# MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

MATHEMATICS Form 1
Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2002

CONTENTS
Page
WHOLE NUMBERS NUMBER PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES FRACTIONS DECIMALS PERCENTAGES INTEGERS ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS BASIC MEASUREMENTS LINES AND ANGLES POLYGONS PERIMETER AND AREA SOLID GEOMETRY 1 4 10 15 18 19 21 23 26 28 30 32

1. Learning Area: Whole Numbers
Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Students will be taught to: 1. Understand the concept of whole numbers. Count; read and write whole numbers in words or numerals. Students read and write whole numbers while counting from a given initial value to a final value in a certain specified interval. e.g. i. Count on in tens from 20 to 100. ii. Count back in hundreds from 1200 to 200. Estimate values, including that of real-life situations by rounding.

Students will be able to: i. Count, read and write whole numbers. Emphasise the relationship between rounding and estimation. Whole number Place value Digit Interval Round Estimate Nearest Larger Largest Smaller Smallest Nearest ten, hundred, thousand… hundred thousand.

ii. Identify place value and value of each digit in whole numbers. iii. Round whole numbers.

1

Solve problems involving combined operations of addition. 3 . penciland-paper or calculator. Multiply Multiplication Divide Division Estimate Compute Solve Bracket Order of operations Combined operation Combination ii. including the use of brackets. i. Students use calculators to compare and verify answers. Perform computations involving combined operations of addition.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Students explore combined operations of whole numbers by using standard algorithm (rules of calculations). multiplication and division of whole numbers to solve problems Perform computations involving any combination of addition. subtraction. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 4. including the use of brackets. subtraction. estimation. multiplication and division of whole numbers. Solve problems related to real-life situations. Emphasise on the order of operations and the use of brackets. subtraction. multiplication and division of whole numbers.

Extend number sequences. The difference between odd and even numbers. The sum of odd and even numbers. Relate number sequence to patterns in real-life situations. Explore general statements about odd and even numbers such as: a.g. Number sequence Pattern Term Sum Product Difference Count on Count back Odd Even Subtract Multiply Construct iv. explore number patterns. c. and solve problems. Describe the pattern of a given number sequence. The product of odd and even numbers. 2. Learning Area: Number Patterns and Sequences Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. Make general statements about odd and even numbers. Recognise and extend number patterns and sequences formed by counting on and counting back in intervals of any size. Complete missing terms in given number sequences. e. other. addresses of houses on one side of the road and even numbers on the iii. Recognise odd and even numbers and make general statements about them. Students will be able to: i. 4 . Use calculators to skip count (generate number sequences). Identify and describe odd and even numbers. Odd numbers are used as ii. i. b.2. Do not include negative numbers. ii. Construct number sequences based on given patterns.

iii. Determine all the prime numbers less than 100. 4.Learning Objectives 3. Determine whether a given number is a prime number. Determine whether a number is a prime factor of another whole number. Students explore and investigate to determine prime factors of whole numbers. Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use calculators or computer programmes to explore prime numbers. 5 . Vocabulary Prime number Factor Prime Factor ii. ii. Find prime factor(s) of whole numbers. Understand the characteristics of prime numbers. Understand the characteristics and use the knowledge of prime factors of whole numbers. i. Use sieve of Eratosthenes to generate prime numbers less than 100. ii. List factors of whole numbers. Emphasise that 1 and the number itself are factors of any number. Determine whether a number is a factor of another whole number. 5. iii. State any given whole number as a product of its prime factors. Determine factors of whole numbers by exploring and investigating. Points to Note Emphasise that Number 1 is not a prime number. i. Understand the characteristics and use the knowledge of factors of whole numbers. i. Identify prime factors from a list of factors. Learning Outcomes Identify the characteristics of prime numbers.

8.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities i. Understand and use the knowledge of multiples of whole numbers. Determine whether a number is the multiple of another number. List the multiples of whole numbers.Therefore it can be divided by 2 and 3 and vice-versa. Emphasise that the list of multiples of a number is also a number sequence. 6 . 10. 9. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Multiple Divisible Divisibility test Common multiple Lowest Common Multiple (LCM) Sequence 6. 6. 11 and their combinations. ii. Use small numbers to develop the concept. 5. 30 can be divided by 6. Students use the divisibility test of 2. 3.g. 4. 7. e.

e. ii. 4=2x2 6=2x3 Therefore the LCM of 4 and 6 is 2 x 2 x 3 = 12. 48.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Students find common multiples and LCM by listing down the multiples of each given number. Multiples of 4 : Multiples of 6 : 4. Use small numbers to develop the concept Common Multiples of 4 and 6: 12. Determine the LCM of two or three given numbers. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 7. Use the method of “prime factorisation” to find common multiples and LCM. 12.g. Emphasise that a list of common multiples is also a number sequence. 7 . …… which are the multiples of 12. Understand the characteristics and use the knowledge of common multiples and Lowest Common Multiple (LCM) of whole numbers. 36. …… 6. …… i. Find the common multiples of two or three whole numbers. 24. 8. 12. iii. Determine whether a number is the common multiple of two or three given numbers. e.g.

i. Students explore. Determine the HCF of two or three given numbers. identify and determine common factors of whole number. Understand and use the knowledge of common factors and Highest Common Factors (HCF) of whole numbers. 2 LCM = 2 x 2 x 3 = 12 2 3 4. 8 . 1 8.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Use algorithm to find the LCM. iii. Determine whether a number is a common factor of two or three given whole numbers. Find common factors of two or three whole numbers. 3 1. 6 2. Common Factor Highest Common Factor (HCF) ii. 3 1. Students list down all the factors of each given number and identify the same factors for each number.

9 . Explore.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Students find the HCF by listing down all the factors of each given number. identify and determine the HCF of whole numbers. e. 12 = 18 = 2 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Common Prime Factors: 2 and 3 The HCF: 2 x 3 = 6 Use algorithm to find HCF.g. Use the method of prime factorisations to find the common prime factors and hence HCF.

Describe fractions as parts of a whole. Read fractions. Find equivalent fractions for a given fraction. iii. Understand and use the knowledge of equivalent fractions.3. Understand and use the knowledge of fractions as part of a whole. Folding papers. 2 6 Compare the values of two fractions by converting them to fractions with the same denominator or the same numerator. Arrange fractions in order. Use concrete materials and drawings to demonstrate the concept of fractions such as: a. ii. Use paper folding to explain and explore: is the same as . ii. Use concrete materials and drawings to demonstrate the concept of equivalent fractions. Numerator Equivalent fractions Lowest terms Arrange Order Fraction Denominator 2. concrete materials or the concept of equivalent fractions to compare fractions. Represent fractions with diagrams. Compare the values of two given fractions. The number of girls as compared to the whole class. Write fractions for given diagrams. Folding a ribbon to find onethird of its length. iv. iv. c. b. Use number lines. iii. Learning Area: Fractions Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. v. Students will be able to: i. Determine whether two given fractions are equivalent. 4 read as: 5 Four over five 15 read as: Fifteen 22 over twenty two Use the terms numerator and denominator. Simplify fractions to the lowest terms. 1 10 . Why 3 i.

drawings and number lines to represent mixed numbers.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use concrete materials. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Mixed number Proper fraction Improper fraction Number line Denominator 3. iii. Compare and order mixed numbers on number lines. i. Recognise mixed numbers. iv. Identify the use of mixed numbers in everyday situations. Understand the concept of mixed numbers and their representations. Change mixed numbers into improper fractions. Use concrete materials and drawings to demonstrate the relationship between mixed numbers and improper fractions. 4. Understand the concept of proper fractions and improper fractions. Change improper fractions into mixed numbers. Use calculators to explore the relationship between mixed numbers and improper fractions. ii. Recognise proper and improper fractions from given fractions. i. Write mixed numbers based on given diagrams. 11 . iii. ii. Represent mixed numbers with diagrams.

Solve problems involving combined operations of addition and subtraction of fractions. Fractions and mixed numbers. Fractions and mixed numbers. ii) Writing mixed numbers in the form of improper fractions. iii. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Mixed Number Add Subtract Fraction Simple fraction Lowest term Equivalent fractions 5. Fractions with common denominators. b. e. Pose and solve problems related to everyday situations. Perform subtraction involving: a. e. Mixed numbers. drawings and symbols to demonstrate the process of addition and subtraction of fractions. Fractions with different denominators. Mixed numbers. ii. Perform addition and subtraction of mixed numbers by: i) Adding and subtracting whole numbers and fractions separately. Whole numbers and fractions. Understand the concept of addition and subtraction of fractions to solve problems. 12 . c. Addition and subtraction involving not more than three numbers. Fractions with different denominators. b. c. Fractions with common denominators.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use concrete materials. Whole numbers and fractions. Add and subtract fractions by writing the fractions in their equivalent forms with common denominators including the use of LCM. d. d. i. Perform addition involving: a.

Examples of multiplication: a. Divide: Division involving not more than three numbers including whole numbers. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Multiply Divide Mixed Number Repeated addition Numerator 6. Solve problems involving multiplication of fractions. A fraction by a fraction (include mixed numbers). A fraction by a fraction. A fraction by a whole number. A whole number times a mixed number. Understand the concept of multiplication and division of fractions to solve problems. b. b. c. Multiply: a. 4 b. fractions and mixed numbers. A whole number by a fraction. d. c. 3x 3 i. A mixed number by a mixed number. A whole number times a fraction. 4x1 1 2 4x1 1 3 12 = 4 x = =6 2 2 2 13 . iv. A whole number by a fraction or mixed number.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use concrete materials. iii. A fraction by a whole number. 4 3x 3 4 = 9 4 =2 1 a. Emphasise multiplication of fractions as repeated addition of the fractions ii. Solve problems involving division of fractions. drawings and symbols to explore and investigate the process of multiplication and division of fractions.

including the use of brackets. Multiplication Addition Subtraction Division Combined operation Mixed number Whole number Bracket Pose problems related to real-life situations. subtraction. Perform computations involving combined operations of addition. subtraction. including the use of brackets. including the use of brackets. 5 6 Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 3 4 5 3 15 5 x = = 6 4 24 8 7. multiplication and division of fractions to solve problems. Solve problems involving combined operations of addition. ii. Use concrete materials and diagrams to demonstrate computations.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities c. Emphasise the order of operations. i. subtraction. multiplication and division of fractions. Limit the operations to three numbers including whole numbers and mixed numbers. 14 . Perform computations involving combined operations of addition. A fraction times a fraction. multiplication and division of fractions.

100 and 1000 as decimals. Change fractions to decimals and vice-versa. 2. Students will be able to: i. Learning Area: Decimals Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. iv. State the place value and value of each digit in decimals. Use number lines to compare and order decimals. ii. Understand the relationship between decimals and fractions. Round decimals to the nearest whole number or up to three decimal places. drawings.29 read as: three point two nine. Use concrete materials. i. Represent fractions with denominators 10. calculators and symbols to explain the relationship between decimals and fractions. 15 . Read and write decimals to thousandths. iii. ii. Emphasise the relationship between rounding and estimation. Compare the values of two given decimals. Fraction Decimal Denominator Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Number line Place value Value of a digit Rounding Decimal point 10 decimals and vice-versa. iv. Arrange decimals in order. iii.05 read as: zero point zero five 3.4.3 read as: zero point three 0. Understand the concept of place value and value of each digit in decimals. Represent fractions 1 and 1 100 as 0.

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use concrete materials.001. 100 and 1000. A decimal by a whole number. Use appropriate calculation methods such as pencil-and paper. Divide: a.01 and 0. 0. Addition and subtraction should begin with two decimals. Use estimation strategies to determine whether the solution is reasonable. Mentally multiply decimals by 0. Limit to three decimal places. Relate to everyday situations. drawings and symbols. i. 100 and 1000. i. calculators and computers. include whole numbers. iv. iv. Multiply two or more decimals. ii. Subtract decimals. Understand the concept of addition and subtraction of decimals to solve problems. iii. Solve problems involving addition of decimals.1. 0.1. b. ii. A decimal by a decimal. Begin with one digit whole number 16 . For multiplication and division. Solve problems involving subtraction of decimals. c. A decimal by a fraction. Understand the concept of multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems. Use calculators or computers to verify answers. Solve problems involving multiplications of decimals iii. Add Subtract Decimal Multiply Divide Mentally divide Mentally multiply Reasonable Estimation 4. Solve problems involving division of decimals. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 3. Add decimals.01 and 0. Mentally multiply decimals by 10. Mentally divide decimals by 10. Solve problems related to everyday situations.001. Mentally divide decimals by 0. Include whole numbers.

subtraction. Include whole numbers and fractions Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Decimal Bracket Combined operation ii. 17 . Perform computations involving combined operation of addition. multiplication and division of decimals. subtraction.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Pose problems related to everyday situations. multiplication and division of decimals. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 5. i. multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems. including the use of brackets. subtraction. Solve problems involving combined operations of addition. Perform computations involving combined operations of addition. Emphasise the order of operations including the use of brackets. including the use of brackets.

Find the percentage of increase or decrease. Fraction Decimal Increase Decrease Discount Profit Loss Simple interest Dividend Commission ii.5. Use concrete materials and drawings to demonstrate percentages.5 has a percentage equivalent of 50%. 18 . Use ten by ten grids to discuss the equivalent percentages of fractions and decimals. ( 2. Find the percentage of a quantity. Include percentages larger than 100. For Students will be able to: i. 30% of 240 = 72 3 of 12 = 25% 8 is 20% of what number? (40) Pose and solve problems involving profit and loss. Express percentages as the number of parts in every 100. simple interest. e. commission and discount.5. Find the percentage one number is of another. 1 = 0.g. Percent Use the symbol % to represent percent. Original amount: 15 Increased to: 18 Find percentage of increase. iv. Understand the concept of percentages and the relationship between percentages and fractions or decimals. Perform computations and solve problems involving percentages. Find a number given the percentage. v. and 0. iii. Change fractions and decimals to percentages and vice-versa. Learning area: Percentages Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. dividend.5 or 50%) 2 ii. 1 has a example the fraction 2 decimal equivalent of 0. i. Original amount: 40 Decreased to: 10 Find percentage of decrease. Solve problems involving percentages.

g. Read and write integers. v. Given sets of integers. – 5 is less than – 2 –15 is greater than –25 Words description: e. sea levels and floors of building). – 32 read as: negative thirty-two. Represent integers on number lines. students order them on number lines. Compare the values of two integers. Understand and use the knowledge of integers. Weight gain of The number 0 is neither positive nor negative.6. Write positive or negative numbers to represent word descriptions. 19 . and identify the largest and the smallest value of integers from given sets of integers. iv. iii. Students will be able to: Integer i. ii. Introduce integers in context (e. Students complete sequences of integers. Negative number Positive number Number line Temperature Sea level Floors of a building Less than Greater than Words description Missing terms Largest Smallest i. Learning Area: Integers Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. temperatures.g. find the missing terms. 30 metres below sea level: – 30 2 kg: 2 ii. Arrange integers in order.

The coefficient of p is 7. Identify coefficients in given algebraic terms with one unknown. e. Understand the concept of algebraic terms. Unknown Term Alphabet Algebraic term Multiplication Coefficient Like terms Unlike terms x is a term.g 8 is also a term. State like terms for a given term. Use letters to represent unknown numbers. iv. Use examples of everyday situations to explain unknowns. i. ii. Learning Area: Algebraic Expressions Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. 21 . Identify unknowns in given situations.7. X Students will be able to: i. Give a list of terms and students select algebraic terms with one unknown. iii. Identify like and unlike algebraic terms with one unknown. Understand the concept of unknowns. An algebraic term is written as 3x not x3 A number. e. Identify algebraic terms with one unknown. 2 Which letter represents the unknown number? 7p : 2. ii.g: Glass X contains y numbers of marbles.

Understand the concept of algebraic expressions. e. 4s + 8s = 12s 5r – 2r = 3r Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 3. Simplify algebraic expressions by combining the like terms. Recognise algebraic expressions. i. Algebraic expression Number of terms Like terms Unlike terms Simplify iii. 3k + 4 + 6k – 3 = 3k + 6k + 4 – 3 = 9k + 1 22 . ii. iii.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use concrete materials to demonstrate the concept of combining like and unlike terms. 4p = p + p + p + p ii. 7g + 6h cannot be simplified because they are not like terms. Determine the number of terms in given algebraic expressions. iv.g. i.

Convert one metric unit to another. ii. Estimate masses of objects in appropriate units. Measure the length of objects. Length Millimetre Centimetre Metre Kilometre Estimate Measure Convert Metric units Mass Milligrams Grams Kilograms Nautical mile Inch Feet Yard 2. Use the four operations to solve problems involving length. ii. Introduce inches. iii. g. Understand the concept of mass to solve problems. Convert one metric unit to another. tonne). (mm. Students will be able to: i. yards. iv. miles and nautical miles. Emphasise the importance of using standard measurement. 23 . Use the four operations to solve problems involving mass. Estimate lengths of objects in appropriate units. kg. Measure given lines using different standard units. Measure the length of objects around the school compound. m and km) iii. Students draw a line given its length. Learning Area: Basic Measurements Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Students will be taught to: 1. iv. (mg. Measure the mass of objects. cm. feet. Relate to everyday situations. i.8. Understand the concept of length to solve problems.

Suggest a unit to estimate or measure: i. weeks. minutes. iii. Convert measurement of time in different units (seconds. The time it will take to eat lunch. Your age. ii. clocks or stopwatches to discuss the measurement of time for events. hours. Understand the concept of time in seconds.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use calendars. iv. ii. days. 1 millennium = 1000 years 1 century = 100 years 1 year = 12 months = 52 weeks = 365 days 1 week = 7 days 1 day = 24 hours 1 hour = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds Time Second Minute Hour Day Week Month Year Century Millennium Measurement Leap year 24 . days. How long it takes to run 100 metres? Involve great events in history. How long it takes for water to boil? iv. Determine the appropriate measurement of time for certain events. iii. months and years. Use the four operations to solve problems involving time. minutes. i. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 3. months and years). weeks. hours. Estimate the time intervals of events.

Solve problems involving time. 0350 read as three fifty hour 3. i. Twelve hour system Twenty-four hour system Time Interval Time Digital clock Analogue clock 25 . iv.m.m. Determine the interval between two given times. ii. and p.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Use digital and analogue clocks. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 4. Introduce a. Convert time in twelve-hour system to twenty-four hour system and vice-versa. Relate events to everyday situations.50 a. Read and write times in twenty-fourhour system. read as three fifty a. half past seven. 7. or three fifty in the morning.m. Understand and use times in the twelvehour and twenty-four hour system to solve problems. v.m. iii. thirty minutes past seven and thirty minutes to eight. 1900 read as nineteen hundred hours. Read and write times in twelve-hour system.30 read as seven thirty. Read times from train or bus schedules.

9. Understand the concept of angles. clock hands. Guide students on how to use protractors to measure angles. Recognise angles. windows. right. Recognise. Determine one whole turn is 360°. vi. Determine angles on straight lines equal 180°. obtuse and reflex. blackboards. corners of tables. v. Angles can be named as BAC or A or B A C. line Vertex Points to Note Vocabulary Angle Line Protractor Label Denote Right angle Acute angle Reflex angle Obtuse Angle One whole turn Vertex Classify Compare Degree ) Angle line 26 .g. (e. Draw acute. compare and classify angles as acute. ii. right. Students identify angles in the classroom. iv. Use degree ( ° ) as the unit of measurement of angles. iii. One whole turn is 360°. Learning Area: Lines and Angles Learning Objectives Students will be taught to: 1. vii. Measure angles using protractors. and opened doors). Students demonstrate the different types of angles with their arms. An angle is formed by two straight lines that meet at a point called the vertex. Denote and label angles. obtuse and reflex angles using protractors. Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Students should be able to: i. viii. Draw angles using protractors.

complementary and supplementary angles. Students investigate the properties of angles formed by intersecting lines. 27 . Two lines are parallel if they never intersect. ii. Determine perpendicular lines. Determine the value of an angle on a line. State that the angles formed by perpendicular lines is 90°. given the adjacent angle. A perpendicular line is a line that makes a 90° with another line. Understand the concept of parallel and perpendicular lines. iii. windows and doors). Understand and use properties of angles associated with intersecting lines to solve problems. Solve problems involving angles formed by intersecting lines.Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Students identify perpendicular and parallel lines in the classroom (e. iii. Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary 2. Denote a 90° angle as: 90° Parallel lines Perpendicular lines Intersecting lines Complementary angle Supplementary angle Adjacent angle Vertically opposite angle d 3.g edges of books. i. iv. a b c Vertical-angle pairs: a = d b = c Sum of adjacent angles on a straight line is 180° (a + b =180°) ii. Identify intersecting lines. Determine the properties of vertical. i. Determine parallel lines.

iv. Students explore the importance of symmetry in everyday situations (e. Use concrete materials such as protractors. Understand the concept of polygons. Recognise polygons. Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Vertices Sides Diagonal Shape Symmetry 2. pattern on buildings and tiles). Learning Area: Polygons Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary Polygon Triangle Use capital letters to name vertices. grid papers.g. Students explore the relationship between the sides. Draw designs using the concept of symmetry. Name polygons (triangle.10. Understand the concept of symmetry. pentagon. Sketch polygons. iii. Students will be able to: i. folding papers or making inkblot designs. ii. Students explore symmetry by using mirrors. diagonals and vertices of polygons. Determine the number of sides. quadrilateral. hexagon. Complete shapes given part of the shapes and the line of symmetry. 28 . geo-boards and computer software to explore the concept of polygons. pattern blocks. iii. heptagon and octagon). Determine and draw the line(s) of symmetry of shapes. i. vertices and diagonals of given polygons. Line of symmetry Shapes include polygons Sketch Students will be taught to: 1. rulers. ii.