FI-6121 System Fisis Bumi

Lecturer: Dr.M.Edisar, MT

The Composition of the Earth

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT

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(Adapted from, Beatty, 1990.)
© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT

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W.J. Kious and R.I. Tilling, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, U.S. Geological Survey, 1996.

© By Dr. Edisar, Edisar, MT MT © Muhammad By Dr. Muhammad

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MT 4 .Komposisi Bumi Bedasarkan:  Komposisi Kimia  Unsur-unsur utama  Sifat Fisis © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Ni. S Padat (akibat tekanan yang sangat besar) Fe  Inti bagian luar   © By Dr. MT 5 .900 km Disususun dari Fe-alloys  Inti bagian luar   Cair Fe.Komposisi Kimia Inti Bumi    Zona Pusat Bumi Mulai pada kedalaman ~ 2. Muhammad Edisar.

MT 6 .  Batas Inti –mantle (CMB) didefinisikan oleh diskontinuitas Gutenberg Zone dari 200 . Muhammad Edisar. ditandai D11 © By Dr.300 km.

Fe)2SiO4 Pyroxene (Mg. Fe)SiO3 © By Dr.Mantle     Daerah sekitar inti ~ 83 % dari volume Bumi < kerapatannya dari inti Seluruh mantle disusun dari dua silikat Fe dan Mg   Olivine (Mg. Muhammad Edisar. MT 7 .

Muhammad Edisar. Dua perubahan fase yang paling penting terjadi pada kedalaman 410-km. © By Dr. Akibatnya ada batas dalam mantle yang menggambarkan perubahan fasa. dan 660-km. atau ikatan atom dari mineral tersebut.   Mineral ini berubah bentuknya pada tekanan yang berbeda. MT 8 .

  Pada mantle bagian atas (diatas 660km) olivine and pyroxene ditemukan sebagau peridotite Pada mantle bagian bawah (dibawah 660-km) olivine and pyroxene berbentuk perovskites dan jauh lebih sedikit jumlahnya dari oxide. magnesiowüstite © By Dr. MT 9 . Muhammad Edisar.

temperature pada kealaman harus ~ 1700°C © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 10 . Batas 660-km adalah penting untuk beberapa alasan:   Menggambarkan gempa bumi paling dalam Perubahan fase mineral pada kedalam ini dapat di buat di laboratorium.

Benua © By Dr. MT 11 . Samudra 2. Muhammad Edisar.Kerak (Crust)    Batas Mantle – Kerak dibangun oleh diskontinuitas Mohorovičić Daerah ketebalannya dari 10 .70 km Terdiri dari dua jenis 1.

   Kerak tipis dibawah lautan Basalt Ketebalan rata-rata sekitar 8 km   Kerak Samudra ~ 2-km Basalt bantal ~ 6-km Gabbro    Densitasnya 3. Muhammad Edisar. Mg. Fe < 50 % SiO2 © By Dr.2 g/cm3 Kompoisisi kaya akan Ca. MT 12 .

7 g/cm3 Granit Komposisinya kaya akan Si. K > 50% SiO2 © By Dr.Kerak Benua  Ketebalannya dari 30 .70 km   Paling tipis dimana lempeng benua bergerak menjauh dan terpisah Paling tebal ada dibawah pegunungan     Densitasnya rata-rata 2. MT 13 . Na. Muhammad Edisar. Al.

MT 14 .Sifat Fisis © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

lithosphere   Kulit bagian luar dari Bumi yang Kaku (rigid) Disusun dari :     Mantel Bagian Atas Kerak Samudra Kerak Benua Ketebalannya 70 .125 km © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 15 .

MT 16 .asthenosphere    Daerah kulit bagian luar Bumi yang terletak dibawah lithosphere Meluas sampai kedalaman ~ 220-km Bersifat plastis © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Teori Tektonik Lempeng Sintesa Modern © By Dr. MT 17 . Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 18 . © By Dr.   Permukaan Bumi terbagi ke pada 12 plat utama Plate bergerak secara horizontal terhadap satu sama lain Plate “mengapung” atau“meluncur” diatas lapisan asthenosphere viskositas tinggi.

 Lempeng terdiri dari kerak samudra dan kerak benua  Aksi utama tektonik lempeng terjadi pada pinggiran lempeng © By Dr. MT 19 . Muhammad Edisar.

Diatas studi waktu geologi tas-batas btersebut adalah tempat-tempat terjadinya splitting.  Dalam skala waktu manusia batas-batas ini ditandai dengan adanya gunung api dan kejadian-kejadian gempabumi. MT 20 . Muhammad Edisar. shifting dan crumpling dari benua © By Dr.

MT 21 .Volcanoes of the World (Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program) © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

© By Dr. MT 22 . Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar.Jenis-jenis pergerakan lempeng © By Dr. MT 23 .

Lempeng Divergent    Batas penyebaran (Spreading) Daerah healed “ kerak ” atau fissures Contoh :   Rift Valley dari Afrika bagian timur Mid-Atlantic ridge  Gunung api. Muhammad Edisar. MT 24 . gempabumi © By Dr.

Muhammad Edisar.© By Dr. MT 25 .

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 26 .

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT Heezen and Tharp 27 .

Muhammad Edisar. MT 28 .Lempeng Convergent   Pada batas lempeng convergent respons terhadap tumbukan lempeng akan bervariasi dengan jenis kerak yang bersangkutan Ada tiga kemungkinan kombinasi: © By Dr.

MT 29 .Kerak samudra converging with kerak samudra:      Subduksi satu lempeng Formasi dari sebuah busur kepulauan Gunung api Gempabumi Contoh  kepulauan Japanese © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 30 .© By Dr.

MT 31 . Muhammad Edisar.Kerak samudra converging degan kerak benua :     Formasi dari rantai pegunungan Gunung api Gempa bumi Contoh Pegunungan Andes © By Dr.

MT 32 .© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Kerak benua converging dengan kerak benua :     Overriding dari satu lempeng Formasi dari daerah pegunungan Gempa bumi Contoh  Himalayas © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 33 .

© By Dr. MT 34 . Muhammad Edisar.

MT 35 . Muhammad Edisar.Transform Boundaries     “side-slip boundary” create fault zones earthquakes example  San Andreas © By Dr.

Muhammad Edisar.© By Dr. MT 36 .

MT 37 .Cross section by José F. Vigil from This Dynamic Planet © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 38 .50 million years © By Dr.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 39 .150 million years © By Dr.

MT 40 .250 million years © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 41 . hydrosphere. lithosphere. and biosphere © By Dr.Ecosphere  That part of the earth consisting of the atmosphere.

and which is held by gravitational attraction. Muhammad Edisar.45 km Tropopause Troposphere 0 -12 km © By Dr. MT 42 .Atmosphere  The gaseous layer which surrounds the earth.80 km Stratopause Stratosphere 12 . the bottom ones of which are:        Thermosphere > 80 km Mesopause Mesosphere 45 . It consists of layers.

Hydrosphere  Earth's water. MT 43 . Muhammad Edisar. in any physical state –    Gaseous Liquid Solid © By Dr.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 44 . from the surface to a depth of about 70 kilometers (km) It is stronger and mechanically more rigid than the asthenosphere (70 .Lithosphere   The outermost part of the solid earth. which lies under it © By Dr.250 km). consisting of the entire crust and the upper mantle.

2900 km) Outer (2900 . to a maximum of 100km) Oceanic (0-10 km)  Mantle –   Upper (bottom of crust to 700 km. MT 45  Core –   . Muhammad Edisar.4980 km .6370 km .liquid iron-nickel) Inner (4980 .Interior of the Earth  Crust –   Continental (0-40 km.solid) © By Dr. and includes the transition zone (350 to 700 km) Lower (700 .

atmosphere. Muhammad Edisar.Biosphere   Interface layer between earth's crust. MT 46 . and hydrosphere where life is found Includes the total ecosystem of the earth © By Dr.

of all species Includes interactions of this community with the chemical and physical systems of earth © By Dr. MT 47 . Muhammad Edisar.Ecosystem   Community of interacting organisms.

Human Activities   Interact with the natural world. causing changes in the ecosystem Changes vary in magnitude and temporal scale © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 48 .

MT 49 .Environmental Issues  Changes in the ecosphere caused by:   Natural processes Human activities    Often cause change Affect the rate at which change occurs Or both © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

the first organisms capable of photosynthesis. gradually changed the atmosphere of earth from one without oxygen to one with the present 21% oxygen content © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.Changes By Other Species   Humans are not the only species to cause environmental change Cyanobacteria. MT 50 .

So What Makes Humans Different?   Humans are the first species to be aware of their influence Humans assume. MT 51 . responsibility for wise management of the planet © By Dr. to some extent. Muhammad Edisar.

MT 52 .Technology Improvements   During the last fifty years Have greatly contributed to our awareness of environmental change  Especially contributing to our knowledge of global scale processes  Greatly enhanced out knowledge of the temporal scale of global change © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

MT 53 .Examples of Technological Change    Satellite observations Computational power Rapid communication (Internet) © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

MT 54 . Muhammad Edisar.Changes to the Ecosphere   Many examples of modification of ecospheric components have been described Representative examples of these modifications are shown on the following slides © By Dr.

MT 55 . Muhammad Edisar.Atmospheric Modifications  Depletion of ozone (O3) in the ozone layer (stratosphere) which affects UV light absorption   Ozone “hole” Leads to increased rates of skin cancer  Acid deposition – introduction of pollutant gasses into the atmosphere leads to the formation of “acid rain” © By Dr.

MT 56 .  Modification of the climate system by the introduction of “greenhouse” gases    Major gases are carbon dioxide. and probably increase number and severity of major storms May affect short and medium term climate.Atmospheric Modifications cont. and may modify the areas in which food can be grown © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. freons. methane Will lead to a warmer earth.

Hydrological Modifications

Diagram shows a local example of the hydrological cycle

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT

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Hydrological Cycle Modifications
  

Withdrawal of water Pollution of water Impoundment of water (dams) Modifications in erosion and depositional rates
 

Silting of rivers and estuaries Increased erosion below dams
© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT 58

Biosphere Modifications

Mobilization and redistribution of chemical elements Most important carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O)

Results in enrichment and depletion of various parts of the system, leading to problems like red tide, depletion of soil productivty, etc.

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT

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especially in loss of biological diversity (biodiversity) Rapid expansion of urban and suburban areas decreases available habitat Deforestation Expansion of farming into marginal environments Land use that is insensitive to long term changes  Salinization © By Dr.Biosphere Modifications cont.  Human activities change natural environment      Often results in changes if species distribution. MT 60 . Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar.Man's activities have increased the rate of extinction © By Dr.a large number of individuals die. with a smaller number of individuals of the species in question. Extinction can and does occur naturally . MT 61 . to precatastrophe levels Extinction .A complete elimination of a species.Results of Environmental Change  Species reduction   Mass mortality . or the original equilibrium may be approximately restored. which may lead to a new equilibrium distribution.

extinction may occur in severely geographically restricted species Examples:     Earthquakes Volcanoes Hurricanes Small meteorite impacts © By Dr.Natural Events   Natural events often lead to mass mortality in many species . Muhammad Edisar. MT 62 .

Overview
  

  

Geologic Time Movements of the Continents Earth Materials Tectonic Forces Weathering and Erosion Processes Erosional Agents and Deposition

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT

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Pretend the age of the earth (4.6+ billion years) is compressed into one calendar year.

Geologic Time

January 1 - Earth and planets formed Early March - liquid water stands in pools. Late March - earliest life July - oxygen is important part of atmosphere October 25 - multicellular organisms Late November - plants and animals abundant December 15 to 25 - dinosaurs arise and disappear 11:20 pm, December 31 - Humans appear One second before midnight - Automobile invented © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT 64

Formation of the Earth‟s Interior

@5 bya, plantesimals (meterorites,icy comets) collide  heat released

(Kinetic energy to thermal energy)

 

Entire planet melts (still cooling today) Gravity sorts materials by density
 

Fe in center Si and O compounds towards surface

© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar, MT

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Muhammad Edisar. MT 66 . 25 mi for continents) Dense iron-rich basalts (mafic) make up ocean floor  Fe. aluminum © By Dr. magnesium Silica. Silica.The Upper Mantle and Crust    Crust (5 mi for ocean.rich rock makes up the continents (felsic)  Silica.

density Horizon composition. km Muhammad Edisar. behavior © By Dr. MT miles) Distance: 6730 (3963 67 .The Earth‟s Interior   General trends: temperature.

© By Dr. MT 68 . movement.What is „tectonics‟?   From Greek „tektonikus‟ meaning building or construction Plate tectonics refers to the process of plate formation. Muhammad Edisar. and destruction.

What is a „Plate?‟   Lithospheric plate: crust + upper mantle Aesthenosphere: plastic mantle © By Dr. MT 69 . Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 70 .History of Plate Tectonics  „Fit‟ of coastlines recognized early  Sir Francis Bacon (1600s)  No mechanism for motion © By Dr.

 1915 Alfred Wegener proposes theory of continental drift. Supercontinent Pangaea („all-earth‟) [225mya]. MT 71 .   © By Dr. Fragmentation and drift to current positions. Muhammad Edisar.

MT 72 .Plate Movement History © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

rock types / geology   match on opposite shores deposits inconsistent with current geography © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 73 . animals. Wegner‟s evidence   Fit of continents Fossil plants.

MT 74 .Striking Match of Biological Regions © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Striking Match of Geologic Regions © By Dr. MT 75 . Muhammad Edisar.

. Muhammad Edisar.History of Plate Tectonics  Problem with continental drift?   No sound mechanism for the „drift‟! Wegner hypothesizes spin of earth or tides…. MT 76 . © By Dr.

History of Plate Tectonics  New theory for motion: Arthur Holmes (1930s)   thermal convective cells in the upper mantle (aesthenosphere) theory is largely ignored © By Dr. MT 77 . Muhammad Edisar.

© By Dr. Harry Hess and Robert Deitz (geophysicists) propose sea floor spreading along mid-oceanic ridges for plate motion. MT 78 .History of Plate Tectonics  In the 1960s. Muhammad Edisar.

Sea Floor Spreading © By Dr. MT 79 . Muhammad Edisar.

MT 80 .© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Plate Tectonics Theory  Continental Drift + Sea Floor Spreading + new data  Theory of Plate Tectonics © By Dr. MT 81 . Muhammad Edisar.

MT 82 . Type of plate boundary determines activity. Muhammad Edisar. 3 types    diverging (spreading) converging (colliding) transform (sliding past each other) © By Dr.Plate Tectonics Theory    Plate boundaries: main location for Earth‟s volcanic and earthquake activity. This is main place where mountains are created.

 Crustal Processes    Destruction (subduction) Creation (volcanism ) Alteration / deformation (folding and faulting) © By Dr. MT 83 . Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar.Geography of the Plates   7 major plates. several minor plates Small plates / ©boundaries still unknown By Dr. MT 84 .

Muhammad Edisar.Plate Margins: how do we know?  Marked by volcanic and tectonic activity © By Dr. MT 85 .

MT 86 . thinning crust ocean/sea: rift valleys.Divergent Plate Boundaries  Landscape features:   land: rift valleys. volcanic mountains. mountain ranges © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar.Divergent Plate Boundaries  Examples:    Atlantic Mid-Oceanic Ridge Red Sea Rift valleys of eastern Africa © By Dr. MT 87 .

MT 88 .Convergent Plate Boundaries  Activity:  subduction. volcanism (continental)  Features:  ocean trench. explosive volcanic mtns on continental margin © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. shallow to deep earthquakes.

MT .Earth Materials  Three major rock types    Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic 89 © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. a process called crystallization.   Slow cooling  larger crystals > dense rock Rapid cooling  small crystals > lighter rock © By Dr.Igneous Rocks   Igneous (ignus = fire) Formed from the cooling of molten rock (magma/lava). MT 90 .

MT 91 . Muhammad Edisar. Two classes of igneous rocks   intrusive: formed inside the Earth extrusive: formed at Earth‟s surface © By Dr.

granite . MT 92 .gabbro  © By Dr.Igneous Intrusive Rocks Cools slowly (thousands of years)  Visible crystals  Examples .diorite . Muhammad Edisar.

MT 93 .rhyolite .andesite -basalt  © By Dr.Igneous Extrusive Rocks Cools rapidly .exposed to surface  No visible crystals  Examples . Muhammad Edisar.

„curved‟ fracturing used for arrowheads by Native Americans 94 © By Dr.Some unique rock types  Pumice (vesicular) . MT .sometimes so light it floats! Obsidian    glassy. Muhammad Edisar.

Typical Igneous Intrusions Know: Batholith and Dike © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 95 .

CA © By Dr. MT 96 . Muhammad Edisar.Exposed Batholiths Sierra Nevada.

MT Granite sill in schist 97 .Sills and Dikes Dike: Grand Canyon. BC © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. AZ Dike: Coast Ranges.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 98 .Sills and Dikes © By Dr.

CA Volcanic neck and dike: Shiprock. MT . NM 99 © By Dr. obsidian flow: Mono Craters.Igneous Extrusive Landscapes Volcanic cones. Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar.Sedimentary Rocks © By Dr. MT 100 .

Sedimentary Rocks Relative Abundance by Type Compaction Cementing Formation © By Dr. MT 101 . Muhammad Edisar.

MT 102 . Muhammad Edisar.Limestone (CaCO3) Shale (fine grains) Sandstone (larger grains) © By Dr.

MT . Muhammad Edisar.Where do Sedimentary Rocks Form? Terrestrial environments (non-marine)  Marine environments   Continental shelf Continental slope and rise (deep sea fans) Abyssal plain Rivers and floodplains (fluvial environment) Lakes Deserts (aeolian environment)     Beach and barrier islands 103 © By Dr.

Muhammad Edisar. MT 104 .© By Dr.

but I don‟t give a Schist! Schist (narrow foliation) Gneiss (broad foliation) © By Dr.Metamorphic Rocks or That‟s very Gneiss. MT 105 . Muhammad Edisar.

MT 106 .Which Type? © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

Which Type? Sedimentary . MT 107 . Muhammad Edisar.limestone and shale © By Dr.

What type? © By Dr. MT 108 . Muhammad Edisar.

Muhammad Edisar. MTOldest known rocks 109 .What type? Metamorphic .Amitsoq Gneiss. Greenland. © By Dr.

Muhammad Edisar.What type? © By Dr. MT 110 .

What type? Sedimentary . MT 111 .Sandstone in Utah© By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.

What type? © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 112 .

113 . MT Pacific © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. Island.What type? Extrusive Igneous Reunion S.

CA What type? © By Dr. MT 114 . Muhammad Edisar.Morro Rock.

CA What type? Intrusive Igneous © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar.Devil’s Tower. Wyoming Morro Rock. MT 115 .

The Rock Cycle © By Dr. Muhammad Edisar. MT 116 .

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