I +ill not &ive it u' to any one %ut Thee.,H H0e said. ,A(ter I shall have 'assed a+ay. the An&el o( Death +ill come to one o( my descendants and set a%out ta)in& his soul. and +ill deal hardly +ith him. Then +ill I raise my hands (rom the tom% and shed the &race o( God u'on his li's.,H H0e said. ,I( I %ade the em'yrean move. it +ould o%ey. and i( I told the sun to sto'. it +ould cease (rom rollin& on its course.,H H0e said. ,I am not a devotee nor an ascetic nor a theolo&ian nor a u(i. B God. Thou art Bne. and throu&h Thy Bneness I am Bne.,H H0e said. ,The s)ull o( my head is the em'yrean. and my (eet are under the earth. and my t+o hands are East and Fest.,H H0e said. ,I( any one does not %elieve that I shall stand u' at the 1esurrection and that he shall not enter Paradise until I lead him (or+ard. let him not come here to salute me.,H H0e said. , ince God %rou&ht me (orth (rom mysel(. Paradise is in -uest o( me and 0ell is in (ear o( me5 and i( Paradise and 0ell +ere to 'ass %y this 'lace +here I am. %oth +ould %ecome annihilated in me. to&ether +ith all the 'eo'le +hom they contain.,H H0e said. ,I +as lyin& on my %ac). aslee'. Krom a corner o( the Throne o( God somethin& tric)led into my mouth. and I (elt a s+eetness in my in+ard %ein&.,H H0e said. ,I( a (e+ dro's o( that +hich is under the s)in o( a saint should come (orth %et+een his li's. all the creatures o( heaven and earth +ould (all into 'anic.,H H0e said. ,Throu&h 'rayer the saints are a%le to sto' the (ish (rom s+immin& in the sea and to ma)e the earth trem%le. so that 'eo'le thin) it is an earth-ua)e.,H

H0e said. ,I( the love o( God in the hearts o( 0is (riends +ere made mani(est. it +ould (ill the +orld +ith (lood and (ire.,H H0e said. ,0e that lives +ith God hath seen all thin&s visi%le. and heard all thin&s audi%le. and done all that is to %e done. and )no+n all that is to %e )no+n.,H H0e said. ,All thin&s are contained in me. %ut there is no room (or mysel( in me.,H H0e said. ,!iracles are only the (irst o( the thousand sta&es o( the Fay to God.,H H0e said. ,Do not see) until thou art sou&ht. (or +hen thou (indest that +hich thou see)est. it +ill resem%le thee.,H H0e said. ,Thou must daily die a thousand deaths and come to li(e a&ain. that thou mayst +in the li(e immortal.,H H0e said. ,Fhen thou &ivest to God thy nothin&ness. 0e &ives to thee 0is All.,H It +ould %e an almost endless tas) to enumerate and e*em'li(y the di((erent classes o( miracles +hich are related in the lives o( the !ohammedan saints//(or instance. +al)in& on +ater. (lyin& in the air 9+ith or +ithout a 'assen&er<. rain/ma)in&. a''earin& in various 'laces at the same time. healin& %y the %reath. %rin&in& the dead to li(e. )no+led&e and 'rediction o( (uture events. thou&ht/ readin&. tele)inesis. 'aralysin& or %eheadin& an o%no*ious 'erson %y a +ord or &esture. conversin& +ith animals or 'lants. turnin& earth into &old or 'recious stones. 'roducin& (ood and drin). etc. To the !oslem. +ho has no sense o( natural la+. all these ,violations o( custom., as he calls them. seem e-ually credi%le. Fe. on the other hand. (eel ourselves o%li&ed to distin&uish 'henomena +hich +e re&ard as irrational and im'ossi%le (rom those (or +hich +e can (ind some sort o( ,natural, e*'lanation. !odern theories o( 'sychical in(luence. (aith/healin&. tele'athy. veridical hallucination. hy'notic su&&estion and the li)e. have thro+n o'en to us a +ide avenue o( a''roach to this dar) continent in the Eastern mind. I +ill not. ho+ever. 'ursue the su%4ect (ar at 'resent. (ull o( interest as it is. In the hi&her u(i teachin& the miraculous 'o+ers o( the saints 'lay a more or less insi&ni(icant 'art. and the e*cessive im'ortance +hich they assume in the or&anised mysticism o( the Dervish Brders is one o( the clearest mar)s o( its de&eneracy. The (ollo+in& 'assa&e. +hich I have sli&htly modi(ied. &ives a (air summary o( the hy'notic 'rocess throu&h +hich a dervish attains to union +ith GodI HThe disci'le must. mystically. al+ays %ear his !urshid 9s'iritual director< in mind. and %ecome mentally a%sor%ed in him throu&h a constant meditation and contem'lation o( him. The teacher must %e his shield a&ainst all evil thou&hts. The s'irit o( the teacher (ollo+s him in all his e((orts. and accom'anies him +herever he may %e. -uite as a &uardian s'irit. To such a de&ree is this carried that he sees the master in all men and in all thin&s. 4ust as a +illin& su%4ect is under the in(luence o( the ma&netiser. This condition is called ,sel(/ annihilation, in the !urshid or hey)h. The latter (inds. in his o+n visionary dreams. the de&ree +hich the disci'le has reached. and +hether or not his s'irit has %ecome %ound to his o+n. HAt this sta&e the hey)h 'asses him over to the s'iritual in(luence o( the lon&/deceased Pir or ori&inal (ounder o( the Brder. and he sees the latter only %y the s'iritual aid o( the hey)h. This is called ,sel(/annihilation, in the Pir. 0e no+ %ecomes so much a 'art o( the Pir as to 'ossess all his s'iritual 'o+ers. HThe third &rade leads him. also throu&h the s'iritual aid o( the hey)h. u' to the Pro'het himsel(.

+hom he no+ sees in all thin&s. This state is called ,sel(/annihilation, in the Pro'het. HThe (ourth de&ree leads him even to God. 0e %ecomes united +ith the Deity and sees 0im in all thin&s.H 27. P. $ro+n. The Dervishes. or Briental 'iritualism 91:":<. '. 2U:.3 An e*cellent concrete illustration o( the 'rocess here descri%ed +ill %e (ound in the +ell/)no+n case o( Ta+a))ul $e&. +ho 'assed throu&h all these e*'eriences under the control o( !olla/ hah. 0is account is too lon& to -uote in (ull5 moreover. it has recently %een translated %y Pro(essor D. $. !acdonald in his 1eli&ious Li(e and Attitude in Islam 9''. 1UT ((.<. I co'y (rom this version one 'ara&ra'h descri%in& the (irst o( the (our sta&es mentioned a%ove. HThereu'on he made me sit %e(ore him. my senses %ein& as thou&h into*icated. and ordered me to re'roduce my o+n ima&e +ithin mysel(5 and. a(ter havin& %anda&ed my eyes. he as)ed me to concentrate all my mental (aculties on my heart. I o%eyed. and in an instant. %y the divine (avour and %y the s'iritual assistance o( the hey)h. my heart o'ened. I sa+. then. that there +as somethin& li)e an overturned cu' +ithin me. This havin& %een set u'ri&ht. a sensation o( un%ounded ha''iness (illed my %ein&. I said to the master. ,This cell +here I am seated %e(ore you// I see a (aith(ul re'roduction o( it +ithin me. and it a''ears to me as thou&h another Ta+a))ul $e& +ere seated %e(ore another !olla/ hah., 0e re'lied. ,Nery &oodL the (irst a''arition +hich a''ears to thee is the ima&e o( the master., 0e then ordered me to uncover my eyes5 and I sa+ him. +ith the 'hysical or&an o( vision. seated %e(ore me. 0e then made me %ind my eyes a&ain. and I 'erceived him +ith my s'iritual si&ht. seated similarly %e(ore me. Kull o( astonishment. I cried out. ,B !asterL +hether I loo) +ith my 'hysical or&ans or +ith my s'iritual si&ht. al+ays it is you that I seeL,H 0ere is a case o( autohy'notism. +itnessed and recorded %y the 'oet 7amiI H!a+lana aCduddin o( Aash&har. a(ter a little concentration o( thou&ht 9ta+a44uh<. used to e*hi%it si&ns o( unconsciousness. Anyone i&norant o( this circumstance +ould have (ancied that he +as (allin& aslee'. Fhen I (irst entered into com'anionshi' +ith him. I ha''ened one day to %e seated %e(ore him in the con&re&ational mos-ue. Accordin& to his custom. he (ell into a trance. I su''osed that he +as &oin& to slee'. and I said to him. ,I( you desire to rest (or a short time. you +ill not seem to me to %e (ar o((., 0e smiled and said. ,A''arently you do not %elieve that this is somethin& di((erent (rom slee'.,H The (ollo+in& anecdote 'resents &reater di((icultiesI H!a+lana 6iEamuddin Ahamush relates that one day his master. CAlaQuddin CAttar. started to visit the tom% o( the cele%rated saint !ohammed i%n CAli 0a)im. at Tirmidh. ,I did not accom'any him., said 6iEamuddin. ,%ut stayed at home. and %y concentratin& my mind 9ta+a44uh< I succeeded in %rin&in& the s'irituality o( the saint %e(ore me. so that +hen the master arrived at the tom% he (ound it em'ty. 0e must have )no+n the cause. (or on his return he set to +or) in order to %rin& me under his control. I. too. concentrated my mind. %ut I (ound mysel( li)e a dove and the master li)e a ha+) (lyin& in chase o( me. Fherever I turned. he +as al+ays close %ehind. At last. des'airin& o( esca'e. I too) re(u&e +ith the s'irituality o( the Pro'het 9on +hom %e 'eace< and %ecame e((aced in its in(inite radiance. The master could not e*ercise any (urther control. 0e (ell ill in conse-uence o( his cha&rin. and no one e*ce't mysel( )ne+ the reason.,H CAlaQuddin,s son. Ah+a4a 0asan CAttar. 'ossessed such 'o+ers o( ,control, that he could at +ill thro+ any one into the state o( trance and cause them to e*'erience the ,'assin&/a+ay, 9(ana< to +hich some mystics attain only on rare occasions and a(ter 'rolon&ed sel(/morti(ication. It is related that the disci'les and visitors +ho +ere admitted to the honour o( )issin& his hand al+ays (ell

unconscious to the &round. 8ertain saints are %elieved to have the 'o+er o( assumin& +hatever sha'e they 'lease. Bne o( the most (amous +as A%d CA%dallah o( !osul. %etter )no+n %y the name o( Gadi% al/$an. Bne day the 8adi o( !osul. +ho re&arded him as a detesta%le heretic. sa+ him in a street o( the to+n. a''roachin& (rom the o''osite direction. 0e resolved to seiEe him and lay a char&e a&ainst him %e(ore the &overnor. in order that he mi&ht %e 'unished. All at once he 'erceived that Gadi% al/$an had ta)en the (orm o( a Aurd5 and as the saint advanced to+ards him. his a''earance chan&ed a&ain. this time into an Ara% o( the desert. Kinally. on comin& still nearer. he assumed the &uise and dress o( a doctor o( theolo&y. and cried. HB 8adiL +hich Gadi% al/$an +ill you hale %e(ore the &overnor and 'unishMH The 8adi re'ented o( his hostility and %ecame one o( the saint,s disci'les. In conclusion. let me &ive t+o alle&ed instances o( ,the o%edience o( inanimate o%4ects., i.e. tele)inesisI HFhilst Dhu Ql/6un +as conversin& on this to'ic +ith some (riends. he said. ,0ere is a so(a. It +ill move round the room. i( I tell it to do so., 6o sooner had he uttered the +ord ,move, than the so(a made a circuit o( the room and returned to its 'lace. Bne o( the s'ectators. a youn& man. %urst into tears and &ave u' the &host. They laid him on that so(a and +ashed him (or %urial.H HAvicenna 'aid a visit to A%u Ql/0asan Ahur-ani and immediately 'lun&ed into a lon& and a%struse discussion. A(ter a time the saint. +ho +as an illiterate 'erson. (elt tired. so he &ot u' and said. ,E*cuse me5 I must &o and mend the &arden +all,5 and o(( he +ent. ta)in& a hatchet +ith him. As soon as he had clim%ed on to the to' o( the +all. the hatchet dro''ed (rom his hand. Avicenna ran to 'ic) it u'. %ut %e(ore he reached it the hatchet rose o( itsel( and came %ac) into the saint,s hand. Avicenna lost all his sel(/command. and the enthusiastic %elie( in u(ism +hich then too) 'ossession o( him continued until. at a later 'eriod o( his li(e. he a%andoned mysticism (or 'hiloso'hy.H I am +ell a+are that in this cha'ter scanty 4ustice has %een done to a &reat su%4ect. The historian o( u(ism must ac)no+led&e. ho+ever dee'ly he may de'lore. the (undamental 'osition occu'ied %y the doctrine o( saintshi' and the tremendous in(luence +hich it has e*erted in its 'ractical results// &rovellin& su%mission to the authority o( an ecstatic class o( men. de'endence on their (avour. 'il&rima&e to their shrines. adoration o( their relics. devotion o( every mental and s'iritual (aculty to their service. It may %e dan&erous to +orshi' God %y one,s o+n inner li&ht. %ut it is (ar more deadly to see) 0im %y the inner li&ht o( another. Nicarious holiness has no com'ensations. This truth is e*'ressed %y the mystical +riters in many an elo-uent 'assa&e. %ut I +ill content mysel( +ith -uotin& a (e+ lines (rom the li(e o( CAlaQuddin CAttar. the same saint +ho. as +e have seen. vainly tried to hy'notise his 'u'il in reven&e (or a disres'ect(ul tric) +hich the latter had 'layed on him. 0is %io&ra'her relates that he said. HIt is more ri&ht and +orthy to d+ell %eside God than to d+ell %eside God,s creatures.H and that the (ollo+in& verse +as o(ten on his %lessed ton&ueI H0o+ lon& +ill you +orshi' at the tom%s o( holy menM $usy yoursel( +ith the +or)s o( holy men. and you are savedLH 9Htu ta )ay &ur/i mardan/ra 'arasti %i/&ird/i )ar/i mardan &ard u rasti.H<

CHAPTER VI THE UNITIVE STATE HThe story admits o( %ein& told u' to this 'oint. $ut +hat (ollo+s is hidden. and ine*'ressi%le in +ords. I( you should s'ea) and try a hundred +ays to e*'ress it. ,Tis useless5 the mystery %ecomes no clearer. Oou can ride on saddle and horse to the sea/coast. $ut then you must use a horse o( +ood 9i.e. a %oat<. A horse o( +ood is useless on dry land. It is the s'ecial vehicle o( voya&ers %y sea. ilence is this horse o( +ood. ilence is the &uide and su''ort o( men at sea.H 2The !asnavi o( 7alaluddin 1umi. A%rid&ed translation %y E. 0. Fhin(ield. '.32".3 6o one can a''roach the su%4ect o( this cha'ter//the state o( the mystic +ho has reached his 4ourney,s end//+ithout (eelin& that all sym%olical descri'tions o( union +ith God and theories concernin& its nature are little %etter than lea's in the dar). 0o+ shall +e (orm any conce'tion o( that +hich is declared to %e ine((a%le %y those +ho have actually e*'erienced itM I can only re'ly that the same di((iculty con(ronts us in dealin& +ith all mystical 'henomena. thou&h it a''ears less (ormida%le at lo+er levels. and that the 'oet,s counsel o( silence has not 'revented him (rom inter'retin& the dee'est mysteries o( u(ism +ith unrivalled insi&ht and 'o+er. Fhatever terms may %e used to descri%e it. the unitive state is the culmination o( the sim'li(yin& 'rocess %y +hich the soul is &radually isolated (rom all that is (orei&n to itsel(. (rom all that is not God. #nli)e 6irvana. +hich is merely the cessation o( individuality. (ana. the 'assin&/a+ay o( the u(i (rom his 'henomenal e*istence. involves %a-a. the continuance o( his real e*istence. 0e +ho dies to sel( lives in God. and (ana. the consummation o( this death. mar)s the attainment o( %a-a. or union +ith the divine li(e. Dei(ication. in short. is the !oslem mystic,s ultima Thule. In the early 'art o( the tenth century 0usayn i%n !ansur. )no+n to (ame as al/0alla4 9the +ool/ carder<. +as %ar%arously done to death at $a&hdad. 0is e*ecution seems to have %een dictated %y 'olitical motives. %ut +ith these +e are not concerned. Amon&st the cro+d assem%led round the sca((old. a (e+. 'erha's. %elieved him to %e +hat he said he +as5 the rest +itnessed +ith e*ultation or stern a''roval the 'unishment o( a %las'hemous heretic. 0e had uttered in t+o +ords a sentence +hich Islam has. on the +hole. (or&iven %ut has never (or&ottenI HAna Ql/0a--H//HI am God.H The recently 'u%lished researches o( !. Louis !assi&non 2Aita% al/Ta+asin 9Paris. 1U13<. ee es'ecially ''. 12U/141.3 ma)e it 'ossi%le. (or the (irst time. to indicate the meanin& +hich 0alla4 himsel( attached to this cele%rated (ormula. and to assert de(initely that it does not a&ree +ith the more orthodo* inter'retations o((ered at a later e'och %y u(is %elon&in& to various schools. Accordin& to 0alla4. man is essentially divine. God created Adam in 0is o+n ima&e. 0e 'ro4ected (rom 0imsel( that ima&e o( 0is eternal love. that 0e mi&ht %ehold 0imsel( as in a mirror. 0ence 0e %ade the an&els +orshi' Adam 9Aor. 2.32<. in +hom. as in 7esus. 0e %ecame incarnate. HGlory to 0im +ho revealed in 0is humanity 9i.e. in Adam< the secret o( 0is radiant divinity. And then a''eared to 0is creatures visi%ly in the sha'e o( one +ho ate and dran) 97esus<.H

ince the ,humanity, 9nasut< o( God com'rises the +hole %odily and s'iritual nature o( man. the ,divinity, 9lahut< o( God cannot unite +ith that nature e*ce't %y means o( an incarnation or. to ado't the term em'loyed %y !assi&non. an in(usion 9hulul< o( the divine 'irit. such as ta)es 'lace +hen the human s'irit enters the %ody. 2!assi&non a''ears to %e ri&ht in identi(yin& the Divine 'irit +ith the Active 1eason 9intellectus a&ens<. +hich. accordin& to Ale*ander o( A'hrodisias. is not a 'art or (aculty o( our soul. %ut comes to us (rom +ithout. ee In&e. 8hristian !ysticism. ''. 3";. 3"1. The doctrine o( 0alla4 may %e com'ared +ith that o( Tauler. 1uys%roec). and others concernin& the %irth o( God in the soul.3 Thus 0alla4 says in one o( his 'oemsI HThy 'irit is min&led in my s'irit even as +ine is min&led +ith 'ure +ater. Fhen anythin& touches Thee. it touches me. Lo. in every case Thou art ILH And a&ainI HI am 0e +hom I love. and 0e +hom I love is II Fe are t+o s'irits d+ellin& in one %ody. I( thou seest me. thou seest 0im. And i( thou seest 0im. thou seest us %oth.H This doctrine o( 'ersonal dei(ication. in the 'eculiar (orm +hich +as im'ressed u'on it %y 0alla4. is o%viously a)in to the central doctrine o( 8hristianity. and there(ore. (rom the !oslem stand'oint. a heresy o( the +orst )ind. It survived unadulterated only amon&st his immediate (ollo+ers. The 0ululis. i.e. those +ho %elieve in incarnation. are re'udiated %y u(is in &eneral -uite as vehemently as %y orthodo* !oslems. $ut +hile the (ormer have unhesitatin&ly condemned the doctrine o( hulul. they have also done their %est to clear 0alla4 (rom the sus'icion o( havin& tau&ht it. Three main lines o( de(ence are (ollo+edI 91< 0alla4 did not sin a&ainst the Truth. %ut he +as 4ustly 'unished in so (ar as he committed a &rave o((ence a&ainst the La+. 0e H%etrayed the secret o( his LordH %y 'roclaimin& to all and sundry the su'reme mystery +hich ou&ht to %e reserved (or the elect. 92< 0alla4 s'o)e under the into*icatin& in(luence o( ecstasy. 0e ima&ined himsel( to %e united +ith the divine essence. +hen in (act he +as only united +ith one o( the divine attri%utes. 93< 0alla4 meant to declare that there is no essential di((erence or se'aration %et+een God and 0is creatures. inasmuch as the divine unity includes all %ein&. A man +ho has entirely 'assed a+ay (rom his 'henomenal sel( e*ists -uY his real sel(. +hich is God. HIn that &lory is no ,I, or ,Fe, or ,Thou., ,I., ,Fe., ,Thou., and ,0e, are all one thin&.H It +as not 0alla4 +ho cried HAna Ql/0a--.H %ut God 0imsel(. s'ea)in&. as it +ere. %y the mouth o( the sel(less 0alla4. 4ust as 0e s'o)e to !oses throu&h the medium o( the %urnin& %ush 9Aor. 2;.:/ 14<. The last e*'lanation. +hich converts Ana Ql/0a-- into an im'ersonal monistic a*iom. is acce'ted %y most u(is as re'resentin& the true 0alla4ian teachin&. In a ma&ni(icent ode 7alaluddin 1umi descri%es ho+ the Bne Li&ht shines in myriad (orms throu&h the +hole universe. and ho+ the Bne Essence. remainin& ever the same. clothes itsel( (rom a&e to a&e in the 'ro'hets and saints +ho are its +itnesses to man)ind. HEvery moment the ro%%er $eauty rises in a di((erent sha'e.

ravishes the soul. and disa''ears. Every instant that Loved Bne assumes a ne+ &arment. no+ o( eld. no+ o( youth. 6o+ 0e 'lun&ed into the heart o( the su%stance o( the 'otter,s clay//the 'irit 'lun&ed. li)e a diver. Anon 0e rose (rom the de'ths o( mud that is moulded and %a)ed. then 0e a''eared in the +orld. 0e %ecame 6oah. and at 0is 'rayer the +orld +as (looded +hile 0e +ent into the Ar). 0e %ecame A%raham and a''eared in the midst o( the (ire. +hich turned to roses (or 0is sa)e. Kor a +hile 0e +as roamin& on the earth to 'leasure 0imsel(. Then 0e %ecame 7esus and ascended to the dome o( 0eaven and %e&an to &lori(y God. In %rie(. it +as 0e that +as comin& and &oin& in every &eneration thou hast seen. #ntil at last 0e a''eared in the (orm o( an Ara% and &ained the em'ire o( the +orld. Fhat is it that is trans(erredM Fhat is transmi&ration in realityM The lovely +inner o( hearts $ecame a s+ord and a''eared in the hand o( CAli and %ecame the layer o( the time. 6oL noL (or ,t+as even 0e that +as cryin& in human sha'e. ,Ana Ql/0a--., That one +ho mounted the sca((old +as not !ansur 20alla4 is o(ten called !ansur. +hich is 'ro'erly the name o( his (ather.3. thou&h the (oolish ima&ined it. 1umi hath not s'o)en and +ill not s'ea) +ords o( in(idelityI do not dis%elieve himL Fhosoever sho+s dis%elie( is an in(idel and one o( those +ho have %een doomed to 0ell.H Althou&h in Festern and 8entral Asia//+here the Persian )in&s +ere re&arded %y their su%4ects as &ods. and +here the doctrines o( incarnation. anthro'omor'hism. and metem'sychosis are indi&enous//the idea o( the God/man +as neither so un(amiliar nor unnatural as to shoc) the 'u%lic conscience very 'ro(oundly. 0alla4 had (ormulated that idea in such a +ay that no mysticism callin& itsel( !ohammedan could tolerate. much less ado't it. To assert that the divine and human natures may %e inter(used and commin&led 20ulul +as not understood in this sense %y 0alla4 9!assi&non. o'. cit.. '. 1UU<. thou&h the verses -uoted on '. 151 readily su&&est such an inter'retation. 0alla4. I thin). +ould have a&reed +ith Ec)hart 9+ho said. HThe +ord I am none can truly s'ea) %ut God aloneH< that the 'ersonality in +hich the Eternal is immanent has itsel( a 'art in eternity 9In&e. 8hristian !ysticism. '. 14U. note<.3. +ould have %een to deny the 'rinci'le o( unity on +hich Islam is %ased. The su%se-uent history o( u(ism sho+s ho+ dei(ication +as identi(ied +ith uni(ication. The antithesis//God. !an//melted a+ay in the 'antheistic theory +hich has %een e*'lained a%ove 2see ''. TU ((.3. There is no real e*istence a'art (rom God. !an is an emanation or a re(le*ion or a mode o( A%solute $ein&. Fhat he thin)s o( as individuality is in truth not/%ein&5 it cannot %e se'arated or united. (or it does not e*ist. !an is God. yet +ith a di((erence. Accordin& to I%n al/CAra%i 2!assi&non. o'. cit.. '. 1:3.3 the eternal and the 'henomenal are t+o com'lementary as'ects o( the Bne. each o( +hich is necessary to the other. The creatures are the e*ternal mani(estation o( the 8reator. and !an is God,s consciousness 9sirr< as revealed in creation. $ut since !an. o+in& to the limitations o( his mind. cannot thin) all o%4ects o( thou&ht simultaneously. and there(ore e*'resses only a 'art o( the divine consciousness. he is not entitled to say Ana Ql/

0a--. HI am God.H 0e is a reality. %ut not the 1eality. Fe shall see that other u(is//7alaluddin 1umi. (or e*am'le//in their ecstatic moments. at any rate. i&nore this rather su%tle distinction. The statement that in realisin& the non/entity o( his individual sel( the u(i realises his essential oneness +ith God. sums u' the !ohammedan theory o( dei(ication in terms +ith +hich my readers are no+ (amiliar. I +ill endeavour to sho+ +hat more 'recise meanin& may %e assi&ned to it. 'artly in my o+n +ords and 'artly %y means o( illustrative e*tracts (rom various authors. everal as'ects o( (ana have already %een distin&uished 2 ee ''. ";. "1.3. The hi&hest o( these//the 'assin&/a+ay in the divine essence//is (ully descri%ed %y 6i((ari. +ho em'loys instead o( (ana and (ani 9sel(/nau&hted< the terms +a-(at. si&ni(yin& cessation (rom search. and +a-i(. i.e. one +ho desists (rom see)in& and 'asses a+ay in the B%4ect ou&ht. 0ere are some o( the chie( 'oints that occur in the te*t and commentary. Fa-(at is luminousI it e*'els the dar) thou&hts o( ,otherness., 4ust as li&ht %anishes dar)ness5 it chan&es the 'henomenal values o( all e*istent thin&s into their real and eternal values. 0ence the +a-i( transcends time and 'lace. H0e enters every house and it contains him not5 he drin)s (rom every +ell %ut is not satis(ied5 then he reaches !e. and I am his home. and his a%ode is +ith !eH//that is to say. he com'rehends all the divine attri%utes and em%races all mystical e*'eriences. 0e is not satis(ied +ith the names 9attri%utes<. %ut see)s the 6amed. 0e contem'lates the essence o( God and (inds it identical +ith his o+n. 0e does not 'ray. Prayer is (rom man to God. %ut in +a-(at there is nothin& %ut God. The +a-i( leaves not a rac) %ehind him. nor any heir e*ce't God. Fhen even the 'henomenon o( +a-(at has disa''eared (rom his consciousness. he %ecomes the very Li&ht. Then his 'raise o( God 'roceeds (rom God. and his )no+led&e is God,s )no+led&e. +ho %eholds 0imsel( alone as 0e +as in the %e&innin&. Fe need not e*'ect to discover ho+ this essentialisation. su%stitution. or transmutation is e((ected. It is the &rand 'arado* o( u(ism//the !a&num B'us +rou&ht someho+ in created man %y a $ein& +hose nature is eternally devoid o( the least taint o( creatureliness. As I have remar)ed a%ove. the chan&e. ho+ever it may %e conceived. does not involve in(usion o( the divine essence 9hulul< or identi(ication o( the divine and human natures 9ittihad<. $oth these doctrines are &enerally condemned. A%u 6asr al/ arra4 criticises them in t+o 'assa&es o( his Aita% al/LumaC. as (ollo+sI H ome mystics o( $a&hdad have erred in their doctrine that +hen they 'ass a+ay (rom their -ualities they enter into the -ualities o( God. This leads to incarnation 9hulul< or to the 8hristian %elie( concernin& 7esus. The doctrine in -uestion has %een attri%uted to some o( the ancients. %ut its true meanin& is this. that +hen a man &oes (orth (rom his o+n -ualities and enters into the -ualities o( God. he &oes (orth (rom his o+n +ill and enters into the +ill o( God. )no+in& that his +ill is &iven to him %y God and that %y virtue o( this &i(t he is severed (rom re&ardin& himsel(. so that he %ecomes entirely devoted to God5 and this is one o( the sta&es o( #nitarians. Those +ho have erred in this doctrine have (ailed to o%serve that the -ualities o( God are not God. To ma)e God identical +ith 0is -ualities is to %e &uilty o( in(idelity. %ecause God does not descend into the heart. %ut that +hich descends into the heart is (aith in God and %elie( in 0is unity and reverence (or the thou&ht o( 0im.H In the second 'assa&e he ma)es use o( a similar ar&ument in order to re(ute the doctrine o( ittihad. H ome have a%stained (rom (ood and drin). (ancyin& that +hen a man,s %ody is +ea)ened it is 'ossi%le that he may lose his humanity and %e invested +ith the attri%utes o( divinity. The i&norant

'ersons +ho hold this erroneous doctrine cannot distin&uish %et+een humanity and the in%orn -ualities o( humanity. 0umanity does not de'art (rom man any more than %lac)ness de'arts (rom that +hich is %lac) or +hiteness (rom that +hich is +hite. %ut the in%orn -ualities o( humanity are chan&ed and transmuted %y the all/'o+er(ul radiance that is shed u'on them (rom the divine 1ealities. The attri%utes o( humanity are not the essence o( humanity. Those +ho inculcate the doctrine o( (ana mean the 'assin&/a+ay o( re&ardin& one,s o+n actions and +or)s o( devotion throu&h the continuance o( re&ardin& God as the doer o( these actions on %ehal( o( 0is servant.H 0u4+iri characterises as a%surd the %elie( that 'assin&/a+ay 9(ana< si&ni(ies loss o( essence and destruction o( cor'oreal su%stance. and that ,a%idin&, 9%a-a< indicates the ind+ellin& o( God in man. 1eal 'assin&/a+ay (rom anythin&. he says. im'lies consciousness o( its im'er(ection and a%sence o( desire (or it. Fhoever 'asses a+ay (rom his o+n 'erisha%le +ill a%ides in the everlastin& +ill o( God. %ut human attri%utes cannot %ecome divine attri%utes or vice versa. HThe 'o+er o( (ire trans(orms to its o+n -uality anythin& that (alls into it. and surely the 'o+er o( God,s +ill is &reater than that o( (ire5 yet (ire a((ects only the -uality o( iron +ithout chan&in& its su%stance. (or iron can never %ecome (ire.H In another 'art o( his +or) 0u4+iri de(ines ,union, 94amC< as concentration o( thou&ht u'on the desired o%4ect. Thus !a4nun. the Brlando Kurioso o( Islam. concentrated his thou&hts on Layla. so that he sa+ only her in the +hole +orld. and all created thin&s assumed the (orm o( Layla in his eyes. ome one came to the cell o( $ayaEid and as)ed. HIs $ayaEid hereMH 0e ans+ered. HIs any one here %ut GodMH The 'rinci'le in all such cases. 0u4+iri adds. is the same. namelyI HThat God divides the one su%stance o( 0is love and %esto+s a 'article thereo(. as a 'eculiar &i(t. u'on every one o( 0is (riends in 'ro'ortion to their enravishment +ith 0im5 then he lets do+n u'on that 'article the shrouds o( (leshliness and human nature and tem'erament and s'irit. in order that %y its 'o+er(ul +or)in& it may transmute to its o+n -uality all the 'articles that are attached to it. until the lover,s clay is +holly converted into love and all his acts and loo)s %ecome so many 'ro'erties o( love. This state is named ,union, ali)e %y those +ho re&ard the in+ard sense and the out+ard e*'ression.H Then he -uotes these verses o( 0alla4I HThy +ill %e done. B my Lord and !asterL Thy +ill %e done. B my 'ur'ose and meanin&L B essence o( my %ein&. B &oal o( my desire. B my s'eech and my hints and my &esturesL B all o( my all. B my hearin& and my si&ht. B my +hole and my element and my 'articlesLH The enra'tured u(i +ho has 'assed %eyond the illusion o( su%4ect and o%4ect and %ro)en throu&h to the Bneness can either deny that he is anythin& or a((irm that he is all thin&s. As an e*am'le o( ,the ne&ative +ay., ta)e the o'enin& lines o( an ode %y 7alaluddin +hich I have rendered into verse. imitatin& the metrical (orm o( the Persian as closely as the &enius o( our lan&ua&e +ill 'ermitI HLo. (or I to mysel( am un)no+n. no+ in God,s name +hat must I doM I adore not the 8ross nor the 8rescent. I am not a Giaour nor a 7e+. East nor Fest. land nor sea is my home. I have )in nor +ith an&el nor &nome. I am +rou&ht not o( (ire nor o( (oam. I am sha'ed not o( dust nor o( de+. I +as %orn not in 8hina a(ar. not in a-sin and not in $ul&har5

6ot in India. +here (ive rivers are. nor CIra- nor Ahorasan I &re+. 6ot in this +orld nor that +orld I d+ell. not in Paradise. neither in 0ell5 6ot (rom Eden and 1iE+an I (ell. not (rom Adam my linea&e I dre+. In a 'lace %eyond uttermost Place. in a tract +ithout shado+ o( trace. oul and %ody transcendin& I live in the soul o( my Loved Bne ane+LH The (ollo+in& 'oem. also %y 7alaluddin. e*'resses the 'ositive as'ect o( the cosmic consciousnessI HI( there %e any lover in the +orld. B !oslems. ,tis I. I( there %e any %eliever. in(idel. or 8hristian hermit. ,tis I. The +ine/dre&s. the cu'%earer. the minstrel. the har'. and the music. The %eloved. the candle. the drin) and the 4oy o( the drun)en//,tis I. The t+o/and/seventy creeds and sects in the +orld Do not really e*istI I s+ear %y God that every creed and sect//,tis I. Earth and air and +ater and (ire//)no+est thou +hat they areM Earth and air and +ater and (ire. nay. %ody and soul too//,tis I. Truth and (alsehood. &ood and evil. ease and di((iculty (rom (irst to last. Ano+led&e and learnin& and asceticism and 'iety and (aith//,tis I. The (ire o( 0ell. %e assured. +ith its (lamin& lim%os. Oes. and Paradise and Eden and the 0ouris//,tis I. This earth and heaven +ith all that they hold. An&els. Peris. Genies. and !an)ind//,tis I.H Fhat 7alaluddin utters in a moment o( ecstatic vision 0enry !ore descri%es as a 'ast e*'erienceI H0o+ lovelyH 9he says<. Hho+ ma&ni(icent a state is the soul o( man in. +hen the li(e o( God inactuatin& her shoots her alon& +ith 0imsel( throu&h heaven and earth5 ma)es her unite +ith. and a(ter a sort (eel hersel( animate. the +hole +orld. 0e that is here loo)s u'on all thin&s as Bne. and on himsel(. i( he can then mind himsel(. as a 'art o( the Fhole.H Kor some u(is. a%sor'tion in the ecstasy o( (ana is the end o( their 'il&rima&e. Thence(orth no relation e*ists %et+een them and the +orld. 6othin& o( themselves is le(t in them5 as individuals. they are dead. Immersed in #nity. they )no+ neither la+ nor reli&ion nor any (orm o( 'henomenal %ein&. $ut those God/into*icated devotees +ho never return to so%riety have (allen short o( the hi&hest 'er(ection. The (ull circle o( dei(ication must com'rehend %oth the in+ard and out+ard as'ects o( Deity//the Bne and the !any. the Truth and the La+. It is not enou&h to esca'e (rom all that is creaturely. +ithout enterin& into the eternal li(e o( God the 8reator as mani(ested in 0is +or)s. To a%ide in God 9%a-a< a(ter havin& 'assed/a+ay (rom sel(hood 9(ana< is the mar) o( the Per(ect !an. +ho not only 4ourneys to God. i.e. 'asses (rom 'lurality to unity. %ut in and +ith God. i.e. continuin& in the unitive state. he returns +ith God to the 'henomenal +orld (rom +hich he set out. and mani(ests unity in 'lurality. In this descent H0e ma)es the La+ his u''er &arment And the mystic Path his inner &arment.H (or he %rin&s do+n and dis'lays the Truth to man)ind +hile (ul(illin& the duties o( the reli&ious la+. B( him it may %e said. in the +ords o( a &reat 8hristian mysticI H0e &oes to+ards God %y in+ard love. in eternal +or). and he &oes in God %y his (ruitive inclination. in eternal rest. And he d+ells in God5 and yet he &oes out to+ards created thin&s

in a s'irit o( love to+ards all thin&s. in the virtues and in +or)s o( ri&hteousness. And this is the most e*alted summit o( the inner li(e.H 21uys%roec). -uoted in E. #nderhill,s Introduction to !ysticism. '. 522.3 CA(i(uddin Tilimsani. in his commentary on 6i((ari. descri%es (our mystical 4ourneysI The (irst %e&ins +ith &nosis and ends +ith com'lete 'assin&/a+ay 9(ana<. The second %e&ins at the moment +hen 'assin&/a+ay is succeeded %y ,a%idin&, 9%a-a<. 0e +ho has attained to this station 4ourneys in the 1eal. %y the 1eal. to the 1eal. and he then is a reality 9ha--< 2 ee '. 155 a%ove.3. Thus travellin& on+ard. he arrives at the station o( the Gut% 2 ee '. 123.3. +hich is the station o( Per(ect !anhood. 0e %ecomes the centre o( the s'iritual universe. so that every 'oint and limit reached %y individual human %ein&s is e-ually distant (rom his station. +hether they %e near or (ar5 since all stations revolve round his. and in relation to the Gut% there is no di((erence %et+een nearness and (arness. To one +ho has &ained this su'reme 'osition. )no+led&e and &nosis and 'assin&/a+ay are as rivers o( his ocean. +here%y he re'lenishes +homsoever he +ill. 0e has the ri&ht to &uide others to God. and see)s 'ermission to do so (rom none %ut himsel(. $e(ore the &ate o( A'ostleshi' +as closed 2I.e. %e(ore the time o( !ohammed. +ho is the eal o( the Pro'hets.3. he +ould have deserved the title o( A'ostle. %ut in our day his due title is Director o( ouls. and he is a %lessin& to those +ho invo)e his aid. %ecause he com'rehends the innate ca'acities o( all man)ind and. li)e a camel/driver. s'eeds everyone to his home. In the third 4ourney this Per(ect !an turns his attention to God,s creatures. either as an A'ostle or as a 'iritual Director 9 hey)h<. and reveals himsel( to those +ho +ould (ain %e released (rom their (aculties. to each accordin& to his de&reeI to the adherent o( 'ositive reli&ion as a theolo&ian5 to the contem'lative. +ho has not yet en4oyed (ull contem'lation. as a &nostic5 to the &nostic as one +ho has entirely 'assed/a+ay (rom individuality 9+a-i(<5 to the +a-i( as a Gut%. 0e is the horiEon o( every mystical station and transcends the (urthest ran&e o( e*'erience )no+n to each &rade o( see)ers. The (ourth 4ourney is usually associated +ith 'hysical death. The Pro'het +as re(errin& to it +hen he cried on his death%ed. HI choose the hi&hest com'anions.H In this 4ourney. to 4ud&e (rom the o%scure verses in +hich CA(i(uddin descri%es it. the Per(ect !an. havin& %een invested +ith all the divine attri%utes. %ecomes. so to s'ea). the mirror +hich dis'lays God to 0imsel(. HFhen my $eloved a''ears. Fith +hat eye do I see 0imM HFith 0is eye. not +ith mine. Kor none sees 0im e*ce't 0imsel(.H 9I$6 AL/CA1A$I.< The li&ht in the soul. the eye %y +hich it sees. and the o%4ect o( its vision. all are Bne. Fe have (ollo+ed the u(i in his -uest o( 1eality to a 'oint +here lan&ua&e (ails. 0is 'ro&ress +ill seldom %e so smooth and un%ro)en as it a''ears in these 'a&es. The 'rover%ial headache a(ter into*ication su''lies a 'arallel to the 'eriods o( intense aridity and acute su((erin& that sometimes (ill the interval %et+een lo+er and hi&her states o( ecstasy. Descri'tions o( this e*'erience//the Dar) 6i&ht o( the oul. as it is called %y 8hristian authors//may %e (ound in almost any %io&ra'hy o( !ohammedan saints. Thus 7ami relates in his 6a(ahat al/#ns that a certain dervish. a disci'le o( the (amous hiha%uddin uhra+ardi.

HFas endo+ed +ith a &reat ecstasy in the contem'lation o( #nity and in the station o( 'assin&/a+ay 9(ana<. Bne day he %e&an to +ee' and lament. Bn %ein& as)ed %y the hey)h hiha%uddin +hat ailed him. he ans+ered. ,Lo. I am de%arred %y 'lurality (rom the vision o( #nity. I am re4ected. and my (ormer state//I cannot (ind itL, The hey)h remar)ed that this +as the 'relude to the station o( ,a%idin&, 9%a-a<. and that his 'resent state +as hi&her and more su%lime than the one +hich he +as in %e(ore.H Does 'ersonality survive in the ultimate union +ith GodM I( 'ersonality means a conscious e*istence distinct. thou&h not se'arate. (rom God. the ma4ority o( advanced !oslem mystics say H6oLH As the rain/dro' a%sor%ed in the ocean is not annihilated %ut ceases to e*ist individually. so the disem%odied soul %ecomes indistin&uisha%le (rom the universal Deity. It is true that +hen u(i +riters translate mystical union into terms o( love and marria&e. they do not. indeed they cannot. e*'un&e the notion o( 'ersonality. %ut such meta'horical 'hrases are not necessarily inconsistent +ith a 'antheism +hich e*cludes all di((erence. To %e united. here and no+. +ith the Forld/ oul is the utmost ima&ina%le %liss (or souls that love each other on earth. H0a''y the moment +hen +e are seated in the Palace. thou and I. Fith t+o (orms and +ith t+o (i&ures %ut +ith one soul. thou and I. The colours o( the &rove and the voice o( the %irds +ill %esto+ immortality At the time +hen +e come into the &arden. thou and I. The stars o( heaven +ill come to &aEe u'on us5 Fe shall sho+ them the !oon itsel(. thou and I. Thou and I. individuals no more. shall %e min&led in ecstasy. 7oy(ul and secure (rom (oolish %a%%le. thou and I. All the %ri&ht/'lumed %irds o( heaven +ill devour their hearts +ith envy In the 'lace +here +e shall lau&h in such a (ashion. thou and I. This is the &reatest +onder. that thou and I. sittin& here in the same noo). Are at this moment %oth in CIra- and Ahorasan. thou and I.H 97ALAL#DDI6 1#!I.< tran&e as it may seem to our Festern e&oism. the 'ros'ect o( sharin& in the &eneral. im'ersonal immortality o( the human soul )indles in the u(i an enthusiasm as dee' and trium'hant as that o( the most ardent %eliever in a 'ersonal li(e continuin& %eyond the &rave. 7alaluddin. a(ter descri%in& the evolution o( man in the material +orld and antici'atin& his (urther &ro+th in the s'iritual universe. utters a heart(elt 'rayer//(or +hatM//(or sel(/annihilation in the ocean o( the Godhead. HI died as mineral and %ecame a 'lant. I died as 'lant and rose to animal. I died as animal and I +as man. Fhy should I (earM Fhen +as I less %y dyin&M Oet once more I shall die as man. to soar Fith an&els %lest5 %ut even (rom an&elhood I must 'ass onI all e*ce't God doth 'erish. Fhen I have sacri(iced my an&el soul. I shall %ecome +hat no mind e,er conceived. Bh. let me not e*istL (or 6on/e*istence Proclaims in or&an tones. ,To 0im +e shall return.,H

BIBLIOGRAPHY A. GE6E1AL T0BL#8A. K. A. G.. su(ismus sive Theoso'hia Persarum 'antheistica 9$erlin. 1:21<. In Latin. But o( date in some res'ects. %ut still +orth readin&. PAL!E1. E. 0.. Briental !ysticism 98am%rid&e. 1:"T<. A treatise on Persian theoso'hy. %ased on a +or) %y 6asa(i. NB6 A1E!E1. A.. Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams 9Lei'Ei&. 1:":<. ''. 52/121. A %rilliant s)etch o( the ori&in and develo'ment o( u(ism. GBLDRI0E1. I.. Norlesun&en S%er den Islam 90eidel%er&. 1U1;<. ''. 13U/2;;. An account o( u(i asceticism and mysticism %y the &reatest livin& authority on Islam. GBLDRI0E1. I.. !uhammedanische tudien 90alle. 1:::/U;<. Part ii.. ''. 2TT/3T:. Gives (ull details concernin& the +orshi' o( !oslem saints. !A8DB6ALD. D. $.. The 1eli&ious Li(e and Attitude in Islam 98hica&o. 1U;U<. A valua%le introduction to the study o( the moderate ty'e o( u(ism re'resented %y 2'. 1T;3 GhaEali. The cha'ters on 'sycholo&y are 'articularly hel'(ul. IG$AL. 0AIA0 !#0A!!AD. The Develo'ment o( !eta'hysics in Persia 9London. 1U;:<. ''. U". GI$$. E. 7. F.. 0istory o( Tur)ish Poetry 9London. 1U;;/1U;U<. vol. i. ''. 15/"U. Butlines o( Persian 'hiloso'hic mysticism. $1BF6E. E. G.. Literary 0istory o( Persia 9London. 1U;2<. vol. i. ''. 41"/444. $1BF6. 7. P .. The Dervishes. or Briental 'iritualism 9London. 1:":<. #nscienti(ic. %ut contains much interestin& material. DEPB6T. B.. and 8BPPBLA6I. \.. Les 8on(rZries reli&ieuses musulmanes 9Al&iers. 1:UT<. A standard +or) on the Dervish Brders.

$. T1A6 LATIB6 0#7FI1I. Aash( al/!ah4u%. translated %y 1. A. 6icholson 9London. 1U11<. The oldest Persian treatise on u(ism. CATTA1. Le !anticu Qttair ou le Lan&a&e des Bisea*. translated. +ith an essay on the 'hiloso'hical and reli&ious 'oetry o( Persia. %y Garcin de Tassy 9Paris. 1:"4<. 7ALAL#DDI6 1#!I. !asnavi. a%rid&ed translation %y E. 0. Fhin(ield. 2nd ed. 9London. 1:U:<. !asnavi. $oo) i.. translated %y ir 7ames 1edhouse 9London. 1::1<. !asnavi. $oo) ii.. translated +ith commentary %y 8. E. Filson 9London. 1U1;<. 2'. 1T13 elected Bdes (rom the Divani hamsi Ta%riE. Persian te*t +ith En&lish translation. introduction. and notes %y 1. A. 6icholson 98am%rid&e. 1:U:<. !A0!#D 0A$I TA1I. Gulshani 1aE. Persian te*t +ith En&lish translation. introduction. and notes %y E. 0. Fhin(ield 9London. 1::;<. A versi(ied e*'osition o( the chie( u(i doctrines. It should %e read %y everyone +ho is seriously interested in the su%4ect. 7A!I. La+aQih. Persian te*t +ith translation %y E. 0. Fhin(ield and !irEa !uhammad AaEvini 9London. 1U;"<. A 'rose treatise on u(i theoso'hy. Ousu( and Rulai)ha. translated into verse %y 1.. T. 0. Gri((ith 9London. 1::2<. Bne o( the most (amous mystical love/romances in Persian literature. I$6 AL/CA1A$I. Tar4uman al/Ash+a-. a collection o( mystical odes. Ara%ic te*t +ith translation and commentary %y 1. A. 6icholson 9London. 1U11<.

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