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Clinical Mechanics of Pranayam

Presented By
Dr. Avnish Upadhyay
(Deptt. Of Drug Development & Clinical Research)
Patanjali Yog Peeth (Trust), Hardwar
Introduction of Pranayam
The word Pranayam consists of two parts
1. Prana
2. Ayam
Prana means energy or vital air (Pran Vayu).
Ayam means stretch, extension, regulation,
prolongation & control.
When the self energizing force embraces
the body with extension, expansion & control
of Pran Vayu; it is Pranayam.
Tasmin sati swas praswas yogartivich pranayama
(Yog Darshan 2/49)
Tasmin : In this,
Sati : Being,
Swas : Inhale,
Praswas : Exhale
Gati : Flow
Viccheda : Cutting-off
Pranayama : Breath control
Maharshi Patanjali defines Pranayam as "The
regulation of the incoming and outgoing flow of breath
with retention."
Mechanics of Pranayam
Pranayam is based on physical control of
vital air.
Physics is the science of physical
quantities & measurements.
During the process of Pranayam many
rules of physics & Phenomenon are
There are seven kinds of Pranayam that
are commonly practiced by the people
which has been reinitiated by Pujya
Swami Ramdev Ji Maharaj.
• Bhastrika
• Kapalbhati
• Bahya
• Anulom Vilom
• Bhramri
• Udgith
• Ujjayi
• Graphical representation of all such
Pranayams, with explanation of mechanics
behind each kriya is given.
Bhastrika Pranyam
Graphical representation with respect to degree of
Degree of inhale

inhale & exhale of air during breathing with time.

B B’ B’’ B’’’
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 ------X
Time in Seconds
OA = Maximum inhaling with complete filling of air in lungs
OX = 5 minutes for health one 10 minutes for diseased persons
OB = It is a complete process of inhale (puraka) and excel
(rechaka) which takes 6 second in total
OC = The maximum degree of inhaling
CB = The maximum degree of excelling
B, B1, B11 and B111 etc. are the normal position of lungs pressure
According to pascal's law the pressure inside a
closed vessel equally distributed in all direction.
So when the lungs filled with air, it imparts
pressure on the diaphragm and cavity of lungs.
The organs try to maintain its position of
equilibrium, hence a reaction force established
at the organs, glands and heart. So secretions
from individual glands activated.
Also the fine arteries and veins can able to carry
oxygenated blood with circulation on every cycle
of the Pranayam. The out going air from lungs
able to carry impurities responsible for
imbalance of the organs.
Kapalbhati Pranayam
Degree of inhale

B B’ B ’’

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ------X
Time in Seconds

OA = Maximum inhaling with complete filling of air in lungs.

OX = 10 to 15 minutes for healthy one or15 to 30 minutes for diseased
OB = a complete process of inhale (Puraka) and excel (rechaka). (Frequency
may be 40, 120 times per minutes)
OC = The process of inhaling with maximum at C.
CB = The process of excelling. So excel is all out a sudden with almost zero
B, B1, B11 and B111 etc. are the normal position of lungs.
During this process concentration is only on excel, no concentration for
inhale. No sound during inhale sound comes from stroke during excel.
The impulsive force appears with greater
magnitude when the stroke time is very small.
j = F×t
where ‘j’ in the impulse, and ‘F’ is the force acted
for the time 't'. When 't' is small then F is greater
so the change in linear momentum create
greater pressure on the near by organs and
glands of the cavity of lungs.
The force communicated quickly as force of
contact to all parts from one to another. So that
the imbalanced secretion from different glands
will be balanced. Blood circulation in different
parts of the body will be faster creating action on
diseased affected parts. This Pranayam is a
complementary one to 'Bhastrika Pranayam".
Anulom Vilom Pranayam
Degree of inhale in left

& right nostril

B B’ B ’’
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27
Time in Seconds
Y ’

OA = Maximum inhaling in left nostril

OA’ = Maximum in hale in right nostril
CB = Process of excel (impurities goes out from left side)
BC’ = Process of inhale in right nostril
C’B’ = Process of excel (impurities of right side)
OX = 15 minutes for healthy one.
When ever some air is forced to passed through a pipe of
irregular cross section then the flow rate remain same.

According to Bernoulle's equation the sum of energy head

remains same every where, but velocity of flow is faster in
narrow tube than that of wide tube when air flows in
respiratory system the fast flowing air impart force on fine
arteries and veins so that the blood flow & will be
accelerated. Oxygen carrying blood hits the constraint in out
bodies at different positions.

The individual nostril will create different action on the

nostril's inner walls. Due to action reach on deployed at the
affected areas the tumors or other irregular developed parts
gets activated to maintain its normal position due to
repeated and identical process. As the velocity increased
the kinetic energy increases and pressure energy decreased
so the pressure on the walls of respiratory tract will be
towards the tube causing the impurities breathes out.
Bahya Pranayam
Degree of inhale

0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
Time in Seconds
Y ’

OA = Maximum inhaling with complete filling of air in lungs.

OX = 80 seconds (5 times) for healthy one may be 10 times for
diseased person.
OE = a complete process of Bahya Pranayam i.e. "Puraka" following
by "rechaka" and then "Kumbhaka" followed by sudden inhale to
normal position.
OC = Process of in hale in 4 seconds.
CB = Process of excel in ½ or 1 second.
BD = Process of holding breathing for 12 seconds.
DE = Process to return to original condition with no time.
When a pressure exerted on a body then the
force on different parts acts normally. If the
duration of time increased then body starts
The body must be an elastic one in which the
body regain its original position after withdrawing
the force.
During "Bahya Pranayma" the elastic nature of
different organs related to the cavity are
expanded and contracted by external pressure.
So the elastic nature of the parts of the body will
be activated.
Again the same pressure factor imparts force on
the digestive system so that the unwanted air in
stomach completely move downwards.
Bhramri & Udgith Pranayam
Degree of inhale Y

B B’ B ’’
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Time in Seconds

OA = Maximum inhale of air in lungs

OB = Complete process with 16 second for healthy person
OC = Process of inhale in 4 seconds.
CB = Process of excel in 12 seconds.
OX = Total time for 5 times = 80 seconds (minimum)
When the natural frequency of vibration is
equal to forced frequency then resonance
will occur (No external interference).
The vibration of thinking of a human body
can be controlled if it can be resonated.
In a "Bhamri" or "udgith" Pranayam the
ear is closed by thumb, eye is blocked by
fingers and forehead is pressed, to vibrate
with higher amplitude. So the resonance
of the brain's metaphysical thinking is
arrested and the concentration of mind
can be enhanced.
Patho-Physiological effects of Pranayam
Pranayam maintains normal functions.
It influences functions of CNS like
perception, planning, execution of tasks,
learning and memory.
It improves coherence between two
cerebral hemispheres signifying
synchronization of logical and intuitive
Alternate nostril breathing brings balance
in the ANS.
The glandular activity increased and
hormonal profile is balanced through
Ujjayi with long and short Kumbhak
effects adreno-medullary secretions.
The Pranayam shows a reduction in
sympathetic activity which is the basis of
its use in stress management.
Pranayam increases cardiac output &
cerebral blood flow in the peripheral
Pranayam practices removes the residual
secretions by moving the neck in all
directions and forcing out secretions
forcefully through the nose.
Various respiratory parameters improves
after Pranayam.
A significant increase in FVC, FEV, FEV1,
increase in vital capacity, breath holding
time & decrease in the respiratory rate
documented in all residential camps in the
benign presence of P.P. Swami Ramdev
Ji Maharaj for the treatments of respiratory
The practice of Pranayam is a tremendous gift from
our Indian Traditional science & culture. Science of
yogic breathing was almost completely unknown to
the common people. The credit for making the
practice of pranayam popular in common people as a
discipline in its own right and as a mean for
maintaining the health of the body & mind goes to
Pujya Swami Ram Dev Ji Maharaj & Divya Yog Mandir
trust. Swami Ji rediscovered & proved that
Patanjali's Pranayam has scientific basis through
challenging Yog Science Camps. Now a day there are
several psychosomatic diseases emerging through
the world. The immunomodulatory activity of
Pranayam can be an accurate solution for all these
diseases, which are, involve with immune system.
Hence, Pranayam is a science of breath & breath is

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