You are on page 1of 6

1

taztm;rudk;ayr,fh om;qdk;awmh r[kwfyg


(1)
rEÅav;? rHk½Gmponfh txufbufrsm;rSm wdrfrJawGudkom jrifae&NyD; rdk;u wpfaygufrQyif rus/
odkUESifh rdk;½Gmatmif vGefqGJyGJawG usif;yum ig;&HUrif;y&dwfawGvnf; ½GwfaeMu&onf[k Mum;&onf/
atmufyikd ;f u NrKd UawGrmS awmh Mo*kwv f qef;ydik ;f avmufrpS í aeYnpyfum rd;k u rjywfatmif ½GmaecJo h nf/
uRefawmfwdkUNrdKUrSm tkwfuRwfwef;? rif;BuD;ndk? &cdkifpk? xD;vIdifESifh uGif;ydkif;ponfh &yfuGufrsm;rSm
xH;k pHtwdik ;f a&awGjrKyu f ek Nf y/D tkwu f Rww f ef;rSm aygifvnf? rif;Bu;D ndrk mS &ifpUkd avmufEiS hf jrpfBu;D aygufEiS hf
ZD;jzLyifawm&vrf;rSmawmh vnfyif;xdatmif ½dSMuonf/ ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;rSm tdrfatmufxyfawG
a& 0ifaeonf/ aps;vrf;? ukeo f nfBu;D vrf;ESihf Adv k rf LS ;zd;k uGe;f vrf;wpfavQmufwUkd rSmvnf; a&awGazG;azG;vIyf
aeonf/ ppfawmif;jrpfa&u pd;k &draf &rSwt f xufoUkd oH;k aycefyY if ausmaf eaMumif; od&onf/
uRefawmfhtdrfrSmawmh a&r0yfonfhwdkif (Sea Level)jrifhwufvmrIaMumifh tdrfa½SUum;*dka'gift0u
wdik af jcrSm yk½uG q f w d ef rD sm; tvkt,uf wd;k xGuv f maeMuwm jrif&onf/ wpfcPcsi;f rSmyif wdik af jcywf
vnfrSm &Jya'gif;cyfukefonf/ tJonf yk½Gufqdwfuav;rsm;udk Munfh&if; ]] owå0grSeforQ ao&rSm
aMumufMuwmcsnf;ygwum; }} [k uRefawmf oHa0*yGm;vdkufrdao;onf/
rd;k cPpJwek ;f rSm uReaf wmf qdik u f ,fjzifh NrKd Uudyk wfMunfo h nf/ uReaf wmf jyefvmawmh wlawmfarmif
udk tJonfwikd af jcem;rSm yd;k owfaq;bl;udik v f Quf awGUvdu k &f onf/ qdik u f ,fukd uAsmu,maxmufum
tajy;tvTm; oGm;Munfv h u kd af omfvnf; uReaf wmf aemufusomG ;Ny/D yk½u G qf w d u f av;rsm;rSm yd;k pd;k yufpuf
jzifh jrif&ufp&mr½daS tmif twke;f t½ke;f aoqH;k aeMuNy/D
oCFe;f pwpfcu k kd jzefcY sxm;ovdk eDeaD pG;apG;jzifh taxG;vdu k f aoaeMuonfh yk½u G qf w d af v;rsm;udk
ai;Munf&h if;rS uReaf wmfph w d w f Ukd u tazhqo D Ukd ysUH vGio hf mG ;avonf/
(2)
&efuek Nf rKd UodUk tvkyu f pd jö zifv
h mwdik ;f tazwdUk tdrrf mS uReaf wmf wnf;onf/ tJonfaeYu tvkyyf w d f
&ufrUkd oJorJ rJ ½J mG aeonfrh ;kd udk Oayu©mjyKum qufwu D v k m;xdik af y:rSm pwdik u f susxikd &f if; pmtkyw f pftyk f
xJrmS uReaf wmf arsmygaerdonf/ ]] [m yk½u G q f wd ef aD wG trsm;Bu;D yJ }} [k tvefw Y Mum; atmfvu kd of nfh
nD ri,f\ toHuMkdum;&rS zswcf eJ uReaf wmf acgif;axmifMunfrh o d nf/ nDri,fu ]] 'DZ,fawG avmif;csvu kd f
rSeJYwlw,f }} [k uRefawmfhudk vSrf;Munfh&if; ajymonf/
]] rvkyyf geJY 0if;eef;&,f .? ajratmufrmS tpd"k gwfawG rsm;vmawmh aer&awmhvUkd wufvmMuwm?
ck vlawG½rSd eS ;f odomG ;&if olw[ Ykd molwUkd ae&ma½TUoGm;ygvdrrhf ,f? cPavmuf apmifMh unfv h ukd yf g? Ny;D awmh
olwUkd rSm tod½w Sd ,f 0if;eef;&JU? olwUkd udk trdeaYf y;vdUk vnf; &w,f? tJ't D rdet Yf wdik ;f olwUkd vdu k v f yk Mf uw,f
vdUk ud, k zf wfz;l w,f }} [k ajymjy&m nDri,fu tHMh oonfrh suEf mS jzifh uReaf wmfph um;udk em;axmifaeav
onf/ ]] owå0gwdkif;[m olwdkUtoufudkolwdkU jrwfEdk;MuwmcsnfhyJ? 'Dawmh owå0gwdkif;[m ao&rSm
t&rf; aMumufMuw,f? 'ghaMumifh b,fowå0gudkrS rowfygeJY? udk,fcsif;pmNyD;awmh olwdkUtay:rSm
iJhnSmvdkufyg }} [k uRefawmfu qufNyD;qHk;raerdonf/
tJonftcsed rf mS wpfaeYig;Burd f bk&m;0wfjyKavh½o Sd nft h azu 0wfjyKNy;D í tdrt f ay:xyfrS qif;
vmaeonf/ avSum;rSqif;vm&if; uReaf wmfh pum;rsm;udk tazMum;[efw\ l / uReaf wmfurl tazonf

at;a½T
2

uReaf wmfph um;rsm;udk vufcMH unfjzL tjypfr,lawmh[k 0rf;ajrmufaerdonf/ Ny;D bk&m;½dcS ;kd Ny;D cgpqdak wmh
tazhpw d af wG Nird ;f at;aevdrrhf nf[v k nf; uReaf wmf ,lqonf/ tazu uReaf wmfwUkd tem;odUk qdu k q f u kd f
NrKd uNf rKd uyf if a&mufvmonf/ ]] 'DrmS yk½u G qf w d t f eDawG wufvmvdUk taz }} [k nDri,fu ajym&if;jyonf/
tazu nDri,ftem;rSm qwfceJ xdik cf svu kd of nf/
]] yk½u
G qf w d af wG wufvmwmrsm; bmvdUk 'Dwikd ;f 0dik ;f Munfah eMu&wmvJ? ckvkd owfypfvu kd af ygh }}
tazu ajymajymqdq k kd olUvuf0g;jyifBu;D ESpzf ufjzifh oHrw H vif;ay:rSm yGwo f yfum yk½u G q f w d uf
av;rsm;udk acsryT pfvu kd o f nf/ uReaf wmfh EIwzf sm;rS ]] [m }} [lí toHxu G o f mG ;onf/ odUk aomf tazhukd
uRef awmf bmrQ jyefrajym0H/h jyefajymívnf; vufcv H rd rhf nf[k uReaf wmf rxif/ tazwdUk em;rS uReaf wmf
jznf; ñSi;f pGm x&yfvu kd o f nf/ Ny;D taz ]] ighudk ½GUJ wmxif&UJ }}[k uReaf wmf awG;rdonf/ tjyifrmS rd;k awGu
t NiK§d ;jzifh ½Gmaeonf/ uReaf wmf&h ifxrJ mS vnf; rsu&f nfr;kd wdUk yd;k yd;k aygufayguf ½GmcsaeavNy/D
pifppf tazh&ifxrJ mS cdik cf ikd Nf rNJ rJ pG0J ifp;l epfaeonfh t,lrmS ;Bu;D wpfcu k kd acszsuzf Ukd &m uReaf wmfrh mS
pGrf;tm;r½dSawmhygwum;[k awG;rdvdkufjcif;u tJonf yk½Gufqdwfuav;awG aoausMuwmudk
jrif&wmxuf 0rf;enf;yufvuf cH&cufvo S nf/
(3)
ppfumvwGi;f rSpí ck om;orD; wpfq,fEh pS af ,muf&onftxd csKUd csKUd wJw h EhJ rG ;f EGr;f yg;yg;jzifh b0
c&D;BuD;udk Murf;wrf;pGm jzwfoef;vmcJh&onfh tazonf tJvdk ½kef;uefcJh&wmaMumifhyif rmetBuD;qHk;?
pdwf xm; tcufxefqHk; jzpfcJh&onfxifh/ tJvdk cufwa&mfvGef;vSonfh b0BuD;xJrS jzKwfceJ jzKwfceJ
jyKwfus vmcJhMuonfh uRefawmfwdkU armifESrwpfawGudk tazu ususee yHkcsay;cJhonf/ taz
xk q pf c J h o nf h t wd k i f ; uRef a wmf w d k U b0awG u ½k y f v H k ; <uvm&onf / tazcsrS w f a y;xm;onf h
r[mpnf;urf;Bu;D ay:rS wpfvufrrQ raoGznf&cJ MhJ u/ wpfcsurf mS ;onfEiS hf tJonftazhvufMurf;Bu;D u
uRefawmfwkdU ausmjyifrSm ]ajAm} wif awmhonfom/ onfawmh taza[hqdkvQif aep&mr&atmifyif
uRefawmfwdkU aMumufcJhMu&onf/ odkUaomf uRefawmfwdkUwpfawG vlwpfvHk;olwpfvHk;jzpfzdkUtwGuf ]]
wkH;qdkwdkuf usm;qdkudkuf }} &Jonfh tazhudk r½dS awmhrSmvnf; uRefawmfwdkU pdk;½GHUMu&jyefonf/
odUk aomf ..taz qH;k rorQ wpfoa0rwdr;f emcHco hJ nfh uReaf wmhu f kd taz auseyfonf/ rd½;kd zvm
,HMk unfrt I wdik ;f aexdik u f siBhf uNH y;D armifErS rsm;udyk g vrf;jyay;aeonfh uReaf wmfu h kd tazESpo f ufonf/
uRefawmfha½SUrSm NyHK;írQ rjycJhzl;onfhtazonf uG,f&mrSmawmh uRefawmfhtaMumif;udk taumif;csnf;
qdck hJ onf/ uReaf wmf vkyif ef;cGi0f ifNy;D onfah emuf rdom;pkukd jyefapmifah ½Smufawmh taz ydNk y;D *kP, f o l nf/
t bufbufrmS vdt k yfcsurf sm;ESihf rGe;f Muyfaecsed rf mS uReaf wmfonf tazhtwGuf vuf½;Hk wpfql jzpfco hJ nf/
nDuakd rmifErS tm;vH;k uvnf; uReaf wmfNy;D vQif Ny;D Ny/D taz t½G,u f sp olUud, k of l tm;r&awmhonfh t
csed rf mS uReaf wmhu f kd vH;k 0,Hí k yHak wmhonf/ tJv, kd NkH y;D ykvH u kd o
f nft
h csed rf mS rS wpdu k rf wfrwf vdu k ef mvmcJh
onfh rd½;kd zvm,HMk unfrBI u;D udk uReaf wmfu y,fpeG v Yf u kd of nf/ tudBk u;D ESit hf rBu;D wdUk odcgpu olwUkd rsuEf mS
awGrSm aoG;qkwfvkvkyif jzpfaeMuonf/ taz odoGm;vQifawmh ,rf;yHkrD;us a'golykefxawmhrnf[k/
odkU aomf .zHk;ívnf; rvHkrnfhtwlwl tazhudk uRefawmf zGifhajymvdkufonf/ tazonf uRefawmfhudk
wpfcsurf Q armhMunfv h u kd jf cif;rSwpfyg; pum;wpfceG ;f udrk Q rqd/k
okUd aomf [d;k wke;f u urÇmausmo f &l aJ umif;Bu;D wpfa,mufozG,f tm;ud;k cJNh y;D r[mor®wrif;ozG,f

at;a½T
3

vnf; ½GUH aMumufav;pm;cJ&h onfh tazhukd c&rf;oD;ydef "g;wk;H tm;tifawG qH;k cgusrS zDvmjyKvu kd &f onft h
jzpfuakd wmh uReaf wmf pdwrf aumif; jzpf&onf/ tJonfaemufrmS tazESit hf arwdUk udk tdy&f mxufrmS acGaeMu
wmom trsm;tm;jzifh awGU&awmhonf/
(4)
wpfaeY .tazhukd uReaf wmf tvnfac:cJo h nf/ um;acgif;cef;xJrmS taztdEk iS u hf Reaf wmf ESpaf ,muf
wnf;/ >yefwefqmausmv f monftxd [d;k .ta0;udak i;&if; taz Nird o f ufpmG vdu k yf gvmonf/ anmif
av;yif a&mufvek ;D rS tazhukd uReaf wmf pum;p&onf/
] avmuBu;D xJrmS .b,fawmhrS razgufrjyefbeJ YJ obm0tavQmuf tNrw J rf;rSeu f efaewJh ed,m
rw&m;Bu;D ig;yg;½dw S ,f taz ..}
] tif; ..}
] ADZed,mrqdw k m 'DrsK;d aphu 'DtyifaygufNy;D awmh 'DtyGiyhf iG w hf ,f? 'DtoD;oD;w,f? [drk sK;d aphuus
awmh [dt k yifaygufNy;D awmh [dt k yGiyhf iG w
hf ,f? [dt k oD;oD;w,f? ukvyJcsKw H Ukd u ajrmuft&yfqD tñGejYf yLw,f?
'u©P d EG,rf sK;d usawmh opfyifukd awmifbufu EG,Nf y;D wufw,f? aeMumyef;usawmh ae½dw S zhJ ufukd vSnhf
w,f? tJ'g Nrw J AhJ ZD ed,mr taz&JU? tJ .Ny;D awmh Owke, d mrwJh ..'DOwkrmS 'Dyef;rsK;d awG yGiw hf ,f? [dOk wkrmS
awmh [dt k oD;awG oD;w,f? tJvkd b,fae&m b,fa'orSmyJjzpfjzpf razgufrjyefbeJ YJ Owktvdu k f yGiMhf uw,f?
Owktvdkuf oD;Muw,f? tJ'gu Owked,mr }
] tif; ..}
] owå0gawG[m a½S;u olwUkd jyKcw hJ hJ uHawGew YJ pl mG tusK;d ay;rI Nrw J o
hJ abmudak wmh ur®e, d mrvdUk
ac:w,ftaz? Oyrm aumif;wmvkycf &hJ if aumif;wJt h usK;d udk &w,f? raumif;wmvkycf &hJ ifawmh raumif;
wJth usK;d udk &wmaygh? tJ'g ed,mryJ? Ny;D awmh "r®e, d mrqdw k musawmh bk&m;tavmif;wdUk y#doaE¨aewJt h
cg? bk&m;jzpfwt hJ cg? "r®pMumw&m;awmf a[mwJt h cg pojzifah ygh? tJvt dk cgawGrmS olwUkd &JUtvGeBf u;D us,f
wJh aumif;rIwefcdk;aMumifh avmu"gwfwpfaomif; wpfNydKufeuf wkefvIyfwJhoabmaygh taz&m }
] tif; ..}
] aemufwpfckuawmh pdwåed,mrwJh? tqif;wdkU? toHwdkU? teHYwdkUeJY rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;pojzifh
tJvkd qdik &f mqdik &f m qHrk Md uwJth cgrSm olUudpeö o YJ jl zpfMuwJh pdwu f av;awG[m wpfcNk y;D wpfc?k wpfcNk y;D wpfck
jzpfMu w,f? bmpdwfNyD;awmh bmpdwfjzpf? bmpdwfNyD;awmh bmpdwfjzpf pojzifhaygh? tJvdk olUudpöeJYol
pdwu f av;awG tqufqufjzpfMuNy;D awmhrS bmyJ? nmyJvUkd yHo k @mefew YJ uG? trnfew YJ uG? jynfjh ynfph pkH u kH kd
ododoGm;Mu& wm? tJvdk qdkif&mqdkif&m tm½kHeJY olUtMunf"gwf? [yfrdvdkufwJhtcgrSm pdwfuav;awG
wpfckNyD;awmh wpfck tpOftwdkif; qufç qufjzpfoGm;wJhoabmudk tJ'g pdwåed,mrvdkUac:w,f }
] tif; .}
] qdkvdkwmuawmh taz&m avmuBuD;xJrSm tJ'Ded,mrawGtwdkif;yJ olUtaMumif;eJY olUtusKd;?
trsK;d rsK;d awG jzpfaeMuwm? tJvjkd zpfatmifvUdk b,fvv kd ?l b,fvekd wf? b,fvjkd A[®meJY b,fvb kd &k m;urS
zefqif; ay;wmr[kwb f ;l taz&? taMumif;awG aygif;qHv k mvdUk ½d&S if tusK;d rjzpfygapeJv Y Ukd vnf; b,fou l rS
wm; vdUk r&ovd?k taMumif;awG rjynfph v kH Ukd ½d&S ifvnf;yJ tusK;d jzpfvmatmif b,fou l rS zefqif;vdUk r&Edik b f ;l
taz }

at;a½T
4

] tif; ..}
] Oyrm taz&m .rsupf t d Munf"gwf&,f? tqif;&,f? tvif;a&mif&,f? tm½kpH u kd rf &I ,f? tJ'D t
aMumif;w&m; av;yg;qHv k Ukd ½d&S if jrifw,fqw kd m jzpfvmwmyJ? tJ'v D kd taMumif;w&m; av;yg;xJrmS wpfyg;yg;
csKUd wJah er,fq&kd if b,fou l rS jrifatmif rzefqif;Edik yf gbl;? tJ't D aMumif;w&m;av;yg; qHv k Ukd ½d&S ifvnf;yJ
b,fou l rS rjrifygapeJv Y Ukd wm;qD;vdUk r&ygbl; }
] tif; ..}
] tJvykd J em;tMunf"gwf&,f? toH&,f? Mum;cH[if;vif;jyif&,f? tm½kpH u kd rf &I ,f? tJvkd taMumif;
av;yg;qHck &hJ if Mum;pdwjf zpfw,f? ESmacgif;tMunf&,f? teHU&,f? ½Iav½Iu d af v&,f? tm½kpH u kd rf &I ,f? tJ'D
av;ck qHkvdkU½dS&ifvnf; eHpdwfjzpfwmyJ? usefwmawGvJ tJvdkyJ olUtaMumif;w&m;awGeJYol jzpfaeMuwm?
tJ'D awmh tusK;d w&m;wpfck jzpfay:csi&f if taMumif;w&m;awG jynfph akH tmifvyk ?f aumif;wJt h usK;d jzpfcsiv f Ukd ½dS
&ifvnf; taMumif;w&m;awGukd aumif;atmifvyk af ygh? tJvkd taMumif;awGukd aumif;atmif? jynfph akH tmif
rvkyb f eJ aYJ wmh aumif;wJt h usK;d awG jzpfyg&apvdUk xdik Nf y;D awmh qkawmif;aevdUk r&bl;taz }
qefeyD pfuyfum;jzLuav;u jzL;acsmif;wHwm;Bu;D udk ausmjf zwfaeNy/D rMumrDrmS yif aZ,s0wD? anmif
ajcaxmuf? uRyJ EJG iS hf tkww f iG ;f NrKd UwdUk udk tpOftwdik ;f jzwfausmu f m awmifio l Ukd a&mufawmhrnf/ uReaf wmf
u ed,mrw&m;awG? y#dpo ö rkygÜ 'fw&m;awG? uHEiS u hf \
H tusK;d awG? uH? ÓPf? 0D&, d ? taMumif;awG nDñw G f
Muoavmuf vlUb0rSm tusK;d jzpfMu&yHak wGpojzifh tm;wufoa&m oGeaf tmNy;D ajymvmcJo h nf/ uReaf wmf
b,fvakd jymajym tif;wpfv;kH om vdu k af eonfh tazhoabmudak wmh uReaf wmf odcsiaf o;onf/ onfawmh
tazhbufukd uGucf eJ uReaf wmf vSnMhf unfo h nf/ &dycf eJ&yd cf eJ ajy;vTm;aeonfh ypfuyfum;jzLuav;u
aZ,s0wDNrKd Uo Y Ukd 0ifpjyKNy/D
] ck uRefawmf ajymcJhwmawGtay:rSm taz b,fvdk oabm&ovJ [if ..}
tazhxrH S bmpum;rS jyefrMum;&? uReaf wmf onfar;cGe;f udyk J xyfar;onf/ taz Nird af eao;onf/
tawmfav;MumawmhrS tazhxrH S oufjyif;csow H pfcu k kd [l;ceJ Mum;vdu k &f onf/ Ny;D awmhrS ..
] tJ'Doabmw&m;awGudk taz vufcHygw,f? rSefvnf; rSefaew,fav ..} wJh/
uReaf wmf xckev f u kd rf ad wmhrwwf 0rf;omoGm;onf/ 'gqdv k Qif onfpum;awGukd pd;k wxdwx f wd jf zifh
uRefawmf ajym&usKd; eyfoGm;NyD/ tazu uRefawmf xifxm;wmxuf awmfaeonf/ tazu trSefudk
trSef twdik ;f vufcw H wfonf[k uReaf wmf awG;aeonf/ tJonftcsed rf mS tazhtoHukd xyfMum;&onf
../
] 'gayr,fh ...}
] [if ..bm 'gayr,fhvJ taz }
] tazhtoufu ck 75 ESpfxJ a&mufaeNyD }
] [kwfuJh ..}
] taz i,fi,f .[d;k ..csKUd csKUd wJw h ehJ YJ b0uwnf;u aqGrsK;d todik ;f t0dik ;f awG trsm;Bu;D &JUMum;xJrmS
rsuEf mS i,frcHbeJ YJ 'Dtajctae? 'Dtouft½G,x f ad &mufatmif taz aevmcJNh y;D NyD }
] [kwfuJhtaz ..tJ'Dawmh ..}
] tJ'aD wmh .'Dt½G,Bf u;D uscgrS 'DaqG'rD sK;d awG&UJ uJ&h UJ oN*KØ [rf aI tmufu tazazgufrxGuEf ikd af wmh

at;a½T
5

bl; .om; }
uReaf wmf EGr;f armpGm oufjyif;½SnBf u;D wpfcu k kd rIwx f w
k jf zpfvu kd o
f nf/ uReaf wmh&f nf½, G cf suaf wG
oJxaJ &oGef jzpfomG ;Ny/D um;uav;ay:rSm twefMumatmif wdwq f wd af eavonf/ uReaf wmfwUkd ESpOf ;D t
Mum;rSm ajymp&mpum;yif r½daS wmhovdk jzpfomG ;onf/ uReaf wmfajymcJo h nfh pum;awGukd uReaf wmf jyefqif
jcifMunfrh o d nf/ tazhrmS tusK;d wpfcjk zpfavmufatmif taMumif;w&m;awG rjynfph akH o;wm[k uReaf wmf
rSwcf sucf sonf/ Ny;D tazhukd ar;cGe;f wpfck uReaf wmf xyfar;rdonf/
] uJ .xm;ygawmh taz&m? 'gayr,fh .ck uReaf wmfajymcJw h mawG rSew f ,fvUkd taz vufc&H UJ vm;
}
] vufcHw,f om;? vufcHw,f .}
bmyJjzpfjzpf t½IH;BuD;½IH;NyD;rS uRefawmf BudwfNyD; NyHK;&onf/ trSefudk vufcHwwfonfhtazhxHrS
uRef awmfvckd siw f mukd arQmv f ifv h Ukd &Edik af o;onfy/J
tJonfaemuf &efuek af &mufwikd ;f &ifah &mfvNS yjD zpfonft h azhem;rSm uReaf wmf yl;yl;uyfuyfaeum
t azESihf pum;awG ajymjzpfonf/ Ny;D taMumawG NyKd i;f NyKd i;f xaeonfh tazhvufukd yGwo f yf&if;rSvnf;
pdwf wGi;f rSBuw d Nf y;D wzGzjG zifh a&½Gwaf erdwwfao;onf/ ]] wu,fwrf;uawmh taz,HMk unfonfjzpfap?
r,Hk Munfonfjzpfap tazvkyfcJhwJh aumif;uHqdk;uHawG&JU'Pfudk tazyJcH&rSm? b,fom;? b,forD;?
b,faqG rsKd;urS tazhudk,fpm; 0ifcHay;vdkU r&ygbl;? oHo&mqdkwm aMumufp&maumif;w,f taz?
ckq&kd if b,f[m rSew f ,f? b,f[mrSm;w,fvUkd tazvnf; em;vnfNy;D NyyD ?J 'Dawmh rd½;kd zvmt,lrmS ;Bu;D udk
jywfjywfom;om; pGefYNyD;awmh t,lrSefudk vufcHvdkufygawmh? tcsdefrSDygao;w,f taz&m }} [k/
(5)
arQmv f ifch suaf wGukd &ifxrJ mS yif oDu;Hk ½Gwq f &kd if; q,fpEk pS w f pfck ukeqf ;kH oGm;cJo h nf/
wpfaeY .awmifio l Ukd jyef&ef tazhukd tdraf y:wufNy;D EIwq f ufonf/ tazu uReaf wmfu h kd olUtem;
rSm cPxdkifzdkU vufjyNyD;ac:onf/ arQmfvifhcsufawG wpfaxG;BuD;jzifh tazhem; uRefawmf ajy;xdkifonf/
NyD; awmh tazhrsufESm ydefcsyfcsyfudk cyfMumMum armhMunfhaerdonf/ tazu pum;wpfcGef;udk qdkonf/
] ighom; .rSm;Ny;D cJw h mawGvnf; rSm;Ny;D cJNh y?D taz raocifrmS ighom;[m [d;k t&ifu taz tm;ud;k
cJh&wJh om;rsKd;yDyD rd½dk;zvm udk,fhbmomqD jyefvmcJhygawmh .om;&,f .} wJh/
uReaf wmfeh m;xJrmS rd;k BuKd ;tpif;w&mru wpfNyKd iw f nf;ypfomG ;ovdk xifvu kd rf o
d nf/ odUk aomf csuf
csi;f yif uReaf wmf xde;f vdu k Ef ikd o
f nf/ tazu trSnv hf eG of nfh opfo;D vdk jzpfaeNy/D ckcsed rf mS tazhukd pdwf
qif;&Japrnfhpum;awG uRefawmf rajymvdkawmh/ ta&miftqif; uif;aeonfh rsuf0ef;tpHkjzifh taz
uRef awmfu h kd ai;Munfah eonf/ cPMumawmh tazhukd wpfcsurf QNyKH ;jyum uReaf wmf vSnx hf uG vf mcJo h nf/
(6)
Ny;D cJoh nfh wpfacgufuvnf; tazhukd EIwq f ufawmh tJonfpum;udo k m taz xyfwvJvJ ajymav
onf/ uReaf wmfuawmh ausmufqpf½yk w f pf½yk v
f kd rwkerf vIyo f m jyefNyKH ;jy&onf/ tazhxrH S jyefvmawmh
uRefawmf EkH;acGyef;vQ ,lBuHK;r& jzpf&onf/ uRefawmfhpdwfxJrSm tawG;wdkUjzifh ½IyfyGaeonf/ tazhudk
uRef awmf b,fvdkjyefajym&ygh[k/ um;pwD,m&ifudk idkifwdkifwdkifjzifhudkif&if; rsuf&nfawGtMum;u
xGufusvm onfhpum;awGu um;xJrSmyif jynfhodyfaeavmufNyD/ vlrodolrod rcsdatmif uRefawmf

at;a½T
6

idak erdygNy/D
reufjzefqv kd Qif uReaf wmf &efuek f qif;&vdrOhf ;D rnf/ ckwifxufrmS om acGacGuav; aeavh½aSd wmh
onfh tazhudk awGU&vdrfhOD;rnf/ ]] taz odyfusoGm;w,f }} [k trBuD;ajymjywmudk jyefowd&onf/
]] om;aumif;wpfa,muf ausmufaumif;wpfaphvkd taztm;ud;k wJh om;rsK;d uReaf wmf odyjf zpfcsif
w,f taz? 'gayr,fh .tazeJYuRefawmf[m oHo&mrSm tzefzeftcgcg qHkMu&OD;rSmyg? 'Db0rSmawmh
BuHKcJ vSwJh w&m;ppfw&m;rSefudk BuHKcdkufav;rSm uRefawmf BudKufyg&apawmh? tazhudk rSDcdkaecJh&wkef;u
tazhp um;udk av;pm;cJhayr,fh udk,fujyefMunfh&wJhtcsdefuscgrS tazhudk ta&;rxm;awmhwm
r[kwf&ygbl; t az? tcgcyfodrf; rSefuefwJhw&m;awGrdkUvdkU aemifb0awGrSmyg onftqHk;trawGudk
toH;k csEikd of jl zpfatmif uReaf wmf BuKd ;pm;aewmyg? taz trdeaYf wmfjrwfukd cH,al wmhr,ft h csed rf mS tazhukd
ayGUzufNy;D awmh tm; &atmif jyKpck siaf yr,fh tJ't D csed rf mS tazhtem;rSm uReaf wmf rae0Hb
h ;l taz? taz
tm;rudk;&wJh om;qdk; twGuf tazvnf; taoajzmifhrSm r[kwfygbl;? 'gaMumifhrdkU taz r½dSawmhrSyJ
b0wpfavQmufvHk; uRef awmf idka<u;aeyg&apawmh? om;qdk;udk cGifhvTwfyg taz }}
twkH;t½kH; aoqHk;aeMuonfh yk½GufqdwfteDuav;rsm;udkMunfh&if; uRefawmf idka<u;aerdonf/
t azhudk uRefawmf t&rf; owd&aeygonf/

om;aumif;wpfa,muf ausmufaumif;wpfaph
jzpfEikd Mf uygap
at;a½T (auwkrwD)
17.8.09

at;a½T