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Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Overview

Copyright 2004 Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.

Copyright 2006 Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.

Training Program
1 - Gas Turbine General Overview
Installation layout Main equipment location

2 - Operating Principles

Describe the gas turbine thermodynamic cycle, main parameters and performance

3 - GT Componentes Description

Describe in detail all gas turbine componentes and their functions

Training Program
4 - Main GT Auxiliary Systems
Describe the Auxiliary systems, P&ID

5 - Gas Turbine Control System

Basic of Control and Protection System, Start-up and Shut-down sequences

6 Maintenance Overview

Scheduled and Borescope Inspection, Disassembling and reassembling procedures, Components acceptability criteria

What is a Gas Turbine?


Gas Turbine is an engine as a four cycle reciprocating engine
Its an high technology engine It an high speed rotating machine (3.00030.000 rpm) In industrial application may drive generators (GD = Generator Drive) or pumps and compressors (MD = Mechanical Drive) Its used for mobile application as aircraft ships etc. Power range of gas turbine is between 100 kW and 350 MW Its efficiency is between 25% and 40% High specific power (light and powerful machine) May use a large typology of fuels (gas and liquid types) It may operate continuously without stop as long as for one year Additionally for power higher than 500 kW it has Low cost of installed kw Low maintenance costs

What is a Gas Turbine?

The primary scope is.

To produce mechanical energy at low cost and continuously!!

How a Gas Turbine Works


IT DIRECTS HIGH PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE AIR TO THE TURBINE SECTION, WHICH CONVERTS FUEL THERMAL ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY THAT MAKES THE SHAFT REVOLVE; THIS SERVES, ON THE ONE HAND, TO SUPPLY USEFUL ENERGY TO THE DRIVEN FUEL MACHINE, COUPLED TO THE MACHINE BY MEANS OF A COUPLING AND, ON THE OTHER HAND, IT EXHAUST TEMPERATURE TO SUPPLY ENERGY LOW NECESSARY FORLOW AIR COMPRESSION, IT PRESSURE, INCREASES THE ENERGY LEVEL GASES RESULTING FROM THE ABOVE-MENTIONED TRANSFORMATION INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. IT COMPRESS TO HIGHER PRESSURE WHICH TAKES PLACE IN A COMPRESSOR DIRECTLY WITH THE TURBINE SECTION OF THE COMPRESSED AIR ADDING AND BURNING FUEL INIT COMBUSTION CHAMBER BY IT DRAWS IN AIR FROM THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT

Nuovo Pignone

GAS TURBINES GENERAL OVERVIEW

Gas Turbine Families


HEAVY DUTY
SINGLE SHAFT

JET
PURE AEREONAUTICAL PENGIUN TURBINES

TWO SHAFTS

INDUSTRIAL & MARINE USE LM SERIES

INDUSTRIAL USE

INDUSTRIAL USE PGT/GE SERIES

Gas Turbines Product Range


GE 5-1 GE 5-2 GE 10-1 GE 10-2 LM 1600/PGT 16 LM 2000/PGT 20 LM 2500/PGT 25 MS 5001 MS 5002C MS 5002E LM 2500+/PGT 25+ MS 5002D MS 6001B LM 6000 MS 7001EA MS 9001E 5.5 MW 5.6 MW 11.2 MW

Solid Technology Base ... For Every Application

High Efficiency, Reliability & Availability 11.7 MW Low Life- Cycle Costs 14.2 MW Application Flexibility 18.1 MW Fuel Flexibility 23.2 MW 26.3 MW Low Emissions
28.3 MW 30.0 MW 31.3 MW 32.5 MW 42.1 MW 44.7 MW 85.1 MW 123.4 MW
Multi Shaft Single Shaft
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PGT 5/1
KEY DATA
The PGT5/1 heavy-duty gas turbine has been designed with modular concepts to facilitate accessibility and maintainability. The gas generator consists of a 15-stage, high efficiency, axial-flow compressor directly coupled to a two stage turbine. The PGT5 has a single combustion chamber system which is rugged, reliable and able to burn a wide range of fuels, from liquid distillates and residuals to all gaseous fuels, including low BTU gas. It is specially designed for small power generation and cogeneration

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS; MD) Output : 5.220 Kw Efficiency : 26,9 % Heat Rate : 13.422 kJ/kWh Ex. Gas Flow : 24,6 kg/s Ex. Gas Temp. : 524 C Nominal Speed : 11.140 rpm

Weight:

28.000 Kg

10

PGT 5/2
KEY DATA
The PGT5/2 heavy-duty gas turbine has been designed with modular concepts to facilitate accessibility and maintainability. The gas generator consists of a 15-stage, high efficiency, axialflow compressor directly coupled to a single stage turbine. The low pressure shaft is a single-stage, high-energy turbine, with variable second stage nozzles which grant maximum flexibility for mechanical drive service. The PGT5/2 has a single combustion chamber system which is rugged, reliable and able to burn a wide range of fuels, from liquid distillates and residuals to all gaseous fuels, including low BTU gas. Typical applications include pump drive for oil pipelines and compressor drive for gas pipelines. Also used in PG

Weight:

28.000 Kg

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS; GD & MD) Output : 5.450 Kw Efficiency : 26,9 % Heat Rate : 13.422 kJ/kWh Ex. Gas Flow : 24,6 kg/s Ex. Gas Temp. : 524 C Nominal Speed : 11.140 rpm
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GE 5/1
KEY DATA
Single Shaft ideal Prime Mover for Industrial Cogeneration 50Hz or 60Hz Power Generation 11 stage Compressor scaled from GE10 DLE Combustion System High Reliability & Maintainability Compact Package Low Maintenance Cost.

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS; MD)


Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed

: 5.500 : 30,7 : 11.740 : 19,6 : 574 : 16.630

Kw % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm

Weight:

23.900 Kg

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GE 5/2 (New Product)


KEY DATA
Twin Shaft driver for Centrifugal Compressors and Pumps 3D Aero Advanced static and brush seals New coatings Advanced compressor design Optimization of clearances

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS)


Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed

Weight:

24.000 Kg

: 5.600 : 31,5 : 11.428 : na : na : na

Kw % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm


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PGT 10 A (two shaft)


KEY DATA
The PGT10 A/2 design goals are: high performance, high reliability and availability, easy maintenance concepts. High technology design: High pressure ratio, firing temperature level in line with second generation gas turbines, variable axial compressor stator vanes and power turbine nozzles. The PGT10 combustion system consists of a single combustion chamber suitable for a large variety of gaseous and liquid fuels. Typical applications for PGT10 are natural gas compression, centrifugal pump drive and process application, Offshore applications.

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS)

MD
Output

GD 10.220 Kw 31,4 % 11.540 kJ/kWh 42,1 kg/s 484 C 10.800 rpm

Weight:

34.000 Kg

: 10.660 Efficiency : 32,5 Heat Rate : 11.250 Ex. Gas Flow : 42,3 Ex. Gas Temp. : 493 PT Nominal Speed : 10.800

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GE 10/1
KEY DATA
Derivative of PGT10A - 2.000.000+ hours experience High efficiency high pressure ratio Compressor with less stages - 11 Vs 17 DLN combustion system available Good Reliability & Maintainability Low maintenance cost
Model available may Have combustion chamber horizontal or vertical according customer request

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS; GD) Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed

: 11.250 : 31,4 : 11.481 : 47,5 : 482 : 11.000

Kw % kJ/kWh kg/s
C

Weight:

34.000 Kg

rpm
15

GE 10/2
KEY DATA
Turbine designed and developed by Nuovo Pignone Since reliability and availability to worldwide customers while keeping with easy maintenance concepts. Two shafts for mechanical drive and single shaft for power generation and cogeneration applications. The GE10 Gas Turbine, with its ability to burn different fuels (natural gas, distillate oil, low BTU fuel), can be installed in many countries with different environmental conditions continental, tropical, offshore and desert. Oxides (NOx) reduction in order to meet present and future standards for pollutant emissions. Weight: 40.000 Kg

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS; MD) Output : 11.615 Kw Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed

: 32,5 : 11.121 : 46,9 : 488 : 7.900

% kJ/kWh kg/s
C

rpm
16

PGT 16
KEY DATA
First unit in operation 1991 Based on proven LM 1600 GG and NP developed heavy duty power turbine High efficiency Proven reliability in MD and PG applications Effective DLE system
This turbine use some power turbine of PGT 10/A and GE 10/2

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS) MD GD


Output

: Efficiency : Heat Rate : Ex. Gas Flow : Ex. Gas Temp. : PT Nominal Speed :

14.252 36,2 9.939 47,4 493 7.900

13.735 34,9 10.314 47,4 493 7.900

Kw % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm

Weight:

19.000 Kg

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PGT 25
KEY DATA
Power Turbine developed by Nuovo Pignone in the early 80s First unit installed in 1983 M.D. & P.G. fleet firing hours exceed 1,800,000

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS) MD Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. PT Nominal Speed : : : : : : 23.261 (shaft) 37,7 (shaft) 9.560 (shaft) 68,9 525 6.500 GD 22.417 (el.) Kw 36,3 (el.) % 9.919 (el.) kJ/kWh 68,9 kg/s 525 C 6.500 rpm
Weight: 38.000 Kg

PGT25 Power Turbine

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PGT 25+
KEY DATA
Designed by Nuovo Pignone using G.E. LM 2500 Plus gas generator The PGT 25 + is a last generator, 30 MW size First unit in operation during 1997 Fleet firing hours exceed 100,000

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS MD & PG)


Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. PT Nominal Speed

: 31.364 : 41,1 : 8.754 : 84,3 : 500 : 6.100

Kw % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm

Natural Gas Fuel Dry Operation


(no steam or water injection)

Base Load
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MS 5001

KEY DATA

The MS5001 single shaft turbine is a compact heavyduty turbine designed for long life and easy maintenance. The MS5001 gas turbine is the ideal solution for industrial power generation where low maintenance, reliability and economy of fuel utilization are required. Low investment costs make the MS5001 package power plant an economically attractive system for peak load generation. The MS5001 is ideally suited for cogeneration achieving very high fuel utilization indexes Typical applications are industrial plants for cogeneration of power and process steam or in district heating systems.

Weight:

87.430 Kg

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS; GD)


Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed

: 26.300 : 26,3 : 12.650 : 124,1 : 487 : 5.100

Kwe % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm


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MS 5002C / MS 5002D
KEY DATA
Low capital & maintenance cost Long maintenance intervals Fleet leader in excess of 100.000 running hours More than 420 units worldwide

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS) MS5002C MS5002D


Output

Weight:

110.000 Kg

: Efficiency : Heat Rate : Ex. Gas Flow : Ex. Gas Temp. : PT Nominal Speed :

28.340 28,8 12.470 124,3 517 4.670

32.580 29,4 12.239 141,4 509 4.670

Kw % kJ/kWh kg/s C
rpm
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MS5002E (New Product)


Features

Leverage GE Technology Moderate Firing Temperature Reliability & Efficiency as Key Factors DLN System derived from large Frames Twin Shaft - suitable for MD or PG

Rotordynamic Test

Introductory Performance

Output Shaft SC Efficiency LPT shaft speed Exhaust Temp. NOx Emission

: 30 MW : 36,4 % : 6.100 rpm : 523 C : 25 ppm

CTV Test Rig CTV Compressor Test

Weight:

117.000 Kg
22

LM 6000
KEY DATA
Most efficient GT in its class Proven high reliability and availability Generator & Mechanical drive applications 3 + millions cumulating operating hours

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS PG; MD)


Weight: 31.000 Kg

Output

: Efficiency : Heat Rate : Ex. Gas Flow : Ex. Gas Temp. : PT Nominal Speed :

43.076 41,3 8.707 131,0 449 3.600

kW % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm


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MS 6001 B
KEY DATA
The MS6001 is a single shaft heavy-duty gas turbine. Its design was based on the well proven mechanical features of the MS5001 in order to achieve a compact, high efficency unit. The MS6001 is widely applied in power generation applications for base, mid-range and peak load service. Other typical applications include driving of process machines, such as compressors, in LNG plants. Combined cycle plants based on MS6001 achieve very high efficiencies with higher availability and reliability.

Weight:

96.000 Kg

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS) MD GD Output Efficiency Heat Rate kJ/kWh Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed : : : : : : 43.530 (shaft) 33,1 (shaft) 10.852 (shaft) 145 544 5.133 42.100 (el.) 32,06 (el.) 11.230 (el.) 145,8 552 5.100 Kw %

kg/s C rpm
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MS 7001 EA
KEY DATA
The MS7001EA is a single shaft heavy-duty gas turbine for power generation and industrial applications requiring the maximum reliability and availability. With design emphasis placed on energy efficiency, availability, performance and maintainability, the MS7001EA is a proven technology machine with more than 500 units of its class in service. Typical applications in addition to the 60Hz power generation service are large compressor train drives forLNG plants.

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS) MD GD Output Efficiency Heat Rate Ex. Gas Flow Ex. Gas Temp. Nominal Speed : 81.590 (shaft) : 32,67 (shaft) : 11.020 (shaft) kJ/kWh : 278 : 546 : 3.600 85.100 (el.) 32,73 (el.) 11.000 (el.) 300 537 3.600

Weight:

121.000 Kg

Kw %

kg/s C rpm
25

MS 9001 E
KEY DATA
The MS9001E is a single shaft heavy-duty gas turbine. It was developed for generator drive service in the 50 Hertz market. The MS9001E is widely applied in power generation for base, mid-range and peak load service. Combined cycle plants based on MS9001E achieve very high efficiencies with higher availability and reliability than conventional thermal plants. Newest field of application is LNG for MD

Weight:

217.500 Kg

PERFORMANCE (@ ISO CONDITIONS PG & MD)


Output

: 126.100 Efficiency : 33,8 Heat Rate : 10.650 Ex. Gas Flow : 418 Ex. Gas Temp. : 543 PT Nominal Speed : 3.000

kW % kJ/kWh kg/s C rpm


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MS 9001 FA

27

MS 9001 H

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Output Range

Nuovo Pignone
OUTPUT POWER
23,2 Mw 26 Mw 29 Mw

32,5 Mw

14 Mw 10,5 Mw 12 Mw

6 Mw 5 Mw

For any further need, please find NP on Internet at the following andress:

2 Mw

http://www.gepower.com/nuovopignone
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Load Applic.

Gas Turbines Service according load type

SINGLE SHAFT GAS TURBINES

DOUBLE SHAFT GAS TURBINES

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HD GT Families

Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Families


HEAVY DUTY

SINGLE SHAFT

TWO SHAFTS

INDUSTRIAL USE
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GT Applic. Field

Gas Turbines Applications

Gas Booster, Pipeline and Re-injection

Liquified Natural Gas Plants

Petrochemical Plants

Gas Turbines produced by GE Energy

Power Generation and Cogeneration Plants

District Heating Offshore Applications


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Gas Turbines Typical Loads

Centrifugal and Axial Compressors

Electric Generators GE Energy Gas Turbines

Reciprocating Compressors

Centrifugal Pumps

33

Nuovo Pignone

GAS TURBINES OPERATING PRINCIPLES

34

KEY TERMS

35

ISO conditions

Gas Turbine performance are declared in ISO condition and the constructors have to declare fuel used to obtain declared performances.
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ISO conditions

Ambient Pressure:

101.325 Pa (14,7 P.S.I.A.)

Ambient Teperature:

15 C (59 F)

Relative Humidity:

60%

Pressure drop in inlet/exhaust:

0 mm H2O

They are the conditions to refer for GT performances evaluation

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FIRING TEMPERATURE

Section A refers the so called TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE, wich is the average temperature of hot gas at plane A. Section C refers to the so-called ISO FIRING TEMPERATURE, wich is the average gas temperature at plane C, calculated as a function of the air and fuel flow rates via a thermal balance of combustion according to the ISO 2314 procedure.

38

FIRING TEMPERATURE
According to the NUOVO PIGNONE-GENERAL ELECTRIC standard, the temperature that best represents point (3) is the one in section B
The difference in the interpretation of temperatures in section A and B consists in the fact that the section B temperature takes account of mixing with 1st stage nozzle cooling air, wich was not involved in the combustion process, but mixes with burnt gases after cooling the surface of the nozzle.

T
2

S
3

V
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PRESSURE RATIO

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HEAT RATE
P
2 3

T
2 4 1

3 4

Q1 HR = Lu
Heat Rate is the inverse of efficiency, in that it indicates the ratio between thermal energy, resulting from the combustion process, and mechanical energy, obtained on the power shaft.

2 4

In generally expressed as kj/kWh


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POWER & HEAT RATE

HEAT RATE
THERMAL ENERGY THAT WE SPEND TO PRODUCE 1 UNIT OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

42

Power & Heat Rate

HEAT RATE
HEAT RATE IS THE INVERSE OF EFFICIENCY

43

Power & Heat Rate

If we think about a car, HEAT RATE is

LOW HEAT RATE

MUCH MONEY FOR OUR COMPANY


44

Power & Heat Rate

HIGH POWER & LOW HEAT RATE

MUCH MONEY FOR OUR CUSTOMERS

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COMPRESSOR RATIO

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BRAYTON CYCLE
1
Air Intake Fuel Exhaust

CC
2

C - Compressor CC - Combustion T - Turbine L - Load


T

Combustion

Expansion

P
2 3

2 1
Compression Exhaust

47

Specific Compression Work

Wc = c pm (T2 T1 ) (T2 T1 )
2 4

Mesured in

Kj kg inlet _ air
3

Cpm=average specific heat at costant pressure

48

Specific Expansion Work

Wt = c pm (T3 T4 ) (T3 T4 )
2 4

Mesured in

Kj kg gas

Cpm=average specific heat at costant pressure

49

Heat supplied to the combustion chamber

Q1 = c pm (T3 T2 ) (T3 T2 )

Mesured in

Kj kg gas
2 4 3

Cpm=average specific heat at costant pressure

50

Heat suppl. to atmosphere with exhausted gas

Q2 = c pm (T4 T1 ) (T4 T1 )

Mesured in

Kj kg ehxaust _ gas
2 4

Cpm=average specific heat at costant pressure

51

Thermodynamic efficiency
2 4

(Q1 Q2 ) cl = Q1
This equation tell us that, by parity of heat Q1, introduced into the combustion chamber by fuel, efficiency will increase as heat Q2 dissipated into the atmosphere decreases
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T = f (T ;C ;CC ; cl ...)

Useful work supplied to the driven machine

Pu = (Gair + G fuel ) Wt Gair Wc


Kj s

2 4

Measured in

Gair= amount of air Gfuel= amount of fuel

53

MAIN PARAMETERS AFFECTING G.T. PERFORM.

In the Brayton Cycle the following parameters are very important :

T
2

FIRING TEMPERATURE PRESSURE RATIO


P2 P 1

T3
1

THERMAL EFFICIENCY SPECIFIC POWER Kw (kg ) s

S
3

V
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Brayton Cycle: P1, P2 P1

P2
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Brayton Cycle: T1, T2 and T3 T3=?

T1 T2
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Brayton Cycle: T3 T3=f(T4,P2)

=10,5

963C (1765F)

57

Brayton Cycle: T4

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Single and Double shaft: differences to use

PROBLEM IS IN THE AXIAL COMPRESSOR OF HEAVY DUTY GAS TURBINES

59

G.T. for Generator Drive (mainly): Single shaft

60

Single shaft G.T. are preferred to drive Generators

SINGLE SHAFT GAS TURBINES MUST ROTATE AT CONSTANT SPEED (i.e. 5100 rpm for MS5001/6001, 3600 rpm for MS7001 and 3000 rpm for MS9001) TO AVOID SURGE OR STALL PROBLEMS ON ITS INTERNAL AXIAL COMPRESSOR SINGLE SHAFT GAS TURBINES HAVE BEEN MAINLY DEVELOPED TO DRIVE ELECTRICAL GENERATORS BECAUSE THE GENERATOR IS A MACHINE THAT NEEDS TO ROTATE AT CONSTANT SPEED
61

Single Shaft G.T. Schematic


AIR COMBUSTORS
COMBUSTIBILE

4 3

EXHAUST GAS

1
STARTING MOTOR

AUXILIARY GEARBOX

AXIAL COMPRESSOR

LOAD

TURBINE

1-2 AIR COMPRESSION 2-3 COMBUSTION 3-4 EXPANSION LOAD:

60 MW
(50%)

120 MW
(100%)

60 MW
(50%)*

*typical value for HD GT

Electric Generator (often), Compressor, Pumps (rarely)

AUXILARY GEAR BOX


Drives Auxiliaries (mainly Oil Pumps) and transmits torque from Starting Device

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Single Shaft Gas Tubines for GD


HEAVY DUTY Single Shaft G.E. Gas Turbine Production Range
MS 1001 (*) PGT 2 (*) PGT5/1 GE 5/1 GE 10/1 MS 5001 MS 6001 (**) MS 7001 (**) MS 9001 (**)
(*) Out of production, Upgrade are available (**) These units are also used in mechanical drive applications where constant speed is required (i.e. LNG compression plants)

SINGLE SHAFTS

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Gas Tubines for Mechanical Drive: Two shafts

64

Two shafts Heavy Duty type is better to drive loads requiring speed changes infact

IF WE NEED TO DRIVE.

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Two shafts can provide high speed range variation..

AS MS 5002, WHERE THE HP ROTOR


(ROTOR OF AXIAL COMPRESSOR) CONTINUE TO WORK AT CONSTANT SPEED (5.100 rpm), WHILE THE LP ROTOR (ROTOR DRIVING THE LOAD) CAN CHANGE ITS NOMINAL SPEED (100% = 4.670 rpm) IN THE RANGE OF 50% (2340 rpm) TO 105% (4900 rpm)
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Two Shafts G.E. G.T. Schematic


COMBUSTOR(s) VANES OF VARIABLE AREA NOZZLE GG STAGES AIR INLET LOAD FROM STARTING ENGINE AXIAL TO AUXILIARY GEAR BOX POWER TURBINE (PT) COPRESSOR PT STAGES EXHAUST GAS

GAS GENERATOR (GG)

Gas Generator (GG) turbine drives axial compressor and turbine auxiliary by means of gearbox. Power Turbine (PT) drives the load, usually a centrifugal compressor or a pump, rarely an electric generator. PT e GG works at different speed. GG speed is constant during normal operation. PT speed can change in the range 50-105% of its rated speed during operation. The PT first nozzle is composed of variable vanes. In this way, by varying the angle of the vanes, its possible to manage the power sharing between GG and PT by the speed control of the two rotors.

67

Speed/Load control in Two shafts G.E. HD GT


IN THE G.E. H.D. TWO SHAFT GAS TURBINES, AS THE MS 5002, IN ORDER TO CONTROL THE SPEED OF HP AND LP ROTOR, A SECOND STAGE VARIABLE NOZZLE SYSTEM IS USED

68

G.E. HD Two Shafts GT: 2nd st.Variable Nozzles

Opened Variable Nozzle : Lowest Pressure Drop on the nozzle, i.e. HP Turbine lowest back pressure

69

G.E. HD Two Shafts GT: 2nd st.Variable Nozzles

Closed Variable Nozzle : Highest Pressure Drop on the nozzle, i.e. HP Turbine maximum back pressure

70

Two Shafts Gas Tubines for MD


MS 1002 (*) PGT5/2 GE 5/2 (**) PGT 10/2 GE 10/2 MS 3002 (*) MS 5002
(*) Out of production, Upgrade are available (**) New model (***)

HEAVY DUTY Two Shafts G.E. Gas Turbine Production Range

some GE Single Shaft Gas Turbine can be used for MD applications. in special process as LNG, Methanol, etc

MS 6001, MS 7001, MS 9001

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Heavy Duty G.T. G.E. Supply Chain


Firenze ( I )
Machine GT MW 5.5

Greenville ( U.S.A.)
Machine GT MW 85 172 400 (CC)

Belfort ( F )
Machine GT MW 70 123

GE5 GE10 FR5

7E 7FA 7H

6FA 9E 9FA 6B

11

255 42.2

30

9FA 9H

255 500 (CC)

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Nuovo Pignone

HEAVY DUTY GAS TURBINES COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION AND MAIN FEATURES


73

Inlet Section Gas Turbine

Inlet casing: directs the flow of outside air from the air inlet equipment into compressor blading Variable Inlet Guide Vane assembly N1 bearing assembly Thrust bearings, active and inactive Low pressure air seals

74

Gas Turbine Axial Compressor

75

HD GT Axial Compressor Operation


COMPRESSOR is the part of the engine where air is compressed

Compressor Discharge: (1) 30% is used for primary air (combustion air) (2) 5% is used to operation of gas turbine accessories: -bleed air and seal air -gas turbine start and motor air -gas turbine anti-icing (3) Remainder is used as secondary air to: - cool combustion gases - Provide film cooling of the gas generator turbine
76

HD GT Axial Compressor Operation

77

HD GT Axial Compressor Design


AIR Journal BEARING IGV DISCS TENSION RODS

Airfoils with large thicknesses Rotor stage discs linked by thick tension rods. Sliding Journal bearings Compressor Variable Inlet Guide vanes (IGV) (to control the air flow)

78

HD GT Axial Compressor Design

79

HD GT Axial Compressor Design

80

HD GT Axial Compressor Design

Random blades are selected for an automated check for the curvature, thickness, width and so farth.

81

HD GT Axial Compressor Assembly

Compressor Wheels: Rotor blades are inserted into these slot and held in axial position by spacer pieces, which are in turn staked at each end of slot

82

HD GT Combustion Chamber(s) Operation


COMBUSTOR(s) is the part of the engine where air is mixed with fuel and burned with a portion of the compressor air

The combustion casing allows compressor discharge air to be directed through the flow sleeve and ultimately into the combustion liner

30%

30% 40%
83

HD GT Combustion Chamber Design


COVER GAS FUEL SPARKLING PLUG LINER COMBUSTION CHAMBER WRAPPER

LIQUID FUEL

REACTION ZONE DILUITION ZONE

BURNER

EX HA US TG AS

COMBUSTION AIR PORT GAS CONVEYOR TRANSITION PIECE

SLOTS OR HOLES FOR THE LINER COOLING AIR

AIR FROM THE AXIAL COMPRESSOR

- The air flow through the combustion chamber has three functions: oxidize fuel, cool the metal parts, condition the extremely hot combustion products to the desired turbine inlet temperature. - The air enters the combustion chamber and flows forward, entering the liner through holes and louvers in the liner wall. - A portion of the air reaches the head end of C.C. and enters the liner through the cap where the axial swirler creates a vortex.
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NOx reduction for Heavy Duty Gas Turbines


DRY Systems WET Systems

1)
DLN 1: Dry Low NOx.

Steam Injection* This system


consists of the injection of atomized steam in the combustion chamber to decrease flame temperature and so NOx. Easy to install Requires Steam Increases maintenance

2)

Water Injection * This system


consists of the injection of atomized water in the combustion chamber to decrease flame temperature and so NOx.

DLN 2: Dry Low NOx.

Easy to install Requires water Increases maintenance

* Appliable for all GE HD GT

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HD GT Turbine Section
TURBINE is the part of the engine where the hot gases flowing from the combustor produce the mechanical power

The turbine can consist of several stages. Each stage is comprised of stationary row of nozzles where the high energy gases are increased in velocity and directed toward a rotating row of buckets, or airfoils, attached to the turbine shaft. As the gas flows through the turbine rotating shaft, the gas kinetic energy is converted into horsepower.

86

HD GT Turbine Section Operation

87

HD GT Turbine Section Design


Rotor blades (Buckets) and stator nozzles with large thickness, with high corrosion and erosion resistance. They can accept also heavy fuel oil (residual treated oil), but with more frequent maintenance intervals.

ROTATION AXIS

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HD GT Turbine Sec. Manufacture & Assembly


after the casting process, machining and grinding is done to the dovetail and to the sealing wings.

89

HD GT Turb.Sec. Blades Manuf. & Assembly


the bucket is then given a first and second coating

the last step before shipping is to give to each bucket a weight and a serial number.

90

HD GT Turbine Section: Nozzles Design


In the turbine there are stationary nozzles which direct the high-velocity flow of the expanded hot combustion gas against the turbine buckets causing the turbine rotor to rotate.

91

HD GT Turbine Section: Nozzles Design

92

HD GT Turbine Section : Seals Design


Unlike the compressor blading, the turbine bucket tips do not run directly against an integral machined surface of the casing but against annular curved segments called turbine shrouds.

93

HD GT Exhaust Section

Exhaust casing: the frame consist of an outer cylinder and an inner cylinder interconnected by radial struts. directs the flow of hot gas coming from the turbine section into the exhaust duct Turing Vanes are installed to reduce hot gas path turbolence / losses

94

HD Gas Turbine Bearings


The gas turbine unit contains two/three or four main journal bearings, [depending on if the unit is single or two shafts type] used to support the gas turbine rotor. The unit also includes thrust bearings to maintain the rotor-to-stator axial position and to support the thrust loads developed on the rotor. These bearings and seals are incorporated in two, three or four housing, depending on the bearing number.

The GT bearings are pressure-lubricated by a fluid (oil) supplied from the lubricating system. The fluid flows through branch lines to an inlet port provided in each bearing housing.

95

HD Gas Turbine Journal Bearings


Type:

Elliptical

96

HD Gas Turbine Thrust Bearings

Type:

Load (Equalizing) Unloaded (Non-Equalizing)


97

Gas Turbine: Thrust Loads on Bearings


(Example for a single shaft G.T. only)

Start-up and Shutdown


Thrust is given by the prevalent action of the compressor load since in the turbine there is no gas expansion (turbine load gradualy increases starting from flame-on). In the same way, turbine reduces its thrust following the power reduction, till the flame out, during shut-down.

Load on Inactive Thrust Bearing

Normal Operation
Thrust given by the action of the turbine becomes prevalent, respect to that one of the compressor, starting from flame-on and rising with the turbine load increasing (turbine power is about 200% of compressor power).

Load on

Active Thrust Bearing

Thrust action direction, on the G.T. Bearing, changes during starting and loading sequence due to the increased load on the turbine. It happens, therefore, in the opposite sequence during shut-down, because of turbine power 98 decreasing.

G.T PERFORMANCES: Influence Factors


EXTERNAL FACTORS
EXTERNAL FACTORS
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AMBIENT PRESSURE RELATIVE HUMIDITY GAS FUEL PROPERTIES

INTERNAL FACTORS
PRESSURE DROP IN THE INTAKE SYSTEM BACKPRESSURE IN THE EXHAUST SYSTEM AXIAL COMPRESSOR CLEANLINESS

99

Effects of Amb. Temper. on P, HR, AF/EF


T

Press. ratio If Tamb Air Flow

Exh. Temp. Heat rate

Power Output

100

Effects of Amb. Temp. on Exh. Temp

101

Effects of Amb. Temp. (Part Load with Modulat. IGV)

Exhaust Temperature vs. Output Percent: VIGV Control Mode

Exhaust Flow vs. Output Percent: VIGV Control Mode

102

Effects of Ambient Pressure

Pr. ratio If pamb Air Flow

Exh.Temp. Heat rate


103

Power Output

Effects of Ambient Humidity

Mass flow If rH Heat Rate Power Output


104

G.T PERFORMANCES: Influence Factors


INTERNAL FACTORS
EXTERNAL FACTORS
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AMBIENT PRESSURE RELATIVE HUMIDITY GAS FUEL PROPERTIES

INTERNAL FACTORS
PRESSURE DROP IN THE INTAKE SYSTEM BACKPRESSURE IN THE EXHAUST SYSTEM AXIAL COMPRESSOR CLEANLINESS

105

Pressure drops effects on air intake system

INTAKE SYSTEM Pressure drop in the intake system is caused by the friction of air flow through the silencers, and by the change in direction of the air path along the intake ducting. Pressure drop causes loss of power (similar to the altitude effect) and the increase of specific fuel consumption (Heat Rate).

106

Pressure drops effects on Air Intake system

p 1'

p 1' = p 1 p p = pressure drop

Pr. Ratio
p = pressure drop

Mass flow

Exh. temp. Heat rate


107

Power Output

Pressure drops effects on Exhaust system


Backpressure in the exhaust system comes from the same mechanism of intake pressure drop, with the addition of the pressure drop due to the boiler, in case of a combined cycle. The increased back pressure reduces the expansion rate and the relevant amount of energy given by the turbine section. As for the intake losses, this causes loss of power and increase of specific fuel consumption (Heat Rate).

108

Backpressure effects on Exhaust system

p 4'

p 4' = p 4 + p p = pressure drop

Pr. ratio
p = pressure drop

Mass flow

Exh. temp. Heat rate

Power Output

109

G.T PERFORMANCES: Influence Factors


COMPRESSOR CLEANING CONDITIONS

110

Performance Calculation Exhample


ISO CONDITIONS (MS7001)
Temperature (C) Pressure* (mbar abs) Output power*** (ISO kW) Heat Rate ***(kj/kWh) Turbine speed (100% RPM) 15 1013 85400 10990 3600

SITE CONDITIONS
Pressure (mbar abs) Temperature (C) Inlet system p (mm H2O) Exhaust system p (mm H2O) 989 30 100 100

CORRECTION FACTORS

** **From FromTemperature Temperature correction correctioncurve curve *** ***From Fromperf. perf.curves curvesdesign designdata dataand andnotes notes

Fpressure = 989/1013 = 0.977 FkW- temperature ** 0,90 FkWInlet system p *** = (100-1,7)/100 = 0,983 FkWExh system p *** = (100-0,6)/100 = 0,994 FHR- temperature ** 1,020 FHR- Inlet system p *** = (100+0,45)/100 = 1,0045 FHR- exh system p *** = (100+0,5)/100 = 1,005

Site Output Power (kW) Site Heat Rate (kj/kWh)

= ISOkW x 0.977 x 0,90 x 0,983 x 0,994 = 85400 x 0,86 = = Design HR x 1,020 x 1,0045 x 1,005 = 10990 x 1,029 =

73444 11308 230710 31,80


111

Site Heat consumption (Kj/s) = Site Output Power x Site HR = 73444 x 11308 / 3600 = Site thermal efficiency

(%) = 3600/ Site Heat Rate = (3600/ 11308) x 100

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT METHODS

1) Cooling inlet air

Inlet Temperature

2) Steam and Water Injection

Increase mass flow

3) Peak Load

Fire Temperature

WARNING !!
112

Inlet Cooling

113

Inlet Cooling: Evaporative Cooler Schematic

114

Inlet Cooling : Application Field

115

Inlet Cooling : System Balancing Care

116

Evaporative Cooling Vs. Inlet Chilling

117

Steam / Water Injection


Water Rates vs. Air Flow for Power Augmentation

118