TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

PILLAR Hinshitsu Hozen or Quality Maintenance
1 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

“Hinshitsu-Hozen”
What is “Hinshitsu-Hozen? To maintain integrity of quality (state of 100% non-defectives) * Condition setting : Set conditions for zero defects aimed at equipment and processes that do not produce quality defects. Daily and periodical inspections : Inspect and measure conditions in time series. Quality preventive maintenance : Prevent quality defects by maintaining measured values within the standard Trend control and predictive maintenance : Predict possibilities of quality defects occurring by observing trends of measured values. Prior countermeasures: Take measures beforehand
© Confederation of Indian Industry

* * *

*

© JIPM, 1994

2

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Hinshitsu – Hozen Concept
Caused by raw material conditions Producing materials and energy not to generate defects Quality Defect Factors Caused by equipment Caused by method precision conditions Caused by conditions of people involved Fostering operators proficient in equipment and job

Manufacturing equipment not to generate defect

Devising methods not to generate defects

Quality Assurance +
Equipment and environment management

Jishu-Hozen activities Material Management +
Skill Education and Training

Design check

PM Analysis

Pursue relationship between quality characteristics and material and energy condition / equipment precision / method conditions

Set conditions of generate defects

equipment

not

to

Maintenance and management ability training (Ability to find cause system troubles and to quickly and correctly take actions)

Management of conditions not to generate defects (Hinshitsu – Hozen) Zero quality defects © JIPM, 1987

3

© Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Relation among 5 Principles of TPM Development and Quality Maintenance
<Coping with the TPM 5 Principles>
Quality maintenance - Making of equipment which will not make poor quality products.
PM Analysis Basic Thinking of Improvement Restoration Pursuit of the optimal Condition Elimination of Minor Defects Adjustments Clarification of Skill 7 Steps of Autonomous Maintenance • Daily Inspection • Proper Operation Application of Equipment Diagnosing Technology Feedback

Individual Improvement

Setting of Conditions (Technical Aspect) Decide properly

Autonomous Maintenance Preventive Maintenance MP Design

Condition Control (Control Aspect) Observe precisely

Realization of

Zero-Defect

Education and Training

Fostering of personnel who thoroughly understand the equipment

4 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Concept of the Promotion of Quality Maintenance To promote quality maintenance, it is necessary to satisfy the following two preconditions: • Forced machine deterioration has been thoroughly removed. • Natural deterioration removal under is progresses. • Managers and operators have become skillful with equipment, so that the functions and structure of equipment are well understood by them. • Have Sufficient inspection skill. • Training of staff who handle equipment on skill. • Jishu-Hozen, Kobetsu-Kaizen, PM analysis training, and skill education and training must be enforced
5 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Choosing time of quality maintenance. • Total Jishu Hozen Implementation. • Workshop is free from forced deterioration. •"when failures cannot be reduced, defects cannot be reduced.” • Losses such as Equipment failure, Minor Stoppages, Process failure are under control. •All relevant data on Quality defects is available.
© Confederation of Indian Industry 6

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Implementation Procedure for Quality Maintenance
• • Understanding quality defect phenomena. Setting of standard values for inspection items and confirmation of results • Concentration of inspection items and

shortening of inspection time • Drafting of QM (Quality Maintenance) matrix and reflection in standards
© Confederation of Indian Industry 7

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Implementation Procedure for Quality Maintenance (contd…)
• • • Master plan for QM 3M Analysis PM analysis for exposure and handling of malfunctions • • • Kaizens and Poka Yoke for eliminating defects Maintaining Zero Defect Process capability improvement plan
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TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Understanding quality defect phenomena

• Clarity on the definition of the defect • Frequency of occurrence and effect of defects

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TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Defects classification
A - Type defect
OK NOT OK

B - Type defect
OK NOT OK

C - Type defect
NOT OK

Action taken by operator

No action by operator

OK

Action taken by operator

LSL

OK

USL

LSL

OK

USL

LSL

OK

USL

• The output is (OK) initially • Becomes (NG) • Corrective action is taken by operator • Becomes (OK) • Uue Why – Why Analysis

• The output is (OK) initially • Becomes (NG) • No action taken by operator • Becomes (OK) • Use PM Analysis © Confederation of Indian Industry

• The output is (NG) initially • Action taken by operator • Becomes (OK) (setting scrap) 10

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

A - Type defect : Examples
OK

NOT OK

Action taken by operator

LSL

OK

USL

11 © Confederation of Indian Industry

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit CU

Sub Comm QM

Year

SL. No.

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

2000- 01 CU 128
EMA

Kaizen Theme & Target : To eliminate process scrap due to Damage of M133551 Crank shaft Problem/Present Status :
8

Machine No :

Team MembersM . Karthikeyan Result / Benefit : Scrap due to wrong
4

Before improvement:

loading

Rejection Qty

Rejection Qty

3

3

6

6 4 3

2

4

1

2

0

0

Nv 0 o '0

Dc 0 e '0

Jn 1 a '0

Jan'01

Feb'01

Analysis :
Component damage – Induction hardng

After improvement:
Why

Kaizen type

Reversible

Ir-reversible

Inductor hitting the component

If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing POKA YOKE
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

Why
Component loaded in the wrong direction

Why
Possibility of wrong loading

1 Possibility of Wrong Loading

EMA

Mar’01

MK Compld.

Root Cause: Idea :

Prevent Possibility of Wrong Loading

Poka Yoke type & Function
Prevention Detection

Shut Down Control Warning

Counter measure : Provide POKA YOKE

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit ACT

Sub Comm QM

Year

SL. No.

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

2000- 01 AU 087
032505

Kaizen Theme & Target :
Eliminate process scrap due to Component pull out in M270081 Cylinder in machine 032505

Machine No :

Team Members N.Kothandaraman Result / Benefit : 5
4 Rejn Qty 3 2 1 0 1 0 June July Aug Sep Oct 0 Nov 2 2 4

Problem/Present Status :
5 4 Rejn Qty 3 2 1 0 June July Aug Sep 1 2 2 4

Before improvement:

Analysis :

Component damage during machining Why component pulled out Why Tennon broken

After improvement:

Kaizen type

Reversible

Ir-reversible

If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

Why weaker section of the tennon Why Reduced thickness Why to avoid fouling with jaws Tennon fouling with the jaws Root Cause:

01

032507

Oct,00

NKN

completed

Idea :

Avoid tennon fouling with jaws

Poka Yoke type & Function
Prevention Detection

Shut Down Control Warning

Counter measure : Change the jaw design and tennon thickness

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit V2

Sub Comm QM

Year
2000 2001

SL. No. V2 025

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

Kaizen Theme & Target : Eliminate process scrap due to damage in Un loader valve before Apr’00 Problem/Present Status : Process scrap due to Damage
4

Machine No : Team Members Result / Benefit : 4
3
Qty 2

082501 BDN / TSS

Before improvement:
ULV Body Wrong Side on the top

3
Qty

2

2 1

2 1

0
'0 0 A pr ar b
0 Jan'00 Feb Mar

0
ay Fe M M

0
Ju n

0
Ju l

0

Analysis : Damage in body Why ? Wrong loading of component Why ? Fixture accepting wrong loading Why ? No stopper arrangement to avoid wrong loading Root Cause:

After improvement:

Not able to load

Kaizen type

Ja n

Reversible

Ir-reversible

Poka Yoke pin

If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

1

086303

Aug’00

BDN completed

No stopper arrangement to avoid wrong loading Provide stopper to avoid wrong Idea : loading Counter measure : Provide Poka yoke pin

Poka Yoke type & Function
Prevention Detection

Shut Down Control Warning

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

B - Type defect : Examples
OK

NOT OK

No action by operator

LSL

OK

USL

15 © Confederation of Indian Industry

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit
Act

Sub Comm QM

Year
Aug ‘ 99

SL. No.
Au- 072

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

Kaizen Theme & Target :
To reduce process scrap due to rough finish on Bore dia inM 272291 Ty 20 Ram

Machine No : 032302 Team Members N.Kothandaraman Result / Benefit :
5 4

Problem/Present Status :
5 4 3 2 1 0 Mar Apr May
2 1 1 0 0 3

Before improvement:
Process sequence Facing , OD Turning & grooving Rough boring Finish boring
July

3 2 1 0

0
Aug

0
Sep

0
Oct

0
Nov

May

June

Back facing

Rough finish on bore After improvement: Process sequence Why ? Entrapment of Burr on bore during Facing , OD Turning & grooving finish boring operation . Why ? Rough boring Burr generated during Rough boring operation not fully flushed out Why ? Back facing Finish boring operation done immediately after rough boring operation . . Finish boring Process sequence Presence of burr during boring operation Root Cause:

Analysis :

Kaizen type

Reversible

Ir-reversible

If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

01

032304 Nov ‘ 99

NKN Completed

Idea : Counter measure :

To eliminate burr presence Change process sequence

Poka Yoke type & Function
Prevention Detection

Shut Down Control Warning

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit

Sub Comm QM

Year

SL. No.

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

cu

2000 - 2001 CU -012

Kaizen Theme & Target :

Before Mar’2000

Machine No : Team Members Result / Benefit :
4

120802 M .Karthikeyan

To avoid the rejection in crank shaft due to tool digging mark

Problem/Present Status :

Before improvement:

High rejection ,while running the crank shaft without the tailstocks Support
4

4 3

Rejection Qty

Rejection Qty
1

3

3

2

2

1

1

0
0

0

0
D ec'99 Jan'00 Feb'00

Mar'00

Apr'00

Analysis :
High rejection in 120802 Why Tool digging Why Excess Runout in the component Why Component not located properly Why No tailstock clamping

After improvement:

Kaizen type

Reversible

Ir-reversible

If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

1

120801

Jul’00

MK

Completed

Root Cause: Idea :

Tailstock not clamping Eliminate tailstock not clamping
Poka Yoke type & Function
Prevention Detection Shut Down Control Warning

Counter measure : Provide limit switch

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

C - Type defect : Examples
NOT OK

OK

Action taken by operator

LSL

OK

USL

18 © Confederation of Indian Industry

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit

Sub Comm
QM

Year

SL. No.

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

cu

2000-2001 CU -185 087803

Kaizen Theme & Target :

To reduce rejection due to Oil port spot face height undersize in TCL Crank case Zero by Apr’2001

Machine No :

Team Members M .Karthikeyan Result / Benefit :
10 8

Problem/Present Status :
High process scrap due to oil port spot face height undersize in M 134561 TCL crankcase

Before improvement:

8

Before
6 4

After

Rejection Qty

6 4 2 0

0

Jan'01

Feb'01

Mar'01

Apr'01

Analysis :

Oil port Spot face height undersize Why? More material removed on face Why? Tool length set excess Why? No Setting facility How? Provide Setting facility

After improvement:

Kaizen type

Reversible

Ir-reversible

12.5

Setting Master If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

1

086301

Jun’01

MK

Compl.

Root Cause: Idea :

Tool length set excess Set the tool correctly
Poka Yoke type & Function
Prevention Detection Shut Down Control Warning

Counter measure :Provide Setting Master

KAIZEN - SHEET
Brakes Division

Unit

Sub Comm
QM

Year

SL. No.

JiPm -TPM

Category: A

B

C

Providing

Changing

v1

2000-2001 v1 -168

Kaizen Theme & Target Eliminate scrap due to Inner dia. O/S in : R6 / RE6 top cover. Zero & Before March’01 Problem/Present Status :
50 40 30 20 10 Nov 0 Dec 0 Jan’01 Feb Small dial 28 34
10
9

Machine No : 032601 Team Members VT / RBS
50 Result / Benefit : 40 Qt30 y 20 10 Nov 34 28 0

Multi rotational dial gauge Before improvement:

1

2 3

8 7

1
2 6 5

4

Big dial

0

0

Dec Jan’01Feb’01Mar’01 Month
Reversible Ir-reversible

Analysis : Dia 140.9 / 105.10 Bore over size

After improvement: one rotational dial gauge
3 2 4 5 6 7

Kaizen type

Wrong Setting by operator Wrong reading of the dial Multi rotational dial

1

If reversible updated in Operation Standard / QCPC JH Check Sheet PM Check Sheet Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

Root Cause: Multi rotational dial gauge used for measurement IdeaEliminate multi rotational gauge : Counter measureChange the bore dial to one rotation type. :

1 2 3

032504 Apr’01 032602 Apr’01 032201 Apr’01
Prevention Detection

NKN RBS NKN

Compl. Compl. Compl.

Poka Yoke type & Function

Shut Down Control Warning

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Setting of standard values for inspection items and confirmation of results
If standard values are set for individual inspection items, and equipment precision is maintained within the standard range, it is necessary to confirm that all quality characteristics can be satisfied.

If they cannot, the cause is either that "there are omission in inspection items" or "Standard values are not stringent enough." In either case, it is necessary to return to PM analysis and carry out study.
21 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Concentration of inspection items and shortening of inspection time
For orderly implementation of condition control, review inspection items themselves and satisfy the following conditions: • • • Reducing inspection items by concentrating on the number of items for inspection Extending inspection interval by eliminating forced machine deterioration Shortening inspection time by taking steps for 'difficult to inspect' spots

If inspection items are many, inspection intervals are short, or inspection requires much time, maintenance and control will become difficult, and eventually achievement level will decline. Elimination of forced deterioration and spots that are difficult to inspect depends greatly on Jishu-Hozen implementation.
22 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Drafting of QM (Quality Maintenance) matrix and reflection in standards
QA Matrix is prepared to establish the relationship between defect / defect mode and the process which causes it. It requires data collection for defects at various process stages to prepare a QA Matrix.

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TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

24 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

25 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M condition analysis. Please follow following guidelines.
1 2 3 4 5 6 Based on QD matrix identify where the defect is generated Draw a C & E diagram for the defect for each process/sub-process, Identify inputs for each M (Man, Method, Machine and Material Check each input whether Standard exists or not. If not then make a standard. All standards are to be followed during Process. If a standard is difficult to follow or if they are loose then standards are to be revised.

Status of Standard Symbol 1 Loose Standard 2 No Standard 3As per standard and followed 4 Difficult to follow 5 Not followed
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TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

27 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

28 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

QM Master plan
Master Plan for quality maintenance is planning of various activities in this pillar with respect to the time frame in months and years. According to the stage of TPM implementation it can start at various levels. In the beginning it will start with data collection on defects to improving conditions to sustaining zero defect conditions.
29 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Brakes India (Sholinghur)

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TPM Club India

TPM MASTER PLAN QM SUB COMMITTEE

Quality Maintenance Pillar

31 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India
M S E P A F RQ A IT M IN E A C A T IT S A T R L N O U L Y A T N N E C IV IE .
A tiv P ln e c ity a n d
Q -S E S M T P 1 P a tio o . rep ra n f Q M trix A a : Y r ea D ils of a eta ctivity *C e q a ch ra ristics. h ck u lity a cte *In e a d fe m d s a d v stig te e ct o e n su p ce s w e d fe o re b ro s h re e ct ccu s. *A ss se u e o d fe m d . sse rio sn ss f e ct o e *C e d ficie cyinp d ctio in u h ck e n ro u n p t co d n fo e chd fe m d in n itio s r a e ct o e e chsu -p ce *C e w e e a b ro ss. h ck h th r sta d rd e ists a da b in na s x n re e g fo w d llo e . *C a p d ctio -in u co d n le rify ro u n p t n itio s fo p b m ine chsu p ce r ro le s a b ro ss. *A p m tlya a st p b m th t ct ro p g in ro le s a ca b ta le o th s o *C re lly n e ck d n e p t a fu w rko t co n rm a re fo o u u te e su s r co p xp b m *D v m le ro le s. e ise in rio a p te m uya n ssin v stig s n b n b s ssep n ch iq *Pe ritietioro le s e a d lag th ir im a o q a d fe e p ct n u lity e cts.

Quality Maintenance Pillar

A tu l Pla t. A c a n
2 0 -2 0 04 05

A tu l lin A c a e
2 0 -2 0 05 06

A tu l lin B c a e
2 0 -2 0 06 07

A tu l S c a littin g
2 0 -2 0 07 08

Q 3

Q 4

Q 1

Q 2

Q 3

Q 4

Q 1

Q 2

Q 3

Q 4

Q 1

Q 2

Q 3

2 P a tio o . rep ra n f P dc n pt ro u tio -In u c n itio a a s o d n n ly is ta le b 3 rep ra no .P a tio f p b ro lem h rt ca

4 va a no .E lu tio f s erio s es o un s f p b s ro lem . (F E 1 M A) 5 U a eo P . s g f -M a a s tec n u n ly is h iq e totra kd w c o n c u eso as f p b s ro lem . 6 s es en o .A s m t f im a t o pc f p p s c u ter ro o ed o n m s res ea u (F E 2 M A ). 7 p en tio .Im lem ta n o im ro f p vem ts en .

*In e a u gte n u s su a v stig te sin ch iq e ch s P a a sis a dp p se -M n ly n ro o co n rm a re u te e su s.

*P rfo p lim a e a a no th e rm re in ry v lu tio f e p st im ro e e t situ tio . o p vmn a n

8 evie o .R w f p d c nin u ro u tio p t c n itio s od n. 9 o s lid tio .C n o a n a dc n n o firm tio a n o a c ec f ll h k p in . o ts 1 .P a tio o 0 rep ra n f aq a u lity c m o en o pn t c n l ta le a d o tro b n a u n eo s ra c f q a th u h u lity ro g

* ev th p d ctio in u co d n R iew e ro u n p t n itio s id ti en fiedin step . * h w eth 2 C eck h er p d ctio i p t co d o s are ro u n n u n iti n ap ro ri an co p p ate d rrect. * se th resu o step to su m e U e lts f 8 m ariz th in ecti nitem * e sp o s. Prep q ali are u ty ch p in li eck o t st. * efi e stan ardinn m cal / D n d u eri o serv le fo . b ab rm

32 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M analysis
This analysis is a set of conditions with respect to machine, material and method for obtaining a good products. It helps in identifying 3M standards and checking is possible against these standards. Removing this variability can some times eliminate Quality Defects in the product.
33 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Identification of Operating Conditions with respect to Machine, Material & Method
Defect Sl.no Mode 1 Blister Method (People) 1) Unloading of baked linings from Thermal shock oven in a specified time. 2) Variation in Setting of Vent stroke. 3M Relation Machine 1) Temperature in the Post curing oven as per the specification. 2) Curing pressure as per the specification. 3) Temperature in the curing mould as per specification. Material 1) Moisture in the material 2) Variation in resin properties

2

Soft

1) Even spreading of mix in the moulds. 2) Cleaning of mould edges after the application of Liquid emulsion solution in the moulds.

1) Curing pressure as per the specification. 2) Temperature in the curing mould as per specification.

1) Inclined Plate Flow value of the powder resin as per specification. 2) Curetime of the resin as per specification. 3) Variation in the bulk density of the mix. 4) Concentration of the liquid emulsion solution as per specification.

According to standard Standards not properly followed

Statndards needed

34

© Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Identification of Operating Conditions with respect to Machine, Material & Method
Sl.no 3 Defect M ode Dent M ethod (People) 1) Cleaning of curing moulds after unloading the product. 3M Relation M achine 1) Chrome plating of the mould as per specification. 2) Temperature in the curing mould as per specification. 4 Crack 1) Setting of Vent stroke as needed to the product. 1) Temperature in the curing mould as per specification. 2) Curing pressure as per the specification. 5 Flash Dent 1) Cleaning of flashes in the edges of the box after unloading the lining from the curing moulds. 1) Clearance between the mould and the spacers 2) Curing pressure as per the specification. 1) Curing pressure as per the specification 2) Error free weighing scale at common weighing. 1) Bulk density of the mix as per specification. 1) Inclined Plate Flow of the powder resin as per the specification 1) Variation in resin properties M aterial 1) Concentration of the liquid em ulsion solution as per specification.

6

Thickness Unclear

1) Weighment of mix as per the specification 2) Flash removal below the bottom mould. 3) Correct stock removal in OD grinding. 4) Correct stock removal in ID grinding.

According to standard Standards not properly follow ed Statndards needed

35

© Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M CONDITION FOR NO BLISTER BUBBLES
3M COndition Machine Baffle plate Required value How to check Responsibility Frequency What to do

Both sheet should be seated Hand without gap Uniform Rotation 240±10 V No jerking Visual

Comp.sup.

Daily

Dipper agitator Voltage Track Chain PROCESS

Prodn.sup

Daily Daily Shift once

Voltmeter Prodn.sup Visual Digitron Prodn.sup

Dipper temperature 28±2 C Latex circulation

Prod. Sup./operator Hourly
Prod. Sup./Comp.sup Weekly

No repelling of bubbles from Visual

dipper agitator Drying All teat end heaters should be switched off in I drier Visual Prod.Sup. Daily 36

© Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M CONDITION FOR NO BLISTER BUBBLES
How to check

3M Condition

Required value

Responsibility

Frequency What to do Hourly

No.1 product weight 0.75 - 0.80 Gms. Material(LATEX) S.I.Value Total alkalinity Sediments 2.0 - 2.4 0.35 - 0.50 % No sediments

Weighment Prodn.sup

S.I.check Titration Hand

Comp.sup/Lab.sup Comp.sup/Lab.sup Comp.sup/Lab.sup

Daily Daily Weekly

37 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

BILISTER BUBBLE -ANALYSIS
S No. 1 Phenomenon Latex Temperature above 30°c Cause Chiller failure Solenoid failure Countermeasure Alarm provided Alarm provided (K) Based on EB voltage Tapping in Sub Station. Baffle plate misalignment. High Total Alkalinity Periodic check. Total Alkalinity checked once in a day and maintained below 0.5%.

2

Former temp above 60°c. during II dipper

Voltage variation

3 4

Dipper latex agitation. Ammonia content above 0.5%

38

© Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

GOOD IN NO GOOD -3 M CONDITION
3M conditions
Loading Solenoid wing gap Disc play stripping Conductivity brush Voltage Carbon brush Sensor

Required value
Exactly on viton ring No gap No play Uniform stripping No worn out layers

How to check

ResponsiFrequency bility
Supervisor Operator Operator Operator Operator Every shift Twice in a shift Twice in a shift Twice in a shift Once in hour

What to do

Visual Visual Visual Visual Visual

1200/900V +100V Voltmeter Electrician No powder LEDshould glow. No product in helmet Visual Visual Visual Fitter Electician Operator

Once in a shift Once in a shift Once in a shift Twice in a shift
39

© Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Execution of PM analysis for exposure and handling of malfunctions
PM Analysis is one of the most effective techniques to handle B type of problems. PM denotes (P) Physical phenomena (M) Mechanism. In this analysis we try to establish the relationship between phenomena and the physical mechanism behind it which explain the contributing conditions to cause such physical mechanisms. These contributing conditions are then elaborated in terms of relationship with primary (man, material, machine, method) conditions. Usually these primary conditions are not measurable so they are once again converted into secondary conditions that can usually be physically inspected against a standard.
© Confederation of Indian Industry

40

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar

Execution of PM analysis for exposure and handling of malfunctions (contd…)
After finding the standards, a survey is performed to see the variability against these standards and all such conditions are listed as (Not Good). It is advisable to take countermeasures against all these conditions

simultaneously so as to eliminate most of the chance causes in the system. This helps achieving zero defects in the product.
41 © Confederation of Indian Industry

TPM Club India

Quality Maintenance Pillar P.M. ANALYSIS ON ELIMINATION OF CURED PASSENGER TYRE SCRAP DUE TO TREAD BLOW

PHENOMENON

PHYSICAL VIEW LOGICAL REASONING

CONTRIBUTING CONDITION

RELEASING WITH 4M (PRIMARY)

RELATION WITH 4M (SECONDARY)

Air Entrapment between Nylon Carcass surface (A) and Rubber Tread bottom surface(B).

Force applied by Stitcher on Rubber Tread Surface is less than the resistance given by Rubber Tread.

01) Thrust exerted by Stitcher Disc is less.

1.1) Air Leakage inside bellow. 1.2) Required Air does not reach in bellow from air Hose. 1.3) Stitcher disc oblique transfer less thrust

1.1.1)Air Leakage from joints of Bellow. 1.1.2) Degraded Beloow 1.2.1) Air leakage from pipe joints. 1.2.2) Leakage from Pipe 1.3.1) Lever Bush Wear Out 1.3.2) Pin Bush Wear Out 1.3.3) Housing Bush Wear Out 1.3.4) Feed Nut Wear Out 1.3.5) Sprocket teeth Damage 1.3.6) Loose Coupling of Sprocket 1.4.1) Feed nut wear out 1.4.2) Sprocket teeth damage 1.4.3) Loose coupling of Sprocket 1.5.1) No locks of height adjustment square bar 1.5.2) Worm gear thread damage 1.5.3) Cylinder thread damage 1.5.4) Lead Screw thread damage 2.1.1) Tread length more 2.1.2) Tread Splicing more

-

1.4) Bottom Stitcher Play

1.5) Bottom Stitcher Height displacement

02) Resistance given by tread is large.

2.1) Tread Swells out near joint.

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CHECK PART CHECK ITEM MEASURING METHOD TOLERANCE MEASUREMENT VALUE DECISION

Quality Maintenance Pillar

TROUBLE SHOOTING METHOD

RESULT

01) Bellow

-Air leakage from joint of bellow -Degraded Bellow

-Visual / Hand -Hardness -Visual / Hand -Visual / Hand

No leakage 60-70 Shore-A No leakage No leakage

No leakage 75 No leakage No leakage

OK Not ok OK OK To be Changed To be Changed

OK Bellow replaced OK OK Changed

OK OK OK OK OK

02) Air Pressure

-Air leakage from pipe joints -Air leakage from pipe . -Lever Bush wear out.

03) Bush

Dimension Check ID-50±0.5 mm. ID-51 mm. (Vernier) OD-52±0.5 mm. OD-50mm.

04) Feed Nut & Gear

W- 2 mm. -Pin Bush wear - Dimension Check ID-70±0.5 mm. (Vernier) out. OD-72±0.5 mm. W- 2 mm. -Housing Bush - Dimension Check ID-65±0.5 mm. (Vernier) wear out. OD-68±0.5 mm. W- 2 mm. -Feed nut wear out Dimension Check Pitch -10 TPI
(Vernier)

W- 2 mm. ID-71 mm. OD-69mm. W- 2 mm. ID-65 mm. OD-68mm. W- 2 mm. 10 TPI Teeth damage Loose

Changed

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK OK

-Sprocket teeth damage -Loose Coupling of Sprocket

-Visual -Visual

No teeth damage No Looseness

Not ok,To be Changed changed Tightened Tightened

OK

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TROUBLE SHOOTING METHOD

RESULT

05) Bottom Stitcher Height 06) WormGear 07) Cylinder

-No locks of height adjustment square bar

-Visual

No looseness

Loose

Lock to be provided

Lock provided

OK

-Worm gear thread Dimension Check ID-76.2± 0.2mm. ID-75mm. (Vernier) damage Depth : 2 mm. Depth : 2 mm. -Cylinder thread damage
Dimension Check OD-80.4± 0.2mm. OD-80.3mm. (Vernier)

Not ok, to be Changed changed OK OK

OK OK

Depth : 2 mm.

Depth : 2 mm.

08)Lead Screw 09)Tread

-Lead screw thread Dimension Check OD-33.75± 0.2mm. OD-33.7mm. (Vernier) damage -Tread length more -Tread splicing more
Measuring Tape 1750 ± 5 mm.

OK OK OK

OK OK OK

OK OK OK

1752 - 3 mm.

Dimension Check 0 mm. ± 3 mm. (Vernier)

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Identification of Operating Conditions with respect to Machine, Material & Method

3 M C O N D IT IO N S C H E C K L IS T
D e fe c t 3 M R e la tio n S l.n o M o d e M e th o d (P e o p le ) M a c h in e 1 N o tc h in 1 ) N o tc h in g o p e ra tio n to1 ) R ig id c la m p in g o f th e g s ta rt a fte r c o rre c t b u ttin gp rof d u c t d u rin g n o tc h in g o th e p ro d u c t o p e ra tio n . M a te ria l

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Identification of Operating Conditions with respect to Machine, Material & Method
3 M FUGUAI IDENTIFICATION & RECTIFICATION
Production Machine Problem inputs (3M) Method NOTC HING 1) Notching operation starts before correct butting of the product Defect Mode Survey Method Wrong Visual Location of Notching Survey Result Limit switch fixing screw found loose and corrected Countermea sure In charge

To check QM / the limit switch fixing pro condition du once in a cer week

Machine

NOTCH ING

1) Clamping of the product is not rigid

Wrong Location Notching

Check air pressure in the gauge

Air leak noticed at the pushing cylinder inlet due to damaged hose

Hose replaced & to ensure the hose condition during machine start.

Pr od uc er

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PM Analysis
Phenomenon Physically view (Logical reasoning) Product is shifted from it's Location during Notching operation. Contributing Condition Relation with 4M (Primary) 1-1) Pusher cylinder stroke length variation Relation with 4M (Secondary) 1-1-1) Air pressure Low 1-1-2) Leak in the Cylinder seal 1-1-3) Disturbance to the limit switch setting 1-1-4) Dust accumulation in the guide bushes 1-1-5) Scoring marks in the guide rod 1-1-6) Leak in the air hose 1-1-7) Scoring marks in the ID surface of the guide bush. 1-1-8) Leak in the ferrule 1-1-9) Wear in the piston seal Wrong Location notching in TATA SCAM Products 1) Product is located without butting with the butting reference

A = Feeding Unit B = Holding Unit

Notching OK Lining 1-2) Premature clamping 1-2-1) Limit switch malfunction 1-2-2) Limit switch locking screw loose 1-2-3) Less Clearance between the product and clamping band Not OK Lining 2) Product location change After clamping.
Butting Reference

2-1) Variation in clamping force

Product

Notch cutters OK Condition NOT OK Condition

2-1-1) Band length is more 2-1-2) Air pressure low 2-1-3) Band locking screw got loosened 2-1-4) Burr between band and the product 2-1-5) Band Damage

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PM Analysis
Phenomenon Wrong Location notching in TATA SCAM Products Physically view (Logical reasoning) Contributing Condition Relation with 4M (Primary) Relation with 4M (Secondary) 2-1-6) Band elongation 2-1-7) Band fixing hole elongataion 2-1-8) Burr in the ID surface of the product 2-1-9) Clamping cylinder fixing screw got loosened 2-1-10) Thickness of the product is less 2-1-11) Clamping cylinder fixing screw damage

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Review of Survey results
Phenomena : Wrong Location Notching Check Check Item Measurement Site Method Pushing 1.Air Pressure Pressure gauge Cyclinder2.Cylinder seal condition Visual 3.Air hose leak Visual 4.Leak in the ferrule Visual 5.Piston seal wear Visual 6.Dust accumulation in the guide bush Visual 7.Scoring marks in the ID of the guideVisual bush 8.Scoring marks in the guide rod Visual Limit 9.Limit switch function Visual switch 10.Locking screw loose Visual 11.Locking screw damage Visual Clamping12.Air pressure Pressure gauge Cylinder 13.Band Length Scale 14.Band Locking screw loose Visual 15.Burr in the band Visual 16.Band damage Visual 17.Clearance between the product and ernier V the band 18.Band elongation Scale 19.Band Fixing Hole elongation Vernier caliper 20.Cylinder fixing screw loose Visual 21.Cylinder fixing screw damage Visual Product 22.Thickness Micrometer 23.Burr in the ID surface Radius gauge Machine : Notching Machine, U-Line I
Evaluation Restoration / Standard Measured Value Value Improvement 4 - 7 bar 6 bar OK No damage No damage OK No Leak No Leak OK No Leak No Leak OK No damage No damage OK Free from dustFree from dustOK No scoring No scoring OK -

Result

No scoring No Error Rigid Tight No damage 4 - 7 bar 380 +/- 3 mm No loose No burr No damage 4 - 6 mm No elongation No elongation No Loose No damage 16.72/17.12 0.127 proof

No scoring No Error Rigid Tight No damage 6 bar 386 mm No loose No burr No damage 9 mm No elongation Elongated No Loose No damage 16.93 0.100 proof

OK OK OK OK OK Not ok OK OK OK Not ok OK Not ok OK OK OK OK

To replace band Clamping method To correct the modified bend in the band To relocate the hole -

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Countermeasure for the causes identified
Plant : TSK Plant II Kaizen Theme :
To eliminate wrong location Notching Scrap in U Line I KAIZEN IDEA - SHEET

SUNDARAM BRAKE LININGS LIMITED "B" TYPE PHENOMENA
Current Status Target 14 nos / Week Zero

Idea :
To Improve the clamping grip of the lining.

Problem / Present status
Notching area wrongly located in the product during notching operation. Before OK Lining

Counter Measure

Clamping method modified

After

Clamping band Notching

Product

Kaizen started on 07.01.2001 Kaizen finished on 08.01.2001 Team Members N. Sridhar R.Rajaambikeswaran Clamping Pad K.Venkatasubramanian K.Nambiappan Product G.K.Rajkumar

Fixture Not OK Lining

Benefits :
Wrong Location Notching scrap eliminated in U Line I Nothcing Machine

Clamping Cylinders

Analysis : PM Analysis

Results:
Wrong location notching scrap in U-Line I
Scrap in nos.
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 28 9 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Scope & Plan for Horizontal Deployment After kaizen S.No
1

Machine Target Chamfering 30.01.01 Machine

Resp
UM

Status
Completed

Nov'2000

Jan-2001

Jul-2001

May2001

Mar2001

Month

Sep2001

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Poka Yoke for eliminating defects
To err is Human. Human Beings are very forgetful and tend to make mistakes. Many times we end up saying “Operator Carelessness / Negligence” or “Operator Inattentiveness”. If we carefully look at such processes, we can reason out that these are a combination of many factors rather than just “Operator Carelessness”. Monotonous, mechanical and long tense working environment tend to make people commit mistakes. If we bracket these mistakes as “carelessness”, the people get demotivated and discouraged. Poka-Yoke is a technique for avoiding simple human errors at work. Poka is a Japanese word meaning “inadvertent errors” and Yoke comes from Japanese word Yokerie meaning “to avoid”. This has also been termed as “Mistake / Fool Proofing” or “Fail Safing”. The idea behind poka-yoke is to free a person’s mind from maintaining repetitive vigil which may be practically infeasible. By doing so a person without the fear of making mistake can constructively do more value added activities.
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ERRORS ARE INEVITABLE BUT CAN BE ELIMINATED

People always make mistakes. These can be reduced or even eliminated. Some of the Poke-Yoke devices, which can help avoid defects, are ; • Guide Pins / Locators of different sizes. • Error Detection Buzzers and Alarms • Limit Switches, Proximity and Photosensors. • Counters • Checklists
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BASIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF POKA-YOKE

• PREDICTION v/s DETECTION • ALARM v/s SHUTDOWN v/s CONTROL • CONTACT v/s FIXED VALUE v/s MOTION READING METHODS

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PREDICTION v/s DETECTION
When a Poka-Yoke is designed in a way that it helps the operator to recognise the defect before it is about to occur, it is called a Prevention or Prediction type Poka-Yoke. When a Poka-yoke helps the operator to know immediately on the occurrence of the defect then it is called Detection type Poka-Yoke. Detection is “after’ the defect is produced. The merit of this type of poka-yoke is based on the stage at which the defect is detected. In simple language “Earlier the better”.
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Example : Prevention
The figure 1-A shows that holes are wrongly drilled due to incorrect positioning of plate. Figure 1-B shows that incorrect positioning of the plate is prevented by locating 4 reference pins. The cause of Incorrect Drilling (incorrect positioning) is prevented.

Pins Pins

1 (A)

1 (B)
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Example : Detection
Figure 2-A shows that plate with four holes drilled is to be despatched to the Customer. Customer complaints show many plates with 3 holes drilled. Figure 2-B shows the mistake of less drilled holes is detected through a check by using four locator pins on a gauge.
Pins

2 (A)

2 (B)
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ALARM v/s SHUTDOWN v/s CONTROL
ALARM Signals in form of buzzers, blinking lights are used to warn when an abnormality, has occurred (detect) / about to occur (predict). SHUTDOWN Normal function of machine or process is stopped when defect predicted/detected. CONTROL In Prevention type Poka-Yoke , Control means that even intentional errors are impossible or methods by which the cause of a defect if starts happening, it is automatically prevented from happening (feedback mechanism). In Detection type Poka-Yoke , Control means that the process is not stopped but the defective items are automatically separated out and are not allowed to pass on to next stage
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CONTACT v/s FIXED VALUE v/s MOTION READING METHODS

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CONTACT METHOD
These use the principle of physical or energy contact with the product using sensing devices. They range from guide pins, limit switches, photo electric beams, etc. Contact methods often take advantage of parts that are designed with an uneven shape. We can use guide pins or blocks that don’t allow the product to be seated in a machines jig in the wrong position.
PRESS PRESS

product
JIG

product
JIG

product

3 (A)

3 (B)

JIG

CORRECT

INCORRECT

Before In figure 3A the Sheet Metal Part could be placed incorrectly during forming operation

After A limit switch turns the machine on only whenthe protruding neck is positioned where it is supposed to be .
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FIXED VALUE METHOD
Fixed Value Methods are used when a fixed number of parts must be attached to the product or when fixed repeats of operations needs to be done at some process station. Counting devices count the number of times something is done and signals or releases the product from its clamping when the required number is reached. E.g. Before A tip of spot welding machine wears with use and should be replaced after certain number of welds. Operator used to forget changing the tip, resulting in defective product. E.g. After A counter, tracking the number of welds, stops the machine and flashes a light as a signal to change the tip.
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MOTION STEP METHOD
This method senses whether a motion or step in the process has been carried out within a certain expected time ( of the machine cycle time) This method uses sensors & devices like photoelectric switch connected to a timer. E.g. A label dispensing machine uses a photoelectric switch to stop the line if it does not detect removal of label from the backing tape.

An example of the Motion Step Method for using Poka-Yoke

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TYPES OF SENSING DEVICES
We have many sensing devices: • • • • • Limit switches, Micro-switches Proximity Switches Photoelectric Switches Beam Sensors Sensor to detect changes in Physical condition like temperature, pressure etc. (Pressure switches, thermostats etc.)

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8 TYPES OF ERRORS
• • • • • • • Processing Errors including Safety Errors Assembly Errors Inspection Errors Processing Omissions Assembly Omissions Packing / Pasting / Labeling Errors Mis-orientation, Mis-alignment & Dimensional Errors

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Processing Errors including Safety Errors
Processing Error Section consists of examples where due to operators mistake some process step is partially or incorrectly done For Example : Sometimes the drill is raised back before drilling the required depth (through) . A Proximity Switch has been provided to sense the coming through of drill to indicate completion of drill operation

J o b
J o b

Fr ite x u

Fr ite x u

Proxim ity

JOB WITHOUT THRU’ HOLE

JOB WITH DRILLED THRU’ HOLE

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Assembly Errors
This Section consists of examples where operator by mistake does partial or incorrect assembly. For Example : During Assembly of a gear on the shaft for two similar models, Gear ‘B” is assembled on the Shaft ‘a’ instead of Gear ‘A’. Gear A & B are similar looking gears differing only in the number of teeth. To eliminate this error a Mating part is installed on the Assembly fixture corresponding to ‘A’ to ensure that only gear ‘A’ is loaded
Mating Part for A

S a ‘a h ft ’

B fo e re
Ga er ‘B In ta dW n ly ’ s lle ro g

A r fte
O lyG a ‘A C nB In ta d n e r ’ a e s lle

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Inspection Errors
Section on Inspection error consists of examples which are related to rejected components going down the line or to the customer. These errors are due to monotony and fatigue faced by the inspector. The operator is not sure of the completion of leakage test and passes them to the bin meant for keeping jobs that have passed leakage test. Operator Leakag Seam sometimes e welded not sure of Testing jobs Done waiting leakage for testing test leakag e completion testing and keeps Before OK/Not kept OK Jobs without Leakage Test products in is kept in the OK tray on the the OK left. bin. Head that stamps part number Advances when it senses After no leakage Now Head for stamping added at leakage testing station. Only after leakage has been tested OK, job will be stamped by the Head for stamping

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Processing Omissions
This section consists of examples where due to mistake, the operator misses out few steps of the process Example:

Four holes to be drilled

Three holes drilled because of mistake

Now the drilling operation has been provided with counter and the job will not be unclamped unless, the counter with drilling machine reads four.
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Assembly Omissions
The section on Assembly Omissions consists of examples where an assembly part is not assembled by the operator by mistake and the assembly goes to next station. For Example : In an assembly operation washer were missed before providing nut. To remove this problem washer picking was sensed to give a start to nut runner.

Nut Runn er

Picking

Nut

Proximity which senses picking of washer gives signal to Nut PICKING OF WASHER WILL BE SENSED TO Runner ALLOW THE START OF NUT RUNNER

Washer Sometimes missed

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Packing / Pasting / Labeling Errors
As the name suggest this section includes examples on Errors in Packing / Pasting / Labeling. For example: On the cover page of this book an example of carton going without the medicine bottle inside is shown wherein due to mistake the packer missed to fill a bottle in the carton. Now a draft of fan has been provided below the conveyor, carrying cartons with bottle, which is strong enough only to blow an empty carton.
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Mis-orientation, Mis-alignment & Dimensional Errors
This section consists of errors because of mis-aligned / mis-oriented job loaded on a process leading to slightly offset operations. Example: Before
Movement of notch milling Movement of notch milling

RIGHT
Notch to be made on the side with one hole

WRONG
Notch made on the side opposite to one hole

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Example: After Now at notching operation the fixture has been made with 3 pins as shown. Job with wrong orientation cannot be loaded for Notch operation.

Not possible to load

Fixture for Notch operation

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Maintaining Zero Defect
There are lot of activities required to be done for maintaining zero defects. It starts with following JH checklist, preparing Quality Maintenance matrix,

preparing checklists for inspection of zero defect conditions and also audits for monitoring activities related to zero defects. This involves preparing correct operating standards and other standards for maintenance.
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Process Capability Improvement Plan
Sometimes capability of a process needs to be enhanced to obtain high Cp value for critical characteristics. This plant again follows the analysis for variation in the characteristics and taking countermeasure against all the sources.

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