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If an organization is to achieve its goals, it must not only have the required resources, it must also use them effectively. The resources available to a manager are human, financial, physical, and informational. While human resources (HR have al!ays been critical to the success of any organization, they have assumed an increasingly greater importance that is being recognized inside and outside !or" organizations. Human resources departments typically include individuals !ith a !ide variety and range of "no!ledge, s"ills, and abilities !ho are e#pected to perform $ob activities in a manner that contributes to the attainment of organizational goals. Ho! effectively employees contribute to the organization depends in large part upon the quality of the HR program (including staffing, training, and compensation as !ell as the ability and !illingness of management%%from the &'( to first%line supervisors%%to create an environment that fosters the effective use of human resources.
Why Study Human Resources Management (HRM)?
)nyone !ho embar"s on a course of specialized study typically !onders about its relevance to his or her interests and goals. The ans!er to the question *Why study HR+,* should become apparent as !e e#plore the importance of HR+ and e#amine the contributions it can ma"e to an organization. Whether you are !or"ing in the HR+ function of your organization or as a staff professional or line manager, you !ill definitely need to be a!are of the various roles and responsibilities in dealing !ith employers in your organization.
The m!ortance o" HRM
-or many decades such responsibilities as selection, training, and compensation !ere considered basic functions of the area historically referred to as personnel management. These functions !ere performed !ithout much regard for ho! they related to each other. -rom this narro! vie! !e have seen the emergence of !hat is no! "no!n as human resources management. #ersonne$ management %as&c "unct&ons o" se$ect&on' tra&n&ng' com!ensat&on' etc(' &n the management o" an organ&)at&on*s !ersonne$ Human resources management (HR+ , as it is currently perceived, represents the e#tension rather than the re$ection of the traditional requirements for managing personnel effectively. )n understanding of human behavior and s"ill in applying that understanding are still required. )lso required are "no!ledge and understanding of the various personnel functions performed in managing human resources, as !ell as the ability to perform those functions in accordance !ith organizational ob$ectives. )n a!areness of e#isting economic, social, and legal constraints upon the performance of these functions is also essential. Human resources management (HRM) e+tens&on o" the trad&t&ona$ re,u&rements o" !ersonne$ management' -h&ch recogn&)es the dynam&c &nteract&on o" !ersonne$ "unct&ons -&th each other and -&th the strateg&c and !$ann&ng o%.ect&/es o" the organ&)at&on( HR+, as it is practiced today, recognizes the dynamic interaction of personnel functions !ith each other and !ith the ob$ectives of the organization. +ost important, it recognizes that HR planning must be coordinated closely !ith the organization.s strategic and related planning functions. )s a result, efforts in HR+ are being directed to!ard providing more support for the achievement of the organization.s goals, !hether it be a profit, not for profit, or governmental or%
the rising costs of health benefits. (ne may e#pect to see ne! issues and challenges emerging in the future that require appropriate action. day care for children of employees. and attempts to erode the employment%at%!ill doctrine valued by employers are still other hazards that contemporary employers must try to avoid. the physically disabled. stri"e threats. and alternative !or" schedules are concerns that many employers must address. 'volving business and economic factors forge changes in the HR field requiring that preparation for change be an ongoing process. The HR+ 5epartment activities influence both the individual and society. . International companies face increased global competition. &ourt litigation. )ll employers are finding that privacy and confidentiality of information about employees are serious matters and deserve the greatest protection that can be provided. In the process of managing human resources. labor relations. employees and the public at large are demanding that employers demonstrate greater social responsibility in managing their human resources. &omplaints that some $obs are revitalizing the lives and in$uring the health of employees are not uncommon. and management development. increasing attention is being given to the personal needs of the employees. values. the most challenging HR issues are health care costs. These issues are follo!ed by problems in managing diverse groups of !or"ers !ho have different attitudes. and mergers and acquisitions. Increasingly. demands for corrective action by governmental agencies. training. compensation. minorities. &harges of discrimination against !omen. Ro$e o" the HR 1e!artment Top management generally recognizes the contributions that the HR program can ma"e to the organization and thus e#pects HR managers to assume a broader role in the overall organizational strategy. HRM0 Current Cha$$enges )ccording to a survey of senior HR e#ecutives in Personnel Journal's top /00 companies (based on /112 revenues . and charges of unfair labor practices. Investment in sophisticated HR practices contributes to greater financial performance and productivity and to reduced turnover. sizable damage a!ards in response to employee la!suits. and the aged !ith respect to hiring.ganization. reorganizing and do!nsizing organizations. (ther areas presenting challenges are !or"ers. Thus HR managers must remember the bottom line if they are to fulfill their role. and compensation are being leveled against some employers. Where employees are organized into unions. Issues such as comparable pay for comparable !or". and !or" behaviors3 managing for top%quality performance (T4+ 3 team building3 and responding to the needs of the families of employees. employers can encounter costly collective bargaining proposals. advancement.
all managers and supervisors are responsible for performing these functions in their relations !ith subordinates. 5iscussions concerning the role of the HR department can serve to provide one !ith a better understanding of the functions performed by this department. 7ou need to understand the forces that have contributed to this process and to become more a!are of forces acting today that !ill have an effect on HR+ in the future. ) familiarity !ith the role of the HR department should help you to cooperate more closely !ith the department. !hether you become first%line supervisor or chief e#ecutive officer. )lthough HR managers have the responsibility for coordinating and enforcing policies relating to the HR functions.The HR Ro$e o" Managers and Su!er/&sors 6tudents !ho are no! preparing for careers in organizations !ill find that the study of HR+ !ill provide a bac"ground of understanding that !ill be valuable in managerial and supervisory positions. It is in such positions of leadership that the ma$ority of students !ill be employed. HR+ is therefore oriented to help you in managing subordinates more effectively. . The present status of HR+ !as achieved only after years of evolutionary development.s staff and to utilize more fully the assistance and services available from this resource.
. at least in a primitive form. +etcalf. !ere performed !henever people came together for a common purpose.R)&TI&'6 7')R /=1> /@A@ /@@/ /@@C /@@> /1/2 /1/C /1/D /120 /12A /12= /1CD /DC1 ':'<T 'arliest authenticated stri"e in )merica3 . 'stablishment of the &ongress of Industrial (rganizations (&I( by several unions previously affiliated !ith the )-9. 'stablishment of the 8. &ivil 6ervice &ommission.6. )n understanding of the events contributing to the gro!th of HR+ can provide a perspective for contemporary policies and practices. .hiladelphia printers see" to gain minimum !ee"ly !age of ?>. 5epartment of 9abor.+'<T (. .HR+ . published by (rd!ay Tead and Henry &. -irst te#t in personnel administration. and a gro!ing body of "no!ledge has been accumulated by practitioners and scholars. Roethlisberger.hiladelphia setting a minimum !age for !or"ers in commercial occupations. Ha!thorne studies begun by +ayo. Beginning of -rederic" W.oint method of $ob evaluation developed by the <ational 'lectric +anufacturers. .assage in +assachusetts of the first minimum !age la!. and 5ic"son. 'stablishment of the 8. -ounding of the )merican -ederation of 9abor ()-9 . 86) HI6T(RI&)9 5':'9(.s !or" in scientific management at the +idvale 6teel .lant in . -irst course in personnel administration. 5uring the course of this past century. offered at 5artmouth &ollege. ho!ever. the processes of managing people have become more formalized and specialized.6. has e#isted since the first attempts at group effort. )ssociation and the <ational +etal Trades )ssociation.hiladelphia.ublication of the first edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Taylor. even though informal in nature. &ertain HR functions.assage of a la! in . .1e/e$o!ment o" Human Resources Management HR+.
as the result of legislation and collective bargaining.s . +erger of the )-9 and &I(.+ . and to regulate !or"ing conditions that affect employee health and safety. the development of mechanical po!er made possible a factory system of production.B . to establish minimum !ages for male labor.rogram established by the 8.6. the +erit 6ystems . employment conditions began to improve. !hich established the (ffice of . and the -ederal 9abor Relations )uthority (-9R) .6. &ivil 6ervice &ommission to enhance the employment and advancement of !omen. . Increased emphasis on employee participation in organizational decision ma"ing to improve productivity and competitive position. Increased emphasis on global HR practices3 greater use of temporary employees3 observed 'mphasis on se#ual harassment3 heightened attention to greater diversity in the !or"force3 increased emphasis on total quality management3 and do!nsizing or *rightsizing* of organizations. Beginning of a professional accreditation (no! certification program by the . /1DD /1D= /1=D /1=@ /1@2 /1@D /110 /11/ /11D The 2actory System 5uring the nineteenth century. The concentration of !or"ers in factories served to focus public attention on their conditions of employment. !ith increasing attention to *$ust cause* terminations. . 'ventually. demanding the mobilization of individuals trained in personnel management and the rapid development of personnel programs in the military and in industry. 5uring the late /@@0s. -ederal Women. la!s !ere passed in some states to regulate hours of !or" for !omen and children.rotection Board (+6.ersonnel +anagement ((.ersonnel )ccreditation Institute. !hich !ere often unhealthy and hazardous. Heightened a!areness of privacy rights of employees as employers monitor employee performance.assage of the &ivil 6ervice Reform )ct. It !as also at this time that la!s !ere enacted to provide pay% ments for in$uries suffered in industrial accidents./1A/ Beginning of 8. involvement in World War II. Beginning of the erosion of the employment%at%!ill doctrine.
Sc&ent&"&c management su%st&tut&on o" e+act sc&ent&"&c &n/est&gat&on and 3no-$edge "or &nd&/&dua$ . scientific management required accurate performance standards based on ob$ective data gathered from time studies and other sources.The Mass #roduct&on System +ass production !as made possible by the availability of standardized and interchangeable parts designed to be used in assembly%line production. the Ha!thorne studies !ere an effort to determine !hat effect hours of !or". The accompanying increases in overhead costs and !age rates. Illinois. these studies !ere a pioneering endeavor to e#amine factors affecting productivity. ho!ever.s !or" at the +idvale 6teel plant in . These e#periments constituted one of the first cooperative industry%university research efforts. and lighting might have on !or"er fatigue and productivity. Ha-thorne stud&es e+!er&ments &n the 4567s to determ&ne -hat e""ect hours o" -or3' !er&ods o" rest' and $&ght&ng ha/e u!on -or3er "at&gue and !roduct&/&ty &onducted at the Western 'lectric &ompany. forced companies to see" !ays of using production facilities and labor more efficiently.udgment o" e&ther the -or3er or the %oss The Ha-thorne Stud&es Begun in the /120s. Taylor. )ccording to Taylor. With this system came improvements in production techniques and the use of labor%saving machinery and equipment. These standards provided a basis for re!arding the superior !or"ers financially and for eliminating the unproductive ones. ho!ever. periods of rest.s Ha!thorne Wor"s near &hicago. HR specialists generally agree that the Ha!thorne studies played a very important role in the development of HR+.hiladelphia stimulated the scientific management movement. it !as discovered that the social environment could have an equivalent if not greater effect on productivity than the physical environment. -rederic" W. TaylorEs approach !as in sharp contrast to the then%prevailing practice of attempting to gain more !or" from employees by threatening them !ith the loss of their $obs. . )s the studies progressed.
behaviors. The understanding of human behavior !as enhanced by contributions not only from the traditional disciplines of psychology. and education. it !as generally considered inappropriate in employment situations to study attitudes. and feelings. :arious principles and practices currently applied in employee involvement. !hich recognizes the importance of Ffeelings. (ut of the intervie!ing techniques used by the Ha!thorne researchers gre! the nondirective approach to counseling.G 8ntil that time. It also focused attention on the necessity for managers to improve their communications and to be more sensitive to the needs and feelings of their subordinates. helped to give rise to the human relations movement by providing ne! insights into human behavior. The Human Re$at&ons Mo/ement The Ha!thorne studies. This movement focused attention on individual differences among employees.G 8eha/&ora$ sc&ences . sociology. and related industry research. Human re$at&ons mo/ement mo/ement that "ocused attent&on on &nd&/&dua$ d&""erences among em!$oyees and on the &n"$uence that &n"orma$ grou!s ha/e u!on em!$oyee !er"ormance and %eha/&or This research emphasized the need for a more participative and employee%centered form of supervision. it became broader in scope. The interrelationships of these various disciplines are no! referred to collectively as the Fbehavioral sciences. but also from social economics. !or" teams. It studied the influence that informal groups can have upon employee performance and behavior. and employee empo!erment gre! out of the !or" of researchers and practitioners of the early human relations movement. Contr&%ut&ons o" the 8eha/&ora$ Sc&ences )s the human relations movement evolved. linguistics. beliefs. and anthropology.The studies spurred efforts to humanize the !or"place and to find more%sensitive !ays to motivate !or"ers. political science.
The use of groups and employee participation in the achievement of organizational ob$ectives. By the /1A0s the typical personnel department in a medium%sized or large firm included . political pressures for social reform created by the depression of the /1C0s gave rise to both federal and state legislation affecting these relations. the management of human resources !as limited largely to hiring. federal regulations have e#panded to the point !here they govern the performance of virtually every HR function. !herever you !or" in the !orld. 6tarting !ith the <ational 9abor Relations )ct in /1CD. you !ill constantly be dealing !ith a great many legal regulations affecting your actions in dealing !ith employees. as manifested by their poor treatment of employees in the past. -rom highly industrialized nations to developing countries. governments constantly regulate the !or"place. ncreased S!ec&a$&)at&on o" HR 2unct&ons Initially. Gro-th o" Go/ernmenta$ Regu$at&ons .rior to the /1C0s. functions carried out by managerial and supervisory personnel. )lthough employers are often critical of the demands these la!s and regulations impose on their operations. is no! a formally recognized field of study in universities !orld!ide. Ho!ever. HR managers and supervisors are responsible for compliance !ith all la!s and regulations that govern !or" environments. It is not $ust an HR+ field of endeavor. +anagers !orld!ide apply the concepts in everyday activities. and consistent !ith the development of interpersonal competence./ar&ous d&sc&!$&nes o" !sycho$ogy' soc&o$ogy' anthro!o$ogy' soc&a$ econom&cs' !o$&t&ca$ sc&ence' $&ngu&st&cs' and educat&on The behavioral science approach is oriented to!ard economic ob$ectives. employer relations !ith employees and !ith their labor organizations !ere sub$ect to very fe! la!s and regulations in the 86). )s a manager of people. including the management of change. clerical personnel !ere employed to assist in "eeping records relating to hours !or"ed and to payroll. &omputers handle much of the general record "eeping in most parts of the !orld. most legislation is a response to employers. +anagers dra! upon the results of these studies regularly in managing staffs. concerned !ith the total climate or milieu. lac" of social responsibility. These requirements are often very stringent and vary greatly from country to country in our global !or"force. and record "eeping. firing. It is a humanistic approach. 'ventually.
re!ards. HR professionals !ill be the organization. and management of change is essential.s behavioral science e#perts. many HR professionals !ill need to acquire competencies such as theseI /. HR professionals should develop competencies in staffing. C. appraisal. HR+. HR professionals !ill need to "no! the business of their organization thoroughly. The ability to integrate business. HR professionals !ill become strategic business partners. The ma$or functions performed in organizations today are sho!n belo!. HR professionals !ill have to be able to Fmanage change processesG so that HR activities are effectively merged !ith the business needs of the organization. State-of-the-art HRM practices. Business capabilities. and communication. ncreas&ng Em!has&s on Strateg&c Management Top management e#pects HR managers to assume a broader role in overall organizational strategy. HR+ is playing a vital role in creating and sustaining the competitive advantage of an organization. By helping their organizations build a sustained competitive advantage and by learning to manage many activities !ell. team building. +any of the most for!ard% loo"ing &'(s are see"ing top HR managers !ho !ill report directly to them and help them address "ey issues. development. In order to carry out their e#panded role. Manage ent of change process. This requires an understanding of its financial capabilities. 2.individuals !ith specific training andHor e#perience in carrying out various specialized functions. .
and the 6ociety for Industrial and (rganizational . (ther characteristics of a profession include the establishment of a code of ethics and of certification requirements for its members. HR %e&s is generally available only by personal or organizational sub% scription. areas of HR+. the )merican 6ociety for Training and 5evelopment. the )ssociation for Industrial Research. the International -oundation of 'mployee Benefit . -or professors in the field.sychology of the )merican . The national annual meeting of the society is held in a different city each year. and !or"shops. The society publishes HR Maga!ine (formerly Personnel "# inistrator$ and HR %e&s (formerly Resource$' as !ell as various boo"s and bulletins.ersonnel +anagement )ssociation. as !ell as specialized. (ther leading professional associations in the field include the International .6. HR managers can no longer function simply as technical specialists !ho perform the various HR+ functions.ersonnel and Human Resources 5ivision of the )cademy of +anagement. 6HR+ frequently collaborates !ith the 8. (ne of the characteristics of a profession is the development through research and e#perimentation of an organized body of "no!ledge. While HR Maga!ine is available to the general public and is found in most libraries. seminars. (rganizations that represent specialized areas of interest include the Human Resource .lans. Therefore HR managers today should be professionals !ith respect to both their qualifications and their performance. HR+ e#hibits all these characteristics. This "no!ledge is e#changed through conferences.lanning 6ociety. and the &onference Board (&B . the )merican &ompensation )ssociation. )+) and &B are prominent nonprofit organizations that provide publications and educational services relating to HR+ and other functional areas.. many of !hich sponsor student conferences. The latest information in the field is communicated through the literature published by the professional associations. )ffiliated !ith 6HR+ are more than A00 local chapters in ma$or cities throughout the 8nited 6tates. Bureau of <ational )ffairs (B<) in conducting surveys in various areas of HR+.ersonnel Women. they must concern themselves !ith the total scope of HR+ and its role !ithin the organization and in society as a !hole. . the International )ssociation for . as !ell as by various nonprofit organizations and educational institutions. #ro"ess&ona$ Assoc&at&ons and Cert&"&cat&on Today a number of professional organizations represent general. the )merican +anagement )ssociation ()+) . seminars. and !or"shops sponsored by professional associations.sychological )ssociation.000%%is the 6ociety for Human Resource +anagement (6HR+ .rofessionalization of Human Resources +anagement Because of the changes occurring in the !or"force. The professional association !ith the largest membership%%more than A=. Instead. there is the .
certification !ill become an important qualification for individuals see"ing positions in HR+. The professionalization of a field generally leads to some form of certification for practitioners to enhance their status and to recognize their competency. and safety and health.)ll of these organizations sponsor meetings and !or"shops that promote the professional gro!th of their members. employee benefits. including government agencies. The code sho!n in Highlights in HR+ 2 !as developed for HR managers by the 6HR+. each of !hich reflects the number of specialties and the amount of e#perience andHor academic training possessed by the recipient. Cert&"&cat&on recogn&t&on o" ha/&ng met certa&n !ro"ess&ona$ standards To qualify for either certification. I pledge myself toI . Soc&ety "or Human Resource Management Code O" Eth&cs )s a member of the 6ociety for Human Resource +anagement. +ost have e#cellent !ebsites for you to revie!. They also provide opportunities for contact !ith other organizations. serve largely to indicate the qualifications of recipients and encourage others to qualify for certification. an applicant must provide verification of e#perience and pass an intensive four%hour !ritten e#amination to demonstrate mastery of "no!ledge. There are other certifying agencies !ith specific certification designations in the areas of compensation. !hich must be rene!ed every three years. The Human Resource &ertification Institute of 6HR+ has developed such a program for professionals in HR+. Code o" Eth&cs It is typical for professional associations to develop a code of ethics that members are e#pected to observe. The program offers t!o types of certification. )s the reputations of these programs gro! and the programs become more !idely recognized by top management. +any large corporations have their o!n code of ethics to govern corporate relations !ith employees and the public at large. The certifications.
'ncourage my employer to ma"e the fair and Refrain from using my official positions. the fact that there is a code in itself focuses attention on ethical values and provides a basis for HR professionals to evaluate their plans and actions. to secure special concern.s activities. 6trive to ma"e my employer profitable both in +aintain the confidentiality of privileged monetary terms and through the support and information encouragement of effective employment.s values and standards. &onsider these questions. +any organizations have ethics committees and ethics ombudsmen to provide . What happens !henJas is frequently the case in HR !or"Jthe confidential issues of management andHor the employees are in conflict. monitoring compliance !ith its code of ethics. Improve public understanding of the role of human resource management This &ode of 'thics for members of the 6ociety for Human Resource +anagement has been adopted to promote and maintain the highest standards of personal conduct and professional standards among its members.+aintain the highest standards of professional Instill in the employees and the public a sense and personal conduct. Whom do HR professionals service. 6trive for personal gro!th in the field of +aintain loyalty to my employer and pursue its human resource management. The HR staff is concerned !ith monitoring ethics in its o!n operations. !hose needs are paramount. either equitable treatment of all employees a primary regular or volunteer. Who is the client%%management or the individual employees. )dherence to this code is required for membership in the 6ociety and serves to assure public confidence in the integrity and service of human resource management professionals. privilege. gain or benefit for myself. ob$ectives in !ays that are consistent !ith the public interest.G These and similar questions are not easy to ans!er. and enforcing the standards throughout the organization.s goals and ob$ectives for 8phold all la!s and regulations relating to my developing the human resource management employer. Ho!ever. In the course of serving the employees and management and maintaining respect and regard for human values. including those in HR+. profession. 6upport the 6ociety. Ho!ever. HR departments have been given a greater role in communicating the organization. of confidence about the conduct and intentions of my employer. )dherence to a code often creates a dilemma for professionals.
#ro"ess&ona$ 9&terature . ) number of periodicals contain articles on general or specialized areas of interest in HR+. The ultimate goal of ethics training is to avoid unethical behavior. 6ome of the more important $ournals students and practitioners should be familiar !ith are sho!n belo!. To achieve these ob$ectives. adverse publicity. .ersonal development in any profession requires "no!ledge of the current literature in the field.n#ustrial Relations Super)isory Manage ent .training in ethics to employees. )mong these are "ca#e y of Manage ent *0ecuti)e' "ca#e y of Manage ent Journal' "ca#e y of Manage ent Re)ie&' Business Hori!ons' (alifornia Manage ent Re)ie&' (ana#ian Business Re)ie&' *uropean Manage ent Journal' .nternational Personnel Journal "ssociation for Personnel /o en Personnel Psychology .ortune' Har)ar# Business Re)ie&' Journal of Business *thics' Manage ent Re)ie&' Business /ee1' and The /all Street Journal.n#ustrial an# +abor Relations Re)ie& Public Personnel Manage ent . and potential la!suits and to gain a strategic advantage.nternational Journal of Hu an Resources Training an# De)elop ent Journal Manage ent (ther periodicals that cover the general field of business and management often contain articles pertaining to HR+.nternational Journal of Selection an# * ployee Relations +a& Journal "ssess ent * ployee Responsibility an# Rights Journal of "pplie# Psychology HR . t!o approaches are frequently usedI (/ developing employee a!areness of ethics in business and (2 dra!ing attention to potential ethical issues to !hich an employee may be e#posed.ocus Journal of (ollecti)e %egotiation in the Public HR Maga!ine Sector HR %e&s Journal of +abor Research Hu an Relations Journal of Manage ent Hu an Resource Manage ent +abor +a& Journal Hu an Resource Manage ent Re)ie& Monthly +abor Re)ie& Hu an Resource Planning %ational Pro#ucti)ity Re)ie& Hu an ResourcesJournal of the Personnel . Some m!ortant #ro"ess&ona$ :ourna$s (o pensation an# Benefits Re)ie& .
equal employment opportunity.6. The World Wide Web search engines !ill help you gain access to these organizations and HR Research. and the libraries of the larger !or" organizations.H publications that are updated regularly. concern for productivity. the sub$ect of HR+ suffered from neglect at some 8. Its three divisions%%the 6urvey Research &enter. The 6chool of Industrial and 9abor Relations at &ornell 8niversity is also !ell "no!n for its publications. 5. the Research &enter for Kroup 5ynamics.rentice% Hall (. ) "no!ledge of computer operations is essential for processing and reporting personnel data to gauge the performance of HR programs. industrial sociology. many HR professionals entered the field !ith degrees in liberal arts and sciences. economics. and the Broo"ings Institution of Washington. In the past. and <e! 7or". (rganizations sponsored by industry.H also conduct surveys relating to HR+ policies and practices. .robably the largest university research center in the behavioral sciences is the Institute for 6ocial Research at the 8niversity of +ichigan. and the &enter for . including the 8niversities of &alifornia. ) number of state universities have centers for the study of labor and industrial relations. Ho!ever. students planning careers in HR+ should ta"e courses in such areas as personnel and organizational psychology.000 boo"s. publish research studies that benefit managers in HR+. and . industrial engineering. Illinois. a bachelorEs degree and even a master. &alifornia. Rand &orporation of 6anta +onica. . international HR+. 6urvey results from these organizations may be found in loose%leaf volumes that contain a !ealth of information about policies and practices and the legal aspects of HR+.s degree in business have become more important. &ommerce &learing House (&&H . These volumes are available in many college and university libraries.Research Organ&)at&ons The primary function of HR Research organizations is to conduct research and to ma"e their findings available to all !ho are interested..olitical 6tudies%%have together published over D. ho!ever. and electronic data processing. such as the )merican +anagement )ssociation ()+) and the &onference Board (&B . Academ&c Tra&n&ng With so much attention focused on the behavioral sciences during the /1>0s and /1=0s. In addition to business courses. +any such organizations are found at universities. cost of employee benefits. employee rights. +innesota.&. 6ince then. having perhaps ta"en a fe! business courses as electives. The student of HR+ should become familiar !ith the various B<). as certification requirements and other factors became essential for professional status. and reports. &&H. city libraries. The Bureau of <ational )ffairs (B<) . and . colleges and universities. are also recognized for their contributions to this field. articles. and other current issues have re"indled interest in HR+ courses and in HR+ as a ma$or field of study.
procedures. employees. schedules. HR !o$&c&es gu&des to act&ons re. no matter ho! slight. policies. overtime. they may be idealistic or realistic. +ore and more. fle#ible or infle#ible. )lthough HR managers are responsible for coordinating and enforcing policies relating to HR functions.#rograms "or Manag&ng Human Resources )n HR program constitutes the overall plan for managing people and for guiding managers and supervisors in decisions relating to their subordinates. raises and promotions. The quic"est !ay to impair employee efficiency and morale is for a manager to sho! favoritism in decisions such as those relating to vacations. Ho!ever.ect&/es goa$s to %e ach&e/ed &n the area o" HRM #o$&c&es &losely related to HR ob$ectives are HR policies that serve to guide the actions required to achieve these ob$ectives. !hich include not only traditional responsibilities to customers. general or specific.olicies provide the means for carrying out the management processes and as such are an aid to decision ma"ing. in the treatment they may receive compared !ith others. . It establishes the ob$ectives. 5ecisions can be made more rapidly and more consistently if policies relating to these and .ect&/es HR ob$ectives are determined by the organizationEs ob$ectives as a !hole. !hile ob$ectives determine !hat is to be done. policies e#plain ho! it is to be done. and budget pertaining to the HR functions to be performed.ect&/es Need "or #o$&c&es &arefully developed policies are vital to HR+ because employees are sensitive to any differences. and shareholders but also responsibilities to the community and to the total society. responsibility for performing these functions rests !ith all managers and supervisors !ithin an organization. O%.u&red to ach&e/e the HR o%. 9i"e ob$ectives. HR ob$ectives are reflecting the increased social responsibilities of firms. and disciplinary action. broad or narro! in scope. HR o%. qualitative or quantitative.
This is not their intended use. +any firms insert a disclaimer or !aiver in employee manuals to the effect that the contents of the manual do not constitute a contract. . and members of the HR staff. Written policy statements can serve as invaluable aids in orienting and training ne! personnel. employees no! cite organizational failure to adhere to established policies as a violation of their rights. input. follo!ed by an intervie! !ith an HR office representative. In some cases it may be important to have employees. When distributed to employees. The manager and staff of the HR department have the responsibility for e#ercising leadership in formulating policies that are consistent !ith overall organizational ob$ectives. supervisors. state. #rocedures HR procedures serve to implement policies by prescribing the chronological sequence of steps to follo! in carrying out the policies. They also must ma"e certain that these policies are compatible !ith current economic conditions3 collective bargaining trends3 and la!s and regulations at federal. and resolving grievance issues !ith employees and their unions. Wording the manual carefully (avoiding Fal!aysG and Fnever. Lust as employers refer to policy statements as a basis for their personnel actions. . !hich may be compiled into a policy manual. for e#ample. should include the reasons the policy is needed.G for e#% ample . . and local levels. not buried in a footnote. administering disciplinary action. HR !rocedures . To strengthen their effectiveness.rocedures relating to employee selection. using a conversational tone rather than legalistic $argon. HR policy statements and employee handboo"s assume the force of a legal contract bet!een employer and employee.olicy committees facilitate the pooling of e#perience and "no!ledge. Wr&tten #o$&cy Statements (rganizations can ma"e their HR policies more authoritative by putting them in !riting. and having an outside labor counsel chec" the manual can help in avoiding problems.other sub$ects have been formulated and communicated throughout the organization.articipation by operating managers is particularly important because they are often more familiar !ith the specific areas in !hich problems arise%and also because their cooperation is required for policy enforcement. 2ormu$at&on o" #o$&c&es The formulation of HR policies for approval by top management should be a cooperative endeavor among managers. these policy statements can provide ans!ers to many questions that might other!ise have to be referred to supervisors. these statements. might provide that individuals first be required to complete an application form. The disclaimer should be prominently placed.
li"e HR policies. and evaluation of HR policies and practices. and !age ad$ustments li"e!ise must be administered according to established procedure in order to avoid problems resulting from oversights. procedures must be revie!ed periodically and modified to meet changing conditions.!rescr&%ed se. complaints may be raised about e#cessive red tape. must be treated as means to an end. -or e#ample. they can impair rather than further the interests of the organization and its employees. information. the failure to give an employee !ritten !arning of a violation might prevent the organization from discharging the employee for a second violation. HR &n"ormat&on system (HR S) net-or3 o" !rocedures' e. equipment. HR information technology can improve HR+ and contribute to the competitive advantage. transfers. promotions.&. long%range forecasting and strategic planning. Klobal competition is putting increasing pressure on 8.u&!ment' &n"ormat&on' and !ersonne$ to !ro/&de data "or !ur!oses o" contro$ and dec&s&on ma3&ng &omputers are not only used for storage and retrieval of information but for broader applications. analyze. as a step in the disciplinary procedure. methods to compile and evaluate information. These applications include production of basic reports. and information management. )n on%line service designed especially for HR departments is the Human Resource Information <et!or". managers to ma"e better and faster decisions. When organizations become bureaucratic. a subsidiary of B<). not as ends in themselves. 8nfortunately.6. ) !ell%designed HRI6 can serve as the main management tool in the alignment of HR department goals !ith the goals of long%term strategic planning. !hen procedures become too detailed or numerous. The system is composed of procedures. HR calculations.uence o" ste!s to %e "o$$o-ed &n carry&ng out HR !o$&c&es Krievances. and model change has enhanced the status of the HRI6 in many organizations. the HR professional can ta"e advantage of a variety of information services. In addition to the ma$or uses of computer technology. the ability of the HRI6 to quantify. career and promotion planning. )s HR issues have been increasingly recognized as critical factors in strategic planning decisions. It provides . !ith a . To avoid this hazard. HR procedures. the people !ho use the information. Human Resources n"ormat&on Systems 'ffective HR+ requires an HR information system (HRI6 to provide current and accurate data for purposes of control and decision ma"ing. infle#ibility. and impersonality in ma"ing HR decisions.
and the needs and !elfare of both the organization and the employees in order to develop sound solutions to problems. (ontrol. past practices. The HR manager generally proposes and drafts ne! policies or policy revisions to cover recurring problems or prevent anticipated problems. the top manager of the HR department has the primary responsibility for developing a program that !ilt help the organization to meet its HR+ ob$ectives. training.s authority in carrying out these activities is restricted to staff authority (policy initiation and formulation and advice giving and functional authority (service and control . employee desires for balancing family and $ob demands. concern for productivity improvement. Policy initiation an# for ulation. and so on%%throughout an organization. These influences have thus required HR managers not only to be more "no!ledgeable about many issues but also to be more versatile in handling several activities.e.. The HR manager. performance evaluation. The HR manager generally counsels and advises line managers. A. The ma$or activities for !hich an HR manager is typically responsible are as follo!sI /. Res!ons&%&$&t&es o" the Human Resources Manager Kovernment legislation and court decisions have had a ma$or influence on HR policies and practices. . planning of training programs. these are proposed to the senior e#ecutives of the organization. 2. and desire of !or"ers for more equitable treatment have added to the responsibilities of the HR manager. selection. The HR manager generally monitors performance of line departments and other staff departments to ensure conformity !ith established HR policy. The HR manager generally engages in activities such as recruiting. Ser)ice. The HR staff is e#pected to be fully familiar !ith HR policy. The only line authority the HR manager has is over subordinates in his or her department. testing.The Human Resources 1e!artment The HR manager is assuming a greater role in top%management planning and decision ma"ing. procedures. !ho actually issue the policy. and practice. +ore recently. )lthough managerial personnel at all levels are engaged in HR+ activities. "#)ice. (rdinarily. labor agreements. the HR manager generally has the right and is e#pected to issue policies and procedures for HR functions%%i. and hearing employee concerns and complaints. selection. Within the scope of functional authority. This trend reflects a gro!ing a!areness of the contributions that HR+ can ma"e to the success of the firm. C.
When outsourcing is used. .n. it is important to select an e#perienced. psychological assessment. Outsourc&ng !ract&ce o" contract&ng -&th outs&de /endors to hand$e s!ec&"&ed HR "unct&ons 8nli"e one%time vendor contracts. and to have a clear and mutual understanding of !hat the consultant is to do. to educate him or her about the corporate environment. the staff should be concerned !ith the operating goals of the managers and supervisors !ho are their consulting clients and should help them to ma"e sound decisions. These consultants are hired to solve a variety of HR problems. !age and salary administration. )ny consultation provided by the HR staff must be based on managerial and technical e#pertise. outsourcing contracts require months of study and negotiation to ma"e certain that all the ma$or and minor issues have been carefully e#amined and resolved. In recent years. getting top management to adopt them.House Consu$tants ) ma$or contribution that the HR department staff can ma"e to the organization is to serve as in% house consultants to the managers and supervisors of other departments. reputable individual. The areas for !hich consultants are used most frequently are pension plans. but also s"ill in communicating !ith the managers and supervisors. though many have no! broadened their bac"grounds in order to meet the e#panding needs of their clients more effectively. This requires not only the ability to consider problems from the vie!point of the line managers and supervisors. Outs&de Consu$tants and Outsourc&ng HR managers often go outside the organization for professional assistance from qualified consultants. &losely related is the responsibility of monitoring ne! developments ta"ing place in the HR field and. In the past most consulting firms specialized in one or t!o areas of e#pertise. and e#ecutive compensation. !hen feasible. When using the services of a consultant. the vendors are actually integrated into the firm. outsourcing (the practice of contracting !ith outside firms to handle some HR functions previously performed in%house has become a trend at companies of all sizes. )lerting top management to contemporary issues and changes !ithin society that affect the organization is also an important responsibility. health and !elfare plans. e#ecutive recruitment. These managers and supervisors must be convinced that the HR staff is there to assist them in increasing their productivity rather than to impose obstacles to their goals. -urthermore. $ob evaluation.
In a larger firm many additional staff members may be required. Increased size eventually leads to the establishment of departmental units.lanning Lob Requirements Recruitment 6election • • • • )ffirmative )ction Training &areer 5evelopment .erformance )ppraisal • • • • &ompensation Benefits 6afety and Health 9abor Relations . The most common departments areI • • • • HR .1e!artment Organ&)at&on In a small firm the HR department may consist only of a manager and a fe! assistants.
This !ill necessitate more supervisory involvement in HR activities. The purpose of this model is to define and describe the competencies required of superior HR leaders from the perspective of both &'(s and HR practitioners. a study prepared for the 6ociety for Human Resource +anagement !as conducted to determine !hat pressures organizations face today. influence management. the technical aspects should be delegated to professional HR staffs. . There !ill li"ely be is a ne! role model for the HR department and its function. and ho! this role is changing. )lthough line managers need an understanding of HR+. 9oo"ing ahead. 5uring the course of the study more than t!enty &'(s and more than fifty practitioners participated in determining the role they e#pect HR to play in meeting competitive and organizational challenges. business "no!ledge.HRM &n the 2uture 5uring the /110s HR+ has been in the throes of a radical transformation. !hat they must do to remain competitive. The future !ill support the concept of shared responsibilities bet!een line managers and HR managers. The HR function is being transformed into a significant management function. the "no!ledge and s"ills !ithin the individual clusters can be used as a guide by anyone !ho !ishes to succeed in a !or" organization or as an entrepreneur. functional and organizational leadership. While the HR competency model !as prepared as guidance for HR leaders and those !ho aspire to such positions. both line and HR e#ecutives agree that a proactive and strategically oriented HR function !ill be critical. 6tudy the individual competencies !ithin each of the five clustersI goal and action management. and HR technical proficiency.G The study found a clear lin" bet!een an organization. !hat the role of HR is in providing a competitive advantage. ) leading question in the survey !as FWhat distinguishes superior HR performance from average performance. In /firstname.lastname@example.org level of success and the effectiveness of its HR leadership. There is a need for dramatic changes from centralized and functionally organized HR units to more fle#ible and decentralized units. The single greatest attribute of the HR staff !ill be the ability to educate and influence line managers on HR issues. line managers are reaching out to ta"e control and o!nership of the various HR functions. This information !as used to create the 6enior%9evel HR &ompetency +odel sho!n belo!. Where HR departments fail to recognize their responsibilities to become vital members of the management team.
roactivity &oncern !ith impact 5ecisiveness T'&H<I&)9 . and security .R(-I&I'<&7 HR planning.COMPETENCY CLUSTERS AND INDIVIDUAL COMPETENCIES K()9 )<5 )&TI(< +)<)K'+'<T 'fficiency orientation .lacement Training and development 'mployee and labor relations &ompensation and benefits Health. selection and .erceptual ob$ectivity &oalitionHnet!or" building &ommunication process s"ills <egotiation s"ills .ersonnel research (rganizational development HRI6 -8<&TI(<)9 )<5 (RK)<IM)TI(<)9 9')5'R6HI. safety. 5eveloping others Kroup management s"ills -unctional mar"eting 9eading through vision Integrity SEN OR 9E<E9 HR COM#ETENC= MO1E9 B86I<'66 N<(W9'5K' 6trategic focus (rganizational a!areness Industry "no!ledge :alue%added perspective Keneral management s"ills I<-98'<&' +)<)K'+'<T .
The concentration of !or"ers in factories in turn focused public attention on the need for better !or"ing conditions and greater consideration for employee health and safety. )s the human relations movement evolved. and la!s and regulations at all levels. (A various types of certification allo! practitioners to increase their competency. it became broader in scope and included the various behavioral sciences.s ob$ectives as a !hole. (C professional associations promote the professional gro!th of their members. collective bargaining trends.SUMMAR= HR+ represents a ne! concept of and approach to performing personnel functions. . 6ince the late /12(s severa/ forces have contributed significantly to the HR+ movement. 5uring the nineteenth century the factory system enabled products to be manufactured more cheaply than before. 5uring this period an ob$ective and systematic approach to improving !or"er efficiency "no!n as scientific management emerged. policies. The principal elements of an HR program are ob$ectives. The present status of HR+ !as achieved only after years of evolutionary development. HR policies must be compatible !ith current economic conditions. Nno!ledge of HR+ is important for individuals !ho !ill occupy managerial and supervisory roles. By the early /100s some of the "no!ledge and research from the field of psychology !as beginning to be applied to the management of personnel. <o! there is increasing specialization of HR functions and an emphasis on strategic management. .olicies serve to guide the actions required to achieve these ob$ectives. It still requires the performance of those personnel functions that have evolved over the years in response to emerging needs. It is important that the HR+ program be audited periodically to assure that its ob$ectives are being accomplished. and procedures. HR+ may be referred to as a profession because it has the follo!ing characteristicsI (/ It is based upon an organized body of "no!ledge developed through research and e#perimentation. and (D the various HR+ professional associations have developed codes of ethics that their members are e#pected to observe. The Ha!thorne studies !ere influential in humanizing the !or"place. and the human relations movement focused attention on individual differences and informal groups. focusing on the achievement of organizational ob$ectives. 6tatements relating to ob$ectives. HR managers are becoming more involved in the decision ma"ing of top management in a !ide variety of issues and problems. instead of treating these functions as separate and distinct. Ho!ever. (2 the "no!ledge is disseminated through publications and professional meetings. HR departments have been given a greater role in communicating the organizationEs values and standards and in monitoring compliance !ith its code of ethics. HR ob$ectives are determined by the organization. HR+ considers them interrelated parts of a management system that must be integrated closely !ith strategic organizational planning. and procedures can be meaningful only if they are supported financially by the budget. 5uring this period political pressures gave rise to government legislation affecting HR+ around the !orld. ) code of ethics focuses attention on ethical values and provides a basis for HR professionals to evaluate their plans and their actions. since they !ill also perform HR functions. policies. HR procedures implement policies by prescribing the steps to follo! in carrying out the policies.
HR+ is in the midst of a radical transformation. .s authority in carrying out these activities is restricted to staff authority and functional authority. Both line and HR e#ecutives support the concept of shared responsibility bet!een line and HR managers. The HR manager. selection. they have outsourced some of the HR functions to vendors on a long%term basis. )n HR competency model emphasizes goal and action management. and more recently. HR managers often use the services of outside consultants.The HR department is responsible for initiating and formulating policy3 counseling and advising line managers3 providing services such as recruiting. and planning of training programs3 and monitoring the performance of line and staff departments to ensure conformity !ith established HR policy and procedures. functional and organizational leadership. business "no!ledge. 9ine managers are reaching out to ta"e control over the HR functions !here HR departments fail to recognize their responsibilities. influence management. strategically oriented perspective is critical. and HR technical proficiency. &omprehensive research studies have sho!n that a proactive.
• • • • • • Behavioral sciences &ertification Ha!thorne studies HR budget HR information system (HRI6 HR ob$ectives >E= TERMS • HR policies • HR procedures • Human relations movement • Human resources management • (utsourcing • 6cientific management .