COUNSELING UNIT 4,5
Meaning of counseling Terms involved in counseling Definition Factors contributing to the emergence of counseling Growth of counseling Approaches to the counseling Counseling process Evaluation of counseling
In general the counseling is to help individuals to overcome many of their problems. It involves two factors.
. Counselor 2.TERMS INVOLVED IN COUNSELING
cc.to Perez( Perez(1965 1965) ): The counseling is an
interactive process conjoining the counselor who needs assistance and the counselor who is trained and educated to give the assistance.
Acc.to Smith( Smith(1955 1955) ): A process in which the
counselor assists the counselee to make the interpretations of facts related to choice. plan or adjustments which he need to make.DEFINITION
. Educational factors 4. Technological factors 2.FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EMERGENCE OF COUNSELING
1. Psychological factors 3.
Because of the rapid change in the technology the need of counseling arises and it comes into existence.TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS
Technological changes have made a major impact upon the people¶s lives and work.
The growth of counseling is also because of Psychological factors.
. As a part of broader field of psychology the counseling is being introduced for the development into it.
The development of counseling can best be appreciated by analyzing the various issues that affected and influence its development. and dignity. rights.
. It has deep roots in the concern for an individual¶s freedom.EDUCATIONAL FACTORS
Modern counseling is a product of education system especially American education system.
. or neutral? This factor of human nature also helps in the emergence of the counseling. Is human nature either evil. or good.HUMAN FACTORS
There are several mutually opposed conceptions of the basic human nature.
They are: 1.GROWTH OF COUNSELING
The growth of counseling is divided into four phases. 1900-1930 3. 1850-1900 2. 1930-1940 4. Second world war and after
Under this period the innovations in the field of psychology were made.
. Davis who first used the term ³counseling´ in this period. under this period the the first psychological laboratory was founded at Leipzig by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879. However. it was Jesse b.
During the first few years of the twentieth century several significant events took place. All these factors helps in the emergence of the counseling. Unfortunately there is a wrong impression that counseling is a poor man¶s psychotherapy. These movements boosted efforts to develop knowledge and services in order to assist the individuals.
Under this era the workers needs the guidance for suitable tools and techniques to understand the concept of counseling. There were very few Psychological tests available and few persons were trained to use them at that time.
In this era counseling obtained the recognition by the American Psychological association(APA). Before this there was a hesitation regarding the acceptability of counseling as a form of psychotherapy.
. The APA accepted the recommendation of meeting and designated counseling psychology as its seventeenth division.SECOND WORLD WAR AND AFTER
In this era a book was published as ³counseling and psychotherapy´ by ³Carl Rogers´ in 1942.
colleges. mental health clinics. A large number of sub-specialities have developed to serve in setting such as schools. rehabilitation centers.
Over the past five decades counselors have gained overwhelming acceptance from society.
Psychoanalytic approach 2. Bahaviouristic approach 3.APPROACHES OF COUNSELING
1. Humanistic approach
In this the client is ignorant And unaware of the reasons for his difficulties or suffering which are deeply embedded in the unconscious. This principle is known as psychological SIGMUND FREUD founder of the psychodynamic approach determinism.PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
Psychoanalysis was originated by SIGMUND FREUD.
. The client is therefore helpless and it is the therapist who has to play the role of interpreting the material. who developed his theory from his past experiences as a therapist and wrote about his work.
. learning here is understood as changes in the behavior which are relatively long-lasting and which are not due to the psychological factors like fatigue etc. Its purpose is to change the ineffective and self defeating behavior into the effective and self winning behavior.BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACH
Counseling and psychotherapy are concerned with behavior change. one such application is in the form of Bahaviouristic approach.
The practical application of the humanistic Psychology made a great impact on the academic scene. This relationship is one in which the counselor seeks to bring about a better expression of the client¶s inner resources.
. In all human Interactions such as mother-child. therapist-client The helping relationship is fundamental. According to ROGERS in any kind of psychotherapy the basic theme is the helping relationship. Thus the helping relationship helps in the growth of person. teacher-pupil.
EVALUATION OF COUNSELING