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TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

PILLAR

Hinshitsu Hozen

or

Quality Maintenance

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

“Hinshitsu-Hozen”
What is “Hinshitsu-Hozen?

To maintain integrity of quality (state of 100% non-defectives)

* Condition setting :
Set conditions for zero defects aimed at equipment and processes that do
not produce quality defects.
* Daily and periodical inspections :
Inspect and measure conditions in time series.
* Quality preventive maintenance :
Prevent quality defects by maintaining measured values within the standard
* Trend control and predictive maintenance :
Predict possibilities of quality defects occurring by observing trends of
measured values.
* Prior countermeasures:
Take measures beforehand
© JIPM, 1994 2
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Hinshitsu – Hozen Concept


Quality Defect Factors
Caused by raw material Caused by equipment Caused by method Caused by conditions of
conditions precision conditions people involved

Producing materials and Fostering operators


Manufacturing equipment Devising methods not to
energy not to generate proficient in equipment
not to generate defect generate defects
defects and job

Quality Assurance
Jishu-Hozen activities
+
+
Equipment and Material
Design check Skill Education and Training
environment management Management

PM Pursue relationship between quality Maintenance and


Analysis characteristics and material and energy management ability training
condition / equipment precision / method (Ability to find cause system
conditions
troubles and to quickly and
correctly take actions)
Set conditions of equipment not to
generate defects

Management of conditions not to generate


defects

(Hinshitsu – Hozen) Zero quality defects © JIPM, 1987 3


 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Relation among 5 Principles of TPM Development


and Quality Maintenance
Quality maintenance - Making of
<Coping with the TPM 5 Principles> equipment which will not make poor
quality products.

Individual PM Analysis
Improvement Setting of Conditions
Basic Thinking of Improvement (Technical Aspect) Decide
Restoration
properly
Pursuit of the optimal Condition
Elimination of Minor Defects
Adjustments
Clarification of Skill
Autonomous Condition Control (Control
Maintenance 7 Steps of Autonomous Maintenance Aspect) Observe precisely
• Daily Inspection
• Proper Operation
Preventive
Application of Equipment Diagnosing Technology
Maintenance

Feedback
MP Design

Realization of Zero-Defect

Education and
Training
Fostering of personnel who thoroughly understand
the equipment

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Concept of the Promotion of Quality Maintenance

To promote quality maintenance, it is necessary to satisfy


the following two preconditions:
• Forced machine deterioration has been thoroughly
removed.
• Natural deterioration removal under is progresses.
• Managers and operators have become skillful with
equipment, so that the functions and structure of
equipment are well understood by them.
• Have Sufficient inspection skill.
• Training of staff who handle equipment on skill.
• Jishu-Hozen, Kobetsu-Kaizen, PM analysis training,
and skill education and training must be enforced
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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Choosing time of quality maintenance.

• Total Jishu Hozen Implementation.

• Workshop is free from forced deterioration.

•"when failures cannot be reduced, defects cannot be


reduced.”

• Losses such as Equipment failure, Minor Stoppages,


Process failure are under control.

•All relevant data on Quality defects is available. 6


 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Implementation Procedure for


Quality Maintenance

• Understanding quality defect phenomena.

• Setting of standard values for inspection items


and confirmation of results

• Concentration of inspection items and


shortening of inspection time

• Drafting of QM (Quality Maintenance) matrix


and reflection in standards 7
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Implementation Procedure for


Quality Maintenance (contd…)

• Master plan for QM

• 3M Analysis

• PM analysis for exposure and handling of


malfunctions

• Kaizens and Poka Yoke for eliminating defects

• Maintaining Zero Defect

• Process capability improvement plan


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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Understanding quality defect phenomena

• Clarity on the definition of the defect

• Frequency of occurrence and effect of defects

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Defects classification
A - Type defect B - Type defect C - Type defect
OK OK NOT OK

NOT OK NOT OK

Action No action Action


taken by OK
by operator taken by
operator operator

LSL OK USL OK
LSL USL OK
LSL USL

• The output is (OK) initially • The output is (OK) initially


• Becomes (NG) • Becomes (NG) • The output is (NG) initially
• Corrective action is taken • No action taken by • Action taken by operator
by operator operator • Becomes (OK)
• Becomes (OK) • Becomes (OK) (setting scrap)
• Uue Why – Why Analysis • Use PM Analysis 10
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

A - Type defect : Examples

OK

NOT OK

Action taken by
operator

LSL OK USL

11
 Confederation of Indian Industry
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A B C Providing Changing CU QM 2000- 01 CU 128


JiPm -TPM
Kaizen Theme & Target : Machine No : EMA

To eliminate process scrap due to Damage of M133551 Crank shaft Team MembersM . Karthikeyan
Problem/Present Status : Before improvement:
Result / Benefit : Scrap due to wrong
4
loading
3

Rejection Qty
8
3
Rejection Qty

6
6
2
4
4
3
1
2

0
0

Nov'00 Dec'00 Jan'01 Jan'01 Feb'01

Kaizen
Analysis : After improvement: type Reversible Ir-reversible
Component damage – Induction hardng If reversible updated in
Operation Standard / QCPC
Why
JH Check Sheet
PM Check Sheet
Inductor hitting the component
Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Why POKA YOKE Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment

Component loaded in the wrong direction SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status
Why
1 EMA Mar’01 MK Compld.
Possibility of wrong loading
Root Cause: Possibility of Wrong Loading
Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
Idea : Prevent Possibility of Wrong Loading
Prevention Control
Counter measure : Provide POKA YOKE Detection Warning
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A B C Providing Changing ACT QM 2000- 01 AU 087


JiPm -TPM
Kaizen Theme & Target : Machine No : 032505
Eliminate process scrap due to Component
pull out in M270081 Cylinder in machine 032505 Team Members N.Kothandaraman
Problem/Present Status : Before improvement:
5
Result
5
/ Benefit :
4 4
4 4

3 3
Rejn Qty

Rejn Qty
2 2 2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0
June July Aug Sep June July Aug Sep Oct Nov

Analysis : After improvement:


Kaizen
type Ir-reversible
Component damage during machining Reversible
Why If reversible updated in
component pulled out Operation Standard / QCPC
JH Check Sheet
Why PM Check Sheet
Tennon broken Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Why Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment
weaker section of the tennon
SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status
Why
Reduced thickness
Why 01 032507 Oct,00 NKN completed
to avoid fouling with jaws
Root Cause: Tennon fouling with the jaws
Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
Idea : Avoid tennon fouling with jaws
Prevention Control
Counter measure : Change the jaw design and tennon thickness Detection Warning
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A Providing Changing V2 QM 2000 -


JiPm -TPM B C 2001 V2 025
Kaizen Theme & Target : Machine No : 082501
Eliminate process scrap due to damage in Un loader valve before Apr’00
Team Members BDN / TSS
Problem/Present Status : Before improvement:
ULV Body Wrong
Result
4
/ Benefit :
Process scrap due to Damage
4
Side on the top
3
3

Qty
2 2
2
Qty

1 1
0 0 0 0 0
0

pr
ar
b

ay

l
Ju
Jan'00 Feb Mar

'0

Fe

Ju
M

M
n
Ja
Kaizen
Analysis : After improvement: Not able to type Reversible Ir-reversible
Damage in body load
If reversible updated in
Operation Standard / QCPC
Why ? JH Check Sheet
Wrong loading of component Poka Yoke PM Check Sheet
Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Why ? pin
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment
Fixture accepting wrong loading
SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status
Why ?
No stopper arrangement to 1 086303 Aug’00 BDN completed
avoid wrong loading
Root Cause: No stopper arrangement to avoid wrong loading
Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
Idea : Provide stopper to avoid wrong
Prevention Control
loading
Counter measure : Provide Poka yoke pin Detection Warning
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

B - Type defect : Examples

OK

NOT OK

No action by
operator

LSL OK USL

15
 Confederation of Indian Industry
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A B C Providing Changing Act QM Aug ‘ 99 Au- 072


JiPm -TPM
Kaizen Theme & Target : Machine No : 032302
To reduce process scrap due to rough finish on
Bore dia inM 272291 Ty 20 Ram Team Members N.Kothandaraman
Problem/Present Status : Before improvement:
5 Process sequence
Result / Benefit :
4
Facing , OD Turning & grooving 5

3
3 4

2 Rough boring 3
2
1 1 2
1
Finish boring 1
0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0
Mar Apr May May June July
Back facing Aug Sep Oct Nov

Rough finish on
Kaizen
Analysis : bore
Why ? After improvement:
Process sequence type Reversible Ir-reversible
Entrapment of Burr on bore during Facing , OD Turning & grooving
If reversible updated in
finish boring operation . Operation Standard / QCPC
JH Check Sheet
Why ?
PM Check Sheet
Burr generated during Rough boring Rough boring Eqpt / fixture Drawing
operation not fully flushed out
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment
Why ?
Back facing SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status
Finish boring operation done immediately
after rough boring operation . . 01 032304 Nov ‘ 99 NKN Completed
Finish boring
Process sequence
Root Cause: Presence of burr during boring operation
Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
Idea : To eliminate burr presence
Prevention Control
Counter measure : Change process sequence Detection Warning
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A B C Providing Changing


cu QM 2000 - 2001 CU -012
JiPm -TPM
Before Mar’2000
Kaizen Theme & Target : Machine No : 120802
To avoid the rejection in crank shaft due to tool digging mark M .Karthikeyan
Team Members
Problem/Present Status : Before improvement:
Result / Benefit :
High rejection ,while running the 4
crank shaft without the tailstocks Support
3

Rejection Qty
4 4

3
Rejection Qty

3 2

2 1

1
1 0 0
0

0 Mar'00 Apr'00
Dec'99 Jan'00 Feb'00

Kaizen
Analysis : After improvement: type Reversible Ir-reversible
High rejection in 120802 If reversible updated in
Why Operation Standard / QCPC
JH Check Sheet
Tool digging PM Check Sheet
Why Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Excess Runout in the component Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment
Why SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status
Component not located properly
Why 1 120801 Jul’00 MK Completed
No tailstock clamping
Root Cause: Tailstock not clamping
Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
Idea : Eliminate tailstock not clamping
Prevention Control
Counter measure : Provide limit switch Detection Warning
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

C - Type defect : Examples


NOT OK

Action taken by
OK operator

LSL OK USL

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A B C Providing Changing


cu QM 2000-2001 CU -185
JiPm -TPM
Kaizen Theme & Target : Machine No : 087803
To reduce rejection due to Oil port spot face
height undersize in TCL Crank case Zero by Apr’2001 Team Members M .Karthikeyan
Problem/Present Status : Before improvement:
Result / Benefit :
10
Before After
8
High process scrap due 8

Rejection Qty
to 6
6

oil port spot face height 4


undersize in 4

M 134561 TCL crankcase 2

0
0

Jan'01 Feb'01 Mar'01 Apr'01

Kaizen
Analysis : After improvement: type Reversible Ir-reversible
Oil port Spot face height undersize
Setting Master If reversible updated in
Why? Operation Standard / QCPC
More material removed on face JH Check Sheet
PM Check Sheet
Why?
Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Tool length set excess 12.5
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment
Why?
SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status
No Setting facility
How? 1 086301 Jun’01 MK Compl.
Provide Setting facility

Root Cause: Tool length set excess


Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
Idea : Set the tool correctly
Prevention Control
Counter measure :Provide Setting Master Detection Warning
KAIZEN - SHEET Unit Sub Comm Year SL. No.

Brakes Division Category: A B C Providing Changing


v1 QM 2000-2001 v1 -168
JiPm -TPM
Kaizen Theme & Target Eliminate
: scrap due to Inner dia. O/S in Machine No : 032601
R6 / RE6 top cover. Zero & Before March’01
Team Members VT / RBS
Problem/Present Status : Multi rotational dial gauge
Before improvement:
Result
50 / Benefit :
50 34 40 34
40 28 10 1 2
Qt30 28
y
9 3

30 8 1 4
Big dial
20
2
7 6
5

20 0
10 0 0
0 0 Small dial
10
Nov Dec Jan’01Feb’01Mar’01
Nov Dec Jan’01 Feb Month
Kaizen
Analysis : After improvement: one rotational dial gauge type Reversible Ir-reversible
If reversible updated in
Dia 140.9 / 105.10 Bore over size Operation Standard / QCPC
3 4
5

2 6
JH Check Sheet
1
Wrong Setting by operator
7

PM Check Sheet
Eqpt / fixture Drawing
Scope & plan for Horizontal Deployment
Wrong reading of the dial
SLNo. M/cNo. Target date Resp. Status

Multi rotational dial 1 032504 Apr’01 NKN Compl.


2 032602 Apr’01 RBS Compl.
Root Cause: Multi rotational dial gauge used for measurement 3 032201 Apr’01 NKN Compl.
Poka Yoke type & Function Shut Down
IdeaEliminate
: multi rotational gauge
Prevention Control
Counter measureChange
: the bore dial to one rotation type. Detection Warning
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Setting of standard values for inspection


items and confirmation of results

If standard values are set for individual inspection items, and equipment

precision is maintained within the standard range, it is necessary to confirm

that all quality characteristics can be satisfied.

If they cannot, the cause is either that "there are omission in inspection items"

or "Standard values are not stringent enough." In either case, it is necessary to

return to PM analysis and carry out study.

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Concentration of inspection items and


shortening of inspection time

For orderly implementation of condition control, review inspection items


themselves and satisfy the following conditions:

• Reducing inspection items by concentrating on the number of items for


inspection
• Extending inspection interval by eliminating forced machine deterioration
• Shortening inspection time by taking steps for 'difficult to inspect' spots

If inspection items are many, inspection intervals are short, or inspection


requires much time, maintenance and control will become difficult, and
eventually achievement level will decline.
Elimination of forced deterioration and spots that are difficult to inspect
depends greatly on Jishu-Hozen implementation.

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Drafting of QM (Quality Maintenance) matrix


and reflection in standards

QA Matrix is prepared to establish the relationship

between defect / defect mode and the process which

causes it. It requires data collection for defects at various

process stages to prepare a QA Matrix.

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M condition analysis. Please follow following guidelines.


1 Based on QD matrix identify where the defect is generated

2 Draw a C & E diagram for the defect for each process/sub-process,

3 Identify inputs for each M (Man, Method, Machine and Material

4 Check each input whether Standard exists or not. If not then make a standard.

5 All standards are to be followed during Process.


6 If a standard is difficult to follow or if they are loose then standards are to be revised.

Status of Standard Symbol


1 Loose Standard
2 No Standard
3As per standard and followed
4 Difficult to follow
5 Not followed
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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

QM Master plan

Master Plan for quality maintenance is planning of various

activities in this pillar with respect to the time frame in

months and years. According to the stage of TPM

implementation it can start at various levels. In the

beginning it will start with data collection on defects to

improving conditions to sustaining zero defect conditions.


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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Brakes India (Sholinghur)

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar
TPM MASTER PLAN QM SUB COMMITTEE

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

MASTERPLANFORQUALITYMAINTENANCEACTIVITIES.
Activity Palnned Actual Plant. A Actual line A Actual line B Actual Slitting
Year 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008
QM-STEPS Details of activity Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3
1. Preparationof *Check qualitycharacteristics.
QAMatrix: *Investigatedefect modes and
subprocess wheredefect occures.
*Assess seriousness of defect mode.

2. Preparationof *Check deficiencyinproductioninput


Production-Input conditions for eachdefect modein
conditionanalysis eachsub-process. *Checkwhether
table standards exists andarebeing
followed.
3.Preparationof *Clearifyproduction-input conditions
problemchart for problems ineachsubprocess.
*Act promptlyagainst problems that
canbetackledonthespot *Carefully
workout countermeasures for
complexproblems. *Devise
4.Evaluationof in
*Pvrio
estig as
ritietio
pnte
ro ch
blemns
iqu
be
ysasse
andssin
plan
g
seriousnessof their impact onqualitydefects.
problems.
(FMEA1)

5. Usage of P-M *Investigateusingtechniques suchas


analysistechnique P-Manalysis andpropose
totrackdown countermeasures.
causesof
problems.
6.Assesment of *Performpreliminaryevaluationof the
impact of post improvement situation.
proposedcounter
measures
(FMEA2).
7.Implementation
of improvements.

8.Reviewof *Reviewthe productioninput conditions


productioninput identifiedin step2. *Check whether
conditions. productioninput conditions are
appropriate andcorrect.
9.Consolidation *Use the results of step8to summarize
andconfirmation the inspectionitems. *Prepare quality
of all check checkpoint list.
points.
10.Preparationof *Define standardinnumerical /
aquality observable form.
component
control table and
asurance of
qualitythrough

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M analysis

This analysis is a set of conditions with respect to

machine, material and method for obtaining a good

products. It helps in identifying 3M standards and checking

is possible against these standards. Removing this

variability can some times eliminate Quality Defects in the

product.

33
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Identification of Operating Conditions with respect


to Machine, Material & Method
Defect 3M Relation
Sl.no Mode Method (People) Machine Material
1 Blister 1) Unloading of baked linings 1) Temperature in the 1) Moisture in the material
from Thermal shock oven in Post curing oven as per
a specified time. the specification. 2) Variation in resin
properties
2) Variation in Setting of Vent 2) Curing pressure as per
stroke. the specification.

3) Temperature in the curing


mould as per specification.

2 Soft 1) Even spreading of mix 1) Curing pressure as per 1) Inclined Plate Flow value
in the moulds. the specification. of the powder resin as per
specification.
2) Cleaning of mould edges 2) Temperature in the curing
after the application of Liquid mould as per specification. 2) Curetime of the resin as
emulsion solution in the per specification.
moulds.
3) Variation in the bulk
density of the mix.

4) Concentration of the liquid


emulsion solution as per
specification.

According to standard Statndards needed


Standards not properly followed 34
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Identification of Operating Conditions with respect


to Machine, Material & Method
Defect 3M Relation
Sl.no Mode Method (People) Machine Material
3 Dent 1) Cleaning of curing moulds 1) Chrome plating of the 1) Concentration of the liquid
after unloading the product. mould as per specification. emulsion solution as per
specification.
2) Temperature in the curing
mould as per specification.

4 Crack 1) Setting of Vent stroke as 1) Temperature in the curing 1) Variation in resin


needed to the product. mould as per specification. properties

2) Curing pressure as per


the specification.

5 Flash 1) Cleaning of flashes in the 1) Clearance between the 1) Inclined Plate Flow of the
Dent edges of the box after mould and the spacers powder resin as per the
unloading the lining from the specification
curing moulds. 2) Curing pressure as per
the specification.

6 Thickness 1) Weighment of mix as per 1) Curing pressure as per 1) Bulk density of the mix as
Unclear the specification the specification per specification.

2) Flash removal below the 2) Error free weighing scale


bottom mould. at common weighing.

3) Correct stock removal in


OD grinding.

4) Correct stock removal in


ID grinding.
According to standard
Standards not properly followed Statndards needed
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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M CONDITION FOR NO BLISTER BUBBLES


How to Frequency What to do
3M COndition Required value Responsibility
check
Machine

Baffle plate Both sheet should be seated Hand Comp.sup. Daily


without gap

Dipper agitator Uniform Rotation Visual Prodn.sup Daily

Voltage 240±10 V Voltmeter Prodn.sup Daily

Track Chain No jerking Visual Prodn.sup Shift once


PROCESS
Dipper temperature 28±2 C Digitron Prod. Sup./operator Hourly

Latex circulation No repelling of bubbles from Visual Prod. Sup./Comp.sup Weekly


dipper agitator

All teat end heaters should


Drying Visual Prod.Sup. Daily
be switched off in I drier
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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

3M CONDITION FOR NO BLISTER BUBBLES

How to
3M Condition Required value Responsibility Frequency What to do
check
No.1 product weight 0.75 - 0.80 Gms. Weighment Prodn.sup Hourly

Material(LATEX)

S.I.Value 2.0 - 2.4 S.I.check Comp.sup/Lab.sup Daily

Total alkalinity 0.35 - 0.50 % Titration Comp.sup/Lab.sup Daily

Sediments No sediments Hand Comp.sup/Lab.sup Weekly

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 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

BILISTER BUBBLE -ANALYSIS


S No. Phenomenon Cause Countermeasure

1 Latex Temperature Chiller failure Alarm provided


above 30°c
Solenoid failure Alarm
provided (K)

2 Former temp Voltage variation Based on EB voltage


above 60°c. Tapping
during II dipper in Sub Station.
3 Dipper latex Baffle plate Periodic check.
agitation. misalignment.
4 Ammonia content High Total Alkalinity
above 0.5% Total Alkalinity checked once in a day
and maintained
below 0.5%. 38
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

GOOD IN NO GOOD -3 M CONDITION


How to Responsi- What
3M conditions Required value bility Frequency to do
check
Loading Exactly on viton Visual Supervisor Every shift
ring
Solenoid wing No gap Visual Operator Twice in a shift
gap
Disc play No play Visual Operator Twice in a shift

stripping Uniform stripping Visual Operator Twice in a shift

Conductivity No worn out Visual Operator Once in hour


brush layers

Voltage 1200/900V +100V Voltmeter Electrician Once in a shift

Carbon brush No powder Visual Fitter Once in a shift

Sensor LEDshould glow. Visual Electician Once in a shift

No product in helmet Visual Operator Twice in a shift


39
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Execution of PM analysis
for exposure and handling of malfunctions

PM Analysis is one of the most effective techniques to handle B


type of problems. PM denotes (P) Physical phenomena (M)
Mechanism. In this analysis we try to establish the relationship
between phenomena and the physical mechanism behind it
which explain the contributing conditions to cause such physical
mechanisms. These contributing conditions are then elaborated
in terms of relationship with primary (man, material, machine,
method) conditions. Usually these primary conditions are not
measurable so they are once again converted into secondary
conditions that can usually be physically inspected against a
standard. 40
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

Execution of PM analysis for exposure and


handling of malfunctions (contd…)

After finding the standards, a survey is performed to see


the variability against these standards and all such
conditions are listed as (Not Good). It is advisable to take
countermeasures against all these conditions
simultaneously so as to eliminate most of the chance
causes in the system. This helps achieving zero defects in
the product.
41
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar
P.M. ANALYSIS ON ELIMINATION OF CURED PASSENGER TYRE SCRAP
DUE TO TREAD BLOW
PHYSICAL VIEW CONTRIBUTING RELEASING WITH RELATION WITH
PHENOMENON LOGICAL REASONING CONDITION 4M (PRIMARY) 4M (SECONDARY)

Air Entrapment Force applied by 01) Thrust 1.1) Air Leakage 1.1.1)Air Leakage from joints of Bellow.
between Nylon Stitcher on exerted by inside bellow. 1.1.2) Degraded Beloow
Carcass surface (A) Rubber Tread Stitcher Disc is
and Rubber Tread Surface is less less. 1.2) Required Air 1.2.1) Air leakage from pipe joints.
bottom surface(B). than the resistance does not reach in 1.2.2) Leakage from Pipe
given by bellow from air Hose.
Rubber Tread.
1.3) Stitcher disc 1.3.1) Lever Bush Wear Out
oblique transfer less 1.3.2) Pin Bush Wear Out
thrust
1.3.3) Housing Bush Wear Out
1.3.4) Feed Nut Wear Out
1.3.5) Sprocket teeth Damage
1.3.6) Loose Coupling of Sprocket

- 1.4) Bottom Stitcher 1.4.1) Feed nut wear out


Play 1.4.2) Sprocket teeth damage
1.4.3) Loose coupling of Sprocket

1.5.1) No locks of height adjustment


1.5) Bottom Stitcher
square bar
Height displacement
1.5.2) Worm gear thread damage
1.5.3) Cylinder thread damage
1.5.4) Lead Screw thread damage

02) Resistance 2.1) Tread Swells 2.1.1) Tread length more


given by tread is out near joint. 2.1.2) Tread Splicing more
large. 42
 Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Club India Quality Maintenance Pillar

EVALUATION

MEASURING MEASUREMENT TROUBLE


CHECK PART CHECK ITEM TOLERANCE DECISION SHOOTING RESULT
METHOD VALUE
METHOD
01) Bellow -Air leakage from -Visual / Hand No leakage No leakage OK OK OK
joint of bellow
Bellow OK
-Degraded Bellow -Hardness 60-70 Shore-A 75 Not ok
replaced
02) Air -Air leakage from -Visual / Hand No leakage No leakage OK OK OK
Pressure pipe joints
-Air leakage from -Visual / Hand No leakage No leakage OK OK OK
pipe .
03) Bush -Lever Bush wear Dimension Check ID-50±0.5 mm. ID-51 mm. To be Changed OK
out. (Vernier) OD-52±0.5 mm. OD-50mm. Changed
W- 2 mm. W- 2 mm.
-Pin Bush wear - Dimension Check ID-70±0.5 mm. ID-71 mm. To be Changed OK
out. (Vernier) OD-72±0.5 mm. OD-69mm. Changed
W- 2 mm. W- 2 mm.
-Housing Bush - Dimension Check ID-65±0.5 mm. ID-65 mm. OK OK OK
wear out. (Vernier) OD-68±0.5 mm. OD-68mm.
W- 2 mm. W- 2 mm.
04) Feed -Feed nut wear out Dimension Check Pitch -10 TPI 10 TPI OK OK OK
Nut & Gear (Vernier)

-Sprocket teeth -Visual No teeth Teeth damage Not ok,To be Changed OK


damage damage changed

-Loose Coupling -Visual No Looseness Loose Tightened Tightened OK 43


of Sprocket
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EVALUATION

MEASURING MEASUREMENT TROUBLE


CHECK PART CHECK ITEM TOLERANCE DECISION SHOOTING RESULT
METHOD VALUE
METHOD
05) Bottom -No locks of height -Visual No looseness Loose Lock to be Lock OK
Stitcher adjustment square provided provided
Height bar

06) -Worm gear thread Dimension Check ID-76.2± 0.2mm. ID-75mm. Not ok, to be Changed OK
WormGear damage (Vernier) changed
Depth : 2 mm. Depth : 2 mm.

07) Cylinder -Cylinder thread Dimension Check OD-80.4± 0.2mm. OD-80.3mm. OK


OK OK
damage (Vernier)
Depth : 2 mm. Depth : 2 mm.

08)Lead -Lead screw thread Dimension Check OD-33.75± 0.2mm. OD-33.7mm. OK OK OK


Screw damage (Vernier)

09)Tread -Tread length Measuring Tape 1750 ± 5 mm. 1752 OK OK OK


more
-Tread splicing Dimension Check 0 mm. ± 3 mm. - 3 mm. OK OK OK
more (Vernier)

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Identification of Operating Conditions with


respect to Machine, Material & Method

3 M C O N D IT IO N S C H E C K L IS T
D e fe c t 3 M R e la tio n
S l.n o M o d e M e th o d (P e o p le ) M a c h in e M a te ria l
1 N o tc h in 1g ) N o tc h in g o p e ra tio n to1 ) R ig id c la m p in g o f th e
s ta rt a fte r c o rre c t b u ttin gp ro
o f d u c t d u rin g n o tc h in g
th e p ro d u c t o p e ra tio n .

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Identification of Operating Conditions with


respect to Machine, Material & Method
3 M FUGUAI IDENTIFICATION & RECTIFICATION
Production Machine Problem Defect Survey Survey Countermea
Mode sure In
inputs (3M) Method Result charge

Method NOTC 1) Notching Wrong Visual Limit switch fixing To check QM /


HING operation Location screw found loose the limit
starts before of switch fixing pro
correct butting and corrected condition du
Notching
of the product once in a cer
week

Machine NOTCH 1) Clamping of Wrong Check air Air leak noticed Hose
ING the product is pressure replaced & Pr
Location at the pushing
not rigid to ensure od
in the gauge cylinder inlet
Notching uc
due to the hose
condition er
damaged hose
during
machine
start. 46
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PM Analysis
Phenomenon Physically view Contributing Condition Relation with 4M Relation with 4M
(Logical reasoning) (Primary) (Secondary)

Wrong Location Product is shifted from 1) Product is located 1-1) Pusher cylinder 1-1-1) Air pressure Low
notching in it's Location during without butting with stroke length variation 1-1-2) Leak in the Cylinder seal
TATA SCAM Notching operation. the butting reference 1-1-3) Disturbance to the
Products limit switch setting
1-1-4) Dust accumulation in
the guide bushes
1-1-5) Scoring marks in the
A = Feeding Unit guide rod
B = Holding Unit 1-1-6) Leak in the air hose
1-1-7) Scoring marks in the
ID surface of the guide bush.
1-1-8) Leak in the ferrule
1-1-9) Wear in the piston seal
Notching

OK Lining 1-2) Premature clamping 1-2-1) Limit switch malfunction


1-2-2) Limit switch locking
screw loose
1-2-3) Less Clearance between
the product and clamping band
Not OK Lining
2) Product location change 2-1) Variation in clamping 2-1-1) Band length is more
After clamping. force 2-1-2) Air pressure low
Product 2-1-3) Band locking screw
Butting
got loosened
Reference
2-1-4) Burr between band and
Notch cutters the product
NOT OK 2-1-5) Band Damage
OK Condition Condition 47
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PM Analysis
Phenomenon Physically view Contributing Condition Relation with 4M Relation with 4M
(Logical reasoning) (Primary) (Secondary)
Wrong Location 2-1-6) Band elongation
notching in 2-1-7) Band fixing hole
TATA SCAM elongataion
Products 2-1-8) Burr in the ID surface
of the product
2-1-9) Clamping cylinder
fixing screw got loosened
2-1-10) Thickness of the
product is less
2-1-11) Clamping cylinder
fixing screw damage

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Review of Survey results


Phenomena : Wrong Location Notching Machine : Notching Machine, U-Line I

Check Check Item Measurement Standard Measured Evaluation Restoration / Result


Site Method Value Value Improvement
Pushing 1.Air Pressure Pressure gauge 4 - 7 bar 6 bar OK
Cyclinder2.Cylinder seal condition Visual No damage No damage OK -
3.Air hose leak Visual No Leak No Leak OK -
4.Leak in the ferrule Visual No Leak No Leak OK -
5.Piston seal wear Visual No damage No damage OK -
6.Dust accumulation in the guide bushVisual Free from dustFree from dustOK -
7.Scoring marks in the ID of the guideVisual No scoring No scoring OK -
bush
8.Scoring marks in the guide rod Visual No scoring No scoring OK -
Limit 9.Limit switch function Visual No Error No Error OK -
switch 10.Locking screw loose Visual Rigid Tight Rigid Tight OK -
11.Locking screw damage Visual No damage No damage OK -
Clamping12.Air pressure Pressure gauge 4 - 7 bar 6 bar OK -
Cylinder 13.Band Length Scale 380 +/- 3 mm 386 mm Not ok To replace band
14.Band Locking screw loose Visual No loose No loose OK -
15.Burr in the band Visual No burr No burr OK - Clamping
16.Band damage Visual No damage No damage OK - method
17.Clearance between the product and Vernier 4 - 6 mm 9 mm Not ok To correct the modified
the band bend in the band
18.Band elongation Scale No elongation No elongation OK -
19.Band Fixing Hole elongation Vernier caliper No elongation Elongated Not ok To relocate the hole
20.Cylinder fixing screw loose Visual No Loose No Loose OK -
21.Cylinder fixing screw damage Visual No damage No damage OK -
Product 22.Thickness Micrometer 16.72/17.12 16.93 OK -
23.Burr in the ID surface Radius gauge 0.127 proof 0.100 proof OK - 49
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Countermeasure for the causes identified


Plant : TSK Plant II KAIZEN IDEA - SHEET SUNDARAM BRAKE LININGS LIMITED

Kaizen Theme : Idea :


To eliminate wrong location Notching Scrap in U Line I To Improve the clamping grip of the lining. "B" TYPE
PHENOMENA
Problem / Present status Counter Measure Current Status 14 nos / Week
Clamping method modified Target Zero
Notching area wrongly located in the Kaizen started on 07.01.2001
product during notching operation. Kaizen finished on 08.01.2001
Before After Team Members
N. Sridhar
OK Lining R.Rajaambikeswaran
Clamping band Clamping Pad K.Venkatasubramanian
Notching Product K.Nambiappan
Product G.K.Rajkumar

Fixture Benefits :
Not OK Lining
Wrong Location Notching scrap
eliminated in U Line I Nothcing Machine
Clamping Cylinders

Analysis : Results: Scope & Plan for Horizontal Deployment


Wrong location notching scrap in U-Line I
PM Analysis S.No Machine Target Resp Status
After kaizen
30 28 1 Chamfering 30.01.01 UM Completed
Scrap in nos.

25 Machine
20 15
15 9
10
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
Jan-2001
Nov'2000

Jul-2001
May-
2001

2001

2001
Sep-
Mar-

Month
50
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51
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53
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Poka Yoke for eliminating defects


To err is Human. Human Beings are very forgetful and tend to make mistakes.
Many times we end up saying “Operator Carelessness / Negligence” or
“Operator Inattentiveness”. If we carefully look at such processes, we can
reason out that these are a combination of many factors rather than just
“Operator Carelessness”.
Monotonous, mechanical and long tense working environment tend to make
people commit mistakes. If we bracket these mistakes as “carelessness”, the
people get demotivated and discouraged. Poka-Yoke is a technique for
avoiding simple human errors at work.

Poka is a Japanese word meaning “inadvertent errors” and Yoke comes from
Japanese word Yokerie meaning “to avoid”. This has also been termed as
“Mistake / Fool Proofing” or “Fail Safing”. The idea behind poka-yoke is to free
a person’s mind from maintaining repetitive vigil which may be practically
infeasible. By doing so a person without the fear of making mistake can
constructively do more value added activities.
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ERRORS ARE INEVITABLE BUT CAN BE ELIMINATED

People always make mistakes. These can be reduced or


even eliminated. Some of the Poke-Yoke devices,
which can help avoid defects, are ;

• Guide Pins / Locators of different sizes.


• Error Detection Buzzers and Alarms
• Limit Switches, Proximity and Photosensors.
• Counters
• Checklists
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BASIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF POKA-YOKE

• PREDICTION v/s DETECTION

• ALARM v/s SHUTDOWN v/s CONTROL

• CONTACT v/s FIXED VALUE v/s MOTION READING

METHODS

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PREDICTION v/s DETECTION

When a Poka-Yoke is designed in a way that it helps the


operator to recognise the defect before it is about to occur,
it is called a Prevention or Prediction type Poka-Yoke.

When a Poka-yoke helps the operator to know immediately


on the occurrence of the defect then it is called Detection
type Poka-Yoke. Detection is “after’ the defect is produced.
The merit of this type of poka-yoke is based on the stage at
which the defect is detected. In simple language “Earlier
the better”.
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Example : Prevention
The figure 1-A shows that holes are wrongly drilled due to incorrect
positioning of plate.

Figure 1-B shows that incorrect positioning of the plate is prevented by


locating 4 reference pins. The cause of Incorrect Drilling (incorrect
positioning) is prevented.

Pins

Pins

1 (A) 1 (B) 58
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Example : Detection
Figure 2-A shows that plate with four holes drilled is to be despatched to
the Customer. Customer complaints show many plates with 3 holes
drilled.

Figure 2-B shows the mistake of less drilled holes is detected through a
check by using four locator pins on a gauge.

Pins

2 (A) 2 (B)

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ALARM v/s SHUTDOWN v/s CONTROL


ALARM
Signals in form of buzzers, blinking lights are used to warn when an
abnormality, has occurred (detect) / about to occur (predict).

SHUTDOWN
Normal function of machine or process is stopped when defect
predicted/detected.

CONTROL
In Prevention type Poka-Yoke , Control means that even intentional
errors are impossible or methods by which the cause of a defect if
starts happening, it is automatically prevented from happening
(feedback mechanism).
In Detection type Poka-Yoke , Control means that the process is not
stopped but the defective items are automatically separated out and
are not allowed to pass on to next stage
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CONTACT v/s FIXED VALUE v/s

MOTION READING METHODS

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CONTACT METHOD
These use the principle of physical or energy contact with the product using
sensing devices. They range from guide pins, limit switches, photo electric
beams, etc. Contact methods often take advantage of parts that are
designed with an uneven shape. We can use guide pins or blocks that don’t
allow the product to be seated in a machines jig in the wrong position.

PRESS PRESS

product product product

JIG JIG
3 (B) JIG
3 (A) CORRECT INCORRECT

Before After
In figure 3A the Sheet Metal Part A limit switch turns the machine on only
could be placed incorrectly during whenthe protruding neck is positioned
forming operation where it is supposed to be .
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FIXED VALUE METHOD

Fixed Value Methods are used when a fixed number of parts must be
attached to the product or when fixed repeats of operations needs to
be done at some process station. Counting devices count the number
of times something is done and signals or releases the product from its
clamping when the required number is reached.

E.g. Before
A tip of spot welding machine wears with use and should be replaced
after certain number of welds. Operator used to forget changing the tip,
resulting in defective product.
E.g. After
A counter, tracking the number of welds, stops the machine and
flashes a light as a signal to change the tip. 63
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MOTION STEP METHOD


This method senses whether a motion or step in the process has been carried
out within a certain expected time ( of the machine cycle time)

This method uses sensors & devices like photoelectric switch connected to a
timer.

E.g. A label dispensing machine uses a photoelectric switch to stop the line if it
does not detect removal of label from the backing tape.

An example of the Motion


Step Method for using
Poka-Yoke

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TYPES OF SENSING DEVICES

We have many sensing devices:

• Limit switches, Micro-switches


• Proximity Switches
• Photoelectric Switches
• Beam Sensors
• Sensor to detect changes in Physical condition like
temperature, pressure etc. (Pressure switches,
thermostats etc.)

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8 TYPES OF ERRORS

• Processing Errors including Safety Errors


• Assembly Errors
• Inspection Errors
• Processing Omissions
• Assembly Omissions
• Packing / Pasting / Labeling Errors
• Mis-orientation, Mis-alignment & Dimensional Errors

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Processing Errors including Safety Errors


Processing Error Section consists of examples where due to operators mistake
some process step is partially or incorrectly done
For Example :
Sometimes the drill is raised back before drilling the required depth (through) .
A Proximity Switch has been provided to sense the coming through of drill to
indicate completion of drill operation

J
ob
J
ob

F
ix
tu
re Proximity
F
ix
tu
re

JOB WITHOUT THRU’ HOLE JOB WITH DRILLED THRU’ HOLE

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Assembly Errors
This Section consists of examples where operator by mistake does partial or
incorrect assembly.
For Example :
During Assembly of a gear on the shaft for two similar models, Gear ‘B” is
assembled on the Shaft ‘a’ instead of Gear ‘A’. Gear A & B are similar looking
gears differing only in the number of teeth.
To eliminate this error a Mating part is installed on the Assembly fixture
corresponding to ‘A’ to ensure that only gear ‘A’ is loaded
Mating Part
for A

Shaft ‘a’

Before After

Gear ‘B’ InstalledWrongly OnlyGear ‘A’ CanBeInstalled

68
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Inspection Errors
Section on Inspection error consists of examples which are related to rejected
components going down the line or to the customer. These errors are due to
monotony and fatigue faced by the inspector.
The operator is not sure of the completion of leakage test and passes them to
the bin meant for keeping jobs that have passed leakage test.
Operator
Leakag Seam sometimes Head that
e welded
Testing jobs not sure of stamps part
Done waiting
for
leakage number
leakag testing test Advances
e
completion
testing when
After it senses
and keeps
Before OK/Not Now Head forno leakageadded
stamping
kept
OK at leakage testing station. Only
Jobs without Leakage Test products in after leakage has been tested
is kept in the OK tray on the the OK OK, job will be stamped by the
left. bin. Head for stamping 69
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Processing Omissions

This section consists of examples where due to mistake, the operator misses
out few steps of the process

Example:

Four holes to be drilled Three holes drilled because of mistake

Now the drilling operation has been provided with counter and the job will
not be unclamped unless, the counter with drilling machine reads four.

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Assembly Omissions
The section on Assembly Omissions consists of examples where an assembly
part is not assembled by the operator by mistake and the assembly goes to
next station.

For Example :
In an assembly operation washer were missed before providing nut. To remove
this problem washer picking was sensed to give a start to nut runner.

Nut Proximity which


Runn
er Picking senses picking
of washer gives
signal to Nut PICKING OF WASHER WILL BE SENSED TO
Nut Runner ALLOW THE START OF NUT RUNNER

Washer Sometimes
missed

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Packing / Pasting / Labeling Errors

As the name suggest this section includes examples on


Errors in Packing / Pasting / Labeling.

For example:
On the cover page of this book an example of carton going
without the medicine bottle inside is shown wherein due to
mistake the packer missed to fill a bottle in the carton.
Now a draft of fan has been provided below the conveyor,
carrying cartons with bottle, which is strong enough only to
blow an empty carton.
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Mis-orientation, Mis-alignment & Dimensional Errors


This section consists of errors because of mis-aligned / mis-oriented job loaded
on a process leading to slightly offset operations.

Example: Before

Movement of notch milling Movement of notch milling

RIGHT WRONG
Notch made on the side
Notch to be made on
opposite to one hole
the side with one hole

73
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Example: After

Now at notching operation the fixture has been made with 3 pins as shown.
Job with wrong orientation cannot be loaded for Notch operation.

Not possible to
load Fixture for Notch
operation

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Maintaining Zero Defect

There are lot of activities required to be done for

maintaining zero defects. It starts with following JH

checklist, preparing Quality Maintenance matrix,

preparing checklists for inspection of zero defect

conditions and also audits for monitoring activities related

to zero defects. This involves preparing correct operating

standards and other standards for maintenance.


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Process Capability Improvement Plan

Sometimes capability of a process needs to be enhanced

to obtain high Cp value for critical characteristics. This plant

again follows the analysis for variation in the characteristics

and taking countermeasure against all the sources.

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