Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

Introduction to Merger & Acquisition
INTRODUCTION
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

We have been learning about the companies coming together to form another company and companies taking over the existing companies to expand their business.
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

With recession the feeling of insecurity surging over businessmen, it is not surprising when we hear about the immense numbers of corporate restructurings taking place, especially in the last couple of years. Several companies have been taken over and several have undergone internal restructuring, whereas certain
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

companies in the same field of business have found it beneficial to merge together into one company. In this context, it would be essential for us to understand what corporate restructuring and mergers and acquisitions are all about.
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

All our daily newspapers are filled with cases of mergers, acquisitions, spinoffs, tender offers, & other forms of corporate restructuring. Thus important issues both for business decision and public policy formulation have been raised. No firm is regarded safe from a takeover possibility. On the more positive side Mergers &
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

Acquisitions may be critical for the healthy expansion and growth of the firm. Successful entry into new product and geographical markets may require Mergers & Acquisitions at some stage in the firm's development. Successful competition in international markets may depend on capabilities obtained in a timely and efficient
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

fashion through Mergers & Acquisitions. Many have argued that mergers increase value and efficiency and move resources to their highest and best uses, thereby increasing shareholder value.
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

To opt for a merger or not is a complex affair, especially in terms of the technicalities involved. We have discussed almost all factors that the management may have to look into before going for merger. Considerable amount of brainstorming would be required by the managements to reach a conclusion. e.g. a
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

due diligence report would clearly identify the status of the company in respect of the financial position along with the net worth and pending legal matters and details about various contingent liabilities. Decision has to be taken after having discussed the pros & cons of the proposed merger & the impact of the same on the
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

business, administrative costs benefits, addition to shareholders' value, tax implications including stamp duty and last but not the least also on the employees of the Transferor or Transferee Company.
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Merger:
Merger is defined as combination of two or more companies into a single company where one survives and the others lose their corporate existence. The
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survivor acquires all the assets as well as liabilities of the merged company or companies. Generally, the surviving company is the buyer, which retains its identity, and the extinguished company is the seller.
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Merger is also defined as amalgamation. Merger is the fusion of two or more existing companies. All assets, liabilities and the stock of one company stand transferred to Transferee Company in consideration of payment in the form of:
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Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

• Equity shares in the transferee company, • Debentures in the transferee company, • Cash, or
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• A mix of the above modes.

Types of mergers:-

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Merger or acquisition depends upon the purpose of the offeror company it wants to achieve. Based on the offerors’ objectives profile, combinations could be vertical, horizontal, circular and conglomeratic as precisely described below with reference to the purpose in view of the offeror company.
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(A) Vertical combination:
A company would like to takeover another company or seek its merger with that company to expand espousing backward integration to assimilate the resources of
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supply and forward integration towards market outlets. The acquiring company through merger of another unit attempts on reduction of inventories of raw material and finished goods, implements its production plans as per the objectives and economizes on working capital investments. In other words, in vertical
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combinations, the merging undertaking would be either a supplier or a buyer using its product as intermediary material for final production.

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The following main benefits accrue from the vertical combination to the acquirer company i.e.

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(1) it gains a strong position because of imperfect market of the intermediary products, scarcity of resources and purchased products;
(2) Has 21 | 2 0

control over products specifications.

Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

(B) Horizontal combination:
It is a merger of two competing firms which are at the same stage of industrial process. The acquiring firm belongs to the same industry as the target company.
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The mail purpose of such mergers is to obtain economies of scale in production by eliminating duplication of facilities and the operations and broadening the product line, reduction in investment in working capital, elimination in competition
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concentration in product, reduction in advertising costs, increase in market segments and exercise better control on market.

(C) Circular combination:
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Companies producing distinct products seek amalgamation to share common distribution and research facilities to obtain economies by elimination of cost on duplication and promoting market enlargement. The acquiring company obtains benefits in the form of economies of resource sharing and diversification.
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(D) Conglomerate combination:
It is amalgamation of two companies engaged in unrelated industries like DCM and Modi Industries. The basic purpose of such amalgamations remains utilization
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of financial resources and enlarges debt capacity through re-organizing their financial structure so as to service the shareholders by increased leveraging and EPS, lowering average cost of capital and thereby raising present worth of the outstanding shares. Merger enhances the overall stability of the acquirer company
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and creates balance in the company’s total portfolio of diverse products and production processes.

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Acquisition:

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Acquisition in general sense is acquiring the ownership in the property. In the context of business combinations, an acquisition is the purchase by one company of a controlling interest in the share capital of another existing company.
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Types of Acquisition: Acquisition can be of 2 types:-

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1). Friendly Acquisition: It occurs when the target firm expresses its agreement to be acquired.

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2). Hostile Acquisition: In this the acquiring firm needs to actively purchase large stack of the target company in order to have a majority stake.

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In either of the above cases the acquiring company generally offers a premium on the market price of the target company shares in order to attract shareholders to sell their shares.
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An acquisition may be affected by:

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(a) agreement with the persons holding majority interest in the company management like members of the board or major shareholders commanding majority of voting power;
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(b) purchase of shares in open market; (c) to make takeover offer to the general body of shareholders; (d) purchase of new shares by private treaty;
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(e) Acquisition of share capital through the following forms of considerations viz. means of cash, issuance of loan capital, or insurance of share capital.

Purpose of Mergers and Acquisition:38 | 2 0

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The purpose for an offeror company for acquiring another company shall be reflected in the corporate objectives. It has to decide the specific objectives to be achieved through acquisition. The basic purpose of merger or business
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combination is to achieve faster growth of the corporate business. Faster growth may be had through product improvement and competitive position. Other possible purposes for acquisition are short listed below: 40 | 2 0

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(1) Procurement of supplies: 1. to safeguard the source of supplies of raw materials or intermediary product;

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2. to obtain economies of purchase in the form of discount, savings in transportation costs, overhead costs in buying department, etc.;
3.

To share the benefits of suppliers economies by standardizing the materials.

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(2) Revamping production facilities: 1. to achieve economies of scale by amalgamating production facilities through more intensive utilization of plant and resources;
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2. to standardize product specifications, improvement of quality of product, expanding

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3. market and aiming at consumers satisfaction through strengthening after sale 4. services;
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5. to obtain improved production technology and know-how from the offeree company

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6. to reduce cost, improve quality and produce competitive products to retain and
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Improve market share.

Mergers And Acquisitions- A specific case on satyam computers

(3) Market expansion and strategy: 1. to eliminate competition and protect existing market; 2. to obtain a new market outlets in possession of the offeree;
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3. to obtain new product for diversification or substitution of existing products and to enhance the product range; 4. strengthening retain outlets and sale the goods to rationalize distribution;
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5. to reduce advertising cost and improve public image of the offeree company;
6.

Strategic control of patents and copyrights.

(4) Financial strength:
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1. to improve liquidity and have direct access to cash resource; 2. to dispose of surplus and outdated assets for cash out of combined enterprise;
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3. to enhance gearing capacity, borrow on better strength and the greater assets backing; 4. to avail tax benefits;
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5.

To improve EPS (Earning per Share).

(5) General gains:
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1. to improve its own image and attract superior managerial talents to manage its affairs;
2.

To offer better satisfaction to consumers or users of the product.

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(6) Own developmental plans: The purpose of acquisition is backed by the offeror company’s own developmental plans.
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A company thinks in terms of acquiring the other company only when it has arrived at its own development plan to expand its operation having examined its own internal strength where it might not have any problem of taxation, accounting, valuation, etc. but might feel resource constraints with limitations of funds and
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lack of skill managerial personnel’s. It has to aim at suitable combination where it could have opportunities to supplement its funds by issuance of securities, secure additional financial facilities, eliminate competition and strengthen its market position.
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(7) Strategic purpose: The Acquirer Company view the merger to achieve strategic objectives through alternative type of combinations which may be horizontal, vertical, product
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expansion, market extensional or other specified unrelated objectives depending upon the corporate strategies. Thus, various types of combinations distinct with each other in nature are adopted to pursue this objective like vertical or horizontal combination.
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(8) Corporate friendliness: Although it is rare but it is true that business houses exhibit degrees of cooperative spirit despite competitiveness in providing rescues to each other from hostile
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takeovers and cultivate situations of collaborations sharing goodwill of each other to achieve performance heights through business combinations. The combining corporate aim at circular combinations by pursuing this objective.
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(9) Desired level of integration: Mergers and acquisition are pursued to obtain the desired level of integration between the two combining business houses. Such integration could be operational
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or financial. This gives birth to conglomerate combinations. The purpose and the requirements of the offeror company go a long way in selecting a suitable partner for merger or acquisition in business combinations.
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Advantages of Mergers and Acquisitions:-

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Mergers and takeovers are permanent form of combinations which vest in management complete control and provide centralized administration which are not available in combinations of holding company and its partly owned subsidiary. Shareholders in the selling company gain from the merger and takeovers as the
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premium offered to induce acceptance of the merger or takeover offers much more price than the book value of shares. Shareholders in the buying company gain in the long run with the growth of the company not only due to synergy but also due to “boots trapping earnings”.
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Motivations for mergers and acquisitions Mergers and acquisitions are caused with the support of shareholders, manager’s ad promoters of the combing companies. The factors, which motivate
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the shareholders and managers to lend support to these combinations and the resultant consequences they have to bear, are briefly noted below based on the research work by various scholars globally.
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(1) From the standpoint of shareholders Investment made by shareholders in the companies subject to merger should enhance in value. The sale of shares from one company’s shareholders to
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another and holding investment in shares should give rise to greater values i.e. the opportunity gains in alternative investments. Shareholders may gain from merger in different ways viz. from the gains and achievements of the company i.e. through
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(a) realization of monopoly profits; (b) economies of scales; (c) diversification of product line;
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(d) acquisition of human assets and other resources not available otherwise;
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investment opportunity in combinations.

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One or more features would generally be available in each merger where shareholders may have attraction and favour merger.
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(2) From the standpoint of managers

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Managers are concerned with improving operations of the company, managing the affairs of the company effectively for all round gains and growth of the company which will provide them better deals in raising their status, perks and fringe benefits. Mergers where all these things are the guaranteed outcome get support
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from the managers. At the same time, where managers have fear of displacement at the hands of new management in amalgamated company and also resultant depreciation from the merger then support from them becomes difficult.
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(3) Promoter’s gains Mergers do offer to company promoters the advantage of increasing the size of their company and the financial structure and strength. They can convert a closely
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held and private limited company into a public company without contributing much wealth and without losing control. (4) Benefits to general public
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Impact of mergers on general public could be viewed as aspect of benefits and costs to: (a) Consumer of the product or services;
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(b) Workers of the companies under combination; (c) General public affected in general having not been user or consumer or the worker in the companies under merger plan.
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(a) Consumers The economic gains realized from mergers are passed on to consumers in the form of lower prices and better quality of the product which directly raise their standard
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of living and quality of life. The balance of benefits in favour of consumers will depend upon the fact whether or not the mergers increase or decrease competitive economic and productive activity which directly affects the degree of welfare of
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the consumers through changes in price level, quality of products, after sales service, etc. (b) Workers community
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The merger or acquisition of a company by a conglomerate or other acquiring company may have the effect on both the sides of increasing the welfare in the form of purchasing power and other miseries of life. Two sides of the impact as discussed by the researchers and academicians are: firstly, mergers with cash
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payment to shareholders provide opportunities for them to invest this money in other companies which will generate further employment and growth to uplift of the economy in general. Secondly, any restrictions placed on such mergers will decrease the growth and investment activity with corresponding decrease in
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employment. Both workers and communities will suffer on lessening job opportunities, preventing the distribution of benefits resulting from diversification of production activity.
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(c) General public

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Mergers result into centralized concentration of power. Economic power is to be understood as the ability to control prices and industries output as monopolists. Such monopolists affect social and political environment to tilt everything in their favour to maintain their power ad expand their business empire.
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These advances result into economic exploitation. But in a free economy a monopolist does not stay for a longer period as other companies enter into the field to reap the benefits of higher prices set in by the monopolist. This enforces competition in the market as consumers are free to substitute the alternative
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products. Therefore, it is difficult to generalize that mergers affect the welfare of general public adversely or favorably. Every merger of two or more companies has to be viewed from different angles in the business practices which protects the interest of the shareholders in the merging company and also serves the national
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purpose to add to the welfare of the employees, consumers and does not create hindrance in administration of the Government polices.

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ACQUISITION OF SATYAM COMPUTERS BY TECHMAHINDRA

Details of Acquisition of Satyam Computers:
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To acquire the scandal hit company M/s sat yam computers 3 bidders namely: 1) M/s Tech Mahindra 2) M/s Larsen and toubro
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3) M/s Wilberross Were shortlisted after evaluation of technical bids. When the price bids were opened M/s Tech-Mahindra was found to be highest bidder with Rs 58/share as against Rs 45.90 by M/s Larsen and toubro and Rs 20 by M/s Wilberross. M/s
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Tech-Mahindra approach was as a strategic bidder. As per the terms of offer M/s Tech-Mahindra will buy preferential equity shares of 31% of satyam equity capital followed by a further acquisition of 20% through an open offer to existing shareholders. M/s Tech-Mahindra will have to pay roughly Rs 2908 crores for the
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51% stake. After the bid opening the share market also welcomed the move sending Tech-Mahindra stock 12%.

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1) Restriction on M/s Tech-Mahindra by Company Law Board (CLB):
i). Tech-Mahindra cannot sell any of satyam assets for 2 years, including some of the real estate valuing around 1200 – 1500 crores.
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ii). Tech-Mahindra cannot have more than four members on satyam board. iii). Government nominees on satyam board will stay. iv). Tech-Mahindra will have to handle satyam liabilities.
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v). Tech-Mahindra is locked into the acquisition for 3 years i.e. they cannot sell their holdings during this period.

2) Advantages to M/s Tech-Mahindra:
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i). with this acquisition Tech-Mahindra acquired the 4th position in the information technology sector. Earlier satyam computers were holding the position prior to discloser of this scam.

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ii). Tech-Mahindra has acquired a wide base of new clients, with this it has become a complete package in IT sector , they can now offer comprehensive solutions for various users.

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iii). About 75% of Tech-Mahindra revenues are from British market whereas 70% of satyam revenues come from American market. So this can be called as marriage made in heaven because Tech-Mahindra will now have World Wide operations.

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iv). Tech-Mahindra subsidiary such as Bristlecone are also benefited with this acquisition because they provide supply chain management solution using SAP.

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2) Challenges before M/s Tech-Mahindra:
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i). Tech-Mahindra has to deal with law suits which could impose damages amounting to crores of dollars. The suits were filed by 2 U.S law firms Izard Nobel LLP and Vianale LLP, for losses due to inflated stock prices.
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ii). Apart from above there is high profile law suit by “Upaid Systems” against satyam last year. satyam group had fraudulently used Upaid developed software’s. iii). Any other law suit which may arise in future. iv). They have to reestablish goodwill among satyam clients.
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v). Managing excess manpower is a uphill task for Tech-Mahindra. They have to deal with 45000 employees which have to be gradually reduced to drastically levels. They have to atleast 100 key peoples because Tech-Mahindra does not readily have specialized manpower for satyam areas.
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vi). Certain operations of Satyam like BPO (employing about 5000 employees) have to be closed down because there is no strategic interest of Tech-Mahindra in BPO operations due to negligible revenues.

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vii). Reestablishment of accounts is still being done and is likely to take for more months pending this Tech-Mahindra will find it difficult to take major financial decisions.

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Latest Updates:-

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1). New Name for Satyam Computers: Management of Tech-Mahindra has decided to Rename M/s Satyam computers as M/s Mahindra Satyam, with immediate effect, with a view to have true reflection of Mahindra culture.
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2). New Top Management for Mahindra Satyam: Soon after renaming satyam computers, new management has been announced as detailed below:122 | 2 0

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Earlier Position

Name Mr. Vineet Nayar Mr. C.P.Gurnanai

New Assignment Vice –Chairman CEO CEO & MD (Tech-M) Head Int.Opr(Tech-M)

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Sr. VP (M & M)

Mr. S Durgashankar

CFO

Above announcements were made by Mr. Anand Mahindra, Vice Chairman, Mahindra and Mahindra group.
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3). Fund drain from Satyam Computers: Central bureau has recently informed high court, Andhra Pradesh that they have detected large scale fund drain from satyam computers to foreign accounts by Mr.

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Raju Lingam and his associates who are under judicial custody for fraud in this company during their tenure.

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4). Business Expansion By Tech Mahindra: Tech Mahindra management has recently announced that they will shortly enter into two new articles related to BPO operations consequent upon acquisition of

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satyam computers. This is with a view to utilize infrastructure and other resources of satyam computers. 5). Tech Mahindra has announced that the merger process of satyam Mahindra with Tech-Mahindra will be completed within two years.
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6). New Logo of Mahindra Satyam:

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