1

-AAbandon. It means, in its ordinary sense, to forsake entirely; to forsake or renounce utterly. [Dela Cruz v. Dela Cruz, GR L1 !"!. #an. $%, 1 "&'. Abandoned child. ( c)ild *)o )as no +ro+er +arental care or ,uardians)i+ or *)ose +arent-s. )as deserted )im/)er for a +eriod of at least si0 -". continuous mont)s and )as 1een 2udicially declared as suc). [3ec. $, R( &!!4; (rt. 151, 6D "%$'. Com+are *it) Dependent child and Neglected child. Abandoned or idle land. 1. (ny a,ricultural land not cultivated, tilled or develo+ed to +roduce any cro+ nor devoted to any s+ecific economic +ur+ose continuously for a +eriod of t)ree -$. years immediately +rior to t)e recei+t of notice of ac7uisition 1y t)e ,overnment as +rovided under t)e Com+re)ensive (,rarian Reform La* of 1 && -R( ""!8., 1ut does not include land t)at )as 1ecome +ermanently or re,ularly devoted to non-a,ricultural +ur+oses. [3ec. $, R( ""!8'. 4. Lands devoted to any cro+ at least one year +rior to t)e notice of e0+ro+riation, 1ut *)ic) *ere not utilized 1y t)e o*ner for )is 1enefit for t)e +ast five years +rior to suc) notice of e0+ro+riation. [3ec. 1"", R( $&55'.

Abandonee. ( +arty to *)om a ri,)t or +ro+erty is a1andoned or relin7uis)ed 1y anot)er. [9lack:s La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &8., +. 1'. Abandoning a minor. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any one *)o s)all a1andon a c)ild under seven years of a,e, t)e custody of *)ic) is incum1ent u+on )im. [(rt. 48", R6C'. Abandonment. =ar. Ins. <)e act of t)e insured 1y *)ic), after a constructive total loss, )e declares t)e relin7uis)ment to t)e insurer of )is interest in t)e t)in, insured. [3ec. 1$&, IC'. Abandonment. ;lements> -a. <)e failure to re+ort for *ork or a1sence *it)out valid or 2ustifia1le reason, and -1. a clear intention to sever t)e em+loyerem+loyee relations)i+, *it) t)e second element as t)e more determinative factor and 1ein, manifested 1y some overt acts. [De ?sasi III v. @LRC, 4$1 3CR( 18$ -1 5.'. Abandonment of domicile and acquisition of a new one called domicile of choice. Re7uisites> -a. Residence or 1odily +resence in t)e ne* locality, -1. intention to remain t)ere or animus manendi, and -c. an intention to a1andon t)e old domicile or animus non revertendi. [Romualdez v. R<C <aclo1an City, 44" 3CR( 5%&, 51!'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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Abandonment of land dedicated to public use. ;lements> -a. Intention to relin7uis) t)e ri,)t or +ro+erty, 1ut *it)out intendin, to transfer title to any +articular +erson; and -1. t)e e0ternal act *)ic) suc) intention is carried into effect. [Defensor-3antia,o v. Ramos, 6;< %%1. Ae1. 1$, 1 ", citin, 5 =ic). (++. 14&, 44 @.B 4d $5$, $5 '. Abandonment of minor by person entrusted with his custody; indifference of parents. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y anyone *)o, )avin, c)ar,e of t)e rearin, or education of a minor, s)all deliver said minor to a +u1lic institution or ot)er +ersons, *it)out t)e consent of t)e one *)o entrusted suc) c)ild to )is care or in t)e a1sence of t)e latter, *it)out t)e consent of t)e +ro+er aut)orities, or 1y t)e +arents *)o s)all ne,lect t)eir c)ildren 1y not ,ivin, t)em t)e education *)ic) t)eir station in life re7uire and financial conditions +ermit. [(rt. 488, R6C'. Abandonment of office or position. 1. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer *)o, 1efore t)e acce+tance of )is resi,nation, s)all a1andon )is office to t)e detriment of t)e +u1lic service. [(rt. 4$&, R6C'. 4. (dmin. La*. <)e voluntary relin7uis)ment of an office 1y t)e )older, *it) t)e intention of terminatin, )is +ossession and control t)ereof. [3an,. 9ayan of 3an (ndres, Catanduanes v. C(, GR 11&&&$. #an. 1", 1 &, citin, Bords C 6)rases, Dol. 1, +. 148'. $. ( s+ecies of resi,nation; *)ile resi,nation in ,eneral is a formal relin7uis)ment, a1andonment is a voluntary relin7uis)ment t)rou,) nonuser. [3an,. 9ayan of 3an (ndres, Catanduanes v. C(, GR 11&&&$. #an. 1", 1 &, citin, Bords C 6)rases, Dol. 1, +. 14"'. Abandonment of person in danger and abandonment of one's own victim. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any one *)o s)all fail to render assistance to any +erson *)om )e s)all find in an unin)a1ited +lace *ounded or in dan,er of dyin,, *)en )e can render suc) assistance *it)out detriment to )imself, unless suc) omission s)all constitute a more serious offense; or 1y anyone *)o s)all fail to )el+ or render assistance to anot)er *)om )e )as accidentally *ounded or in2ured; or 1y anyone *)o, )avin, found an a1andoned c)ild under seven years of a,e, s)all fail to deliver said c)ild to t)e aut)orities or to )is family, or s)all fail to take )im to a safe +lace. [(rt. 48!, R6C'. Abandonment of the thing. It consists of t)e voluntary renunciation of all t)e ri,)ts *)ic) a +erson may )ave in a t)in,, *it) t)e intent to lose suc) t)in,. 9y virtue of t)e a1andonment, t)e t)in, is left *it)out o*ner or +ossessor. <o

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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1e effective, it is necessary t)at it 1e made 1y a +ossessor in t)e conce+t of o*ner. [<olentino, Civil Code of t)e 6)il., Dol. II, Re+r. 4%%1, +. $%5, citin, 5 =anresa $1!; $ 3anc)ez Roman 4 '. Abandonment of the wife. <o constitute a1andonment of t)e *ife 1y t)e )us1and, as t)e term is used in (rt. 18& of t)e Civil Code, t)ere must 1e a1solute cessation of marital relations and duties and ri,)ts, *it) t)e intention of +er+etual se+aration. <)e a1andonment must not only 1e +)ysical estran,ement 1ut also amount to financial and moral desertion. [Dela Cruz v. Dela Cruz, GR L-1 !"!. #an. $%, 1 "&'. Abandonment of work. La1or. <)e deli1erate, un2ustified refusal of t)e em+loyee to resume )is em+loyment. <)e 1urden of +roof is on t)e em+loyer to s)o* a clear and deli1erate intent on t)e +art of t)e em+loyee to discontinue em+loyment *it)out any intention of returnin,. =ere a1sence is not sufficient. [ARA ;nter+rise v. @LRC, GR 1%! &. (+r. 41, 1 !'. Abatement. ( reduction in some amount t)at is o*ed, usually ,ranted 1y t)e +erson to *)om t)e de1t is o*ed. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Abatement of action. ( suit *)ic) )as 1een 7uas)ed and ended. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Abatement of a fire ha ard. (ny act t)at *ould remove or neutralize a fire )azard. [3ec. $, 6D 11&!'. Abduction. 1. <)e takin, a*ay of a *oman from )er )ouse or t)e +lace *)ere s)e may 1e for t)e +ur+ose of carryin, )er to anot)er +lace *it) intent to marry or to corru+t )er. [6eo+le v. Crisostomo -5" 6)il. 8&%.'. 4. <akin, someone a*ay from a +lace *it)out t)at +erson:s consent or 1y fraud. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 3ee also !idnapping. Aberratio ictus. Crim. La*. Lat. =istake in t)e 1lo*, c)aracterized 1y aimin, at one 1ut )ittin, t)e ot)er due to im+recision in t)e 1lo*. [6eo+le v. 3a1alones, GR 14$5&!. (u,. $1, 1 &'. Com+are *it) "rror in personae. Aberratio ictus. (lso "rror en la persona. Crim. La*. Lat. 1. =istake in t)e identity of t)e victim. [6eo+le v. 6into, GR $ !1 . @ov. 41, 1 1'. 4. =iscarria,e of t)e 1lo*. [6eo+le v. (tillano, GR 1% 1$1-$$. Fct. $, 1 5'. Abet. <)e act of encoura,in, or incitin, anot)er to do a certain t)in,, suc) as a crime. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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Ability to read intelligently. <)e ca+acity to kno* or a++re)end; to discover or understand 1y c)aracters, marks, features, etc.; to ,at)er t)e meanin,. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 4'. Ab inconveniente. Arom )ards)i+, from *)at is inconvenient. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Ab initio. Lat. Arom t)e start -or 1e,innin,.. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Abogado. 3+. La*yer or attorneyat-la*. <)at class of +ersons *)o are 1y license officers of t)e courts, em+o*ered to a++ear, +rosecute and defend, and u+on *)om +eculiar duties, res+onsi1ilities and lia1ilities are develo+ed 1y la* as a conse7uence. [Cui v. Cui, GR L1&848. (u,. $1, 1 "5'. Abolition of a position. It does not involve or mean removal for t)e reason t)at removal im+lies t)at t)e +ost su1sists and t)at one is merely se+arated t)erefrom. [(rao v. Lus+o, 4% 3CR( 844 -1 "8.'. Abortion. <)e kno*in, destruction of t)e life of an un1orn c)ild or t)e intentional e0+ulsion or removal of an un1orn c)ild from t)e *om1 ot)er t)an for t)e +rinci+al +ur+ose of +roducin, a live 1irt) or removin, a dead fetus. [9lack:s La* Dict., (1r., !t) ;d., +. 4'. Abortion. ;lements> -a. <)at t)ere is a +re,nant *oman *)o )as suffered an a1ortion; -1. t)at t)e a1ortion is intended; and -c. t)at t)e a1ortion is caused 1y -1. t)e +re,nant *oman )erself; -4. any ot)er +erson, *it) )er consent; or -$. any of )er +arents, *it) )er consent for t)e +ur+ose of concealin, )er dis)onor. [Gnder (rt. 4!&, R6C'. Abortionist. ( +erson *)o criminally +roduces a1ortions, or one *)o follo*s t)e 1usiness or +ractices t)e crime of +roducin, a1ortion. [9lack:s La* Dict., (1r., !t) ;d., +. 4'. Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and dispensing of abortives. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +)ysician or mid*ife *)o, takin, advanta,e of t)eir scientific kno*led,e or skill, s)all cause an a1ortion or assist in causin, t)e same, or 1y any +)armacist *)o, *it)out t)e +ro+er +rescri+tion from a +)ysician, s)all dis+ense any a1ortive. [(rt. 4! , R6C'. Abortion practiced by the woman herself or by her parents. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y a *oman *)o s)all +ractice a1ortion u+on )erself or s)all consent t)at any ot)er +erson s)ould do so, or 1y t)e +arents of t)e +re,nant *oman or eit)er of t)em, and

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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t)ey act *it) t)e consent of said *oman for t)e +ur+ose of concealin, )er dis)onor. [(rt. 4!&, R6C'. About. @ear in time, 7uantity, num1er, 7uality or de,ree. 3u1stantially, a++ro0imately, almost, or nearly. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. $'. Ab posse ad actu non vale illatio. Lat. H( +roof t)at an act could )ave 1een done is no +roof t)at it *as actually done.H [Roman Cat). 9is)o+ of =alolos v. I(C, GR 8411%. @ov. 1", 1 %'. Abrasion. ( scra++in, or ru11in, off. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. $'. Absence. <)e le,al status of a +erson *)o )as a1sented )imself from )is domicile and *)ose *)erea1outs and fate are unkno*n, it not 1ein, kno*n *it) certainty *)et)er )e is still livin, or not. [#urado, Civil La* Revie*er, 1 t) ;d. -1 ., +. 4"%'. 3ee #rovisional absence and Declared absence. Absentee. ( +erson *)ose *)erea1outs and e0istence are not kno*n in t)e sense of t)e la* allo*in, a su1se7uent marria,e and for +ur+oses of administration of t)e estate of t)e a1sentee and of succession. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud,es, +. $-5'. Absentee voters$ national registry of. <)e consolidated list +re+ared, a++roved and maintained 1y t)e Commission on ;lection -CF=;L;C., of overseas a1sentee voters *)ose a++lications for re,istration as a1sentee voters, includin, t)ose re,istered voters *)o )ave a++lied to 1e certified as a1sentee voters, )ave 1een a++roved 1y t)e ;lection Re,istration 9oard. [3ec. $, R( 1& '. Absentee voting. <)e +rocess 1y *)ic) 7ualified citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines a1road e0ercise t)eir ri,)t to vote. [3ec. $, R( 1& '. Absent spouse. <)e +rior s+ouse *)o )ad 1een a1sent for four -5. consecutive years and *)om t)e s+ouse +resent reasona1ly 1elieved to 1e already dead. In case of disa++earance *)ere t)ere is dan,er of deat) under t)e circumstances set fort) in t)e +rovisions of (rts. $ 1 of t)e Civil Code, an a1sence of only t*o years s)all 1e sufficient. [@avarro v. Doma,toy, (= =<#"-1%&&. #uly 1 , 1 "'. Absoluta sententia e%positore non indiget. Lat. B)en t)e lan,ua,e of t)e la* is clear, no e0+lanation of it is re7uired. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. $'. Absolute community$ system of. <)e a1solute community of +ro+erty 1et*een s+ouses s)all commence at t)e +recise

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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moment t)at t)e marria,e is cele1rated and s)all consist of all t)e +ro+erty o*ned 1y t)e s+ouses at t)e time of t)e cele1ration of t)e marria,e or ac7uired t)ereafter. [(rts. && and 1, AC'. Absolute indorsement. @e,o. Inst. Fne 1y *)ic) t)e indorser 1inds )imself to +ay -a. u+on no ot)er condition t)an t)e failure of +rior +arties to do so; -1. u+on due notice to )im of suc) failure. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. Absolutely privileged communication. Fne in res+ect of *)ic), 1y reason of t)e occasion on *)ic), or t)e matter in reference to *)ic), it is made, no remedy can 1e )ad in a civil action, )o*ever )ard it may 1ear u+on a +erson *)o claims to 1e in2ured t)ere1y, and even t)ou,), it may )ave 1een made maliciously. [3ison v. David, GR L-114"&. #an. 4&, 1 "1, citin, $$ (m. #ur. ++. 14$- 145'. Com+are *it) &onditionally or qualifiedly privileged communication. Absolute pardon. ( +ardon t)at reac)es 1ot) t)e +unis)ment +rescri1ed for t)e offense and t)e ,uilt of t)e offender. B)en t)e +ardon is full, it releases t)e +unis)ment and 1lots out of e0istence t)e ,uilt, so t)at in t)e eye of t)e la* t)e offender is an innocent as if )e )ad never committed t)e offense. If ,ranted after conviction, it removes t)e +enalties and disa1ilities, and restores )im to all )is civil ri,)ts; it makes )im, as it *ere, a ne* man, and ,ives )im a ne* credit and ca+acity. [In re> Lontok 5$ 6)il. 4 $'. Com+are *it) &onditional pardon. Absolute poverty. <)e condition of t)e )ouse)old 1elo* t)e food t)res)old level. [3ec. $, R( &54!'. Absolute simulation of a contract. 1. It takes +lace *)en t)e +arties do not intend to 1e 1ound at all. [(rt. 1$5!, CC'. 4. (n a1solutely simulated or fictitious contract is void. [(rt. 1$5", CC'. Absolute sovereign immunity. Rule t)at a forei,n state is immune from all ty+es of suits. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Absorb. It is synonymous *it) t)e *ords HassimilateH or Hincor+orateH and *)ic), in 1usiness +arlance, means Hto take over.H [Razon v. 3ec. of La1or, GR &!&"8. =ay 1$, 1 $, citin, Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. Dict., 1 "" ;d., +. 8'. Absorbed company. <)e constituent com+any *)ose cor+orate e0istence is dissolved as a result of t)e mer,er or consolidation. [<io+ianco, Commentaries C #uris+. on t)e Ins. Code of t)e 6)il., 1 ;d., +. 4%8'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

Absorbing or acquiring company. <)e survivin, com+any, in case of mer,er, or t)e ne*ly formed com+any, in case of consolidation. [<io+ianco, Commentaries C #uris+. on t)e Ins. Code of t)e 6)il., 1 ;d., +. 4%8'. Abus de droit. Ar. (1use of ri,)t. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. Abuse. <o make e0cessive or im+ro+er use of a t)in,, or to em+loy it in a manner contrary to t)e natural or le,al rules for its use. <o make an e0trava,ant or e0cessive use, as to a1use one:s aut)ority. [3alalima v. Guin,ona, GR 118!& - 4. =ay 44, 1 ", citin, 9lack:s La* Dict., !t) ;d., +. 11'. Abuse of confidence or obvious ungratefulness. (n a,,ravatin, circumstance under (rt. 15 -5. of Rev. 6enal Code *)ic) can 1e a++reciated only if t)e follo*in, re7uisites are +resent> -a. <)e offended +arty )ad trusted t)e offender; -1. t)e offender a1used suc) trust; and -c. suc) a1use facilitated t)e commission of t)e crime. [6eo+le v. Luc)ico, 5 6)il. "& '. 3ee also 'nfaithfulness. Abuse of (udicial discretion. ( discretion 1y a 2ud,e to an end or +ur+ose not 2ustified 1y and clearly a,ainst reason and evidence. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., ++. $-5'.

Abuse of right. ( +erson may 1e lia1le for )arm caused 1y doin, somet)in, *)ic) one, nevert)eless, )as a ri,)t to do, if t)e ri,)t *as> -a. +rinci+ally intended to cause )arm; -1. or *as used *it)out a le,itimate, interest 2ustifyin, 2udicial +rotection; -c. or *as used in 1ad fait); -d. or *as contrary to 1asic rules of morality or fairness. [<etley, Glossary of Conflict of La*s, 4%%5'. Abuse of right principle. Re7uisites> -a. <)e defendant s)ould )ave acted in a manner t)at is contrary to morals, ,ood customs or +u1lic +olicy; -1. t)e acts s)ould 1e *illful; and -c. t)ere *as dama,e or in2ury to t)e +laintiff. [Custodio v. C(, GR 11"1%%. Ae1. , 1 ", citin, #urado, 6ersonal and Aamily La*, 1 &5 ed., 51'. Abuse of superiority. <)e takin, advanta,e 1y t)e cul+rits of t)eir collective stren,t) to over+o*er t)eir relatively *eaker victim or victims. [6eo+le v. (+du)an, #r., GR L-1 5 1. (u,. $%, 1 "&'. Abuse of superior strength. 1. It contem+lates a situation of stren,t) notoriously selected or taken advanta,e of 1y an a,,ressor in t)e commission of t)e crime. [6eo+le v. ;scoto, GR 18!", =ay 11, 1 !, 455 3CR( &8'. 4. (1use of su+erior stren,t) can 1e a++reciated only *)en t)ere is a notorious ine7uality of forces 1et*een t)e victim and t)e a,,ressor.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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[6eo+le v. Da7ui+il, GR &"$%!%", #an. 4%, 1 !, 45% 3CR( $15; 6eo+le v. 6atamama, GR 1%8 $&, Dec. 5, 1 !, 4!% 3CR( "%$'. Abuses against chastity. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y> -a. any +u1lic officer *)o s)all solicit or make immoral or indecent advances to a *oman interested in matters +endin, 1efore suc) officer for decision, or *it) res+ect to *)ic) )e is re7uired to su1mit a re+ort to or consult *it) a su+erior officer; or -1. any *arden or ot)er +u1lic officer directly c)ar,ed *it) t)e care and custody of +risoners or +ersons under arrest *)o s)all solicit or make immoral or indecent advances to a *oman under )is custody. [(rt. 45!, R6C'. Abusos deshonestos. 3+. (1use of c)astity. [G3 v. =endez, GR L-"5&$. =ar. 11, 1 11'. Academic failure. (n academic su12ect in *)ic) t)e student )as failed. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 5'. Academic freedom. <)e ri,)t of t)e sc)ool or colle,e to decide for itself, its aims and o12ectives, and )o* 1est to attain t)em free from outside coercion or interference save +ossi1ly *)en t)e overridin, +u1lic *elfare calls for some restraint. It )as a *ide s+)ere of autonomy certainly e0tendin, to t)e c)oice of students. [Gniv. of 3an (,ustin v. C(, GR 1%%!&&. =ar. 8, 1 5'. Academic non-teaching personnel. <)ose +ersons )oldin, some academic 7ualifications and +erformin, academic functions directly su++ortive of teac)in,, suc) as re,istrars, li1rarians, researc) assistants, researc) aides, and similar staff. [3ec. ", 96 4$4'. Accelerated (udgment. )ummary (udgment. 3ee

Accelerated training. 9asic skills trainin, of a s)ort-term nature for 2o1s *it) a defined level of 7ualifications. <)is usually refers to a ra+id +aced, condensed vocational trainin, to fill immediate man+o*er needs. [3ec. 1, Rule 1, 9ook 4, IRR of LC'. Acceleration clause. 1. ( clause *)ic) renders t)e *)ole de1t due and demanda1le u+on t)e failure of t)e o1li,or to com+ly *it) certain conditions. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. 4. ( clause in a contract t)at states t)at if a +ayment is missed, or some ot)er default occurs -suc) as t)e de1tor 1ecomin, insolvent., t)en t)e contract is fully due immediately. <)is is a ty+ical clause in a loan contract; miss one +ayment and t)e a,reement to +ay at re,ular intervals is voided and t)e entire amount 1ecomes due and +aya1le

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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immediately. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Acceptance. Civ. La*. 1. <)e manifestation 1y t)e offeree of )is assent to t)e terms of t)e offer *)ic) must in ot)er *ords meet or 1e identical at all +oints of t)e offer. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. "!'. 4. <)e takin, and receivin, of anyt)in, in ,ood fait) *it) t)e intention of retainin, it. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Acceptance. 1. @e,o. Inst. (n acce+tance com+leted 1y delivery or notification. [3ec. 1 1, @IL'. 4. 3ucc. <)e act 1y virtue of *)ic) an )eir, le,atee or devisee manifests )is desire in accordance *it) t)e formalities +rescri1ed 1y la* to succeed to t)e in)eritance, le,acy or devise. $. It may 1e an e0+ress acce+tance made in a +u1lic or +rivate document, or a tacit acce+tance resultin, from acts 1y *)ic) t)e intention to acce+t is necessarily im+lied, or *)ic) one *ould )ave no ri,)t to do e0ce+t in t)e ca+acity of an )eir. [(rt. 1%5 , CC'. Com+are *it) *epudiation. Acceptance for honor. @e,o. Inst. (n undertakin, 1y a stran,er to a 1ill after +rotest for t)e 1enefit of any +arty lia1le t)ereon or for t)e )onor of t)e +erson *)ose account t)e 1ill is dra*n *)ic) acce+tance inures also to t)e 1enefit of all +arties su1se7uent to t)e +erson for *)ose )onor it is acce+ted, and conditioned to +ay t)e 1ill *)en it 1ecomes due if t)e ori,inal dra*ee does not +ay it. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. Acceptance of a bill. @e,o. Inst. <)e si,nification 1y t)e dra*ee of )is assent to t)e order of t)e dra*er; t)is may 1e done in *ritin, 1y t)e dra*ee in t)e 1ill itself, or in a se+arate instrument. [6rudential 9ank v. I(C, GR 85&&". Dec. &, 1 4'. Accepted unilateral promise. (n offer *)ic) s+ecifies t)e t)in, to 1e sold and t)e +rice to 1e +aid and, *)en cou+led *it) a valua1le consideration distinct and se+arate from t)e +rice, is *)at may +ro+erly 1e termed a +erfected contract of o+tion. <)is contract is le,ally 1indin,, and in sales, it conforms *it) t)e second +ara,ra+) of (rt. 158 of t)e Civil Code. [;7uatorial Realty v. =ayfair <)eater, GR 1%"%"$. @ov. 41, 1 "'. Access device. (ny card, +late, code, account num1er, electronic serial num1er, +ersonal identification num1er, or ot)er telecommunications service, e7ui+ment, or instrumental identifier, or ot)er means of account access t)at can 1e used to o1tain money, ,ood, services, or any ot)er t)in, of value or to initiate a transfer of funds -ot)er t)an a transfer ori,inated solely 1y +a+er instrument.. [3ec. $, R( &5&5'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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Access device fraudulently applied for. (ny access device t)at *as a++lied for or issued on account of t)e use of falsified document, false information, fictitious identities and addresses, or any form of false +retense or misre+resentation. [3ec. $, R( &5&5'. Access Devices *egulation Act of +,,-. R( &5&5 entitled I(n (ct re,ulatin, t)e issuance and use of access devices, +ro)i1itin, fraudulent acts committed relative t)ereto, +rovidin, +enalties and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. 11, 1 &. Accessio cedit principali. Lat. <)e accessory follo*s t)e +rinci+al. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Accession. 1. Intl. La*. <)e +rocess *)ere1y a nonsi,natory 3tate later 1ecomes a +arty to a treaty. [3uarez, 6ol. La* Revie*er, 1st ;d., 4%%4, ++. 1%"1-1%"4'. 4. 6ro+erty. <)e ri,)t to all *)ic) oneEs o*n +ro+erty +roduces, and t)e ri,)t to t)at *)ic) is united to it 1y accession, eit)er naturally or artificially. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. "'. Accession continua. <)e ac7uisition of o*ners)i+ over a t)in, incor+orated to t)at *)ic) 1elon,s to t)e o*ner. [<olentino, Civil Code of t)e 6)il., Dol. II, Re+r. 4%%1, +. &'. Accession discreta. <)e e0tension of t)e ri,)t of o*ners)i+ to t)e +roducts of a t)in,. [<olentino, Civil Code of t)e 6)il., Dol. II, Re+r. 4%%1, +. &'. Accessions. Aruits of a t)in, or additions or im+rovements u+on a t)in,, or t)e ri,)t +ertainin, to t)e o*ner of a t)in, over its +roducts and *)atever is incor+orated t)ereto, eit)er naturally or artificially. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. !'. Accessories. 6ro+erty. <)in,s 2oined to t)e +rinci+al t)in, for t)e latterEs em1ellis)ment or to make t)e latter more +erfect. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. !'. Accessory. Crim. La*. 1. ( +erson *)o, )avin, kno*led,e of t)e commission of t)e crime, and *it)out )avin, +artici+ated t)erein, eit)er as a +rinci+al or an accom+lice, takes +art su1se7uent to its commission 1y concealin, or destroyin, t)e 1ody of t)e crime, or t)e effects or instruments t)ereof in order to +revent its discovery. [(rt. 1 , R6C'. 4. ( +erson *)o assists in t)e commission of a crime, eit)er 1efore or after t)e fact. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Accessory obligation. (n o1li,ation attac)ed to a +rinci+al o1li,ation in order to com+lete

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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t)e same or take its +lace in t)e case of 1reac). [333 v. =oon*alk, GR 8$$5!. (+r. 8, 1 $, citin, 5 6ui, 6eKa 6art 1 +. 8"'. Accident. (n event t)at takes +lace *it)out one:s foresi,)t or e0+ectation, an event t)at +roceeds from an unkno*n cause, or is an unusual effect of a kno*n case, and t)erefore not e0+ected. (n accident is an event *)ic) )a++ens *it)out any )uman a,ency or, if )a++enin, t)rou,) )uman a,ency, an event *)ic), under t)e circumstances, is unusual to and not e0+ected 1y t)e +erson to *)om it )a++ens. It )as also 1een defined as an in2ury *)ic) )a++ens 1y reason of some violence or casualty to t)e insured *it)out )is desi,n, consent, or voluntary coo+eration. [3un Ins. v. C(, GR 4$&$. #uly 18, 1 4'. Accident. ;lements> -a. +erformance of a la*ful act; -1. *it) due care; -c. +roducin, an in2ury 1y mere accident; and -d. *it)out any fault or intention of causin, it. [6eo+le v. Gtrela, GR L-$&184. #uly 1!, 1 &1, citin, (rt. 14, R6C'. Accidental. <)at *)ic) )a++ens 1y c)ance or fortuitously, *it)out intention and desi,n and *)ic) is une0+ected, unusual and unforeseen. [=oreno, 6)il. La* Dict., 1 84 ;d., +. 8, citin, De La Cruz v. Ca+ital Ins., 18 3CR( !! '. Accidental spills. 3+ills of oil or ot)er )azardous su1stances in *ater t)at result from accidents involvin, t)e carriers of suc) su1stance suc) as collisions and ,roundin,. [3ec. "4, 6D 11!4'. Accident insurance. &asualty insurance. 3ee

Acci.n de reivindicacion. 3ee Acci.n reivindicatoria. Acci.n in rem versum. Re7uisites> -a. Fne +arty must 1e enric)ed and t)e ot)er made +oorer; -1. t)ere must 1e a casual relation 1et*een t)e t*o; -c. t)e enric)ment must not 1e 2ustifia1le; -d. t)ere must 1e no ot)er *ay to recover; and -e. t)e indemnity cannot e0ceed t)e loss or enric)ment, *)ic)ever is less. [Gnder (rt. 44, CC'. Acci.n interdictal. 3ee Accion publiciana. Acci.n pauliana. (lso *escissory action. [(rts. 1188 and 1$&1, CC'. Acci.n publiciana. (lso Acci.n interdictal. 1. <)e +lenary action to recover t)e ri,)t of +ossession *)en dis+ossession *as effected 1y means ot)er t)an t)ose mentioned in Rule 8% of t)e Rules of Court. Gnder t)ese circumstances, a +lenary action may 1e 1rou,)t 1efore t)e R<C. [#al1uena De Leon v. C(, GR "1%8. #une 1 , 1 !'. 4. (ction *)ere +laintiff merely

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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alle,es +roof of a 1etter ri,)t to +ossess *it)out claim of title. [#avier v. Deridiano, GR L5&%!%. Fct. 1%, 1 5'. Acci.n quanti minoris or estimatoria. (n action to demand a +ro+ortionate reduction of t)e +rice, *it) dama,es. [(rt. 1!"8, CC'. Acci.n reinvindicatoria. (lso Acci.n de reinvindicacion. 1. (n action to recover o*ners)i+, includin, t)e recovery of +ossession, *)ic) s)ould 1e filed in t)e R<C. [#al1uena De Leon v. C(, GR "1%8. #une 1 , 1 !'. 4. (ction *)ere1y +laintiff alle,es o*ners)i+ over a +arcel of land and seeks recovery of its full +ossession. [GR L-5&%!%. Fct. 1%, 1 5 '. Acci.n subrogatoria. (lso )ubrogatory action. [(rt. 1188, CC; 3ee also (rts. 184 and 1& $, CC'. Accommodation. @e,o. Inst. ( le,al arran,ement under *)ic) a +erson called t)e accommodation +arty lends )is name and credit to anot)er *it)out any consideration. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. Accommodation guarantor. @e,o. Inst. ( +erson *)o si,ns on t)e 1ack of a note as suc) and *)o is t)erefore only secondarily lia1le. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 8'. Accommodation maker. @e,o. Inst. ( +erson +rimarily lia1le on t)e instrument, even t)ou,) )e adds t)e *ord IsuretyJ to )is si,nature or t)e fact t)at )e si,ned for accommodation is kno*n to t)e )older. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 8'. Accommodation note. @e,o. Inst. ( note to *)ic) t)e accommodatin, +arty )as +ut )is name *it)out consideration for t)e +ur+ose of accommodatin, some ot)er +arty *)o is to use it and is e0+ected to +ay it. [=aulini v. 3errano, GR &&55. Dec. 1", 1 15'. Accommodation party. @e,o. Inst. 1. ( +erson one *)o )as si,ned an instrument as maker, dra*er, acce+tor of indorser *it)out receivin, value t)erefor, 1ut is )eld lia1le on t)e instrument to a )older for value alt)ou,) t)e latter kne* )im to 1e only an accommodation +arty. [3ec. 4 , @IL'. 4. ( +erson lia1le on t)e instrument to a )older for value, not*it)standin, suc) )older, at t)e time of t)e takin, of t)e instrument kne* )im to 1e only an accommodation +arty. In lendin, )is name to t)e accommodated +arty, t)e accommodation +arty is in effect a surety for t)e latter. Le lends )is name to ena1le t)e accommodated +arty to o1tain credit or to raise money. Le receives no +art of t)e consideration for t)e instrument 1ut assumes lia1ility to t)e ot)er +arties t)ereto 1ecause )e

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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*ants to accommodate anot)er. [6)il. 9ank of Commerce v. (rue,o, 1%4 3CR( !$%, !$ , !5%'. Accommodation party. Re7uisites> <o 1e an accommodation +arty, a +erson must -a. 1e a +arty to t)e instrument, si,nin, as maker, dra*er, acce+tor, or indorser, -1. not receive value t)erefor, and -c. si,n for t)e +ur+ose of lendin, )is name for t)e credit of some ot)er +erson. [Crisolo,o#ose v. C(, GR &%! . 3e+. 1!, 1 & '. Accomplice. 1. ( +erson *)o, not 1ein, +rinci+al as defined in (rt. 18 of t)e Rev. 6enal Code, coo+erates in t)e e0ecution of t)e offense 1y +revious or simultaneous acts [(rt. 1&, R6C'. 4. ( +artner in a crime; ( +erson *)o kno*in,ly and voluntarily +artici+ates *it) anot)er in a criminal activity. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro3e., 4%%5'. Accomplice. Re7uisites to 1e considered as suc)> -a. Community of desi,n, i.e., kno*in, t)at criminal desi,n of t)e +rinci+al 1y direct +artici+ation, )e concurs *it) t)e latter in )is +ur+ose; -1. )e coo+erates in t)e e0ecution of t)e offense 1y +revious or simultaneous acts; and, -c. t)ere must 1e a relation 1et*een t)e acts done 1y t)e +rinci+al and t)ose attri1uted to t)e +erson c)ar,ed as accom+lice. [6eo+le v. #or,e, GR 1 5'. $8 . (+r. 44,

Accord. 3ee Agreement. Accountancy practice. It s)all constitute in a +erson, 1e it in )is individual ca+acity, or as a +artner or staff mem1er in an accountin, or auditin, firm, )oldin, out )imself as one skilled in t)e kno*led,e, science, and +ractice of accountin,, and as 7ualified to render +rofessional services as a certified +u1lic accountant; or offerin, or renderin,, or 1ot), to more t)an one client on a fee 1asis or ot)er*ise, services suc) as t)e audit or verification of financial transactions and accountin, records; t)e +re+aration, si,nin,, or certification for clients of re+orts of audit, 1alance s)eets, and ot)er financial accountin, and related sc)edules, e0)i1its, statements, or re+orts *)ic) are to 1e used for +u1lication or for credit +ur+oses, or to 1e filed *it) a court or ,overnment a,ency, or to 1e used for any ot)er +ur+ose; t)e installation and revision of accountin, system, t)e +re+aration of income ta0 returns *)en related to accountin, +rocedures; or *)en )e re+resents clients 1efore ,overnment a,encies on ta0 matters related to accountin, or renders +rofessional assistance in matters relatin, to accountin, +rocedures and t)e recordin, and +resentation of financial facts or data. [3ec. $, 6D " 4'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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Account stated. (n account rendered to a de1tor *)o receives it *it)out o12ection and *)o +romises to +ay it. (s suc), its correctness can no lon,er 1e im+eac)ed e0ce+t for fraud and mistake. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &'. Accredit. <o ackno*led,e. [G3I3 v. C3C, GR &$ !. Fct. 4&, 1 5'. Accredited dual training system agricultural$ industrial and business establishments. (lso Agricultural$ industrial and business establishments. ( sole +ro+rietors)i+, +artners)i+, cor+oration or coo+erative *)ic) is duly reco,nized and aut)orized 1y t)e a++ro+riate aut)ority to +artici+ate in t)e dual trainin, system educational institution. [3ec. 5, R( 8"&"'. Accredited dual training system educational institution/training center. ( +u1lic or +rivate institution duly reco,nized and aut)orized 1y t)e a++ro+riate aut)ority, in coordination *it) t)e 1usiness and industry, to +artici+ate in t)e dual trainin, system. [3ec. 5, R( 8"&"'. Accredited employees' organi ation. ( re,istered or,anization of t)e rank-and-file em+loyees reco,nized to ne,otiate for t)e em+loyees in an or,anizational unit )eaded 1y an officer *it) sufficient aut)ority to 1ind t)e a,ency. [;F 1&%'. Accretion. Intl. La*. <)e increase in t)e land area of t)e state, eit)er t)rou,) natural means or artificially t)rou,) )uman la1or. [3andoval, 6ol. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. Accretion. 6ro+erty. 1. ( mode of ac7uirin, +ro+erty under (rt. 5!8 of t)e Civil Code. 4. <)e increase or accumulation of land 1y natural causes, as out of a lake or river. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. $. <)e im+erce+ti1le and ,radual addition to land 1y t)e slo* action of *ater. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Intl. La*. 4. ( mode of addin, to t)e territory of a state 1y natural +rocess, suc) as t)e ,radual de+osit of soil on t)e coast t)rou,) t)e action of t)e *ater, or 1y )uman la1or, as e0em+lified 1y t)e reclamation +ro2ects on =anila 9ay and t)e polders of t)e @et)erlands. [Cruz, Intl. La* Revie*er, 1 " ;d., +. 81'. 3ee Alluvion. Accretion. 6ro+erty. Re7uisites> -a. <)at t)e de+osition of soil or sediment 1e ,radual and im+erce+ti1le; -1. t)at it 1e t)e result of t)e action of t)e *aters of t)e river -or sea.; and -c. t)at t)e land *)ere accretion takes +lace is ad2acent to t)e 1anks or rivers -or t)e sea coast.. [=eneses v. C(, 45" 3CR( $85 -1 !.'. Accretion. 3ucc. ( ri,)t 1y virtue of *)ic), *)en t*o or more +ersons are called to t)e same

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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in)eritance, devise or le,acy, t)e +art assi,ned to t)e one *)o renounces or cannot receive )is s)are, or *)o died 1efore t)e testator, is added or incor+orated to t)at of )is co-)eirs, codevisees, or co-le,atees. [(rt. 1%1!, CC'. Accumulated depreciation on appraisal. (lso termed as 0bserved depreciation. <)e accumulated de+reciation 1ased on t)e a++raised or a++raisal value +er a++raiser:s re+ort. [RC6I v. @atl. Ba,es Council, GR $%55. =ar. 4", 1 4'. Accused. <)e name for t)e defendant in a criminal case. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Acknowledged natural children. @atural c)ildren duly ackno*led,ed or reco,nized 1y t)e fat)er and mot)er 2ointly, or 1y only one of t)em. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Acknowledgment. ( formal declaration 1efore an aut)orized official 1y t)e +erson *)o e0ecuted an instrument t)at it is )is free act and deed; t)e certificate of t)e official on suc) instrument attestin, t)at it *as so ackno*led,ed. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. A contrario. Lat. Fn t)e contrary. [6eo+le v. Alores, 4$8 3CR( ""4'. A contrario sensu. Lat. Arom t)e contrary sense. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. A converso. Lat. Conversely. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'.

Acquiescence. 1. (ction or inaction *)ic) 1inds a +erson le,ally even t)ou,) it *as not intended as suc). [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 4. (llo*in, too muc) time to +ass since a +erson )ad kno*led,e of an event *)ic) may )ave allo*ed )im to )ave le,al recourse a,ainst anot)er, im+lyin, t)at )e *aived )is ri,)ts to t)at le,al recourse. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Acquire. <o ,ain 1y any means, usually 1y oneEs o*n e0ertions. <o take on as a +art of oneEs nature or 7ualifications. <o attain, +rocure, *in, earn, secure or o1tain. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. '. Acquired asset corporation. ( cor+oration> -a. *)ic) is under +rivate o*ners)i+, t)e votin, or outstandin, s)ares of *)ic) *ere> -i. conveyed to t)e Government or to a ,overnment a,ency, instrumentality or cor+oration in satisfaction of de1ts *)et)er 1y foreclosure of ot)er*ise, or -ii. duly ac7uired 1y t)e Government t)rou,) final 2ud,ment in a se7uestration +roceedin,; or -1. *)ic) is a

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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su1sidiary of a ,overnment cor+oration or,anized e0clusively to o*n and mana,e, or lease, or o+erate s+ecific +)ysical assets ac7uired 1y a ,overnment financial institution in satisfaction of de1ts incurred t)ere*it), and *)ic) in any case 1y la* or 1y enunciated +olicy is re7uired to 1e dis+osed of to +rivate o*ners)i+ *it)in a s+ecified +eriod of time. [3ec. 4, R( 8"!"'. Acquired 1mmune Deficiency )yndrome 2A1D)3. ( condition c)aracterized 1y a com1ination of si,ns and sym+toms, caused 1y LID contracted from anot)er +erson and *)ic) attacks and *eakens t)e 1ody:s immune system, makin, t)e afflicted individual susce+ti1le to ot)er life-t)reatenin, infections. [3ec. $, R( &!%5'. Acquisitive prescription. Civ. La*. <)e ac7uisition of o*ners)i+ and ot)er real ri,)ts t)rou,) t)e la+se of time. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. Acquisitive prescription. Civ. La*. Re7uisites> Aor +rescri+tion to set in, t)e +ossession must 1e> -a. adverse, -1. continuous, -c. +u1lic and -d. to t)e e0clusion of all. [Cor+uz v. 6adilla, GR L-1&% C L-1&1$". #uly $1, 1 "4'. Acquittal. 1. It is al*ays 1ased on t)e merits, t)at is, t)e defendant is ac7uitted 1ecause t)e evidence does not s)o* t)at defendant:s ,uilt is 1eyond reasona1le dou1t; 1ut dismissal does not decide t)e case on t)e merits or t)at t)e defendant is not ,uilty. [=alanyaon v. Lisin,, GR L-!"%4&. #uly $%, 1 &1'. 4. <)e le,al certification of t)e innocence of a +erson *)o )as 1een c)ar,ed *it) a crime, settin, t)e +erson free from a c)ar,e of ,uilty 1y a findin, of not ,uilty. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. $. ( release, a1solution, or disc)ar,e of an o1li,ation or lia1ility. In criminal la* t)e findin, of not ,uilty. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) Dismissal. Act. Crim. La*. (s used in (rt. $ of t)e Rev. 6enal Code, t)e term must 1e understood as Hany 1odily movement tendin, to +roduce some effect in t)e e0ternal *orld.H [6eo+le v. Gonzales, GR &%8"4. =ar. 1 , 1 %'. Act. Intl. La*. 3ometimes termed a 4inal act or #rotocol de cloture, it is an instrument *)ic) records t)e summary of a di+lomatic conference. It re+roduces t)e treaties, conventions or resolutions a,reed u+on 1y t)e +artici+ants of t)e conference. <)is is also termed as a 5eneral act. [Co7uia and 3antia,o, Intl. La*, $rd ;d. -1 &., +. 5 4'. Act. 6ol. La*. 1. (n e0+ression of *ill or +ur+ose. It may denote somet)in, done as a le,islature,

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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includin, not merely +)ysical acts, 1ut also decrees, edicts, la*s, 2ud,ments, resolves, a*ards, and determinations. [Garcia v. Comelec, GR 1114$%. 3e+. $%, 1 5, citin, 9lackEs La* Dict., !t) ;d., +. 45'. 4. ( 1ill *)ic) )as +assed t)rou,) t)e various le,islative ste+s re7uired for it and *)ic) )as 1ecome la*, as in an act of Con,ress. 3ynonymous to )tatute, 6egislation or 6aw. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Acta (ure gestionis. Lat. (cts 1y ri,)t of mana,ement. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. Acta (ure imperii. Lat. (cts 1y ri,)t of dominion. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Acting. Loldin, a tem+orary rank or +osition, or +erformin, services tem+orarily. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 1%'. Action. Rem. La*. 1. (n ordinary suit in a court of 2ustice, 1y *)ic) one +arty +rosecutes anot)er for t)e enforcement or +rotection of a ri,)t, or t)e +revention or redress of a *ron,. [3ec. 1, Rule 4, RoC'. 4. It includes counterclaim, set-off, and suits in e7uity as +rovided 1y la*. [3ec. !&, (ct 41$8'. $. <)e le,al demand of one:s ri,)t, or ri,)ts; t)e la*ful demand of one:s ri,)ts in t)e form ,iven 1y la*; a demand of a ri,)t in a court of 2ustice; t)e la*ful demand of one:s ri,)t in a court of 2ustice; t)e le,al and formal demand of one:s ri,)ts from anot)er +erson or +arty, made and insisted on in a court of 2ustice; a claim made 1efore a tri1unal; an assertion in a court of 2ustice of a ri,)t ,iven 1y la*; a demand or le,al +roceedin, in a court of 2ustice to secure one:s ri,)ts; t)e +rosecution of some demand in a court of 2ustice; t)e means 1y *)ic) men liti,ate *it) eac) ot)er; t)e means t)at t)e la* )as +rovided to +ut t)e cause of action into effect. [Gutierrez Lermanos v. De la Riva, 5" 6)il. &48, &$5-&$!'. Actionable document. Rem. La*. ( *ritten instrument u+on *)ic) t)e action or defense is 1ased. [3ec. 8, Rule &, RoC'. Actionable negligence. ( violation of t)e duty to use care. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 11'. Actionable wrong. ( violation of la*. [Dales v. Dilla, $! 6)il. 8&&'. Action for reconveyance. Rem. La*. ( le,al remedy ,ranted to a ri,)tful o*ner of land *ron,fully or erroneously re,istered in t)e name of anot)er to com+el t)e latter to reconvey t)e land to )im. [;sconde v. 9arlon,ay, 1!4 3CR( "%$ -1 &8.'. Action in e(ectment. Rem. La*. <)e term includes a suit of forci1le entry -detentacion. or unla*ful detainer -desa)ucio..

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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[3erin, v. 6lazo, GR L-5 8$1. 3e+. 4 , 1 &&'. Action quasi in rem. Rem. La*. (n action *)ic) *)ile not strictly s+eakin, an action in rem +artakes of t)at nature and is su1stantially suc). . . . <)e action 7uasi in rem differs from t)e true action in rem in t)e circumstance t)at in t)e former an individual is named as defendant and t)e +ur+ose of t)e +roceedin, is to su12ect )is interest t)erein to t)e o1li,ation or lien 1urdenin, t)e +ro+erty. (ll +roceedin,s )avin, for t)eir sole o12ect t)e sale or ot)er dis+osition of t)e +ro+erty of t)e defendant, *)et)er 1y attac)ment, foreclosure, or ot)er form of remedy, are in a ,eneral *ay t)us desi,nated. <)e 2ud,ment entered in t)ese +roceedin,s is conclusive only 1et*een t)e +arties. [9anco ;s+aKol Aili+ino v. 6alanca, $8 6)il. 41, 4& -1 1&.'. Actio or action in personam. Lat. Rem. La*. 1. ( +ersonal action seekin, redress a,ainst a +articular individual. (n action a,ainst a +erson on t)e 1asis of )is +ersonal lia1ility. [Lernandez v. Rural 9ank of Lucena, 8" 3CR( &!'. 4. (n action a,ainst t)e +erson, founded on a +ersonal lia1ility. In contrast to action in rem, an action for t)e recovery of a s+ecific o12ect, usually an item of +ersonal +ro+erty. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Actio or action in rem. Lat. Rem. La*. 1. (n action for t)e recovery of t)e very t)in,. (n action a,ainst t)e t)in, itself, instead of a,ainst t)e +erson. [Lernandez v. Rural 9ank of Lucena, 8" 3CR( &!'. 4. 6roceedin, a,ainst t)e t)in, as com+ared to +ersonal actions -in +ersonam.. Gsually a +roceedin, *)ere +ro+erty is involved. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Actio personalis moritur cum persona; actio personalis in haeredem non datur$ nisi forte e% damno locupletior haeres factus sit. Lat. ( +ersonal ri,)t of action dies *it) t)e +erson. ( +enal action is not ,iven a,ainst an )eir, unless, indeed, suc) )eir is 1enefited 1y t)e *ron,. [6etral1a v. 3andi,an1ayan, GR &1$$8. (u,. 1", 1 1'. Active fishing gear. ( fis)in, device c)aracterized 1y ,ear movements, and/or t)e +ursuit of t)e tar,et s+ecies 1y to*in,, liftin,, and +us)in, t)e ,ears, surroundin,, coverin,, dred,in,, +um+in, and scarin, t)e tar,et s+ecies to im+oundments; suc) as, 1ut not limited to, tra*l, +urse seines, Danis) seines, 1a, nets, +aalin,, drift ,ill net and tuna lon,line. [3ec. 5, R( &!!%'. Active ingredient. <)e c)emical com+onent res+onsi1le for t)e claimed t)era+eutic effect of t)e +)armaceutical +roduct. [3ec. $, R( ""8!'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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Active mining area. (reas under actual e0+loration, develo+ment, e0+loitation or commercial +roduction as determined 1y t)e D;@R 3ec. after t)e necessary field investi,ation or verification includin, conti,uous and ,eolo,ically related areas 1elon,in, to t)e same claim o*ner and/or under contract *it) an o+erator, 1ut in no case to e0ceed t)e ma0imum area allo*ed 1y la*. [3ec. $, R( 8%8"'. Active search. ( +ryin, into )idden +laces for t)at *)ic) is concealed. [6adilla v. C(, GR 141 18. =ar. 14, 1 8, citin, 9lack:s La* Dict., Rev. 5t) ;d.'. Active solidarity. It consists in t)e aut)ority of eac) creditor to claim and enforce t)e ri,)ts of all, *it) t)e resultin, o1li,ation of +ayin, every one *)at 1elon,s to )im; t)ere is no mer,er, muc) less a renunciation of ri,)ts, 1ut only mutual re+resentation. [Muiom1in, v. C(, GR $%1%. (u,. $%, 1 %, citin, <olentino, Civil Code of t)e 6)il., Dol. ID, &! ;d., +. 44&'. It is a kind of solidarity *)ere t)ere are several creditors and only one de1tor. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 45'. Com+are *it) #assive solidarity. Active sub(ect. <)e +erson *)o can demand t)e +erformance of t)e o1li,ation, ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e creditor or o1li,ee. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. 45'. Com+are #assive sub(ect. *it)

Activist school. Grou+ of <)ird Borld t)eorists *)o ar,ue t)at international la* reflects t)e interests of develo+ed states to t)e detriment of develo+in, states and *)o advocate action 1y t)e latter to c)an,e it. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Act of 5od. (n event *)ic) is caused solely 1y t)e effect of nature or natural causes and *it)out any interference 1y )umans *)atsoever. Insurance contracts often e0clude I(cts of GodJ from t)e list of insura1le occurrences as a means to *aive t)eir o1li,ations for dama,e caused 1y ty+)oons, floods or eart)7uakes. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Act of 5od doctrine. <)e doctrine em1odyin, t)e +rinci+le t)at strictly re7uires t)at t)e act must 1e one occasioned e0clusively 1y t)e violence of nature and all )uman a,encies are to 1e e0cluded from creatin, or enterin, into t)e cause of t)e misc)ief. B)en t)e effect, t)e cause of *)ic) is to 1e considered, is found to 1e in +art t)e result of t)e +artici+ation of man, *)et)er it 1e from active intervention or ne,lect, or failure to act, t)e *)ole occurrence is t)ere1y )umanized, as it *ere, and removed from t)e rules a++lica1le to t)e acts of God. [@a+ocor v. C(, GR 1%$554-5!.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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=ay 41, 1 $, citin, 1 Cor+us #uris, ++. 1185-118!'. Act of state doctrine. Doctrine t)at t)e act of a ,overnment *it)in t)e 1oundaries of its o*n territory is not su12ect to 2udicial scrutiny in a forei,n munici+al court. ( munici+al court *ill decline to )ear a dis+ute 1ased on suc) acts if to do so *ould interfere *it) t)e conduct of t)e forum state:s forei,n +olicy. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Acts by right of dominion. (cta 2ure im+erii. (ctivities of a ,overnmental or +u1lic nature carried out 1y a forei,n 3tate or one of its su1divisions, *)ic) 7ualify for 3tate immunity under t)e modern doctrine of restrictive forei,n soverei,n immunity. [<etley, Glossary of Conflict of La*s, 4%%5'. Acts by right of management. (cta 2ure ,estionis. (ctivities of a commercial nature carried out 1y a forei,n 3tate or one of its su1divisions or a,encies, *)ic) acts are not immune from t)e 2urisdiction and +rocess of local courts under t)e modern doctrine of restrictive forei,n soverei,n immunity. [<etley, Glossary of Conflict of La*s, 4%%5'. Acts contra bonus mores. ;lements> -a. <)ere is an act *)ic) is le,al; -1. 1ut *)ic) is contrary to morals, ,ood custom, +u1lic order, or +u1lic +olicy; -c. and it is done *it) intent to in2ure. [(l1enson ;nter+rises Cor+. v. C(, GR &&" 5. #an. 11, 1 $'. Acts mala in se. Crim. La*. (cts *ron, in t)emselves. In acts mala in se, t)e intent ,overns. [Dunlao v. C(, GR 111$5$. (u,. 44, 1 ", citin, 3an,co, Crim. La*, Dol. I, 9ook 1, 1 8 , +. %'. Acts mala prohibita. Crim. La*. (cts *)ic) *ould not 1e *ron, 1ut for t)e fact t)at +ositive la* for1ids t)em. In cats mala +ro)i1ita, t)e only in7uiry is, )as t)e la* 1een violatedN [Gardner v. 6eo+le, "4 @.?., 4 , cited in G3 v. Go C)ico, 15 6)il. 1$5'. Acts merely tolerated. <)ose *)ic) 1y reason of nei,)1orliness or familiarity, t)e o*ner of +ro+erty allo*s )is nei,)1or or anot)er +erson to do on t)e +ro+erty; t)ey are ,enerally t)ose +articular services or 1enefits *)ic) one:s +ro+erty can ,ive to anot)er *it)out material in2ury or +re2udice to t)e o*ner *)o +ermits t)em out of friends)i+ or courtesy. [3arona v. Dille,as, GR L-44 &5. =ar. 48, 1 "&, citin, II <olentino, Civil Code of t)e 6)il., 1 "$, ed., +. 448, in turn citin, 1 Ru,,iero &5$'. Acts of lasciviousness. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all commit any act of lasciviousness u+on ot)er +ersons of eit)er se0, under any of t)e circumstances

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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mentioned in (rt. $$! of t)e Rev. 6enal Code. [(rt. $$", R6C'. Act tending to prevent the meeting of the Assembly and similar bodies. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o, 1y force or fraud, +revents t)e meetin, of t)e @ational (ssem1ly -Con,ress of t)e 6)ili++ines. or of any of its committees or su1-committees, constitutional commissions or committees or divisions t)ereof, or of any +rovincial 1oard or city or munici+al council or 1oard. [(rt. 15$, R6C, as reinstated 1y ;F 1&8'. Actual. 3omet)in, real, or actually e0istin,, as o++osed to somet)in, merely +ossi1le, or to somet)in, *)ic) is +resum+tive or constructive. [=oreno, 6)il. La* Dict., $rd ;d., +. 4" citin, 3alaysay v. Ruiz Castro, & 6)il. $&! -1 !".'. Actual case. (lso Actual controversy. (n e0istin, case or controversy t)at is a++ro+riate or ri+e for determination, not con2ectural or antici+atory. [Garcia v. ;0ec. 3ec., 4%5 3CR( !1", !44 -1 1.'. Actual damages. (lso &ompensatory damages. (de7uate com+ensation to *)ic) a +erson is entitled only for suc) +ecuniary loss suffered 1y )im as )e )as duly +roved, e0ce+t as +rovided 1y la* or 1y sti+ulation [(rt. 41 , CC'. Actual delivery. (lso *eal delivery. 1. <)e +lacement of t)e t)in, sold in t)e control and +ossession of t)e vendee. [(rt. 15 8, CC'. 4. Delivery *)ere +)ysical +ossession is ,iven to t)e vendee or )is re+resentative. [Fna+al 6)ils. v. C(, GR %8%8. Ae1. 1, 1 $, citin, 9lack:s La* Dict. !1!-!1" -5t) ;d..'. $. 3ales. <)e cedin, of cor+oreal +ossession 1y t)e seller, and t)e actual a++re)ension of cor+oreal +ossession 1y t)e 1uyer or 1y some +erson aut)orized 1y )im to receive t)e ,oods as )is re+resentative for t)e +ur+ose of custody or dis+osal. [=oreno, 6)il. La* Dict., citin, (ndrada v. (r,el, "! FG 1%!5'. Com+are *it) &onstructive delivery. Actual fraud. 1. Intentional fraud; it consists in dece+tion, intentionally +racticed to induce anot)er to +art *it) +ro+erty or to surrender some le,al ri,)t, and *)ic) accom+lis)es t)e end desi,ned. [9erico v. C(, GR "$%". (u,. 4%, 1 $'. 4. <)e intentional omission of fact re7uired 1y la* to 1e stated in t)e a++lication or *illful statement of a claim a,ainst trut). It may also constitute s+ecific acts intended to deceive or de+rive anot)er of )is ri,)t, 1ut lack of actual notice of t)e +roceedin,s does not itself esta1lis) fraud. [(l1ano, Civil La* Revie*er, Rev. ;d., +. !45, citin, (l1a v. Dela Cruz, 18 6)il. 5 '. Com+are *it) &onstructive fraud.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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Actual loss. =ar. Ins. ( loss may 1e +resumed from t)e continued a1sence of a s)i+ *it)out 1ein, )eard of. <)e len,t) of time *)ic) is sufficient to raise t)is +resum+tion de+ends on t)e circumstances of t)e case. [3ec. 1$4, IC'. Actual possession. 6ossession as a fact or +)ysical +ossession. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14'. Com+are *it) &onstructive possession. Actual service. <)e +eriod of time for *)ic) +ay )as 1een received, e0cludin, +eriod covered 1y terminal leave. [3ec. $, 6D &!'. Actual total loss. Ins. Loss caused 1y> -a. a total destruction of t)e t)in, insured; -1. t)e irretrieva1le loss of t)e t)in, 1y sinkin,, or 1y 1ein, 1roken u+; -c. any dama,e to t)e t)in, *)ic) renders it valueless to t)e o*ner for t)e +ur+ose for *)ic) )e )eld it; or -d. any ot)er event *)ic) effectively de+rives t)e o*ner of t)e +ossession, at t)e +ort of destination, of t)e t)in, insured. [3ec. 1$%, IC'. Com+are *it) &onstructive total loss. Actual use. <)e +ur+ose for *)ic) t)e +ro+erty is +rinci+ally or +redominantly utilized 1y t)e +ersons in +ossession of t)e +ro+erty. [3ec. $, 6D 5"5'. Actus ipsa loquitur. Lat. Let t)e act s+eak for itself. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14'. Actus me invito factus non est meus actus. Lat. (n act done 1y me a,ainst my *ill is not my act. [6eo+le v. 3alvatierra, GR 111145. #une 4%, 1 "'. Actus non facit reum$ nisi mens sit rea. Lat. (n act is not criminal unless t)e mind is criminal. [6eo+le v. Mui2ada, GR 11!%%&% . #uly 45, 1 "'. Acute con(unctivitis. 3ore eyes. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14'. Ada. Customary la*. [(rt. 8, 6D 1%&$ -Code of =uslim 6ersonal La*s of t)e 6)ili++ines.'. Addendum. (n attac)ment to a *ritten document. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Additional evidence. 3uc) evidence allo*ed to 1e offered -a. *)en it is ne*ly discovered, or -1. *)ere it )as 1een omitted t)rou,) inadvertence or mistake, or -c. *)ere t)e +ur+ose of t)e evidence is to correct evidence +reviously offered. [Lo+ez v. Li1oro, GR L-18&8. (u,. 48, 1 5&, citin, I =oran:s Comments on t)e Rules of Court, 4d ;d., !5!; "5 C#, 1"%-1"$'. Address. <)e direction for delivery of a letter; t)e name or descri+tion of a +lace of residence, 1usiness, etc., *)ere a +erson may 1e found or communicated *it). [Lim 3i) 9en, v. Re+., GR L-4$$&8. (+r.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

otiation as to it:s terms. 4%%5'. =ar. !4 .ress is not in session. GR L-"!5$ . [Gre. GR 88&!.. I(C. Crt. <)e a++ointment t)at t)e 6resident may make durin. +. ( remedy *)ic) is e7ually 1eneficial. 4 Bords and 6)rases. Dol. 1$. 1 . sym+at)ies or convictions disloyal to )is countryEs +olicy or interest. sets out t)e terms and conditions of t)e sale. 11 C#..d. Adequate remedy.. $"$. [3ec.e or electronic document. Aor t)is +ur+ose. of t)e same Con. !. t)e recess of t)e Con. Aund. La* Rev.enerally . (n a++ointment made 1y t)e 6resident *)ile Con. 5t) . ( contract in *)ic) one of t)e +arties im+oses a ready-made form of contract. [Du)aime:s Le.'. Ad infinitum. G3.. 4 . s+eedy and sufficient. <)us. Adherence to the enemy. session. 9lack:s La* Dict. 1 8&'.e or electronic data document.. [(ytona v. <)e act of a citizen of favorin. C(.e t)e duties of t)e office durin. Lat. [6L= v.e of t)e seller. citin. ( +erson *)o is intended 1y t)e ori. not merely a remedy *)ic) at some time in t)e future *ill 1rin. ty+ically. Ad interim. Cramer v. Civil Code of t)e 6)il.ment of t)e lo*er court com+lained of in t)e certiorari +roceedin. Rev. 1 &!. re. [6CI9ank v. #an. 4%%5'.orio. *it) no o++ortunity for ne. Castillo. Aorever. 1 "8. ID -1 &". and *)ic).ular incum1ent. *it)out limit. 1.ress to t)e o+enin. It takes effect Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. Adhesion contract. <olentino. usually to t)e advanta. 1.ular or s+ecial. <orres. R( &8 4'.. citin. Ad hoc.. an officer ad interim is one a++ointed to fill a vacancy.. 1 ". Lat. 1ut *)ic) t)e latter cannot modify. [3ilvestre v.al Dict.. @ov. 1ut does not include a +erson actin. or to disc)ar. &&!. 1&'. 4.23 45. Addressee. for a s+ecific +ur+ose.ress. 11$'.inator to receive t)e electronic data messa.. -+. ( fine-+rint consumer form contract *)ic) is . or t)ose made durin. of Crim. 1 "4'. Ad-interim appointment. In t)e meantime or for t)e time 1ein. [Du)aime:s Le.ment and t)e acts of t)e inferior court or tri1unal. a +eriod of time from t)e ad2ournment of t)e Con. +.iven to consumers at +oint-ofsale.al Dict. indefinitely.d.ress. GR L-1 $1$. as an intermediary *it) res+ect to t)at electronic data messa. +. citin. *)ic) t)e ot)er +arty may acce+t or re2ect. 1 8 t) . 4. citin. 1ut a remedy *)ic) *ill +rom+tly relieve t)e +etitioner from t)e in2urious effects of t)at 2ud.. [Du)aime:s Le. !%"'. 4%%5'. a1out a revival of t)e 2ud. !8 6)il. t)e a1sence or tem+orary inca+acity of its re. "! 3u+. t)e enemy and )ar1orin.al Dict.

Ad litem. Com+are *it) *ecess. Ad(unction.. irres+ective of formal.d. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [CariKo v. 3ynonymous *it) Iad2ud. or defendin..es. 4%%4. Lat. CLR.'.ment in a case. . If t)e 2ud. 1.ment *)ic) determines t)e ri. 6ol.uments on t)e facts of t)e case.ed +erson. [3uarez. Castillo. La*. 1 1'. $rd Revision -&t) . It is not necessary. [(ytona v. ( 2ud.al <erms -6ro-3e. 6ol. it is on t)e merits alt)ou. C(. 1 . t)at t)ere s)ould )ave 1een a trial. mere tem+orary sus+ension of 1usiness from day to day. 4%%5'. Ad(udge. 1 1'.d.ment is . )o*ever.ment.al o++ortunity to 1e )eard on t)eir res+ective claims and contentions.ment . La*. La*.. tec)nical or dilatory o12ections.reed u+on 1y t)e 2oint action of t)e t*o )ouses.)ts under su1stantive la*. 3ee also *emedial law. Com+are *it) *egular appointment. 3ee Dacion en pago or Dation in payment. GR L-1 $1$. <o settle in t)e e0ercise of 2udicial aut)ority. 4. $. [=endiola v. La* Revie*er. 1 "'. Ad(ournment. Aor t)e suit. a 2ud. Ad(udication or (udgment on the merits. #an.ment or final order *)ic) dis+oses of t)e case on t)e merits.ment or decree. or +ronouncin. to decide. Dec. or for suc) 1rief +eriods of time as are a. <o determine finally. +. 3ee &on(unction. ( 2ud. Rem. Ad(udicate. <)at 1ody of la* *)ic) . <)e term im+lies a 2udicial determination of a fact. or to sentence or condemn. Dec.eneral. GR ""&1. [9ouvier:s La* Dict. Ad(udication. 4. $ $'. or +ronouncin. #uly !. [Glossary of Le. CLR. GR 144&%8. an action on 1e)alf of anot)er suc) as a c)ild or mentally-c)allen.. 4-5%'. [Glossary of Le. and t)e +arties )ad a full le. t)e ri. Givin. 1st .ress. ( +erson a++ointed only for t)e +ur+oses of +rosecutin. (lso t)e 2ud. Durin. 4. and t)e entry of a 2ud.eJ in its strictest sense. Civ.24 immediately 1ut ceases to 1e valid if disa++roved 1y t)e Commission on (++ointments or u+on t)e ne0t ad2ournment of Con. GR ""&1. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud.al <erms -6ro3e. Ad(ective or procedural law. Determination in t)e e0ercise of 2udicial +o*er.ment.ress.iven.)ts and lia1ilities of t)e +arties 1ased on t)e disclosed facts. 1. 2ud. [CariKo v. +. settle or decree. 4%%5'. <o +ass on 2udicially. and not 1ased on any tec)nical defect or o12ection. 1 "4'. Ad(udication. a session of Con.overns t)e +rocess of +rotectin.) t)ere *as no actual )earin. <)e rendition of a 2ud. or ar.ivin.

Administrative. citin.es or 1y takin.overnmental unit includin. [(rt. to )imself/)erself unless administered 1y a duly licensed +ractitioner for +ur+oses of medication. -t)e c)ief ministers or )eads of de+artments. Administrative agency. or conductin. committees. 48. citin. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o. or any em+loyee actin.. 4%%5'. any act of indis+ensa1le assistance to a +erson in administerin. trans+ortation. directin.islative 1ranc) of .overnment are for t)e time 1ein. =ay 1 . & l'. -1. <)e term connotes.erous dru. 1 85.. t)e mem1ers of t)e Constitutional Commissions and t)eir +ersonal staffs.25 (lso called a Guardian ad litem. or -5. to )im any in2urious su1stance or 1evera. or staffs of t)e @ational (ssem1ly. or of committin.e of )is *eakness of mind or credulity. t)e 6resident or )is +ersonal staff. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 9ouvier La* Dict. R( 1"!'. of @ueva Caceres v. (. in. 4d. any official. [3ec. (ny action includin. +)ysical in2ury. omissions. any dan..overnment 1ut it does not include -a. to administration. =cCa1e. Administrative power. <)e a.erous dru. .estion or ot)er means..al Dict. a dan. 3ee power. or +ertains. t)e mem1ers. (ny de+artment or ot)er . Com+are 5overnment. La*. [3ec.re. $'. .ly administerin. to s+ecific areas suc) as ta0es. or conduct of +ersons or t)in. R6C'. GR L-$11!4.. as 1y mana. *it)out intent to kill. es+ecially mana. 4"5. 1y in2ection..ate of t)ose +ersons in *)ose )ands t)e reins of . or a++urtenant 2udicial staff. any . Administering in(urious substances or beverages. in)alation.encies created 1y t)e le. [3ec. 1 %$. or su+erintendin. and la1or. Aluet v. 1y kno*in. 14 @. [G3 v. (ny act of introducin. Administration. GR 1%!1.e. t)e e0ecution.ency. Crim. any court or 2ud. =ar. or +rocedures of an administrative a. 4%%5'. a++lication. Administrative act. +ractices.e. or +ur+ortin. [Glossary of Le..al <erms -6ro3e. 6D 15&8'. recommendations.overnment to administer la*s +ertainin..overnment-o*ned or controlled cor+oration.s. [Du)aime:s Le. Administer. ad(udicatory 7uasi-(udicial Administrative agencies. *it) or *it)out )is/)er kno*led. to act 1y reason of connection *it) t)e . $.ement. or -c. advanta.in. into t)e 1ody of any +erson.. s)all inflict u+on anot)er any serious. decisions. Dorr. =artinez. 6D 15&8'. [Gniv.

Re7uisites> -a.overnment and t)e +erformance 1y t)at mac)inery of . -c.anic la* of its e0istence [@asi+it Inte. t)e decision must )ave somet)in. -d. [3uarez. 1 5%'.al Dict.)t of t)e +arty interested or affected to +resent )is o*n case and su1mit evidence in su++ort t)ereof.. Constl. and t)e reasons for t)e decisions rendered. in all controversial 7uestions.d. 11 .ulates t)e met)ods 1y *)ic) t)e functions of t)e . <)e ca+a1ility of a ta0 system of 1ein. -f. of su+ervision or control.. to su++ort itself. 1. t)e decision must 1e rendered on t)e evidence +resented at t)e )earin..es. citin. +.ned into la* on #uly 4!. render its decision in suc) a manner t)at t)e +arties to t)e +roceedin. t)e evidence must 1e su1stantial. Ae1.'. 4%%5'. <)e e0ecutive mac)inery of .. Fct. <)at la* *)ic) fi0es t)e or. <)e ri..anization and determines t)e com+etence of t)e administrative aut)orities and *)ic) re. of @otes. !.overnmental acts. $&'. effectively enforced. <a0ation. (n.. 1 &8.rated (rrastre v. -1 $.26 Administrative &ode of +. t)erefore. [Cruz. 36-%8! R.. 4.ency 1y t)e or. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . and -.F 4 4 si. must act on its or )is o*n inde+endent consideration of t)e la* and facts of t)e controversy.ement actions. at a decision. <i1ay v. 4%%1- Administrative functions.. Administrative due process. or at least contained in t)e record and disclosed to t)e +arties affected. 48.overnment effective. +. (. *)ic) includes t)e ri. and orders of e0ecutive officials as t)ey administer t)e la*s and try to make .s 1efore 7uasi-2udicial or administrative tri1unals.overnment are +erformed.)t to a )earin. <)ose *)ic) involve t)e re. can kno* t)e various issues involved. Con. Administrative feasibility. and not sim+ly acce+t t)e vie*s of a su1ordinate in arrivin. 1 & . 4. 9lack:s La* Dict. Com+are *it) 9udicial due process. [In Re> =anzano. 1 8&.-8. <a+ucar. t)e tri1unal must consider t)e evidence +resented.ation of rules and re.ulation and control over t)e conduct and affairs of individuals for t)eir o*n *elfare and t)e +romul. -1. GR 5"5 ". (= &&-8-1&"1R<C.ulations to 1etter carry out t)e +olicy of t)e le. t)e 1oard or 1ody s)ould. <)at 1ody of la* *)ic) a++lies for )earin. CIR. 1.islature or suc) as are devolved u+on t)e administrative a. <)e tri1unal or 1ody or any of its 2ud. <)ere is an element of +ositive action. . 3tat. 1 &&'. [Claridades. Com+ilation 4%%"'. It refers to t)e mana. 4 3e+. [Du)aime:s Le. determinations. Administrative law. La*. -e.

encies 1ut may not increase or add to t)em..ement audit. etc. 4. <)e +o*er or aut)ority of an officer or 1ody to oversee t)at su1ordinate officers of 1odies +erform t)eir assi. 4. a++roval or ot)er ad2udication aut)ority *)ic) is 7uasi-2udicial 1ecause it directly affects t)e le. [3ec.ed effectively. 4%%1-4%%"'.atees and devisees. [Du)aime:s Le. 4%%5'. Lat. $&. ( +erson *)o administers t)e estate of a +erson deceased.. 4%%5'.overnment +olicy-makin.2 Administrative supervision.ement of t)e estate of a deceased +erson until t)e estate is +artitioned and distri1uted to t)e )eirs.es.es. [Du)aime:s Le. sometimes called a tri1unal or administrative tri1unal and not necessarily +resided 1y 2ud. (ut)ority or 9oard. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud.al <erms -6ro-3e.. 4%%14%%"'.enerally oversee t)e o+erations of suc) a. 9et*een routine . s)i++in. Admiralty or maritime law. (. (n administrator is a 6ersonal re+resentative. [Claridades. standards and . to s)i+s. or re7uire t)e su1mission of re+orts and cause t)e conduct of mana. marine commerce and navi.F 4 4'. Administrative tribunal. Administratri%.ation. +erformance evaluation and ins+ection to determine com+liance *it) +olicies.al Dict. trans+ortation of +ersons or +ro+erty 1y sea. and to revie* and +ass u+on 1ud. Com+ilation of @otes. if any. Com+ilation of @otes.al ri. $-4'. Aemale administrator..et +ro+osals of suc) a. efficiently and economically 1ut *it)out interference *it) day-today activities.. Ly1rid ad2udicatin.encies and to insure t)at t)ey are mana. 1.. [Claridades. <)e +erson entrusted *it) t)e care.)ts of a +erson. <)e la* and court *it) 2urisdiction over maritime affairs Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .overnment +olicy decision-makin.ned duties and functions in accordance *it) la*. . (dministrative tri1unals are often referred to as Commission.. custody and mana.uidelines of t)e de+artment. aut)orities *)ic) straddle t)e line 1et*een . 4. <)e aut)ority of t)e de+artment or its e7uivalent to . <)at 1ody of la* relatin. C)a+. le. certifyin. <)ese o+erate as a . includin. (. 1. +. [Glossary of Le. 1ody at times 1ut also e0ercise a licensin. a1uses and ot)er forms of misadministration. 1. rectification of violations. 4%%5'. ".overnment and t)e courts. to take suc) action as may 1e necessary for t)e +ro+er +erformance of official functions. Aemale administrators are called (dministratri0. 1odies and t)e traditional court forums lies a )y1rid. <)e administrator is a++ointed 1y a court and is t)e +erson *)o *ould t)en )ave +o*er to deal *it) t)e de1ts and assets of a +erson *)o died intestate. Administrator..al Dict.

[Intl. <)e act. *)ic) may 1e . 1. [3ec.a. <)e same rule a++lies to t)e act or declaration of a 2oint o*ner. 4 .al Dict.ainst )im. and *)en +ro+er and +ossi1le for )im to do so. Admission by conspirator.vidence t)at can 1e le. Rule 1$%. to esta1lis) t)e . [Glossary of Le. [6eo+le v. its e0istence. . or ot)er +erson 2ointly interested *it) t)e +arty. 4%%5'.vid. 1.ency is s)o*n 1y evidence ot)er t)an suc) act or declaration. (n act or declaration made in t)e +resence and *it)in t)e )earin. out t)e cons+iracy. . Com+ilation of @otes.uilt or lia1ility of t)e +erson makin.ent of t)e +arty *it)in t)e sco+e of )is aut)ority and durin. Re7uisites> -a.ed in carryin. RoC'. t)e e0istence of t)e +artners)i+ or a.ainst t)e cocons+irator after t)e cons+iracy is s)o*n 1y evidence ot)er t)an suc) act of declaration. Rule 1$%.vid.2! in . 4. t)at it )as 1een made *)ile t)e declarant *as en. . [3ec. Dec. . La* Dict.ainst )im. *)ic) may 1e . or omission of one from *)om anot)er derives title to +ro+erty. .eneral. 4%%1-4%%"'.. t)at t)e cons+iracy 1e first +roved 1y evidence ot)er t)an t)e admission itself.vid. [#uristEs Le. RoC'... Com+are *it) &onfession.ency. <)e act or declaration of a +artner or a. declaration. . Admission by co-partner or agent. <)e act or declaration of a cons+irator relatin. 1!. Admissible evidence. $1. RoC'. C Direct. *)ic) may 1e . . Rule 1$%. *)en t)e act or declaration is suc) as naturally to call for action or comment if not true.iven in evidence a.iven in evidence a. RoC'. Admission. 1 $'.vid. *)ile )oldin.iven in evidence a. 4%%5'. declaration or omission of a +arty as to a relevant fact *)ic) may 1e . *)ic) may 1e . 1.iven in evidence a. $%.ainst t)e latter. and -c.iven in evidence a. 4%%5'.vidence *)ic) is relevant to t)e issue and is not e0cluded 1y la* or 1y t)e Rules of Court. 4". -1. <)e act. Admission by privies. ( statement tendin. (. to t)e cons+iracy and durin. GR &$41!. t)e statement. Rule 1$%. [Claridades. 3uri. or o1servation of a +arty *)o does or says not)in. Rule 1$4. t)e title. in relation to t)e +ro+erty. RoC'. . Admission by silence. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .a*an. 4.ainst suc) +arty after t)e +artners)i+ or a. [3ec.ally and +ro+erly introduced in a civil or criminal trial. $%. 2oint de1tor. [3ec. [3ec.vid..al <erms -6ro-3e. t)at t)e admission relates to t)e common o12ects. Admission by conspirator.vid.

error or oversi. [6eo+le v.vid. 1 8$ . <)e court ac7uires 2urisdiction sim+ly 1y +u1lication.. $!" 3CR( 1%&'. [. ( .e of name *)ic) fre7uently accom+anies ado+tion 1ein.. v.. 4%%5'. Re+. into one:s family of t)e c)ild of anot)er as son or dau.d. <)e 2uridical act *)ic) creates 1et*een t*o +ersons a relations)i+ similar to t)at *)ic) results from le.. $1"'. 1"'. for an ans*er.nized as le. incentives t)erefor.)ts and +rivile. 1 4. citin. naturally. ( +roceedin. on a fault.entle or friendly re+roof.2" Admission by silence. 1et*een +ersons not so related 1y nature. 5 Dalverde 58$'. & 6)il "!!. 3e+. +ractices. an O(do+t-(-3c)ool 6ro.. ( +artyEs reaction to a statement or action 1y anot)er +erson *)en it is reasona1le to treat t)e +artyEs reaction as an admission of somet)in. [Re+. 4$. [<o1ias v. [=orenoEs La* Dict. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. 1 (m. Admonish. Aor e0am+le t)e court may caution or admonis) counsel for *ron. R( &!4! entitled I(n (ct esta1lis)in.E +rovidin. (n act 1y *)ic) relations of +aternity and affiliation are reco.d. Desierto. t)at t)e statement *as in res+ect to some matter affectin. GR L-5%445. Adoption proceeding. <)at )e )eard and understood t)e statement. Relative *ords Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . is to effect t)is ne* status of relations)i+ 1et*een t)e c)ild and its ado+tive +arents. )is ri. t)at t)e fact admitted or t)e inference to 1e dra*n from )is silence *ould 1e material to t)e issue.ram. -d. [6rasnick v. +.. -c.. .. an e0+ression of aut)oritative advice or *arnin. Deloso..-. ID Arancisco. Lat.. Rules of Court in t)e 6)il. Adoption. #ur.. 4. <o advise or caution. (do+tion of C)ildren "41-"44'. -1. <)e +ur+ose of an ado+tion +roceedin. Adopt-a-)chool Act of +. Admonition. GR 8 %". a mild re1uke. +. on it a title to t)e ri. C(.ainst t)e *)ole *orld. 1 &.. *arnin. 15. in rem or a.)ts or in *)ic) )e *as t)en interested.es of suc). t)at t)e facts *ere *it)in )is kno*led. Adoptive admission. t)e c)an. t)at )e *as at li1erty to inter+ose a denial.ally e0istin. more an incident t)at t)e o12ect of t)e +roceedin. [Glossary of Le.sa.al <erms -6ro-3e. 4%%% .itimate +aternity and filiation.. <)ey are not considered as +enalties. and -e. =ay 41. 1 8&. counselin. <)e Rev. 1 &%'. <)e takin.)ter and )eir and conferrin. 1. GR L55%"%. #uly 4%.e. Ad pro%imum antedecens fiat relatio nisi impediatur sentencia.strada v.)t. 7uotin. citin. and callin. 6ara. stated or im+lied 1y t)e ot)er +erson. or reminder. Re7uisites> -a.

(n action or +roceedin.al notice to t)e ot)er +arty and afforded t)e latter an o++ortunity Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 5t) . Com+are *it) #rofectitious property. (+r. of *)ic) t)e +arty seekin. [(1ella v..ratuitous title. Adventitious property. 1 1. ( levy on real +ro+erty determined on t)e 1asis of a fi0ed +ro+ortion of t)e value of t)e +ro+erty. 1. [Comm. 4%%5'. (11reviation for Alternative dispute resolution. ar1itrator. 6D 5"5'.al Dict. +arties. even if t)e marria. R6C'. conciliator. Ad valorem property ta%. Rem. as distin. 4%%5'. !1 (m.) )is *ork or industry 1y onerous or . citin. 4. [Dillanueva v. !8'.e of )er kno*in. Adultery. R( 4&!'. +rice or ot)er s+ecified value of t)e article. #ur. 3e+. ar1itrator. citin. <)is is *it)out +re2udice to t)e ri. neutral evaluator. $. La*.3# refer to t)e nearest antecedent. of Int. contested. Rev.e 1e su1se7uently declared void. ( ta0 invaria1ly 1ased u+on o*ners)i+ of +ro+erty.. 4. Dec. La*. It is o*ned 1y t)e c)ild 1ut is administered 1y t)e +arents. AD* practitioners. AD* providers.ardless of *)et)er t)e +ro+erty is used or not.. similar functions in any alternative dis+ute resolution system -(DR.uis)ed from an e0 +arte )earin.s )avin. Inc. <)e c)ild is also t)e usufructuary of t)e +ro+erty 1ut )is use t)ereof is secondary only to t)e collective daily needs of t)e family. !$'. AD*. $. relief )as .d. Institutions or +ersons accredited as mediator. Ad valorem ta%. 9lack:s La* Dict. or neutral evaluator of t)eir dis+ute. 1 "&. (n e0cise ta0 1ased on sellin. [Du)aime:s Le.. Adversarial or contentious action or proceedings...) of course t)e value may vary in accordance *it) suc) factor. [3ec. conciliator. -is. ar1itrator or neutral evaluator. Comelec. v.)ts of t)e +arties to c)oose non-accredited individuals to act as mediator. 4&. R( 4&!'. GR L4"!41. alt)ou. )er to 1e married. conciliator. =o1ile 6)il. Individuals actin. Doluntary se0ual intercourse 1et*een a married +erson and anot)er +erson *)o is not t)eir married s+ouse. 6ro+erty earned or ac7uired 1y t)e minor c)ild t)rou. Com+are *it) )pecific ta%. or +roceedin. $.. [3ec. o++osin. <)e felony committed 1y any married *oman *)o s)all )ave se0ual intercourse *it) a man not )er )us1and and 1y t)e man *)o )as carnal kno*led. 4&. GR 1%5 4%. or any +erson e0ercisin. [(rt. $$$. 1 5'. GR 1%%81%. [3ec. 1. Crim.iven le. and is +aya1le re. unless it 1e +revented 1y t)e conte0t. [Du)aime:s Le. as mediator.al Dict. $. City of Iloilo.

-1 &$. as distin.al title. Adverse party. electronic. 5..ive +u1licity 1y *ords. and afforded t)e latter an o++ortunity to contest it. !t) . ( +roceedin.uis)ed from an e0 +arte a++lication. [9lackEs La* Dict. 4.d.al <erms -6ro-3e. -1 &$.d. [(rt.) any form of mass medium. [=anila Golf v. R( 8$ 5'. su1se7uent to t)e date of t)e ori.inal re. Adverse possession. to t)e ot)er +arty. +rint or *)atever form of mass media. or materially affected 1y t)e 2ud. ima. 48. one of *)ic) t)e +arty seekin. arisin. [3ec. ( +arty to an action *)ose interests are o++osed to or o++osite t)e interests of anot)er +arty to an action. 4"'. real +ro+erty under certain conditions 1y +ossession for a statutory +eriod.)t *it)in a 1ankru+tcy +roceedin. [Du)aime:s Le. desi. <)e met)od of ac7uirin. 4. 4%%5'. +arties suc) as a +laintiff and a defendant. *it)out le. lost.al o*ner.es or any ot)er means t)rou. [3ec. matter. contested.)t or lia1ility *ill 1e ac7uired. )avin. !.al Dict... o++osin. !t) . for a +eriod of time sufficient to 1ecome reco.ns. <)e Code of 6rofessional Res+onsi1ility +rovides t)at a la*yer in makin. 1 5. fraudulent. Adversary proceeding.. relief )as . R( 411'.. 9lack:s La* Dict. Individual la*suit-s. kno*n )is le. [Glossary of Le. Adverse interest. +. (1r. 5%'. Adverse claim. su1se7uently a++lied. suc) as 1ut no limited to si.. 3e+. <)e +ossession of land. disseminated or circulated advertisin.nized as le.al <erms -6ro3e. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . !t) .31 to contest it. 1. and must 1e suc) as *ould 1e +romoted 1y t)e success of t)e adversary of t)e +arty callin. 1rou.. =ar.ns and 1ill1oards. ( claim of any +art or interest in re.iven le.. includin. o++osin. 4%%5'.. 4. Fne )avin. 5. )im. 11%. Rem. Advertisement.e disseminated to t)e +u1lic a1out or on a +articular +roduct t)at +romote and . +arties.) 1roadcasts.so as to +ermit crosse0amination 1y t)e +arty callin. (ct 5 "'. fair. di.al *arnin. +. La*. )im P as *ould 1e so involved in t)e event of t)e suit t)at a le. )onest. outdoor advertisements. 1. 4%%5'. <)e +re+ared and t)rou.istered land adverse to t)e re. 1 &". 151 3CR( 5"4'. +. (ny visual and/or audi1le messa. GR "5 5&.d.al ri. Le is not su++osed to use or +ermit t)e use of any false. (1r. 1. 3uc) interest of a *itness .ment. [GR L$41&1. citin.nified and o12ective information or statement of facts.. [Glossary of Le.istration. 4"'.al services s)all use only true.istered o*ner. Advertisement by lawyer$ rule on. [9lackEs La* Dict. I(C. <)e more common *ord for t)is is s7uatters.

a. 5. *it)out violatin.ainst advertisin. R( 8$ 5'. [(rt.. and +roducin. 1 $'.ive somet)in. 6rior to t)e ado+tion of t)e Code of 6rofessional Res+onsi1ility. +ro. <)e standards of t)e le. R( 411'.al +rofession condemn t)e la*yer:s advertisement of )is talents. services or credit. ( la*yer cannot. [3ec. t)e et)ics of )is +rofession. Advertising agency or agent.) any form of mass media. 5. @or s)all )e +ay or . availa1le and communicatin.ency. and all ot)er like self-laudation.anization or enter+rise creatin.al Clinic.a.nified. 5.. data or information a1out t)e attri1utes. data or information a1out t)e attri1utes. t)rou.ardin. t)rou. services or credit. Le. +u1licity to attract le. 7uality or availa1ility of consumers +roducts. <)e 1usiness of conce+tualizin. )is .. t)e im+ortance of t)e la*yer:s +osition.al 1usiness. t)e manner of t)eir conduct. or creatin. a. 4. t)e ma. or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . conductin. fact. conce+tualized. Advertising.. *)ic) is service esta1lis)ed and o+erated for t)e +ur+ose of counselin. any fact.32 misleadin. #une 18.al services or solicitation of le.al Clinic.ra+) to 1e +u1lis)ed in connection *it) causes in *)ic) t)e la*yer )as 1een or is en. <)e client of t)e advertisin. dece+tive.ram in various forms of media. availa1le to t)e +u1lic. features. Le. or makin. ne*s+a+er comments.t)ics )ad also *arned t)at la*yers s)ould not resort to indirect advertisements for +rofessional em+loyment. Advertisement of talent or skill$ prohibition on. )is 7ualifications or le.) any form of mass media. ( service or. +resented or disseminated. is +re+ared. im+lementin. of value to re+resentatives of t)e mass media in antici+ation of. [Gle+ v. or ins+irin. undi.al 1usiness rests on t)e fundamental +ostulate t)at t)e +ractice of la* is a +rofession.. [Gle+ v. #une 18. R( 411'. 1.ency or t)e s+onsor of t)e advertisement on *)ose account t)e advertisin. Advertiser. +resentin.. advertisin.ed or concernin. <)e 1usiness of conce+tualizin. of le. 4. features. 9ar =atter !!$. 5.oods. or in return for. [3ec. [(rt. 1. suc) as furnis)in.nitude of t)e interest involved. and/or im+lementin.al services. 1 $'. or +rocurin. 7uality or availa1ility of consumer +roducts. <)e +roscri+tion a. )is +)oto. 9ar =atter !!$. +resentin. R( 8$ 5'. advertise )is talents or skills as in a manner similar to a merc)ant advertisin. makin. +roducin. to t)e +u1lic. self-laudatory or unfair statement or claim re. t)e Canons of 6rofessional .. ( +erson or entity on *)ose account of for *)om an advertisement is +re+ared and disseminated 1y t)e advertisin.

[Glossary of Le. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ence relied u+on. Affidavit of merit. 18'. to t)e 1est of t)eir kno*led. and t)e facts constitutin. 4%%% .33 . or e0cusa1le ne.al <erms -6ro3e. 4%%% .li. Aerial domain.e.d. t)e +erson si. it 1efore a +erson *it) aut)ority to administer t)e oat).)t in Courts to t)e e0tent t)at 2ud. takes an oat) t)at t)e contents are..ivin.. *ritten. 1ut su++orts t)e la*. Lat. ( s*orn statement e0ecuted 1y t)e vendee-a-retro to t)e effect t)at t)e +eriod of re+urc)ase )as e0+ired and t)e vendor failed to e0ercise )is ri. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4. +. Affiant. to t)e limits of t)e atmos+)ere 1ut does not include outer s+ace. La* Revie*er. R( 8$ 5'. +.ned 1y a notary or some ot)er 2udicial officer t)at can administer oat)s. C(. ( statement *)ic) 1efore 1ein. 18'. GR "151. confirmed 1y oat) of t)e +arty makin. <)at *)ic) is e7uita1le and ri. 1 " . . 1"% 3CR( $! '. 18'. +.ainst t)e la*.uila v. It is also si.)t to re+urc)ase. [Du)aime:s Le. <)e airs+ace a1ove t)e terrestrial domain and t)e maritime and fluvial domain of t)e state. Aequum et bonum est le% legum. +. mistake. It serves as t)e 2urisdictional 1asis for t)e court to entertain a +etition for relief. [=orenoEs La* Dict. <)e +erson *)o makes and su1scri1es an affidavit. 4%%5'. [Cruz.. [(. Aequetas nunquam contravenit legis.. [9or2a v.)t is t)e la* of la*s. as t)e case may 1e. GR !""8. 4%%% . 1 1'.ards not t)e form 1ut t)e su1stance of t)e act. .nin.ned. [=orenoEs La* Dict. counsel on +romotional cam+ai. 4%%% . Fct. (n affidavit s)o*in. 1. 4. =ay &. t)e +etitioner:s . Affidavit.d. Aequitas non facit (us$ sed (uri au%iliatur. Aequitas rem ipsam intuetur de forma et circumstantiis minus an%ia.d.reat *ei. accident.al <erms -6ro-3e.. true.es fre7uently acce+t an affidavit instead of t)e testimony of t)e *itness.rams t)rou. t)e affidavit *as under oat) *)en doin..ns or +ro. Lat. Aequitas sequitur legem. Lat.al Dict.7uity re. ..d. [Glossary of Le.. [Garcia v.ood and su1stantial cause of action or defense. 18'. si. 5. so.) any medium for and in 1e)alf of any advertiser. <)ese documents carry . Lat. 4%%5'. Intl. C(. Affidavit of consolidation of ownership.7uity is not a++lied a. . or +rinted declaration of facts.. "8'.7uity does not make t)e la*. +.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. to t)e effect t)at t)e +erson si. ( voluntary. Lat. [(rt.nin. t)e fraud.d..7uity follo*s t)e la*. C(.. 4%%5'. 1 1'.

4%%5'. La*. [(rts. e0+ressly or im+liedly. !. Afflictive penalties. 1.d. +.le of as an alternative +enalty. <)e affirmative defenses include fraud. Affreightment contract. (n affiliation e0ists 1et*een a )oldin.ation of ne* matter *)ic).34 Affiliated corporation. or self-defense mi. *)et)er im+osed as a sin. 4%%5'. [6aras. or 1ein.ement or 1y a lon. -ans*er. Affirmation. 6enal Code> Reclusion +er+etua.ram 1eneficiaries and a++ro+riate financin.)t include contri1utory ne. Cor+. ( solemn and formal declaration t)at an affidavit is true. Conflict of La*s.. or +arent com+any and its su1sidiary. reclusion tem+oral. former recovery. *)ic) e0ceeds ". Qo)ler. <)e most reasona1le +rice of land and s)elter 1ased on t)e needs and financial ca+a1ility of 6ro. ille. o*ned 1y common mana.)t 1e used. disc)ar. release +ayment.ality.al <erms -6ro3e. t)e material alle. and all ot)er matter 1y *ay of confession and avoidance. 4!-4". 4. 1. [3ec.e in 1ankru+tcy. (n alle. are afflictive +enalties under t)e Rev. 6)il. relatin. ( Dict. [De Leon. statute of limitations. +. <)e connection e0istin. affirmative defenses mi. in criminal cases insanity. 5%. Com+are *it) &onsanguinity. [Glossary of Le.. sc)emes. *ould nevert)eless +revent or 1ar recovery 1y t)e +laintiff. R( 848 '. Com+are *it) Negative defense. 4%%5'.%%% +esos. $.. statute of frauds.al <erms -6ro-3e. ( cor+oration related to anot)er 1y o*nin. +. RoC'. [Glossary of Le. +er+etual or tem+orary s+ecial dis7ualification. 1 & .li.ations of t)e com+laint. *)ile admittin.al <erms -6ro-3e. Affinity. R6C'. t)e *ord means t)at t)e decision of t)e trial court is correct. a ne* matter as a defense to t)e com+laint. -1 ". $%&'. <)e follo*in.-term lease of its +ro+erties or ot)er control device.d. and fine. 1et*een eac) of t)e married +ersons and t)e kindred of t)e ot)er. [Glossary of Le.e. Affordable cost. Affirmed. Rule ". <)is is su1stituted for an oat) in certain cases. In t)e +ractice of a++ellate courts. Rem. [3ec. or 1et*een t*o cor+orations o*ned or controlled 1y a t)ird. (nnotated.. citin. duress. Code of t)e 6)il.. in conse7uence of a marria.. 4"'. &t) . +er+etual or tem+orary a1solute dis7ualification. 1 8! . for (ccountants.d. ( defense raised in a res+onsive +leadin.ence or esto++ed in civil actions. ( contract 1y *)ic) t)e o*ner of a s)i+ or ot)er vessel lets t)e *)ole or a +art of )er to a merc)ant or ot)er +erson for t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +rision mayor. esto++el. Affirmative defense.

Dol. $!.overnment. [#urado. Agama Arbitration &ouncil. 4%%1-4%%"'. 1. 1oard. 1&"&. A fortiori.. conflicts 1et*een t)em. commission. called t)e a. [(rt. citin. <)e term refers to t)e date of +resentment for acce+tance to t)e dra*ee of t)e ne. 6D 1%&$ -Code of =uslim 6ersonal La*s of t)e 6)ili++ines..'. $rd Rev. $1. GR 1%1!%$. (. -a.. =ore effective. Agency. Com+ilation of @otes. t)e +ro+erties dis+osed of. -4%%!.otia1le instrument. 8.reater reason. 3e+. institute. La*.otia1le instrument. *it) .35 conveyance of . for t)e carria. After sight.e of .)t. Comments C #uris+. After-acquired property. [Claridades. in consideration of t)e +ayment of frei.oods. and .d. C(. Agency contract. 4. on 3uccession. as a rule. +. CC'. city or munici+al . *)et)er +erformin. unless it s)ould e0+ressly a++ear in t)e *ill itself t)at suc) *as t)e intention of t)e testator. as *ell as +rovincial. aut)orizes anot)er. $. [Claridades. cor+oration. on a +articular voya.al Dict. administration.e. or -1. included amon. 4%%1-4%%"'. C)an. After-cataract. (. committee. 1!.oods.. called t)e +rinci+al.. I. t)e interval 1et*een t)e e0ecution of t)e *ill and t)e deat) of t)e testator *)ic) are not.enerally takes t)e form eit)er of a c)arter +arty or a 1ill of ladin. 1 $. or any ot)er unit of t)e @ational Government. (rt. [Rallos v. 58%'. (n a. GR L-45$$4. <)e term refers to t)e date of issuance of t)e ne. GR 85 8&. 9ouvier:s La* Dict. Agency coupled with an interest. 6D &%8'. to act for and in )is 1e)alf on transactions *it) t)ird +ersons. (ny 1ureau. . ( contract *)ere1y a +erson 1inds )imself to render some service or to do somet)in. Civ. 8 5. +. one Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 & '. ( contract *it) t)e s)i+ o*ner to )ire )is s)i+ or +art of it. [6lanters 6roducts v. Com+ilation of @otes. 1 1 &t) . [3ec. ( relations)i+ 1et*een t*o +arties *)ere1y one +arty. citin. 6ro+erty ac7uired durin. office. [=arket Develo+ers v.ency created not only for t)e interest of t)e +rinci+al 1ut also for t)e interest of a t)ird +erson. Civ. After date.. #an. [La*Info Le.'. 3e+. ( 1ody com+osed of t)e C)airman and a re+resentative of eac) of t)e +arties to constitute a council to take all necessary ste+s for resolvin. I(C. 1 8&'. *it) t)e consent or aut)ority of t)e latter.overnmental or +ro+rietary function. in re+resentation or on 1e)alf of anot)er. CC'. 4. &. 3erv.ent. La*. [(rt. 3ee )econdary cataract.

[Diaz. 4%%% . (lso. <)e len. Agente de negocios. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ainin. 1!8'. (ny of t)e various units of t)e Government. in re+resentation or on 1e)alf of anot)er..ent. t)at ot)er +erson as if )e *ere )imself makin.36 created for t)e mutual interest of 1ot) t)e +rinci+al and t)e a.d. 181'. [3ec. Aggravated illegal possession of firearm.ed *it) t)e maintenance of +u1lic order and t)e +rotection and security of life and +ro+erty. office. Agency to sell. 1!4. AC. La1or.ay leader and any +erson *)o comes to t)e aid of +ersons in aut)ority. 1&-1 '.)teen years. 1. 3+.reement under *)ic) em+loyees *)o do not 2oin t)e union must +ay dues as a condition of em+loyment to )el+ defray t)e union e0+enses as a 1ar. suc) as a 1arrio councilman. is c)ar.d.ated to return t)em to t)e latter if ever )e is una1le to sell t)em. [(rt. <)e use of unlicensed firearm in t)e commission of )omicide or murder *)ic) a. a.ent is referred to as t)e +rinci+al. La1or Rel. La* Rev. instrumentality. 1y t)e contract of a. La*.oods from anot)er is o1li.ent. Age of ma(ority. 1y direct +rovision of la* or 1y election or 1y a++ointment 1y com+etent aut)ority. ( +erson *)o )as received t)e +o*er to act on 1e)alf of anot)er. +. or a local .d. Age of gestation. Agency shop.overnmento*ned or controlled cor+oration. Agent of a person in authority. (n a. . 3ee :usiness agent. re+resented 1y t)e a. +. as amended 1y 6D 4 and 96 &8$'. Agent.d. [6o7uiz. +.e of ei. 4. 4. ( +erson *)o. [3ec. *it) t)e consent or aut)ority of t)e latter.t) of time t)e fetus is inside t)e mot)er:s *om1. 4$5. a. t)e decisions. ( +erson *)o. ( contract *)ere1y a +erson *)o received . <)e +erson *)o is 1ein.. Agency of the government. R6C. 1&"&. $.. CC'. 1indin. 1 '.al Dict.ravates t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. It commences at t)e a. 4%%5'.a(ority. 1inds )imself to render some service or to do somet)in.in. [Du)aime:s Le. [=orenoEs La* Dict. or . 3+. [(rt. 1 . includin...rou+ or all t)e em+loyees. as amended 1y R( "&% '. ++. [(rt.ent for t)e . Agente administrador. =ana. R( 8"%%'. 9us.. 4%%% .. Code of 1 &8'. 1 1 . 1ureau. (dmin.overnment or a distinct unit t)erein. 1arrio +oliceman and 1aran.ency. 3ee also *epresentative. a de+artment. <)is is ot)er*ise kno* as t)e Ianti-free riderJ or I)itc))ikerJ clause in t)e C9(.

*)ic) *ill allo* 1eneficiaries to receive a 2ust s)are of t)e fruits of t)e lands t)ey *ork.. ste*ards)i+ or ot)er*ise. re.. or seekin.nty. R( &5$!'. La* Revie*er..riculture. *)et)er lease)old. and t)e distri1ution of s)ares of stock. electricity on a .otiatin. +. Intl.reater +erversity of t)e offender as s)o*n 1y t)e motivatin. en. t)e ma0imum +rovided 1y la* 1ecause of t)e . maintainin.a. Com+are *it) . to tenurial Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ainst t)e soverei.uous 1aran.d.. R( ""!8'.e terms or conditions of suc) tenurial arran. farm*orkers: associations or re+resentation of +ersons in ne.d. la1or administration. to arran..ay at t)e minimum or a cluster of conti. Resolution of t)e G@ Gen. irres+ective of tenurial arran. [Gre. over lands devoted to a. Agrarian dispute. <)e use of armed force 1y a state a.itigating circumstances.ed in consolidatin. and resellin.ays *)ere t)ere is a critical mass of farmers or farm *orkers and *)ic) features t)e main t)rust of a. )eavily ca+ital Calin.in. +o*er of t)e commission of t)e crime. Dec. [3ec. Agrarian reform community 2A*&3.ned to lift t)e economic status of t)e 1eneficiaries and all ot)er arran. =ay &.rarian develo+ment> land tenure im+rovement and effective delivery of su++ort services. [6eo+le v.rity or +olitical inde+endence of anot)er state or in any ot)er manner inconsistent *it) t)e G@ C)arter. to include t)e totality of factors and su++ort services desi. Agrarian reform. Com+are *it) )imple possession of firearm. !%.. tenancy. of Crim. Aggregator. ( 1aran. R( ""!8'. electric +o*er demand of end-users in t)e contesta1le market. $.ardless of cro+s or fruits +roduced. !4'. [3ec. t)e time and +lace of its commission. t)e means em+loyed or t)e +ersonal circumstances of t)e offender. +. Aund. $. La*. 1 " .ements alternative to t)e +)ysical redistri1ution of lands. [Cruz. fi0in. ( +erson or entity. 1 4'. La* t) Rev. Aggravating circumstances. 15.rou+ 1asis. 1 85'. Redistri1ution of land.. 1 8 . GR 58&5. includin. dis+utes concernin. illegal arran.orio.. suc) as +roduction or +rofits)arin.ular farm*orkers *)o are landless.ements. c)an. [3ec. 5. (ny controversy relatin. for t)e +ur+ose of +urc)asin. 5. to farmers and re.ement. <)ose circumstances t)at serve to increase t)e +enalty *it)out e0ceedin. (ssem1ly. R( 1$"'. citin. Intl. [3ec. Aggression..ements.3 crime and makes it more +unis)ed *it) t)e +unis)ment. territorial inte.

<)e terms are used interc)an. t)e manufacturin. 4%%14%%"'. and/or +roduction of a. Agricultural enterprise. seeds. farm e7ui+ment and mac)inery.. [=indanao <erminal C 9rokera. a +ro+osed di+lomatic re+resentative of t)e sendin. to. state re. 4. (. (ny 1usiness activity involvin.ea1ly and refer to an instrument of a more limited su12ect and of lesser im+ortance t)an a formal treaty or convention.ineers..o. =ay !. La*. La*. e0cludin. 5.riculture as an industry and as a field of science. to.ricultural en.. 4%%5'.ument. [3ec. ( comin. GR 111&% . It is only *)en t)e receivin. Intl. $. R( " 88. state. [Cruz. Aor t)e sake of ar. [#uristEs Le.d.rarian Reform La* -C(RL. 1 8 .istration 1y t)e 9oard of (. Intl. +rocessin. R( &!! '. [3ec.ricultural commodities.ineerin. activity. <)e +ractice no* o1served 1y most states 1y means of *)ic) in7uiries are addressed to t)e receivin. Agriculture. Agreement$ arrangement or accord. Intl.n. <)e +rofession re7uirin. Lat. A gratis argumentis. farm level a..et)er in accord of t*o minds on a .ricultural . ( natural +erson *)o )as 1een issued a certificate of re. Intl. &$'.. as amended'. 3ee Agricultural engineer. of a. t)e comin. 1 " .et)er of minds. t)e a++lication of t)e fundamental and kno*n +rinci+les of en.. R( &!! '. 9lack:s La* Dict.d. Agricultural engineering$ practice of. and )as taken t)e oat) of +rofession of a. [3ec.. 6roduction or ot)er ty+es of loans used for t)e ac7uisition of *ork animals. Agreement. [3ec. fertilizers. La* Revie*er. Com+ilation of @otes. "4 -!t) . -1 &.iven +ro+osition. to t)e +eculiar condition and re7uirements of a. +. $.. 1 8. $rd . 5 4'. construction or ac7uisition of facilities for t)e +roduction and effective merc)andisin. (lso enterprise.'.d. La*. [Co7uia and 3antia. citin.al Dict. (lso 3ee Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ineerin. +. Agricultural activity.3! Agrarian reform credit. Agreation. 5. R( 8"%8'. ac7uisition of lands aut)orized under t)e Com+re)ensive (.ardin. [Claridades. 1. Agri-business activity. =utual consent. Agricultural Agricultural Agriculture.ricultural +roduce. +oultry and livestock feeds and ot)er similar items. Confesor.ricultural/cro+ +roduction. state manifests its agrement or consent t)at t)e di+lomatic re+resentative is a++ointed and formally accredited.e 3ervices v.

1 %.ar cane. It is distin. [3ec.. R( $&55'. +lantin.ricultural land to non-a. +. inland fis)ery. or le.ricultural activity and not classified as mineral. . 3ec. of trees. Agricultural lessor. 1 &".ricultural uses.. o+erations 1y +ersons *)et)er natural or 2uridical and not classified 1y la* as mineral land. and ot)er farm activities and +ractices +erformed in con2unction *it) suc) farmin. Agricultural land$ premature conversion of. $%'. [3ec. and cost-effective a. 4. citin.in. <)e +rocess of c)an. CF@CF=. R( &5$!'.uis)ed from civil lessee as understood in t)e Civil Code of t)e 6)ili++ines. or to +asturin. [3ec. or +ossessed 1y.ricultural lands and do not include commercial. t)e results of *)ic) modify or alter t)e +)ysical c)aracteristics of t)e a. raisin. R( ""!8'. 3ee )hare tenancy relationship. Agricultural lease relationship.ricultural +ur+oses. residential land. civil la* lessee. Land devoted to a. coconut. Agricultural lessee. residential. [3ec. 1"". corn. [3ec. Agricultural mechani ation. includin. 8 (u. *it)out an a++roved order of conversion from t)e D(R.. R( $&55'. 5. 1"". commercial land. of t)e D(R. 5. III. Record. includin. Agricultural lands. 5. fis) or a7uaculture +roduction. Lands *)ic) are ara1le and suita1le a. 1y )imself and *it) t)e aid availa1le from *it)in )is immediate farm )ouse)old. Agricultural land use conversion. and ot)er a. ( +erson *)o. [3ec. su. 1. lets or .in. Dol. t)e )arvestin. tim1erlands and forest lands.ro*in. 5 Dec. GR &"&& . etc.ricultural lands to render t)em suita1le for non-a. to. cultivates t)e land 1elon.rants to anot)er t)e cultivation and use of )is land for a +rice certain. Lands devoted to or suita1le for t)e cultivation of t)e soil.. 6D 5"5'. of livestock. of suc) farm +roducts. <)e undertakin. salt makin. t)e use of a. +oultry. natural or 2uridical. ( +erson. manufacture and a++lication of a++ro+riate location-s+ecific. 1. [Luz Aarms v. 4. forest land. of any develo+ment activity. of cro+s. $. [3ec. ado+tion. R( &5$!'. <)e develo+ment... $ -c. dairyin. Land devoted +rinci+ally to t)e raisin. for a +rice certain in money or in +roduce or 1ot).3" Agricultural land.al +ossessor. industrial and residential lands. R( &5$!'.ricultural Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ricultural uses. 1 4 3CR( !1. *)o. of cro+s suc) as rice. usufructuary. to1acco. or industrial land. anot)er *it) t)e latter:s consent for +ur+oses of +roduction. forest. eit)er as o*ner. commercial or industrial land.

anot)er for t)e +ur+ose of +roduction t)rou.arcane. ve. flo*ers. distri1ution. +rovidin. fruits. R( 1 entitled I(n (ct to . to1acco. e0)i1ition or dis+osition of a. trans+ortation. or fis). $. electrical and ot)er non-conventional sources of ener. ( s+ecific commodity under C)a+ter 1 to 45 of t)e Larmonized 3ystem -L3. su. coconuts.overn t)e relations 1et*een land)olders and tenants of a. 5.ed in t)e cultivation of t)e soil. of t)e Commodity Classification as used in t)e <ariff and Customs Code of t)e 6)ili++ines. <)e +)ysical +ossession 1y a +erson of land devoted to a.inal form or not.ricultural. R( 11 '. and marketin.) t)e la1or of t)e former and of t)e mem1ers of )is immediate farm )ouse)old. of suc) farm +roducts. Agricultural <enancy Act of the #hilippines. +oultry.ronomic conditions and for efficient and economic farm mana. [3ec. R( $&55'. and ot)er farm activities and +ractices. R( &&%%'. 1 !5. Agricultural year.y usin. of cro+s. [(rt. feed and as ra* materials. Agricultural production. 1$1. 5. (ny +erson *)o. Agricultural sector. manufacture. t)e +re+aration of t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .eta1les. 4. ordinary salt. 4.ricultural +roduction and +ost-)arvest o+erations consistent *it) a. +oultry. includin. rice. livestock and fis)eries for food. 5. [3ec. mec)anical.ement. 6D 4%$4'. a +articular a.ement. )arvest. or in 1ot).riculture 1elon..ricultural lands -lease)olds and s)are tenancy. suc) as corn. ca+ital and mana. raisin. R( &5$!'.J enacted on (u.ally +ossessed 1y. R( 8$ 5'. . and livestock and animal +roducts. animal.a. of livestock. marketin. )uman.rees to s)are t)e )arvest *it) t)e latter. +ersonally cultivates )is o*n land *it) t)e aid of )is immediate family and )ouse)old. *)et)er in t)eir ori.4# tec)nolo.e. <)e sector en. 5.ro*in. . or le. <)e yield of t)e soil. +rocessin. and rearin. includin. Agricultural product. in consideration of *)ic) t)e former a. 1. eit)er in +roduce or in money. *)eat.ro*in. +lantin. R( 81"%'.. of cro+s. [3ec. [3ec. [3ec. Raisin. ( +ur+ose related to t)e +roduction.. Agricultural owner-cultivator. and t)eir 1y+roducts.y for a. of fruit trees. t)e )arvestin. 1. <)e +eriod of time re7uired for raisin. stora.in.. 1"". to. [3ec. $%. Agricultural purpose. all kinds of fis). or to +ay a +rice certain or ascertaina1le. rye. Agricultural tenancy. )ay. R( &5$!'. root cro+s.ricultural +roduct. [3ec. fis)ery or marine +roducts.

. ur. Agriculture. t)e a. often.lo1alization t)rou. *)enever a++lica1le.oderni ation Act of +. R( ""!8'.riculture and fis)eries sectors into one t)at is dynamic. R( $&55'. tilla. [Be1ster:s Intl. LC'. )o*ever. .ricultural year s)all 1e t)e +eriod from t)e +re+aration of t)e land to t)e first )arvest and t)ereafter from )arvest to )arvest. o+erations done 1y +erson *)et)er natural or 2uridical.8. +lantin. tec)nolo. +lantin. [(rt. so*in.ent related measures to modernize t)e a.e. farmin. [3ec. t)res)in. R( &5$!'. dairyin.er t)an a calendar year. +oultry or fis). t)e raisin. of su. -1 !5. <)e cultivation of t)e soil. $.ro*in. . and any +ractices +erformed 1y a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in con2unction *it) suc) farmin. Agriculture. includin. funds t)erefor and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Dec. )us1andry.. of cro+s and. 4. and mana.) an ade7uate. a1aca. t)e . Dict. 1 8. 1"".e of soil. of livestock or +oultry. in all its 1ranc)es and amon. t)e +roduction. and )arvestin. [3ec. Agriculture and 4isheries . to1acco. ! [c'. of cro+s. t)e +eriod may 1e s)orter or lon. also. 1reedin. of any a.ro*in. t)e cro+.41 land. [3ec. R( &5$! entitled I(n (ct +rescri1in.uided 1y t)e sound +ractices of sustaina1ility and t)e +rinci+les of social 2ustice. and t)e so*in. cultivation. 5. cro+s.riculture and fis)eries sectors of t)e country in order to en)ance t)eir +rofita1ility.. 4. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . t)e )arvestin. focused and rational delivery of necessary su++ort services. <)e art or science of cultivatin.ricultural +roducts. includin. and )arvestin.s includes t)e cultivation and tilla. of fruit trees. of suc) farm +roducts.es of . and ot)er farm activities and +ractices +erformed 1y a farmer in con2unction *it) suc) farmin. and )arvestin.ricultural and )orticultural commodities..'. In 1ot) cases.. +inea++les or ot)er farm +roducts.ically advanced and com+etitive yet centered on )uman develo+ment. +lantin. of seasonal a.ar.d. R( 11 '. and )arvestin.ement of livestock. o+erations. <)at in case of cro+s yieldin.round and raisin. 44. [3ec. of livestock. a++ro+riatin.. or +rocessin. <)e +rocess of transformin. and +re+are said sectors for t)e c)allen. 4nd .. coconuts. more t)an one )arvest from +lantin. 1ut does not include t)e manufacturin. includin... ot)er t)in. (lso Agricultural enterprise or Agricultural activity. a. Agriculture and fisheries moderni ation. 1. feedin. of said cro+s> 6rovided. 8. t)e +re+aration of t)e land. <)e +eriod of time necessary for t)e raisin. Aarmin. raisin.

$. R( 88"'. +.ements. to )el+. in aid of t)e Government. 9lack:s La* Dict. or ac7uirin. or +rotectin. [Co7uia and 3antia. Airconditioning equipment. direct e0+ansion or c)illed *ater systems. +.. $. Air carrier.J ( di+lomatic corres+ondence consistin.e ty+e -air-cooled and *ater-cooled. -1 &. +)armaceuticals and ot)er industrial +roducts.. sealed. air1lo*ers.a. Aid and abet. *)et)er directly or indirectly. 6D 1!84'. 6enal Code. &"'. a1ettin.42 Agro-processing activities. a 1and of 1ri. t)e +ro+erty taken 1y suc) 1ri. or .ly. [Gatc)alian v. systems. t)e navi.. or a1sor+tion ty+e. semisealed and o+en ty+e refri. 1. 44. Fct.ands. or intentionally assist anot)er +erson in t)e commission or attem+ted commission of a crime. 5. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o kno*in. to*ers. R6C'. Aid.ation of aircraft from one +lace to anot)er for o+eration in t)e conduct of a 1usiness.t)en or to act in coo+eration *it).ation of aircraft in furt)erance of a 1usiness. [(rt. coolin. [3ec. scre*.al <erms -6ro3e. airconditioners *)ose +rime mover may 1e steam.. [3ec. or receivin.d. $rd . airconditioners for all ty+es of ve)icles. )umidity. of a 1rief summary of oral re+resentations already made. ( +erson *)o undertakes. ventilators air )andlin. +urity. rotary. <o su++ort. $%" of t)e Rev. t)e sun and any ot)er source of +o*er. [Glossary of Le. receivers. commercial and industrial airconditionin. s+lit and unitary +acka..ricultural and fis)ery +roducts into semi+rocessed or finis)ed +roducts *)ic) include materials for t)e manufacture of food and/or nonfood +roducts. electric or +neumatic controls. Intl. GR L-$4!"%-"1. and environment suc) as room. 5 4'.d. Air commerce. Crim. R( &5$!'. <)e +rocessin. La*.ivin.ands as descri1ed in t)e (rt. (ir trans+ortation for +ay or )ire. of ra* a.7ui+ment for t)e control of tem+erature. to en. 4%%5'.erant com+ressor of t)e reci+rocatin. to assist or to stren. electricity. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ly and in any manner aidin. Literally means Iaid to memory. Aide-memoire. or t)e navi.o.al. or 1y a lease or any ot)er arran. kno*in. Aiding and abetting a band of brigands. R( 88"'. <o actively. 1 8%. $rd . [3ec. citin. La*. t)em information of t)e movements of t)e +olice or ot)er +eace officers of t)e Government. . *)en t)e latter are actin. condensers. units. Comelec. centrifu. [3ec.e in air trans+ortation or air commerce. $%8. and eva+orator coils.

Air transportation. 3ee =i(acking. [3ec. smoke. solid +articles of any kind.. R( 88"'. (n instrument issued 1y an air carrier to a s)i++er t)at serves as a recei+t for . (ny contrivance no* kno*n or )ereafter invented.nated or a++roved 1y t)e Civil (eronautics (dministrator as suita1le for air commerce or air trans+ortation.ned for use in. (ny individual *)o en. under its 2urisdiction. undesira1le . fli.. soot.ine. a++urtenances.uidin. *eat)er information. and any individual *)o serves in t)e ca+acity of aircraft dis+atc)er or air-traffic control o+erator. used.e of +ersons.)t in. La* Dict. or controllin. [3ec. Airspace. over)aulin. fumes and o1no0ious odors. or mail. (ny facility used in.oods. <)e s+ace a1ove a state and comin. Aircraft piracy. [Intl.. [Intl. Air waybill. $. $. 1y aircraft.ases.. mec)anic. Airway. $. La* Dict. includin. in t)e navi. [3ec. C Direct.ation of. and accessories t)ereof ot)er t)an +ro+ellers. Airman. ( +at) t)ru t)e navi. (ny )armful or undesira1le matter emitted in t)e atmos+)ere.)ts. and any ot)er structure or mec)anism )avin.e. R( 88"'.)t in t)e air or t)e landin. [3ec.ned for navi. [3ec. or re+air of aircraft. $. availa1le for used in. Air navigation facility. $.e of ins+ection. fli. R( 88"'. +ro+ellers. or desi. a similar +ur+ose for . 1ut is not a document of title for t)e . 3ervice or carria.es. in *)ole or in +art. 6D 11&1'. Aircraft radio station.a1le air s+ace identified 1y an area of s+ecified *idt) on t)e surface of t)e eart) desi.)t radio o+erator or mem1er of t)e cre*. [3ec. Airwolf. includin. and any individual *)o is directly in c)ar. [3ec. maintenance. $. or desi. Aircraft engine. for si.ine used or intended to 1e used for +ro+ulsion of aircraft and includes all +arts.43 Aircraft. ( radio station on 1oard any aircraft. 4%%5'. R( 88"'. or for radio or ot)er electrical communication. 4. t)e air. ( kind of sky rocket s)a+ed like an air+lane *it) a Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $. 4%%5'. or a++liances. (n en. R( 88"'. areas.nalin. for radio-directional findin. any a++aratus or e7ui+ment for disseminatin.. R( 88"'. aid of air navi. or fli. R( 88"'. and take-off of aircraft.ation. as t)e +erson in command or as +ilot.oods and as evidence of t)e contract of carria.ation of aircraft *)ile under *ay. aircraft en. li.a. C Direct. [3ec. +ro+erty. Air pollutant.

ation +ur+oses. is at once effective u+on its +erfection alt)ou. Aleatory contract. CC'. any +erson *)o. (1o. +ractice and in accordance *it) aerodynamic la*s and aircraft science.a. $. Alarms and scandals. ( contract *)ic). +. s)all disc)ar. offensive to anot)er or +re2udicial to +u1lic tran7uility. [3ec. ( contract *)ere1y one of t)e +arties or 1ot) reci+rocally 1ind t)emselves to . 4. in consideration of *)at t)e ot)er s)all . and re+ealin. of an event *)ic) is uncertain.. or ot)er e0+losives calculated to cause alarm or dan. and are safe for air navi. any +erson *)o *it)in any to*n or +u1lic +lace. [3ec. 4.d.ive or to do somet)in.. R6C'. 1usiness. firecracker. [(rt. for t)e 1 & c)arter of t)e (l-(mana) Islamic Investment 9ank of <)e 6)ili++ines.er. <)e felony committed 1y> -a. La*. +ro+ellers. are of +ro+er desi. feet and +rovide various kinds of li. La*.n and construction. s)all distur1 t)e +u1lic +eace. 4". aut)orizin. +rovided t)at t)e circumstances of t)e case s)all not make t)e +rovisions of (rt. -1. GR 1%84$!. =ar. ( diseased condition caused 1y t)e e0cessive use of alco)olic li7uors.44 +ro+eller to rise a1out forty -5%.ineerin. its conduct of Islamic 1ankin. 4. R( "&5& entitled I(n (ct +rovidin. R( 81&$'. Crim.ines. <a. Civ. 1 5'.ive or do u+on t)e )a++enin. *)ile into0icated or ot)er*ise. any +erson *)o.e any firearm. t)e 6)ili++ine (mana) 9ank. or -d.)t *)ile aloft. suc) desi. Muack doctor. Al-Amanah 1slamic 1nvestment :ank of the #hilippines$ <he &harter of the.. or fifty -!%. R( 88"'. Airworthiness. consistent *it) acce+ted en. [6eo+le v. or *)ic) is to occur at an indeterminate time.)t or *)ile en. <)e term means t)at an aircraft.ed in any ot)er nocturnal amusements. 4%1%. rocket. 1!!. 4%%% . 4$'. its en. a1out at ni. *)ile *anderin. s)all cause any distur1ance or scandal in +u1lic +laces. for t)is +ur+ose 6residential Decree @um1ered <*o Lundred and 3i0ty-Aour as amended 1y 6residential Decree @um1ered Aive Lundred and Aorty-<*o -creatin. e0cessive or com+ulsive use of alco)olic drink. 6enal Code a++lica1le. Alcoholism. [(rt.n and construction 1ein.reement *)ose efficacy is de+endent on stated conditions. Continued. unlike a conditional a. -c. 1!$ of t)e Rev. 1. 1 %.) t)e occurrence of a condition or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ate or take an active +art in any c)arivari or ot)er disorderly meetin.J enacted on #an. [=orenoEs La* Dict. Albularyo. and ot)er com+onents and accessories. any +erson *)o s)all insti.

<)e +lea of )avin. Rule 15. Fne issued after t)e first )as 1een returned *it)out )avin.d. 1%18 -1 "%.uilty +arty. La*.. or if it )as 1een lost. -1 &$. 81'. [@a+ocor v. (1r. Ft)er summons issued t)e clerk. C(. ( second or furt)er *rit.ations t)ereunder. in t)e same form as t)e ori. !&8. met)ods. means. <)e doctrine enunciated in t)e leadin. +. case of (lfonso v.. C(. Rem.d. Alias. 9lack:s La* Dict. ( defense t)at +laces t)e defendant at t)e relevant time of t)e crime in a different +lace t)an t)e scene involved and so removed t)erefrom as to render it im+ossi1le for )im to 1e t)e . Alias subpoena.. La*. 6asay [1%" 6)il.. 45" 3CR( 81!. [9lackEs La* Dict. !t) . 5.. R6C'. from any defense t)e in2ured +arty mi.k. La*.inal summons. Crim. in case t)e latter is returned *it)out 1ein.d. or forms in t)e e0ecution t)ereof *)ic) tend to directly and s+ecially insure it *it)out risk to t)e +erson of t)e criminal. (1r. #une 44. Alibi. !t) . Alias writ. F0iles. [9lackEs La* Dict. $8'. La*. 1een else*)ere t)an at t)e scene of t)e crime at t)e time of t)e commission of t)e felony.a. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. [G3 v. (co1. GR 11 "!!. $8'. 3)ort for Ialias dictusJ. "t) . GR L-!"$8&. t)at )e *as at some ot)er +lace for suc) a +eriod of time -1. =ay 45. Alfonso doctrine. as t)e case may re7uire. accom+lis)ed its +ur+ose.. on demand of t)e +laintiff. t)e accused must s)o* -a. Alias writ of e%ecution. 6eo+le v. also kno*n as -a. Rem. arisin.. 84$ -1 !. 4. 9racamonte. [6eo+le v.. -1 &$. +. served on any or all of t)e defendants. -1 &$. 1.. (1r.d. RoC'.)t make. [6eo+le v. (1r. [(rt.d. 1 "'. Re7uisites> <o esta1lis) it. Fne issued after t)e first )as 1een returned *it)out accom+lis)in. citin. 4% 6)il. Alibi..45 event may later dictate t)e demanda1ility of certain o1li. [3ec. #une 18. <erm used to indicate anot)er name 1y *)ic) a +erson is kno*n. $"'. 6alomos. Rem. t)e 1asis s)ould 1e t)e +rice or value at t)e time it *as taken from t)e o*ner and a++ro+riated 1y t)e Government.. +. +. +. 1 "'.. [9lackEs La* Dict. !t) . its +ur+ose. !t) .' t)at to determine due com+ensation for lands a++ro+riated 1y t)e Government. 1 &5'. Alevosia. Alias summons. It e0ists *)en t)e cul+rit commits t)e crime 1y em+loyin. $8'. [9lackEs La* Dict. [<i1ay v. -1 &$. La*. t)at it *as im+ossi1le for )im to )ave 1een at t)e +lace *)ere t)e crime *as committed at t)e time of its commission. 1%. <reac)ery. Rem. GR ! $ .

( voluntary conveyance of +ro+erty. or ot)er t)in..ration +ro.. 4%%14%%"'. 6D 8%!'. contradictory statements *ill not 1e )eard or considered. Alienist. Aliquot. =ar. Cf. (. a +)ysician *)o s+ecializes in +syc)iatry. citin.. 5%8'. 6eo+le v. Be1ster:s @e* Borld Dict. Resa1al.. [Claridades. [Claridades. (.ive com+letely and *it)out reserve.ram in t)e 6)ili++ines under certain conditionsJ enacted on Ae1. (. citin. Com+ilation of @otes. [Glossary of Le. [6eo+le v. Aractional.s from one +erson to anot)er. Alipin.al residence status to certain aliens t)rou.nr)ardt. In re .3.iven 1y one s+ouse to anot)er *)ile t)ey are se+arated. of t)e (mer. Com+ilation of @otes. Fne *)o treats t)e diseases of t)e mind.1an.C. Alienable and disposable lands. Alimony. 4&. 4%%14%%"'. [=orenoEs La* Dict. (n amount . <)e act 1y *)ic) t)e title to real estate is voluntarily assi.D.46 5 6)il.al Dict. Ae1. [Du)aime:s Le.. 1 1. [Claridades. GR L-4$4!$. #une 4".n-1orn +erson *)o )as not 7ualified as a citizen of t)e country. <o sell or . R( 8 %%.. 3ec. 1 &.. <a. [C)ua v. [3ec.>$ <he.rantin. <)e transfer of t)e +ro+erty and +ossession of lands. [Ro0as v. Alienate. ". 4d 5%".al <erms -6ro-3e. 4%%% . Alimony.al Dict. R( 8 1 entitled I(n (ct . 4%%5'. All. to transfer title to some1ody else.'. 8&%'. 1 " . tenements. 4%%14%%"'. Allegans contraria non est audiendus. Lan. G. GR 445!. (n amount . t)e entire num1er of. 4%%5'. 1 A.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ally se+arated 1ut still *ed locked. 5. <)e *)ole e0tent or 7uantity of. "%1. [Du)aime:s Le. Com+ilation of @otes... 3lave. every one of..d.. $&'. 1 ! . +. 4%%5'. Listorically. C(. Alien )ocial 1ntegration Act of +. 4!'. Dict. Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. Alien..d. Ca1an. le... in t)e form +rescri1ed 1y la*. 1 !. ( forei. 45. Lat. es+ecially real +ro+erty.. !% 6)il.ned 1y one +erson to anot)er and acce+ted 1y t)e latter. Lands of t)e +u1lic domain *)ic) )ave 1een t)e su12ect of t)e +resent system of classification and declared as not needed for forest +ur+oses. t)e *ord referred to monies +aid *)ile s+ouses *ere le. GR 11$" 1. $. +.) a social inte. Alienation. citin. =edina.iven to one s+ouse to anot)er *)ile t)ey are se+arated.

and also access to lots. 4%%5'. on *)ic) to add si. [#urado. 8.islative a++ro+riation.aray.ations *it)in a s+ecified amount. [9akin. Alliance. Ae1. 6D &!'. 1 " '.d. [3ec. ( +iece of +a+er *)ic) )as 1een attac)ed to a contract. as duly aut)orized 1y a Le. to streets.et and =ana. for esta1lis)in. t)at it )as 1een e0ecuted in accordance *it) t)e formalities +rescri1ed 1y la*. Allotments. 1$$'. [Du)aime:s Le.) room on t)e main document. )is term as a convict.d. and t)at t)e testator )ad t)e necessary testamentary ca+acity at t)e time of t)e e0ecution of t)e *ill.natures 1ecause t)ere is not enou. Dir. 8. +. 1ot) end al*ays connectin. GR L-$%$"5. Allowance...rade.. GR 118584. of 6risons. !4 (m #ur 8 8'. t)at t)e instrument offered for +ro1ate is t)e last *ill and testament of t)e testator. Allegiance.. [Du)aime:s Le. ( statement of t)e issues in a *ritten document -a +leadin. for a mutually-+lanned offensive. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al Dict. a +osition to its +ro+er class and salary . +rovidin. Comments and #uris+.ency *)ic) allo* t)e latter to incur o1li. .n in return for t)e +rotection *)ic) t)ey receive. Allowance for good conduct 2for each month of good behavior3. ( +u1lic *ay intended to serve 1ot) +edestrian and emer. [6eo+le v. <)e term refers to . [3ec. *)ic) a +erson is +re+ared to +rove in court. <)e act of assi. (ut)orizations issued 1y t)e De+artment of 9ud.F !1&'. Allocation.nin. 4%%5'. 4!'.ood conduct. 96 44%'.al Dict. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. $. a c)eck or any +romissory note.overnment under *)ic) t)ey live or to t)eir soverei.c)e. <)e o1li. 1 1 &t) . citin. [(rt.ation of fidelity and o1edience *)ic) individuals o*e to t)e . Allonge. +. or for assistance in t)e case of attack on any mem1er. $. #uly 4&. Allowance of wills. ( s+ecial +roceedin.ood 1e)avior of a +risoner *)ile )e is servin. ( 1enefit over and a1ove t)e 1asic salary of an em+loyee. 4%%5'.ency ve)icles.4 Allegation. <)e deductions from t)e +eriod of t)e sentence to *)ic) any +risoner in any +enal institution s)all 1e entitled for . on 3uccession. [Glossary of Le. Alley. ( military treaty 1et*een t*o or more states.al <erms -6ro3e. . v. 1 8. 4%%% . Allowance for good conduct. $. R6C'.ement to an a.. [3ec.. (lso #robate of wills. t)e validity of t)e *ill or for t)e +ur+ose of +rovin.

Co. GR L-1!1"4. to t)e tacit a.. All risks. 3ee Accretion. [(rt. -c. De 6erez v. [Aili+ino =erc)ants Ins. GR &!151. <olete.ical e0+lanation or some mystery surround t)e loss or dama.n country and not in t)e 6)ili++ines. t)e fact t)at t)e forei. t)e due e0ecution of t)e *ill in accordance *it) t)e forei. <)e act 1y virtue of *)ic) a co-o*ner. In addition. +. Alter. Dict. All risks insurance. v. (mer.'. as coverin. Be1ster:s Intl. c)an. t)e 1anks of rivers . 1 & '. or instrument. t)eir *ill.reement of all t)e co-o*ners. 18. in o++osition to t)e common a. Co. 1 "4 citin.. 1&. 1. [3armiento III v. t)e 1anks of t)e rivers and .n la*s. in lar.e to +ro+erty. Dec. too. in t)e a1sence t)ereof. C(. [Cuenco v. Dec. -1.. 1 &8. La*. (n insurance t)e very +ur+ose of *)ic) is to . . GR &!151. 4%%1. *ellni. v.. Be1ster:s Intl. GR L-$14!4. [Claridades. or *it)dra*s it from t)e use to *)ic) t)ey desire to 1e intended. little s)ort of [6)il. "4. e0ce+t as ot)er*ise e0cluded in t)e +olicy. 4nd . any loss ot)er t)an a *illful and fraudulent act of t)e insured.e +art.es t)e t)in.radually received as an effect of t)e current of t)e *aters. t)e testator )as )is domicile in t)e forei.4! Allowance of wills probated abroad.reement. 1 " '. 4&.radually receive from t)e effects of t)e current of t)e *aters and *)ic) 1elon. -d. 4&. 4%%1-4%%"'.e. <o add. Civ. v. Com+ilation of @otes. GR 8 85. All risks policy. <)e accretion *)ic) lands ad2oinin. (lso Alluvium. (. Co. 4. Alteration. 1esides.n tri1unal is a +ro1ate court. Inc.'..).ive +rotection to t)e insured in t)ose cases *)ere difficulties of lo. [Aili+ino =erc)ants Ins. 3oil de+osited to t)e lands ad2oinin. Re+r.d. GR 8"815.. t)e *ill )as 1een admitted to +ro1ate in suc) country. 6ro+erty. @ov. <)e term is . 1 &1 . and violatin.. #une 4. Almost. or due to fraud or intentional misconduct on t)e +art of t)e insured.n country on +rocedure and allo*ance of *ills. as *ell. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. Alluvion. (+r. and -e. c)an.vidence necessary> -a. CC'. 1 5'. It is o*ned 1y t)e ri+arian o*ners. Laya. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .s to t)e o*ners of suc) lands. su1stitute or omit somet)in. C(.d. 1 & '.iven a 1road and com+re)ensive meanin.e.ainst all causes of conceiva1le loss or dama. 44. Also. t)e la*s of a forei. or. Dol. Dru. @early. if t)ere is any. Gna1r. Insurance a. Inc. =ison. [Dda. from t)e state in *)ic) t)e ot)ers 1elieve it s)ould remain. @ov. 5!8. II. Dict. from a +leadin. citin. CIR. [<olentino.

4%%5'. Alternative circumstances. any *ord. +)rase or sentence set fort) t)erein.. 1 " .. or 1y addin. 5!1. Alternat.d. <)e act of addin. In +lain *ords.otiator is allo*ed to si. C Direct. Rule &. t)e contractin. Intl.. 4.ac) )ead of a de+artment is. +rovinces. eit)er in one cause of action or defense or in se+arate causes of action or defenses. 44. <*o or more statements of a claim or defense *)ic) a +arty may set fort) alternatively or )y+ot)etically. [Cruz.natories. La*. R6C'. C)an. Rem. somet)in. Lat. or miti. 4%%5'. Alternative causes of action or defenses. +. Altering boundaries or landmarks. Com+are *it) )poliation. and must 1e. [Intl. to it. RoC'. Dec. su1stitutin. or 1y omittin. c)an. La*..atin. into0ication and t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al <erms -6ro-3e.in. (not)er self. B)en t*o or more statements are made in t)e alternative and one of t)em if made inde+endently *ould 1e sufficient. Alter ego. La* Dict. Alteration or amendment. Alter ego principle. [3ec. a +leadin. to +reserve t)e formal a++earance of e7uality amon. [Glossary of Le.o in t)e matters of t)at de+artment *)ere t)e 6resident is re7uired 1y la* to e0ercise aut)ority. t)e +ur+ose 1ein.nate t)e 1oundaries of t)e same. <)e rule t)at mem1ers of Ca1inet may act for and in 1e)alf of t)e 6resident in certain matters 1ecause t)e 6resident cannot 1e e0+ected to e0ercise )is control -and su+ervisory. In t)e last instance *e )ave t)e case of an amendment 1y addition. or makin. or estates. its commission. t)e 6resident:s alter e. t)e +leadin. Crim. states and to avoid delicate 7uestions of +recedence amon. 5"5 -1 $ . )ome to )is country. 1. its si..ement under *)ic) eac) ne.n first on t)e co+y of t)e treaty *)ic) )e *ill 1rin. "8 6)il. or instrument. <)ey are t)e relations)i+.. La*. +o*ers +ersonally all t)e time. different. . (n alter e. $1$. Intl. from a +leadin. 1 " '. is not made insufficient 1y t)e insufficiency of one or more of t)e alternative statements.'. [Dillena v. or any ot)er marks intended to desi. GR L-$14!4. 3ec. 4. <)ose circumstances *)ic) must 1e taken into consideration as a. [Cuenco v. accordin.o com+any is one t)at is not treated 1y its o*ners as a se+arate entity. or instrument may 1e amended eit)er 1y correctin. La* Revie*er.in. "'. Laya. 1 4'. to t)e nature and effects of t)e crime and t)e ot)er conditions attendin.ravatin.4" +. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all alter t)e 1oundary marks or monuments of to*ns. (n arran. somet)in. [(rt. or omittin. of t)e Interior.

e is t)at it often involves com+romise. met)ods. Alternative learning system. 1 8 t) . ot)ers. [3ec.)t of relief a. Alternative health care modalities. =et)ods include mediation.)t to relief a. mediation. mini-trial. <)ose circumstances t)at are eit)er a. acu+uncture. massa. [3ec.es of (DR are s+eed and money> it costs less and is 7uicker t)an court liti.ency. !4. (DR forums are also +rivate. Alternative dispute resolution 2AD*3..ainst t)e ot)er.orio. citin. 4%%5'. nutritional t)era+y. Rule $. accordin. as defined in R( 4&!. to t)e nature and effects of t)e crime and ot)er conditions attendin.ation. R( &54$'. formal education instruction. (ny +rocess or +rocedure used to resolve a dis+ute or controversy.) one of t*o forms> mediation or ar1itration.. its commission. and ot)er similar met)ods. It encom+asses 1ot) t)e non-formal and informal sources of kno*led. (ny or all of several +ersons a. R6C'. early neutral evaluation. 5.e of a court or an officer of a .. [3ec. <)e met)ods 1y *)ic) le.ation in t)e +u1lic courts. formal trial. t)ou. RoC'. amon.eneration to anot)er. 4. 5. conciliation. 4. 3ome alternative )ealt) care modalities include refle0olo. 1!.5# de.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1.d.y. system to +rovide a via1le alternative to t)e e0istin. [(rt. <)e advanta. $. [Gre. occasionally nonindi. ar1itration. R( 1!!'. Aund. or any com1ination t)ereof.) liti. a dis+ute *it)out a full.al conflicts and dis+utes are resolved +rivately and ot)er t)an t)rou. R6C'.) a ri.enous or im+orted )ealin. 3ettlin. ( +arallel learnin. and settlement. R( 4&!'. Alternative defendants. ot)er t)an 1y ad2udication of a +residin. Alternative dispute resolution 2AD*3 system.atin. [Glossary of Le.ree of instruction and education of t)e offender. La* Rev.e. in *)ic) a neutral t)ird +arty +artici+ates to assist in t)e resolution of issues. (rt.) not necessarily +racticed for centuries nor )anded do*n from one . acu+ressure. <)e disadvanta..ainst *)om t)e +laintiff is entitled to relief and of *)om )e is uncertain may 1e 2oined as defendants in t)e alternative. *)ic) includes ar1itration. c)iro+ractics. It ty+ically involves a +rocess muc) less formal t)an t)e traditional court +rocess and includes t)e a++ointment of a t)ird-+arty to +reside over a )earin.ainst one may 1e inconsistent *it) a ri. Ft)er forms of nonallo+at)ic. 1!. alt)ou. 1$.ravatin. 2ud. or miti. of Crim. usually t)rou. [Du)aime:s Le. conciliation.al Dict.e and skills. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. 4%%5'. [3ec. 1et*een t)e +arties. +.overnment a.

t)ics..amation of different com+anies to form a sin. Com+are *it) 4acultative obligation.. 4%%5'.al and #udicial . Barvelle.eneral rule 1elon. <)e avera. indistinctness or uncertainty of meanin.e atmos+)eric +urity as distin. R( 5% !'. 5t) . of t*o t)in. <)e +roduction and manufacture of aluminum from ore or alumina into one or more 1asic forms suc) as in... to t)e said victim or relatives and offerin. +. 9lack La* Dict. (= $-4-%$8 3C.. citin. and castin.in. 1ars. (n o1li.. Le. @ot to in2ure ot)ers.ainst t)e +erson *)o caused t)e accident. tu1es. 1%!'. 1. *)ic) is not cast in stone. -1 .e measurements taken at t)e source of +ollution. [(rt. !"-!8'. Ambulatory. Alterum non laedere. -1 .et)er to form one suc) as t)e amal. 5. +. liti. [3uarez.s to.d. of a case a. Lat.t)ics.uis)ed from disc)ar. 3tat. s)eets. [6ineda. determined 1y t)e c)oice *)ic) as a . CC'. -1 $.al and #udicial . 1illets.eneral amount of +ollution +resent in a 1road area. dou1leness of meanin. officiously intrudin. 4%%5'..al Dict. ( citizen t)at )as 1een officially asked 1y )is country to live in anot)er country in order to le.al . Ambulance chasing. Le. an am1ulance carryin.atin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . stri+s. 1. +.d. 11 . t)e la*yerEs act of c)asin. Le.ots. suc) as a *ill. Ai. Con. Ambiguity.. +i+es.uratively. 3omet)in.d. 1 !'. Ambulance chaser. ( la*yer *)o )aunts )os+itals and visits t)en )omes of t)e afflicted. (+r.t)ics. [6ineda. [3ec. rods.s.d.. Dou1tfulness. citin. [Du)aime:s Le. Ambient air quality.ation or insti. 4%%5'.ally re+resent it. 4. [In re> #urado.al Dict. [#uan-9autista. ++.al and #udicial . 4%%4 . It is t)e . 6D 11!4'.le com+any.al Dict. Le. t)e victim of an accident for t)e +ur+ose of talkin. '.. [Du)aime:s Le. )is le. )is service on t)e 1asis of a contin.. of an e0+ression used in a *ritten instrument. 5"-58.ed or revoked. Ambassador. 4. Amalgamation. circles.s to t)e de1tor. unnecessary la*suits. section and e0trusions. 1ut t)e +erformance of one of t)em is sufficient. (ny act of im+ro+er solicitation of cases suc) as fomentin. "4.. *)ic) can 1e c)an. +. t)eir +resence and +ersistently offerin.ation *)erein various +restations are due. [Du)aime:s Le.al services for t)e filin. <)e mer.. Alumina smelting and refining. 5"'. ".t)ics. [3ec. +.51 Alternative obligation.ent fee.

1. 1..al Dict. or 1y correctin.. 1%5 3CR( $ -1 &1. 6leadin.al =ed.d. '. <)e amended and clarified decision is an entirely ne* decision *)ic) su+ersedes t)e ori. Amended and clarified (udgment.52 Amend. Lat. 11 3CR( $$$ -1 "5. 4%%14%%"'. for +ermission to intervene in a case in *)ic) t)ey are neit)er +laintiff or defendant. Le.d. [Claridades. out an alle. 1 8 '.ation or descri+tion in any ot)er res+ect.. 158'.ation or t)e name of any +arty. 1 & .'.ment and only after considerin. of Ainance. usually to t)e *ordin.otiated and a. so t)at t)e actual merits of t)e controversy may s+eedily 1e determined. Rule 1%. all t)e factual and le.d.islation.ard to tec)nicalities.. <)e loss of memory of eit)er a recent event or of +ast events as o1served in )ead in2uries. [Du)aime:s Le. 4. Amicus curiae. [=a. La*. usually to +resent t)eir +oint of vie* -or t)at of t)eir or.ive information to t)e 2ud. +.ment rendered 1y t)e lo*er court after )avin. 4%%4 . citin. 9ar associations *)ic) a++ear in court as friends to e0+ound on some matters of la* for t)e information of t)e court. Com+ilation of @otes.dalena . [#uan-9autista.al issues. 11'. [Cruz. +. a mistake in t)e name of a +arty or a mistaken or inade7uate alle. deletion. [Du)aime:s Le. Le.. or strikin. 1st .al =ed. v. GR 11!5!!.. !t) .e. Amnesia.e of t)e instrument. +. Amendment. 3ec.d.. Le. a le.. [<olentino v. in case *)ic) )as t)e +otential of settin. <o c)an. Arom 1ed and 1oard. 4%%5'..t)ics.anization.al and #udicial . or addition.t)ics. ( 2ud.al +recedent in t)eir area of activity. to alter 1y modification.reed u+on resolution of a dis+ute. &'. A mensa et thoro. Romana v. made a t)orou. 9lack:s La* Dict.. Le.state. 4%%4 .) study of t)e ori. Ariend of t)e court. *it)out re. [#uan9autista.d. Lacson. Com+are *it) *evision.e or modify for t)e 1etter. 6ersons askin. Isolated or +iecemeal c)an. and in t)e most e0+editious and ine0+ensive manner. [3ec. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. 1 5. Constl. <o c)an. (u..al Dict. Inc. Amicable settlement. (. 1.e or t)e court on some dou1tful 7uestions of la*.al and #udicial . ( mutually ne. Amended pleadings.s amended 1y addin. ( la*yer *)o volunteers or is re7uested 1y t)e court to a++ear to . 4%%5'. [Flarte.inal 2ud. to revise. -4%%5.. 4!. 4. Amici par e%cellence. Lat. +. RoC'.inal decision. 3ta. Calua. of a *ritten document suc) as le.

*)o )ave offended 1y some 1reac) t)e la* of nations. Fct.n .53 Amnesty.very kind of assistance t)at mana. 96 &'. [6eo+le v.estion of food or drink contaminated 1y feces containin.eneral +ardon to re1els for t)eir treason or ot)er )i. or in a consumer loan t)e amount +aid to. <)ey are t)e first and last dru.rantin. 5. 1 & '. (n infectious disease caused 1y endamoe1a )ystolytica. +. 4. 5.rants to t)e su12ects of anot)er. a +ainful +assa. &. It may 1e due to 1lood loss secondary to t)e +assin. GR %$1.li. (nemia is a condition in *)ic) t)e normal amount of red 1lood cells is reduced. [Gre.eles. in fact and it is for t)is reason t)at t)ey cause states of +syc)ic de+endence. *)o are su12ect to trial 1ut )ave not yet 1een convicted. citin. It commonly denotes a . Ae1. out of 1lood in t)e stool. and is rarely. *ould +roduce 1et*een t)ese conductors a force e7ual to 4 0 1%-8 ne*ton +er metre of len. o1livion or .t). factor. receiva1le 1y or +aid or +aya1le to t)e 1uyer or to anot)er +erson in )is 1e)alf.es less t)e amount of any do*n+ayment *)et)er made in cas) or in +ro+erty traded in. and +laced one metre a+art in vacuum. R( 8$ 5'. of Crim. 2urisdiction. In a consumer credit sale. Amount financed. e0ercised in 1e)alf of a certain class of +ersons.t). $14. [3ierra v. GR !% !5. of im+roved mood R true eu+)oria.iveness *)ic) one soverei. if ever. Genetic influence is a +redis+osin.) +olitical offenses.d. <)e tumor commences in t)e mucous mem1rane and . it constitutes t)e cas) +rice +lus non-finance c)ar. Ample opportunity. G3I3. La* Rev. Aund. of ne. 1 4'. (n. [(rt. [Llamas v. t)e amount of t)e contract or t)e value of t)e +ro+erty su12ect of t)e contract. Balker. Amoebic colitis. 48'. Infection is ac7uired 1y in. if maintained in t*o +arallel conductors of infinite len.radually invades t)e dee+er structures.i1le circular cross-section.eneral +ardon for t)e +ast offense. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1. fre7uently +roducin. Amphetamines. Fr1os. 4%%% . 1 8 t) . GR 4&!%.e of 1loody mucoid stool. amoe1ic cyst. Ampere. #une 1!.n +o*er .s *)ic) cause a su12ective feelin. +.orio. 1"1 G3 "%4'. (n act of t)e soverei. 1!. 3ynt)etic amines *)ic) act *it) a +ronounced stimulant effect on t)e central nervous system... or t)e for. 9ro*n v. 1 1'. Aor +ur+oses of determinin. Amount in controversy..d.ement must accord to t)e em+loyee to ena1le )im to +re+are Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e 1ase unit of electric current *)ic) is t)at constant current *)ic). .. [3ec.

force ma2eure or dis+lacement 1y force. =arine fis)es *)ic) mi. 1ut not limited to. or as a conse7uence of .overnment +ro2ects and ot)er voluntary dealin. 4. +ossessed and utilized 1y individuals. rice terraces or +addies. to Indi.overnment and +rivate individuals/cor+orations. Ae1.) t)eir +redecessors-ininterest. stealt). since time immemorial. social and cultural *elfare. R( &$81'.. ( +leasura1le diversion and entertainment. deceit. Amusement. +. continuously. +astime. 1. or vie*in.s entered into 1y . occu+ied or +ossessed 1y ICCs/I6s. 5. circuses and ot)er +laces of amusement *)ere one seeks admission to entertain oneself 1y seein. $.enous Cultural Communities / Indi. inland *aters. and natural resources t)erein. It is synonymous to rela0ation. [Ruffy v. [3ec. (ll areas . <)eaters. [3ec. force ma2eure or dis+lacement 1y force. 1 %'. avocation. 1!.54 ade7uately for )is defense. 5. deceit. concert )alls. )eld under a claim of o*ners)i+. and as may 1e defined and delineated 1y la*.enous Cultural Communities/Indi. residential lots.d.rou+ o*ners)i+.enous 6eo+les -ICCs/I6s.. R( &!!%'. occu+ied. Anadromous species. (ll lands e0clusively and actually +ossessed. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .s entered into 1y .overnment +ro2ects or any ot)er voluntary dealin. [3ec. @LRC. Analogous..) t)eir ancestors.in. 1y t)emselves or t)rou. R( 8 54'. [=orenoEs La* Dict. R( &$81'. [3ec.enous 6eo+les -ICCs/I6s. t)e s)o* or +erformances.enous cultural communities 1y t)emselves or t)rou. under claims of individual or traditional . Land occu+ied. continuously to t)e +resent e0ce+t *)en interru+ted 1y *ar. or fun. GR &51 $. to t)e +resent e0ce+t *)en interru+ted 1y *ar. families and clans *)o are mem1ers of t)e Indi. 1$1. 1y t)emselves or t)rou. [3ec. 1$1. 5. and *)ic) are necessary to ensure t)eir economic. 4%%% .) t)eir ancestors in accordance *it) t)eir customs and traditions since time immemorial. communally or individually since time immemorial. includin. R( 81"%'. lands. 4&'. [3ec. stealt) or as a conse7uence of . coastal areas. Ancestral lands. +rivate forests.overnment and +rivate individuals / cor+orations. Ancestral domains. (llied or similar. cinemas. R( 81"%'. Amusement places. com+risin. s*idden farms and tree lots. or utilized 1y indi.enerally 1elon.rate to fres)*ater areas to s+a*n.

Ancillary. Ancient document rule. [Lacsa v. [3ec. <)e Revised Rules of Court in t)e 6)il. 1 4'. [3ec. or to. construction and maintenance of fis)in.H used to con2oin *ord Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ".co. t)at it is un1lemis)ed 1y any alteration or circumstances of sus+icion. 8 -!t) . *)ic) is au0iliary or su1ordinate to anot)er +roceedin. fis)ery mac)ine s)o+s. Hto. $. years old. <)e rule t)at in an action 1efore t)e R<C.enuine. citin. +ara+)ernalia.. DIII. [9lack:s La* Dict..et)er *it). Muin.e and refri. and ot)er facilities suc) as )atc)eries. RoC'. re7uirements are fulfilled. Ancient document. a +roceedin. relia1le o+eration of t)e transmission system in accordance *it) . +. t)at it is +roduced from a custody in *)ic) it *ould naturally 1e found if . And. vessels. 8. 1 8$ . Arancisco. and is un1lemis)ed 1y alterations or circumstances of sus+icion.55 Anchorage. Airms or com+anies related to t)e su++ly. 1 1. C(.&. Ais)eries La*. R( 1$"'.rid code to 1e ado+ted in accordance *it) R( 1$".ardless of t)e amount.dition.'.al <erms -6ro-3e.y from resources to loads *)ile maintainin. 5. cold stora. 6art II. =ay 4%. +lants and ot)er +re-)arvest and +ost)arvest facilities.ears. +rocessin. In +ro1ate. ( +rivate document *)ic) is more t)an t)irty -$%. [Glossary of Le. GR 8 ! 8. 4%%5'. and -1. ( con2unction +ertinently defined as meanin. Ancillary (urisdiction doctrine. <)ose services t)at are necessary to su++ort t)e transmission of ca+acity and ener.et)er *it). it is not enou. feed +lants. 6o*er of court to ad2udicate and determine matters incidental to t)e e0ercise of its +rimary 2urisdiction of an action.d. 5. 6D &!8'.. it is also necessary t)at t)e follo*in.eration. +roduced from a custody in *)ic) it *ould naturally 1e found if . R( &!!%'. [3ec. Dol. [Claverias v. -a. ( +lace *it) sufficient de+t) of *ater *)ere vessels anc)or or may ride at anc)or or may ride at anc)or *it)in t)e )ar1or.enuine. in a state *)ere a decedent o*ned +ro+erty 1ut *as not domiciled.H H2oined *it).. Aor a +rivate ancient document to 1e e0em+t from +roof of due e0ecution and aut)enticity.ood utility +ractice and t)e . nets and ot)er fis)in. ( +roceedin.H Halon. 5$4'. [3ec. t)e counterclaim may 1e considered com+ulsory re. .) t)at it 1e more t)an t)irty -$%. Ancillary industries. 1 8 . =ar. nurseries. Dicente #. Rule ". years old. Ancillary (urisdiction. Ancillary services.H Hadded to or linked to. GR 88855.

Intent to . Laya. Animus lucrandi. Intl. 1 %. (n intention to contract. [Qilos1ayan v. neutral +ro+erty found in its territory. [Deroy v. [<ayoto v. #uly 4$. Lat. Lat. as oneEs o*n. 51!'. Re+r. 1. ( condition in *)ic) t)e normal amount of red 1lood cells is reduced. Dol.d. Animus hominis est anima scripti. Animus non revertendi. citin. Fct. (n intention not to return. +)rase *it) +)rase.ain. Animus novandi. in enemy territory. Animus interficendi. GR 11$$8!.)t 1y *)ic) a 1elli. (n intent to +ossess. Lat. La* Dict. Intent to do an act of li1erality. 5! 6)il. Lat. <olentino. 1 "'. Intl. Intention to take +ossession of or seize. +. 18.. in case of ur. Lat. ( ri. GR !% !5. Le. 4%%5'. 1 5'. 1 "'. GR 11&%8". =ay !. [6eo+le v. Intention to remain t)ere. 1%1 6)il. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . C Direct. Intention to novate. Lat. La* Revie*er. [Romualdez v.n +o*ers t)erein. GR L-4!!!5. La <ondeKa v. (lto 3urety.erent may. (. use or destroy..) seas. seize. 5"!'.ent necessity for +ur+oses of offense or defense. #uly 45. 4%%14%%"'. 4. Animus contrahendi. Lat. 8%8.al rule t)at in order for a state to claim title to a territory. 44" 3CR( 5%&. Gavina. Civil Code of t)e 6)il.. clause *it) clause. GR 411%". Intent to a++ro+riate t)e t)in. [6eo+le v. 4%. Animus occupandi.ue. II. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. u+on +ayment of 2ust com+ensation. La*. Anemia. (+r. #une 1&.. 1 " . (n intention to a1andon t)e old domicile. Animus possidendi. Dol. 1 ""'. v. 1 &8 . +. 4%%1. (ssoc. Intent to kill. t)e state must intend to e0ercise soverei. R<C <aclo1an. or on t)e )i. GR !"$%. [<ui 3iuco v. GR L-1%1$4'. Animus manendi. La1ana. Angary$ right of. Com+ilation of @otes. Guin. [Romualdez v.56 *it) *ord. Lat.ona.d. Animus rem sibi habiendi. &. @ov. 51!'. 1!8'.ain. [<olentino. Lat. &8 . GR 1%4%8%. Intent to . 44" 3CR( 5%&.. 1 4'. (lfec)e. Lat. =at)ay. G3I3. Lat. [3ierra v. <)e intention of t)e +arty is t)e soul of t)e instrument. R<C <aclo1an. GR 11!%%&-% . [Claridades. [Cruz. [6)il. 5 "'. GR 854%$. II. [Intl. Const. Mui2ada. [6eo+le v. 5.. +. Animus donandi. Leirs of Ca1alo Quso+. Lat. 1 4'. Animus furandi. Ae1. 1 & '.

for a certain or uncertain +eriod -as for years or for life. estimated 7uantity.et)er *it) t)e 1alance on )and..ular sources of t)e local . $. 4 . [3ec. re7uired 1y t)e local . notes. Anne%. suc) as ot)er national aids. 15. <o add to.. <)e itemized list +re+ared 1y t)e )ead of t)e de+artment or office s)o*in. or to t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . -1 &$. and similar ot)ers. recei+ts. [3ec. !t) . or commentaries follo*in. cities and munici+alities from re. 5. <)e itemized list +re+ared 1y t)e local c)ief e0ecutive s)o*in.ulations on 3u++ly and 6ro+erty =ana. to su12oin. descri+tion of su++lies to.et)er *it) t)e 1alance on )and. t)at is aut)orized to 1e cut re. t)e estimates of income certified as reasona1ly collecti1le 1y t)e +rovincial treasurer in t)e case of +rovinces and t)eir res+ective munici+alities and 1y t)e city treasurer in t)e case of cities. 1 &&'. Annuity. fiscal year. 1 &8'. [=aloto v. financial assistance. Annual procurement program.eneral and infrastructure funds includin.ulations on 3u++ly and 6ro+erty =ana. . sales of fi0ed assets.. +. [3ec. GR 8"5"5. [9lackEs La* Dict. <)e term may refer to t)e ri. t)e kind. *)et)er of *ood or ot)er forest +roducts. loan +roceeds.. Lat. Annual allowable cut.ularly from t)e forest.. re7uired 1y t)e de+artment or office for t)e ensuin.. 4%%5'. <)e annual +rocurement +ro. fiscal year. 6D 8%!'. Annotations. t)e kind. if any. estimated cost. if any. [Glossary of Le. 1ut e0clusive of non-recurrin. Revenues and recei+ts realized 1y +rovinces.)t to receive suc) annuities..ram s)all essentially 1e 1ased on t)e annual +rocurement +lan. Annual income. Intent to revoke. Rules and Re. as in t)e case of an endo*ment fund. Rules and Re. t)e +ro+osed e0+enditures for t)e ensuin. <o attac). <)e volume of materials. estimated 7uantity. 6D 588'. ( financial +lan em1odyin. 7uarterly. C(.rants. Annual procurement plan.overnment for t)e ensuin. to unite. #uly 4!. 5.ement'.ular intervals -e. and a++ro+riations coverin. statutes *)ic) descri1e inter+retations of t)e statute.5 Animus revocandi. Annual budget. (1r.d. t)e internal revenue and s+ecific ta0 allotments +rovided for in 6Ds 155 and 5$". Remarks. s+ecifically.F 45 . . Ae1. 5. estimated cost. and often. 5!'. (n amount +aya1le yearly or at ot)er re. case summaries. fiscal year. [3ec. descri+tion of su++lies or +ro+erty to.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1ot) as amended.ement'. [3ec.

to make void or of no effect. +. to a1olis).al =ed. (n action *)ic) may 1e instituted 1y all *)o are t)ere1y o1li. 1lot out. [3antos v. num1er or sym1ol. to anni)ilate. num1er or sym1ol is used to su1stitute for t)e name and allo*s t)e la1oratory conductin. in *)ic) a defendant or ot)er adverse +arty sets fort) t)e ne..al =ed.)t. 5% (..4d "11. ?oidable contract. [3ec.7. 1ot) retroactively and for t)e future. (n identifyin. #une 4$. Le.d. GR L-4$55!. t)e a1sence of menstrual +eriods.ed +rinci+ally or su1sidiarily under t)e contract. RoC'.uid v. void.al Dict. 1$ '. Cancelin. Anovulatory.d. ( formal. Anonymous testing. 4 '.. 1$ 8.irl c)aracterized 1y t)e a1sence of ovulation. +. or em+loyed fraud. =adden. t)at it )as 1een o1tained 1y fraud. [=oreno:s 6)il. *ritten statement 1y t)e defendant in a la*suit *)ic) ans*ers eac) alle. [3ec. and in *omen. t)e test and t)e +erson on *)om t)e test is conducted to matc) t)e test results *it) t)e identifyin. =adden v. GR ! 881. 4%%5'.ation void for *ant of 2urisdiction or lack of due +rocess of la*.. CC'. ( +leadin. refusal to maintain a minimally normal 1ody *ei. or -1. Rule ". (n LID testin. @u. Annulment of (udgment. 4. . 1 $'. Annul. tested does not reveal )is/)er true identity. "15. 8'. Aundamentals of <a0ation. 5. Le. +rocedure *)ere1y t)e individual 1ein. [Du)aime:s Le.ative and affirmative defenses u+on *)ic) )e relies..#. citin.d. to nullify. 1. [Flarte..e. 1$" @. <o reduce to not)in. Annulment. t)at t)e 2ud. or caused mistake 1ase t)eir action u+on t)ese fla*s of t)e contract. <)e first menstrual +eriod of a . of money or ot)er +ro+erty .e t)e inca+acity of t)ose *it) *)om t)ey contracted. 1 "". =akin.uid. Lo*ever. +. 3ee Anore%ia nervosa. +ersons *)o are ca+a1le cannot alle..ment is Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $.. #uly 41. Grounds> -a. La* Dict. [@u. R( &!%5'. [(rt. Answer.5! a. 1st . nor can t)ose *)o e0erted intimidation. or undue influence. Com+are *it) :ulimia nervosa. an e0treme fear of o1esity. 4%%% . [De Leon. C(. $rd . t)e reci+ient 1inds )imself to +ay t)e sti+ulated annuity. an event or 2udicial +roceedin. 1$4'. violence. o1literate. ( disorder c)aracterized 1y a distorted 1ody ima. -4%%5. Annulment of a contract$ action for the. Annullable contract.iven 1y t)e annuitant -one entitled to receive t)e 1enefits.reement or contract *)ere1y in return for ca+ital consistin.

&. 4%%5'.8A. if o*in.al <erms -6ro3e.. <o date a document to a time 1efore it *as *ritten. Aor e0am+le. $ . Lat. (n ante-nu+tial . $. Anthropological area. R( 5&5"'.ments.otia1le instrument *)ere t)e date a++earin.ift . Rule 1$%.y in t)is case is descri+tive. Com+ilation of @otes. 6D !$$ si. ( formal *ritten statement 1y a +arty to a la*suit *)ic) ans*ers eac) 7uestion or interro.ned into la* on (u. carna++in.. 4%%5'. [Du)aime:s Le. Antedate.rou+s are 1ein. and +enalizin. 1 84. CC'.e. (nt)ro+olo.reement is one *)ic) is si.. [Glossary of Le. retroactively.J enacted on (u.al Dict.ation to a++ly t)em to t)e +ayment of t)e interest.rou+s includin. Ante mortem statement. RoC'. and t)ereafter to t)e +rinci+al of )is credit. 4%%5'. 1 85. Ante nuptial.ed 1efore a notary +u1lic or ot)er +erson aut)orized to take ackno*led..atory +ro+ounded 1y t)e ot)er +arty. [3ec. Anticipation of duties of a public office.. Ft)er*ise kno*n as t)e Doctrine of last clear chance. *it) t)e o1li. 4%%14%%"'. 9efore t)e controversy.8@. Antichresis contract.e. Com+are *it) #ostdated instrument. Anti-&arnapping Act of +. (. [(rt. ( ne. [3ec. or s)ould 1e undertaken in t)e field of ant)ro+olo. an antenu+tial a. 3ee Dying declaration...e. 4". inter+retative and com+arative study of all as+ects of various cultural lin. 4%%5'.uistic . <o date 1ack. t)ereon is earlier t)an t)e true date of its issuance.ned 1efore marria. Anti-&attle *ustling 6aw of +. R( "!$ entitled I(n (ct +reventin. Answers to interrogatories. Antecedent intelligence. Ante litem motam.y. <)e assum+tion 1y any Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . t)e collection and analysis of t)eir +articular material culture.)t to receive t)e fruits of an immova1le of )is de1tor. 41$4. <o date a document to a time 1efore it *as *ritten. ( contract *)ere1y t)e creditor ac7uires t)e ri.al Dict. (ny +lace *)ere studies of s+ecific cultural . (n event or document *)ic) +re-dates a marria. [Du)aime:s Le. [Claridades. Antedated instrument.al <erms -6ro3e. <o date 1ack.ift is a . retroactively. <)ese ans*ers must 1e ackno*led.iven 1y one s+ouse to t)e ot)er 1efore marria. [Glossary of Le.5" contained in t)e com+laint..

or ..)ts. system losses 1y +)asin. s*orn in or )avin. Anti-=a ing 6aw. t)ere can 1e only action. La*J si. [(rt.ned into la* on =ar. as amended 1y 6D 81!. t)e +ilfera. v.aterials #ilferage Act of +. .6# +erson of t)e +erformance of t)e duties and +o*ers of any +u1lic officer or em+loyment *it)out first 1ein.8A.lements> -a.ulatin. R( $%1 enacted on (u. and t)e +laintiff must t)erein recover all )is dama. 1 85. )azin. and t)e 1reac) total. R( 8&$4 entitled I(n (ct +enalizin. 1 8 . 1 "$.e of electricity and t)eft of electric +o*er transmission lines/ materials. +. &.e losses as a com+onent t)ereof. 6D 1"14 entitled I(nti-Aencin. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Dec. 4$". 1 !'. out +ilfera. citin. =anila Gas. advanta. and -d. . certain acts inimical to civil aviation.A. GR $4 !&. Anti-=i(acking 6aw. [Mui1al v.an1ayan. R( &%5 entitled I(n (ct re.anizations and +rovidin. Anti-graft and corrupt practices. <)e accused is a +u1lic officer disc)ar. @ov. 1 81.iven t)e 1ond re7uired 1y la*. R6C'. &$ '. C( 1%&. -1. evident 1ad fait) or . <)e rule t)at *)ere t)e covenant or contract is entire.li.8.ave any +arty any un*arranted 1enefit. Anti-"lectricity and "lectric <ransmission 6ines/ . Anti-4encing 6aw of +. R( "4$! entitled I(n (ct +ro)i1itin.ned into la* on (u. 18. +enalties t)ereforJ enacted on #une 8.es. sororities. rationalizin.. 4. =ay 44.ross. Anti-#iracy and Anti-=ighway *obbery 6aw of +. Anti-Dummy 6aw. Anti-Deadly Arrow 6aw. t)e +u1lic officer acted *it) manifest +artiality. 1 $%. $%. GR 1% 1. &. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . -c.ed in cons+iracy *it) t)em. Anti-5raft and &orrupt #ractices Act.in. 1 !. and or. entitled I(n (ct to +unis) acts of evasion of t)e la*s on t)e nationalization of certain ri. )is action caused undue in2ury to t)e Government or any +rivate +arty. 1 "%.esJ enacted on Fct. and ot)er forms of initiation rites in fraternities. &. t)e +u1lic officer committed t)e +ro)i1ited act durin. 6D !$4 si. franc)ises or +rivile. administrative or official functions or +rivate +ersons c)ar. [9lossom C Co. 1 5.e or +reference to suc) +arties. $5 C#.ence... Anticipatory breach doctrine. t)e +erformance of )is official duty or in relation to )is +u1lic +osition. R( $!!$ entitled I(n (ct to +ro)i1it t)e +ossession of deadly arro*J enacted on #une 41. 3andi. 1 $". ine0cusa1le ne. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #une 1 .

@< C 3( v. t)e crime of +lunderJ enacted on #uly 14. (++earance to unaided senses t)at is not or may not 1e 1orne out 1y more ri. 15. t)e +rinci+al kno*in.ainst *omen and t)eir c)ildren. ( +ro. =ar.>. (+r.ly +ermits t)e a. 1 !. and ot)er related violations of t)e +rivacy of communication. Dec.8$ <he. environment. for t)e +ur+ose (ct @o. 4%%5. R( 8&88 entitled I(n (ct declarin. Re+uela. entitled :+enalizin. rare. 1 &8'. Bardro1e. 1 $. and +enalizin. t)erefore. 1.) not actually .e or even less.8. Aparador. 6residential Decree @o. R( &$!$ entitled I(n (ct e0+andin. education or trainin. 1ut t)eir +roduction )avin. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #une 1 .ent to e0ercise.ainst +ersons.orous e0amination or . Apparent authority. 48.CC. C(. +enalties t)erefore. $%. .e. Ca1inet. and ot)er similar actsEJ enacted on Fct.ranted.. An%iety neurosis. Locker. as amended. Be1ster:s t) @e* Colle. reclassifyin. R( 8%&% entitled I(n (ct definin. 1 "!. [6eo+le v. GR L-8%""%.'.. GR L-$"4 8. +rescri1in. 1%. ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e Rev. Anti-?iolence Against Bomen and <heir &hildren Act of @CCA. Castillo. 1 8. [Galanida v. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. =ay 1 . or *)ic) )e )olds out as +ossessin. 1 1. R( &$"& entitled I(n (ct re+ealin.. Apparent. 45. t)ou. <)at *)ic). [9ank of (merica. $. 3e+. 4. GR &!18&. @o+ia.ration of +ersonal insta1ility arisin. 1 8. 3+.. 1ecome or are 1ecomin. 4". Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . GR 1%!$ !. 6enal Code and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on 3e+. t)e definition of t)e crime of ra+e. Anti-Bire <apping Act. 884. 1!. ceased. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on =arc) &. $&1!. GR L-118 $. 1 "1'. Anti-*ape 6aw of +.reater kno*led. R( 54%% entitled I(n (ct to +ro)i1it and +enalize *ire ta++in. [6eo+le v. in t)e course of t)e intercurrent illness. Antiques. citin. [6eo+le v. R( 4"4 entitled I(n (ct definin. 1 &4'. +rovidin. Anti-)e%ual =arassment Act of +. se0ual )arassment unla*ful in t)e em+loyment. [3ec. $. for +rotective measures for victims. R( 5&5"'. t)ey )ave. violence a. s7uattin.ressive disinte. amendin. Cultural +ro+erties found locally *)ic) are one )undred years or more in a.iate Dict. 1 %'.. Anti-)quatting 6aw *epeal Act of +. t)e same as a crime a.61 Anti-#lunder Act.

nment of errors. 1 !'. La*. -4%%5.ns t)at reveal t)e use and en2oyment of t)e same.. 4%%5'.. 3car+ati. GR 8581. is to 1rin.d. 3+.. 6uno. $. [3ec. 3erious disre.as+i. 1 4'. 9ook !. 4%%% . Appeal bond. )is 1urdens increased or )is ri. 3ee 0stensible authority doctrine. 4%%% . 1rou. Rule 1. 6D &!"'. GR 115&4.. t)e reliefs sou. amon. ( . 4. 4!.)t to 1e revie*ed. "$. t)at court costs *ill 1e +aid. ( mode of a++eal u+on 7uestions of la* from t)e 2ud.uaranty 1y t)e a++ealin. +arty insurin.uilar v. Apoderamiento. *it)in t)e +rescri1ed +eriod.s. [(rt. 9ook !. [Flarte. GR 1%1!"".. 4&.d. Appeal. @ov. Appeal by certiorari. (u...)er 1ody. [3ec. containin. Appearance. <)ose easements *)ic) are made kno*n and are continually ke+t in vie* 1y e0ternal si.62 [=orenoEs La* Dict. $%% @. [3ec.)er court to revie* a lo*er court decision. 1. ot)ers.3.. ( 1uildin. memorandum of ar.as v.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. +. [Glossary of Le. 18.uments in su++ort t)ereof. [Ruiz v. Com+are *it) )pecial civil action for certiorari. 1. a num1er of se+arate residential suites.ment of t)e Re.ument in su++ort t)ereof. [Glossary of Le. Rem. 18. *)ic) includes t)e assi.ard of t)e surroundin.d. $4'.nment of error/s. C(. [Dille. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . of t)e a++eal 1ond.ional <rial Court or t)e Court of (++eals and is 1rou. +.)t to a )i. t)e ar. Apparent authority doctrine.?.al =ed. 1!%'.al <erms -6ro-3e. $1'. ( +roceedin. Appealable interest. Rule 1. 1. CC'. Gnla*ful takin.)t 1efore t)e 3u+reme Court under Rule 5! of t)e Rules of Court 1y a #etition for review on certiorari. 1. 1y means of a +leadin. IRR of LC'. 1 $'. 4%%5'. Le. -<)at *)ic). <)e filin. La1or.)ts +re2udiced 1y t)e order sou. u+ for revie* a final 2ud. of t)e memorandum of a++eal containin. [(. Apartment house. Le. Apathy.)t and +ostin. IRR of LC'. Doluntary su1mission to a court:s 2urisdiction. "1!. Apparent easements.rieved +arty of any decision.. =ar.al =ed.al <erms -6ro3e. Le. Ae1.. <)e elevation 1y an a. Appeal$ perfection of an. t)e assi. C(. [6eo+le v. order or a*ard of a lo*er 1ody to a )i. citin. 6acilio v. GR !$&" . +. 1st . a +arty )as only *)en )is +ro+erty may 1e diminis)ed. and t)e reliefs +rayed for. (n essential +art of 2udicial system -t)e +ur+ose of *)ic). 1.. 1 &4.ment of t)e lo*er court.

. Appellate (urisdiction. 4%%5'. 1 1 . defendant. Re. " 8'.d. [Glossary of Le. Appointing authority.. 1 41. [Laverty Aurniture Co. <)e aut)ority of a Court )i. (++earances are most often made 1y la*yers on t)eir clients 1e)alf and any a++earance 1y a la*yer 1inds t)e client...ment -1efore an a++ellate court. 54. If Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Appearance as counsel. Appoint. (rt. aut)ority s)all 1e t)e mayor of t)at city or munici+ality. =arciano. t)e a++ointin. 4%%5'. ot)er*ise.al <erms -6ro3e. 2urisdiction to )ear a++eals and revie* a trial court:s +rocedure. citin. =ar. +. 4. #an. It takes +lace *)ere a de1tor )as various de1ts of t)e same kind in favor of one and t)e same creditor and t)e de1torEs +ayment is not sufficient to +ay all t)e de1ts due. $'. In t)e event t)at more t)an seventyfive +ercent of t)e total active *ater service connections of a local *ater district are *it)in t)e 1oundary of any city or munici+ality. or desi. 145 3. [Garcia v. <o allot.al <erms -6ro-3e.alado. La* Com+endium. 1. 4%%5'. [Du)aime:s Le. CC'. t)e a++ointin.. GR &&1!&.ment of a lo*er Court *)ic) tried t)e case no* elevated for 2udicial revie*. Aausta. or to a +osition or office. citin. De #esus. !t) Rev.overnor of t)e +rovince *it)in *)ic) t)e district is located. Dol. $.. 3u++lementary materials added to t)e end of a document. set a+art.. <)e +arty a++ealin. Rem. Appellant. and .al <erms -6ro-3e.nate. . citin.. <)e +erson em+o*ered to a++oint t)e mem1ers of t)e 1oard of Directors of a local *ater district.al Dict.'. 14!4. <)e act of s)o*in. 1 4. 4%%5'. [9orromeo v. 4d " 5. Application of payment.eo. [Glossary of Le. Com+are *it) 0riginal (urisdiction.a.al Dict.ainst *)om an a++eal is taken. as t)e case may 1e. la*yer +rofessionally en. v. Appellate court.63 58$. [Glossary of Le. [Diaz. u+on t)e . <)e +arty a.ncyc.)er in rank to ree0amine t)e final order or 2ud. de+endin. Appellee. 5.e and +o+ulation makeu+ of t)e +articular district. ( court )avin. Appendi%. 58&'. accused or any ot)er +arty to a civil or criminal suit. 9us. +.al advocate or advisin.ed to re+resent and +lead t)e cause of anot)er. nominate or aut)oritatively assi. a decision or 2ud.@. GR 1"&%&. 4%%5'.ra+)ic covera.n as for a use. u+ in court as eit)er +laintiff. aut)ority s)all 1e t)e . Century Dict.d.. [#uristEs Le. so t)e de1tor )as t)e first c)oice to indicate *)ic) +articular de1t is to 1e +aid. La* Rev. ( voluntary su1mission to a court:s 2urisdiction 1y a le.

<)e selection or desi.. Apportionment. 4". Appointing power of the #resident. <)e desi. DII. s)are)older to re7uire t)e com+any to +urc)ase )is s)ares at t)eir fair market value. [Alores v. <)e +o*er of t)e 6resident to nominate and. citin. [3ec.. Drilon. Drilon. and also to a++oint all ot)er officers of t)e Government *)ose a++ointments are not ot)er*ise +rovided for 1y la*. [3ec. citin. 4%%5'. Code'. La*.e t)e duties of t)e same. ot)er +u1lic ministers and consuls. aut)ority is to 1e t)e . aut)ority t)erefor. 4%%5'. 1..'.overnor in *)ose +rovince t)e . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al Dict. $. <)e ri. <)e +erson or 1ody aut)orized 1y la* to make a++ointments in t)e 6)ili++ine Civil 3ervice. La* Dict. <)e selection. 9lack:s La* Dict. 1 &8 Const.nation of a +erson. to )is s)are. [Du)aime:s Le. 1 4'. )istorical cost from a++raised values.)t of a stock)older of a cor+oration to dissent and demand +ayment of t)e fair value of )is s)ares. 4. +. am1assadors. 1 $. 1y t)e aut)ority vested *it) t)e +o*er. 1y t)e +erson or +ersons )avin. 1.overnors involved *it) t)e initial a++ointments made 1y t)e . <)e act or +rocess of determinin. GR 1%58$4. to disc)ar.64 +ortions of more t)an one +rovince are included *it)in t)e 1oundary of t)e district. 1 $. Com+are *it) Designation. Appointing officer..e t)e duties of some office or trust. a++oint t)e )eads of t)e e0ecutive de+artment. [Alores v. $. and t)ose *)om )e may 1e aut)orized 1y la* to a++oint. and ot)er officers *)ose a++ointments are vested in )im in t)is Constitution. #une 44. (dmin. 4. Appointment. into +ro+ortionate +arts. 14&'. Cruz. <)is is com+uted 1y deductin. [RC6I v. [3ec. Cor+.)t of a dissentin. $. La*.. <)e division and distri1ution of somet)in. <)e ri. Cor+. 6D &%8'. 1&%'.reatest num1er of service connections e0ists. $. Appraisal right. La*. =ar. to eac) accordin. #une 44.nation of a +erson. Ba. [3ec. GR $%55. or officers of t)e armed forces from t)e rank of colonel or naval ca+tain. 5t) . to fill an office or +u1lic function and disc)ar.es Council.iven office. 1y t)e +erson or +ersons )avin.overnors t)en t)e +o*er to a++oint s)all rotate 1et*een t)e . aut)ority t)erefor. 6)il. of an individual *)o is to e0ercise t)e functions of a .d. @atl. 6D 1 &'. *it) t)e consent of t)e Commission on (++ointments. [3ec. 6ol. 6D 5"5'. (rt. 1". GR 1%58$4. +. Appraisal increase. [Intl. 1 &8 ed. t)e value of a +ro+erty as of a s+ecific date for a s+ecific +ur+ose. and t)e a++ointin. C Direct. Appraisal. &1.

6ractical trainin..ua. La1or. t)e rule t)at a +arty can not eit)er in t)e course of liti. ( *orker *)o is covered 1y a *ritten a++rentices)i+ a. GR $%55. (ny trade. <)e estimated value of dis+osa1le +ro+erty after ins+ection takin. Dol. 45. for one:s o*n 1enefit. 9ouvierEs La* Dict. Dec. [9ismorte v. dated (u. ( +erson 1ound in t)e form of la* to a master.. as amended'.es Council. Apprentice$ qualifications of. [(rt. 418'. Appraised value.65 Appraisal value. 6eo+le. (ldecoa C Co. (lso termed as *eplacement cost or *eproduction cost. citin. <o o*n. LC'. to determine t)e fair and said value of t)e +ro+erty vis-S-vis t)e . from t)e . Apprenticeship agreement. a +erson s)all> -a. Apprenticeable occupation. =isa++ro+riate. LC'. Approbate and reprobate. La1or. La1or. and relative vales t)ereof. Rules and Re. GR &!8&!. Apprentice. Fct. [(rt. (n em+loyment contract *)erein t)e em+loyer 1inds )imself to train t)e a++rentice and t)e a++rentice in turn acce+ts t)e terms of trainin. +lant and e7ui+ment determined 1y reco. 4%. 1%. [RC6I v. La1or. [Ballem =aritime 3ervices v. 4. or 1usiness.nized under t)e La1or Code. trade.) a++ro+riate tests. and to serve )im durin. 3+.e of t)e 3cotc) la*. +ossess vocational a+titude and ca+acity for a++rentices)i+ as esta1lis)ed t)rou. !&. [3ec. into account its condition. on t)e 2o1 su++lemented 1y related t)eoretical instruction. [(rt. 1 4'. La1or. 1.. form of em+loyment or occu+ation *)ic) re7uires more t)an t)ree mont)s of +ractical trainin..0ec. 1e at least fifteen year of a. LC.ation or in dealin. Apprenticeship. $rd Rev. !&. in +ais occu+y inconsistent +ositions. 1. ! . +. [3y v. to take somet)in. on t)e 2o1 su++lemented 1y related t)eoretical instruction. I. LC'. GR 1%&5$$. 1 ". 1 & . [(rt. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. <)e 7uantification of t)e +resent financial values of t)e +ro+erty. 4". -1. <)e revalued amount of +ro+erty.ulations on 3u++ly and 6ro+erty =ana.nized s+ecialists. to learn from )im )is art. citin. 3ec. Appropriar. 1!.reement *it) an individual em+loyer or any of t)e entities reco. !&. 1 1%'. [=emo. !&. t)e time of )is a++rentices)i+. 5. <o 7ualify as an a++rentice. GR L-!!&". =ar. @LRC. (+r. and -c.ement'. [(rt. @atl. 1 &'. Ba. usa1ility and ot)er factors.e. LC'. 4. In t)e lan. +ossess t)e a1ility to com+re)end and follo* oral and *ritten instructions.eneral +ro+erty area in *)ic) it is located.

rarian Reform. Appropriation. 5. Appropriation law. $ '.'.. La*. contested. 15. of *aters from a natural source in t)e manner and for any +ur+ose allo*ed 1y la*. 1st . Ra7uiza. @e* Const.islature settin. [Gonzales v. GR 4 "48. =artin. Fne t)e +rimary and s+ecific +ur+ose of *)ic) is to aut)orize t)e release of +u1lic funds from t)e treasury. $ . of t)e 6)il. <)e act of t)e le. 1&8 +. . Reyes. 81&. 4.nin. 6ol. and ancillary industries.F 4 4'. locally source-1ased and la1or intensive. 1. 4%%14%%"'. [3ec.66 II Crim. to t)e ot)er +arty. 1 &8 .ress +ro+osin.al *arnin. . [3uarez. citin. of (. 1 & .nini. <)e ac7uisition of ri. Appropriate adversary proceeding.iven le. 84 '. one of *)ic) t)e +arty seekin. [(rt.d. Com+ilation of @otes. 1 . +arties. [3ec. GR L-$"88$.ress. (n aut)orization made 1y la* or ot)er le. <)e estimates of e0+enditures in a 1ud. It e0cludes an ado+tion +roceedin.. Ra7uiza. ( 1ill filed in Con.d. +. [3ec.. =a. C)a+. La* Revie*er. Appropriation of water. Dec. to aut)orize t)e release of funds from t)e +u1lic treasury. 11% Bas. [Gonzales v. $!4'. 3ec. directin. 9ook DI. citin. [Re+. +ayment out of .islative aut)orization +rescri1ed 1y t)e Constitution t)at money may 1e +aid out of t)e <reasury. t)e +rimary and s+ecific +ur+ose of *)ic) is to aut)orize t)e release of funds from t)e +u1lic treasury.d.y. +. #uly 15. 1 &&. =artin. @e* Const. as distin. +. [(ssoc. to a +articular use a certain sum to 1e used in t)e +ayment of de1t or dues from t)e 3tate to its creditors. 6latt v. 1 & '. [Claridades.d. of t)e 6)il. CAI of Camarines. citin. 1ot) in fis)in. 6D 1%"8'. Appropriations. (da+ta1le tec)nolo. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 & . ( 1ill -in Con. $ . +. Appropriation made by law.overnment funds under s+ecified conditions or for s+ecified +ur+oses. 6D 588'..ically sound. Appropriation bill.uis)ed from an e0 +arte a++lication. 4. relief )as .a. o++osin.)ts over t)e use of *aters or t)e takin. Fne )avin. t)at is ecolo. 1 &8 . of 3mall Lando*ners v. 1 .et *)en finally a++roved 1y t)e a++ro+riate aut)orities concerned. a+art or assi. 1. (. 14t) . 81". v. Appropriate fishing technology. GR 8&854.'. R( &!!%'. GR 4 "48. or divertin. =ay $1.. 4%%4. and afforded t)e latter an o++ortunity to contest it. Dec. Appropriations bill. <)e le.islative enactment..

a7uatic resources. (ll or. and culturin.) t)e intervenin.et *)ic) is intended to 1enefit le. t)e cor+orate 1ud. else.ree amon. Aquaculture. (n a++ro+riation t)e +ur+ose of *)ic) is to allot a 1ud.)t of any +erson *)o may *is) to use u+on )is o*n estate any *ater of *)ic) )e can dis+ose to make it flo* t)rou. )indrance to a7uatic activities suc) as fis)in.et for t)e contract a++roved 1y t)e . 1rackis) and marine environment.al Dict. all ot)er a7uatic flora and fauna and ot)er livin.s.er 1e scrutinized and su12ected to +u1lic )earin. R( &!!%'. R( 48!'.. in fres)*ater.6 Appropriation sub rosa. estates. R( &!!%'. t)at. a++ro+riations. 6ol.ation. Approved budget for the contract 2A:&3. 1rackis) and marine *ater areas. (n attac)ment or a++enda. Aquatic pollution.overnment a.islators a. [3ec. in t)e case of local . Ais). <)e ri. $54'.. !. 5. radioactive. Aquatic life.ation to indemnify t)eir o*ners. dum+in.islators. salt and corals.et for t)e contract duly a++roved 1y t)e )ead of t)e +rocurin. of su1stances or ener. [Du)aime:s Le.overnin.unian. in t)e case of . series of 1 8 . t)e le. .anisms livin. includin. Ais)ery o+erations involvin. disc)ar. land or air trans+ort or ot)er )umanmade structure. entity. *it) t)e o1li.encies. and t)e 1ud. in t)e national .overnment financial institutions and state universities and colle.) detac)ed.overnment units. from any *ater. <)e introduction 1y )uman or mac)ine.aseous or solid su1stances. Aquatic resources. as *ell Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .d. [3uarez.. 4%%4. includin.e to somet)in./dis+osal of *aste and ot)er marine litters. 1ut not limited to. +ose +otential and/or real )azard to )uman )ealt). stands as +art of anot)er t)in.e of +etroleum or residual +roducts of +etroleum or car1onaceous materials/su1stances. R( &!!%'. R( 1&5'. 3omet)in. 5. all forms of raisin. Aqueduct easement. t)emselves t)at t)e same s)all no lon. and non-livin. <)e 1ud. no0ious or )armful li7uid. as +rovided for in t)e General (++ro+riations (ct -G((.es.. Appurtenance. La* Revie*er. [3ec 5. +ursuant to . 5. [3ec. fis) and ot)er fis)ery s+ecies in fres).et for t)e contract a++roved 1y t)e res+ective 3an. and ot)er. 4%%5'. 1st .y to t)e a7uatic environment *)ic) result or is likely to result in suc) deleterious effects as to )arm livin. 1oards.. alt)ou. resources of t)e a7uatic environment. +. directly or indirectly.F !1&. and/or continuin. [3ec. [3ec. <o )ide t)is to t)e +u1lic. and navi.

La* Rev..o Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer or em+loyee *)o.s. La*. +. [Bords C 6)rases. "54. R( 48!'. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. 1 85'.. e0ce+t t)at t)e +arties c)oose t)eir ar1itrator and t)e manner in *)ic) t)e ar1itration *ill +roceed. is a++ointed to )ear and consider t)e merits of t)e dis+ute and renders a final and 1indin. !8$. 6once-. ( +rocess for t)e ad2udication of dis+utes 1y *)ic) t)e +arties a. 4%%1-4%%"'. Arbitrary act. [3ec 5.d. Com+are *it) 1llegal detention. ( court a 7uo is a court from *)ic) a cause )as 1een removed. Ar. or +ersonal +reference of t)e actor. GR L$!!5". Com+ilation of @otes.ation +rocess as it involves ad2udication. Lat. Crim. <)e decision reac)ed 1y ar1itrators in an ar1itration. (n alternative dis+ute resolution met)od 1y *)ic) an inde+endent. 1. [(rt.ularly or. La* Dict. 4. Arador. Arom *)ic). non-rational. 3e+. Aquifer.al Dict. of Crim.6! as t)e o*ners of t)e lo*er estates u+on *)ic) t)e *aters may filter or descend.round t)at transmits *ater in sufficient 7uantity to su++ly +um+in. *ells or natural s+rin. 4. <)e decision of t)e ar1itrator is kno*n as an Ia*ardJ. +. 145.ree not to . neutral t)ird +erson -ar1itrator. Fne *)ic) is *it)out ade7uate determinin. in one market and its resale in anot)er in order to +rofit from t)e +rice differential. of dis+utes 1et*een +arties *)o a. $. Fne t)at arises from an unrestrained e0ercise of t)e *ill. C Direct. Dol... Arbitrary detention. Fne *)ic) is not founded on a fair or su1stantial reason.. +.. ar1itere> to ar1itrate or to re.. *it)out le.. !"4'. rock located under. $-(. [Gre. [(rt. <)e de+rivation 1y a +u1lic officer of t)e li1erty of a +erson *it)out any le. 4%%5'.d. A quo.round.al . Aund.al . <)e settlin. +. [(ll definitions cited in (7uino v. 4%%5'. Arbitral award.ulate.d. $88'. (.ree to 1e 1ound 1y t)e decision of a t)ird +erson or 1ody in +lace of a re.. [=orenoEs La* Dict.rounds. $!'. 6lo*er of land.orio. 1 8 t) . +rinci+le. detains a +erson. 1.. 11%'. 4. Arbitrage. decision called an a*ard.nrile. 6ermanent . 1. +. Dict. [Bords C 6)rases. [Du)aime:s Le. 4%%% . ( layer of *ater-1earin. R6C'. 4%%5'. ca+rice. <)e nearly simultaneous +urc)ase of currencies -or ot)er commodities. Arbitration. <)e +rocess is similar to t)e liti. [<etley. [Claridades. [Intl. $.anized tri1unal. [Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. 18. su+ra. and solely de+endent on t)e actor:s *ill. CC'.

t)at any dis+ute arisin. disinterested +erson c)osen 1y t)e +arties in ar1itration to )ear evidence concernin. 4%%5'. 4.ic state ot)er Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . a c)arter +arty or ot)er contract. [<etley. in t)e +lace and accordin. 4%%5'. 4%%1-4%%"'. lakes and rivers. in a +lace of t)eir c)oice. Arbitrator. R( 4&!'. t)e la*s a++lica1le to t)e su12ect of t)e dis+ute. <)e +erson a++ointed to render an a*ard. 1 !$.o e0ce+t internal *aters suc) as roadsteads. R( &8" entitled I(n (ct to aut)orize t)e makin.6" 1efore t)e courts. (. *it) rules of +rocedure . +rovidin. 1otanical. for t)e su1mission of t)eir dis+ute to ar1itration. to +rovide for t)e a++ointment of ar1itrators and t)e +rocedure for ar1itration in civil controversies. usually su12ect to la*s a. a +ro+er la* of its o*n. ( +rivate. [3ec. Archipelagic waters. Arbitration agreement. in a dis+ute t)at is t)e su12ect of an ar1itration a. [3ec...al <erms -6ro-3e.ical. . +rovidin. under*ater or at sea level *)ic) contains fossils. (ny +lace *)ic) may 1e under. Frder !-4$'. artifacts and ot)er cultural. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #une 1 . <)e a. [3ec.ree to acce+t as final t)e decision of e0+erts of t)eir c)oice. <)e *aters inside t)e arc)i+ela. 4%%5'. [Claridades. t)e a++ointment of ar1itrators and t)e ar1itration +rocess.reed u+on in advance and usually under rules *)ic) avoid muc) of t)e formality and niceties of +roof and +rocedure re7uired 1y t)e courts.overnin. Arbitration clause. a *ay1ill. to t)e la*s and rules s+ecified in t)e clause. alone or *it) ot)ers. Arbitration law.reement.reement concluded 1et*een +arties. D. of ar1itration and su1mission a. Archaeological site. 5.s and t)e a++lica1le conflict rules may all 1e different. $. under a +articular la* . usually in a +articular +lace. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. eac) )avin.eolo..@R (dmin. t)e la* of t)e ar1itral +roceedin. 1ut rat)er a. Glossary of Conflict of La*s.ical and +re-)istoric events. under t)e contract s)all 1e su1mitted to ar1itration -su+ra. ( clause in a 1ill of ladin.round or on t)e surface. [Glossary of Le.reements. R( 5&5"'.ical materials *)ic) de+ict and document evidences of +alaeontolo. $. t)e dis+ute alon. [<etley. t)e dis+ute and to make an a*ard 1ased on t)e evidence. <)e la* a++lica1le to t)e ar1itration a.reement. Com+ilation of @otes. 1. (ll *aters *it)in t)e 1aselines of an arc)i+ela. 1efore one or more ar1itrators. Archipelagic sea.ic 1aselines of an arc)i+ela. zoolo.overnin.

1uildin.ardless of t)eir 1readt) or dimension. Archipelago principle. conferences.n of t)e +ro2ect for t)e client and *)o s)all assume t)e civil lia1ility for t)e +lans. re. *)o is directly and +rofessionally res+onsi1le for t)e total desi.ned and sealed.ardless of *)et)er t)e +ersons en.o. t)e fair and sustaina1le develo+ment. C Direct. structural conce+tualization.a. Architect.ations.n in en.) t)e medium of un1iased +reliminary studies of +lans.istered and licensed under R( 4"". evaluations. re.. investi. R( 4""'.nin. and constructin.nin. in accordance *it) t)e +rinci+les of utility. R( 4""'. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. and arc)itectural desi. environments and arc)itectural desi. into account t)eir environment.ulatory 9oard of (rc)itecture and t)e 6rofessional Re. [3andoval.. [Intl. $.istered and licensed under R( 4"" *it) a Certificate of Re. [3ec.eneral administration and res+onsi1le direction to t)e erection. s+ecifications and contract documents )e/s)e )as si. science or +rofession of +lannin. Architecture. *elfare and cultural e0+ression of society:s )a1itat in terms of s+ace.istered *it) t)e +ro+er . (n arc)itect re. Architectural firm. forms and )istorical conte0t. . [3ec.. t)e scientific. $. and .istration and 6rofessional Identification Card issued 1y t)e 6rofessional Re. Architect-in-charge of construction.ivin. stren.s in t)eir totality takin. or structure +erformed t)rou.ed in suc) +ractice are residents of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. La* Dict. structures or any +art t)ereof. s+ecifications. <)e art.s and 1uildin. enlar. 6ol.ement or alterations of 1uildin. desi.overnment a.t) and 1eauty. *)o is directly and +rofessionally res+onsi1le and lia1le for t)e construction su+ervision of t)e +ro2ect.ulation Commission -6RC. R( 4""'. <)e act of +lannin. Architect-of-record.istered and licensed under R( 4"". <)e *aters around. and *)o is res+onsi1le for advocatin. 4%%5'. [3ec.. [3ec. ( +erson +rofessionally and academically 7ualified. are to 1e treated as internal *aters. [3ec. a +artners)i+ or a cor+oration re. 1et*een and connectin. Intl. $. R( 4""'. su+ervisin. consultations. $. t)e island of t)e arc)i+ela. $.encies.# t)an its internal *aters. R( 4""'. contract documents and oral advice and directions re.ineerin. ( sole +ro+rietors)i+. aest)etic and orderly coordination of all t)e +rocesses *)ic) enter into t)e +roduction of a com+lete 1uildin. s+ecifyin. <)e arc)itect re. Architecture$ general practice of. La*.

!t) ..ncom+asses t)e +rovision of +rofessional services in connection *it) site.d. <)e size of t)e land or 1uildin. (n ar. 3ec. $!'. or . $!'. (n effort to esta1lis) 1elief 1y a course of reasonin. 4%%% . <)ose areas declared as suc) under e0istin.ument from analo. t)e claim or in refutin.1 t)e 6)ili++ines or )ave t)eir +rinci+al office or +lace of 1usiness in t)is country or anot)er territory.nificance. R( 4""'. t)e o++osite claim. Argument.ument from analo. restoration or alteration of a 1uildin. 4%. +. Area. +.ument from inconvenience is forci1le in la*.ument from analo.. enlar. . statutes and +ertinent e0ecutive issuances. Lat. "4.ood in la*.. (reas *)ere uncontrolled develo+ment could result in irre+ara1le dama.rou+ of 1uildin. <)e +)rase . [9lackEs La* Dict.nificance or im+act.0ec. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [3ec..n. Armalite. or aest)etic values or natural systems or +rocesses of national si. 4%%% . [3ec. in s7uare meters. )ead of an office or or. t)em. cultural. conservation. (n ar. or *)et)er suc) duties are +erformed in +erson or as t)e directin. Areas for priority development 2A#Ds3. [3ec. (reas *)ere t)e introduction of +u1lic facilities may tend to induce develo+ment and ur1anization of more t)an local si. +.enerally means t)at t)e same evidence may 1e needed in su++ortin. "4. [=emo.ement.. Architecture$ scope of the practice of. (lso 'rban land reform ones. ( rifle *it) a s+ecial mec)anism t)at can cause 1urst of s)ots *it) one s7ueeze of t)e tri. (n ar.. +. R( 4""'. $. and re. remodelin. 1 &'..ood in la*.d. (n ar. $!'. $.. $. Argumentum ab inconvenienti plurimum valet in lege.. dated (u. renovation. [=orenoEs La* Dict. -1 &$. 6D 11!4'.anization +erformin.s.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. [3ec. Areas impacted by public facilities.e to im+ortant )istoric.. 6D 11!4'. +. +)ysical and +lannin. Arises out of$ or is necessarily connected with$ the transaction or occurrence. Lat. Areas of critical environmental concern..y or from a similar case is . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%% .ardless of *)et)er suc) +ersons are +erformin.y or from a similar case is .ood in la*.d. (1r. Argumentum ab simili valet in lege. R( 848 '. construction. $!'.d. and t)e desi.y or from a similar case is . from t)e ..d. !"'. [3ec.er. one or all t)ese duties. 4%%% .

Aor t)e +ur+ose of +lacin..e. and to receive a co+y of. 1 " . Le.al =ed.overnments. [3ec. t)e *)ole.enital area increases.inal circle *it)in *)ic) s)all a++ear t)e *ords Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines.e..reed u+on 1y t)e 1elli. +.al Dict.d. +ieces. +ara. ovoid ar.uilty or not . 4. RoC'. Intl. -4%%5.al <erms -6ro3e.uilty or not . <)e Great 3eal s)all 1e circular in form. includin. or in t)e entire re.e.inal secretions in *omen.ules. and askin.)t minor and lesser rays. a. $!'. <)e )earin.erent . en. or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 15. or its e7uivalent in t)e national lan. and to t)en enter a +lea of . 3ee "arnest money. Le may +lead . *it) t)e arms as descri1ed in t)e +recedin. t)e terms of t)e +eace.d. 4%%% . 9eneat) s)all 1e a scroll *it) t)e *ords Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines. ( s*eet sauce. [Cruz. leadin. and. 1. t)e c)ar. a list of *itnesses. <)e state of se0ual e0citement durin. Arraignment.ainst )im or )er..ua.nee. 1ut *it)out t)e scroll and t)e inscri+tion t)ereon.ion of t)e *ar -. +.ed.2 Armistice.e a. in t)e +resence of a 2ud. at *)ic) t)e accused is 1rou.F 4 4'.uilty as c)ar.)t 1efore t)e court to +lead to t)e criminal c)ar. La* Revie*er. <a.ua.nment is t)e final +re+aratory ste+ 1efore t)e criminal trial.. usually for t)e +ur+ose of arran.ent studded *it) t)ree mullets e7uidistant from eac) ot)er. in +oint of )onor. to t)e latter a co+y t)ereof.e. La*. 4%%5'. Arms and great seal of the *epublic of the #hilippines. Arousal. [3ec..or.uilty.ement of t)e clitoris. Arrangement.uilty. ++. consi. <)e readin. 155'.e or clerk to t)e defendant and deliverin. a dou1le mar... Agreement.eneral.al =ed. azure and . [Du)aime:s Le. <)e sus+ension of all )ostilities *it)in a certain area -local. or *)ere +ermitted @olo contendere. t)e color of t)e arms s)all not 1e deemed essential. Intl. or its e7uivalent in t)e national lan. a c)ief ar. )im *)et)er )e +leads . inscri1ed t)ereon. not . [Flarte. of t)e com+laint or information 1y t)e 2ud. 3ee Arras. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1st . Arnibal. t)e Great 3eal.d. La*.. [Glossary of Le. Intl. 1.inal *alls and increased va. Le.ra+). $. to an erection in men and in enlar. and surroundin.ement of t)e va. Arrastre charge. *)ic) 1lood flo* to t)e .uilty. <)e arrai. <)e (rms of t)e 6)ili++ines *)ic) s)all )ave +ale*ays of t*o -4. Rule 11". 4%%5'. <)e amount *)ic) t)e o*ner.in. 111-114'. .ent over all t)e sun rayonnant *it) ei. <)e formal a++earance of an accused +erson to )ear.

ers.d. 1 1. 1. =ar. [(rt. receivin. 1arn. 6ol. citin. 4%%5'. 1. [(rt. Arson$ other forms of. [3ec. 1indin. RoC'. $. Arrival under stress. and custody of t)e im+orted or e0+orted article or t)e 1a.. of ot)er Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . one of )is o*n *ill and li1erty. 4. in t)e 1urnin. 8'. ( de1t t)at is not +aid on t)e due date *)ic) adds u+ and accumulates as arrears. Arrastre charges. (n actual restraint of t)e +erson to 1e arrested. 4. La*. Rule 11$. 6D 1"1$'. 6)il. C(. store)ouse..al Dict..a v.a. Arresto mayor. RoC'. =oreno.. [3ec. committed at a time or under circumstances *)ic) clearly e0clude all dan. B)en a vessel from a forei.. suc) as +ursuit 1y +irates. Rule 11$. R6C'.a. 1.ent of eit)er. Arson. R( 1 $8'. 18.. -1 &&. 84'. Arresto menor.. [3ec. $rd .e of t)e +assen. <)e act of any +erson *)o 1urns or sets fire to t)e +ro+erty of anot)er. 1.. )im to 1ecome o1edient to t)e *ill of t)e la*. s)ed. 48. 1 &. [3andoval. 4. 4%$ 3CR( &!. (lso 1nvoluntary entrance..er of t)e fire s+readin. of article or 1a. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. $!'. <)at t)ere is intentional 1urnin.o. Fct. (r1olante. [6eo+le v. [(rt. unsea*ort)iness of t)e vessel. GR "81$. and -1.. 4%%% . <)e arson of any unin)a1ited )ut. inclement *eat)er. or any ot)er +ro+erty t)e value of *)ic) does not e0ceed 64!.n +ort is com+elled 1y stress of *eat)er or ot)er necessity to +ut into any ot)er +ort t)an t)at of )er destination. <)e +enalty t)e duration of *)ic) s)all 1e from one day to t)irty days -of im+risonment.. La* Dict. Arson of property of small value. Arrest. <)e +enalty t)e duration of *)ic) s)all 1e from one mont) and one day to si0 mont)s -of im+risonment.nee 1efore t)e delivery of t)e car. Arrears. +. t)at *)at is intentionally 1urned is an in)a1ited )ouse or d*ellin. 1$. GR 1$%"55. to 1e +aid 1y t)e consi. [Larrana. R6C'. Aees for t)e services of t)e arrastre o+erator.. . or 1y )is su1mission to t)e custody of t)e +erson makin. Arson. (rson consistin. In voluntary entrance may 1e due to lack of +rovisions..e )as to +ay for t)e )andlin. R( 1 $8'. [Du)aime:s Le. de+rivin. t)e arrest. [=orenoEs La* Dict.3 a.lements> -a. <)e takin. =ar. of a +erson into custody in order t)at )e may 1e 1ound to ans*er for t)e commission of an offense. or ot)er case of force ma2eure.d. $1%1. [3ec. +. R6C'. 1%1". [3ec. Restraint on +erson. $4$. 48.

(. -2. or +lantations *)en t)e value of suc) +ro+erty does not e0ceed 64%%. if t)e 1uildin.ns. for.ar mill. -c. Inflammation of a 2oint marked 1y +ain. *)en t)e +ro+erty 1urned consists of . R( 1%!'. or vessel in +ort. if an in)a1ited )ouse or any ot)er 1uildin. s*ellin. . 2udicial or administrative +roceedin.rain fields. farm)ouse. +rosecution for t)e +unis)ment of violators of t)e la*. and t)e cul+rit did not kno* t)at suc) )ouse or 1uildin. counterfeits or imitates any ori. located in an unin)a1ited +lace is set on fire. +asture lands. affi0es or causes to a++ear a usur+ed or for. if a farm..ed si. 1. $41. )eat and redness. R6C. s)elter. if t)e 1uildin.nature or si. if .4 +ro+erty and under t)e follo*in. su. +.. -). -e. in *)ic) +eo+le are accustomed to meet is set on fire. (n act committed 1y any +erson or entity *)o> -a.alleries.inal si. t)e matters re7uired 1y t)e Cor+oration Code filed *it) t)e 3. 4!. -. and -d.rain fields. not used as a d*ellin. -1.ainst loss or dama.n on any *ork of fine art. suc) as art . -c. sells or circulates any *ork of fine art 1earin. under an insurance +olicy a. <)e document +re+ared 1y t)e +ersons esta1lis)in. Art dealer..natures or si. [=eKez v. (+r. mill central. 1 &%. [Claridades. 1urned is a +u1lic 1uildin. Articles of incorporation. *as occu+ied at t)e time. or +lantin. or +lace of assem1ly. forests. a cor+oration and containin. t)e result of r)eumatism or . circumstances> 1.e 1y fire. as amended 1y R( !5"8'. or forests. *it) t)e intent to deceive t)e +u1lic or t)e 1uyer as to t)e aut)ors)i+ of a *ork of art.ents. -d. Arthritis$ acute. if t)e arson s)all )ave 1een committed *it) t)e intention of collectin.ed or usur+ed si.s are set on fire.s. art 1rokers and a. located in a +o+ulated +lace. *are)ouse.nature or si.n. !"'. +asture lands. -i. or -k. <)e 3im+lified =edical Dict. and t)e +ur+ose is to destroy evidence ke+t t)erein to 1e used in le. cane mill..out.islative. [(rt. Art forgery. if t)e 1uildin. or if )e s)all set fire to a movin.CC. -1. is set on fire. )ut.)t train or motor ve)icle. [3ec $. -f. frei. R( 1%!'.ain. if t)e offender s)all set fire to any 1uildin. citin. it to 1e occu+ied at t)e time 1y one or more +ersons.roves or any similar +lantation is set on fire. 1am1oo . for La*yers. 1urned is a +u1lic 1uildin. GR L-5&5&&. kno*in.C. 1urned is a +u1lic 1uildin. and t)e +ur+ose is to destroy evidence ke+t t)erein to 1e used in institutin. (ny +erson or entity *)o sells or ot)er*ise deals in *orks of fine art for +rofit or .. used as d*ellin. if a 1uildin. if a 1uildin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3ec $. imitates or re+roduces any *ork of fine art *it) intent to deceive t)e +u1lic or t)e 1uyer as to t)e aut)enticity of t)e *ork.

(ny structure of natural or man-made materials +laced on a 1ody of *ater to serve as s)elter and )a1itat. 4. <)e 1asic instrument creatin. [3ec. Ae1. ( +rocess in *)ic) t)e male . Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. 4%%14%%"'. 4"$'. 5. GR L-"11". +. artistic *ork +roduced in 7uantity. . *eservista.d.ametes. GR L"1 $1. =ar. R( &!!%'. GR !44".5 Com+ilation of @otes. Asesinato.ear *)ic) do not re7uire 1oats or *)ic) only re7uire 1oats 1elo* t)ree -$. Artifacts. $. Artificial feeding.. 1reedin. Ascariasis. 1&. 48. 4. Artificial reefs. Gnder 3ec. 6ortal of entry is t)rou. 4%%% Rev. (lias. Its ve)icles for transmission are t)e fecally contaminated food and drinks. and definin. Artworks. Artificial insemination. [C)avez v. 4%%5'. areas for fis)ery s+ecies and s)oreline +rotection. Rule 4% of t)e 1 "5 Rules of Court. &!. [Intl. R( 5&5"'. <)e Aamily Code of t)e 6)ils. [3ec. 1ut failed to com+ly *it) t)e mandate of t)e Rules in Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e rule in succession t)at. <)e makin. a +articular cor+oration *)ic) is filed *it) a state a. are collected and introduced artificially into t)e female . t)e decoration of artistic o12ects so made. (rticles *)ic) are +roducts of )uman skills or *orkmans)i+. Ascendant-reservista. to t)e e0clusion of collateral relatives. source of food. =unici+al.enital tract for t)e +ur+ose fertilization. . citin. [G3 v. 1 11'. [Fzaeta v. [3ec. La* Dict. tons.. C(.'. 1 $. )is +arents and ascendants s)all in)erit from )im.) t)e oral route. Infestation *it) ascaris lum1ricoides. Artisanal fisher folk. a +arty *)o fails to a++ear at a +re-trial conference may 1e nonsuited or considered as in default.itimate c)ildren and descendants of t)e deceased. $1. R( &54!'. (nnotated. 3+. $. in default of le. [(rt. Dict. . CC'. As in default. 3ee 4ormula feeding. +ast eras or +eriods. [@olledo.ency at t)e time of t)e firm:s incor+oration. @ov.CC. =urder. C Direct. t)e s+ermatozoa. 3ee Ascending direct line. small scale or su1sistence fis)ermen *)o use fis)in.ative and affirmative defenses. <)is contem+lates a scenario *)erein t)e defendant in a suit )ad already filed )is ans*er -t)erefore )ad set u+ 1ot) )is ne. of decorative or artistic o12ects 1y )and. es+ecially in t)e sim+le +roduct of +rimitive arts or industry re+resentin. 1 &8'.

4%%% . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . and a++raisal of +ro+erties.. out of t)e +ossession of t)e o*ner *it)out )is +rivity and consent and *it)out t)e animus revertendi. 6enal Code'. <)e certificates issued 1y a s+ecial +ur+ose entity -36. +articularly t)e +recious metals. 3uffocation... 1 %. t)e discovery. =ar7uez.. =orrison. [3ec.er e0ists under t)e 1 8 Rules of 6rocedure. (. t)e +roof of annual *ork o1li. It is synonymous to <a0a1le value. any intentional dis+lay of force t)at *ould . [3ec. 4%%14%%"'. <)e act or +rocess of determinin. (lso. In minin. or +ro+ortion t)ereof. [Glossary of Le. 3alvilla. 4. [6eo+le v. Com+ilation of @otes. <)reat to inflict in2ury *it) an a++arent a1ility to do so. t)e value of a +ro+erty. 1 $. $. 3e+. 4". 6)il.d.al <erms -6ro3e.d. Asphy%ia. (+r. R( 4"8'. <)e +)rase refers to t)e +)ysical condition of t)e t)in.oods from t)e +ossession of t)e o*ner and a1solute control of t)e +ro+erty 1y t)e taker. +. <)e takin. Assessment level. 4%%% . 111. su12ect to ta0. GR L-5&&$5. +. [6eo+le v. 6D 5"5'. t)e re+ayment of *)ic) s)all 1e derived from t)e cas) flo* of t)e assets in accordance *it) t)e 6lan. <)e assessed value *)en multi+lied 1y t)e ta0 rate *ill +roduce t)e amount of ta0 due.. ( test 1y means of c)emical analysis to determine t)e +urity of fineness of metals. It is actual *ork done in t)e area. <)e +ercenta. citin. [Claridades.ive t)e victim reason to fear or e0+ect immediate 1odily )arm. (7uino.. $. includin. [6eo+le v. Assay. citin. of a t)in. 1&5 3CR( at "88'.. $. Asset-backed securities 2A:)3.6 not a++earin. Assessment. [3ec.)ts. 3everance of .e a++lied to t)e market value to determine t)e ta0a1le or assessed value of t)e +ro+erty. +. Assault. =inin. Ri. <)is +rovision no lon. citin. $8'. #une $. at t)e sc)eduled +re-trial )earin. GR &"1"$. . +. listin. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [6eKa. 5 1-5 4'. Assessment work. La* on @atural Resources. 15... 1 8 Rev. 6D 5"5'.ations *)ic) are *orks or im+rovements necessary and instrumental in develo+in. (+olinario. $&'. As is where is. GR 854".d..reement. t)e mines and e0tractin. Com+are *it) 1n default. <)e value +laced on ta0a1le +ro+erty 1y t)e assessor for ad valorem ta0 +ur+oses. 6D 5"5'. ores t)erefrom. su12ect matter of t)e a. Assessed value. [=orenoEs La* Dict. $.. 4%%5'. 1 &8.' Asportation. even for an instant. Rev. [3ec.

<)e term s)all include. 1&&'.)t t)erein.. [Diaz.nee )as no ri. 9ut an assi. 1 8. from royalties. 48. <)e +rocess of transferrin. +. 1 &.. or of any estate or ri.ainst t)e de1tor..nee.)t or +ro+erty 1ein. national or local. 1.iven and t)e assi. 1 1 .rou+ of identified. t)e asset-1acked securities -(93.al Dict. citin.nor -limited +artner. *)o ac7uires t)e +o*er to enforce it to t)e same e0tent as t)e assi. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. [6@9 v. . <)e transfer of a ri. 8!'.d.. 4. $. Assets. 4$&'. 4. Ae1. arisin. )omo.nor is t)e +erson . C Cont. at an ad2ustment *it) )is creditors. It includes transfers of all kinds of +ro+erty.. Assign.reement 1y virtue of *)ic) t)e o*ner of a credit. 9us.i1le +ersonal +ro+erty and. in +ossession or in action.a. Fne *)o is only entitled to receive t)e s)are of t)e +rofits or ot)er com+ensation 1y *ay of income.)ts in or connected *it) +ro+erty as distin. [3ec. is t)e +erson *)o receives t)e ri. La* Dict. Loans or receiva1les or ot)er similar financial assets *it) an e0+ected cas) +ayment stream.ly. <o . GR 11&$!8.. F1li. <)e transfer 1y an insolvent de1tor of all )is +ro+erty to anot)er for t)e +ur+ose of arrivin. [<orres. +. (n a.nee -sometimes also called assi. 1ut s)all not 1e limited to. 4%%% . <)e . R( 4"8'.ivin.d. <)e assi. $58'. ( su1stituted +artner )as all t)ese ri. citin. +.)ts to anot)er. accordin. C Cont.)t or interest in +ro+erty 1y one +erson to anot)er.Asset pool.eneous assets underlyin.e loans and ot)er de1t instruments. C(. ( transfer or makin. receiva1les. t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $58'. $. R( 4"8'.)t to re7uire any information or account of t)e +artners)i+Es transactions or to ins+ect t)e +artners)i+Es 1ooks.nor could )ave enforced it a. <olentino... C(..nor.. 4%%5'.. F1li. +.overnment. Assignee. 4%%% .. Assignment for the benefit of creditors. =oreno:s 6)il.d. 1. $rd . or t)e return of t)e contri1ution. Assignment. La* Rev. to *)ic) )is assi. to transfer res+onsi1ility. mort. *ould ot)er *ise 1e entitled. over to anot)er of t)e *)ole of any +ro+erty. kno*n as t)e assi. +. Assignment of credit. [Casa1uena v. real or +ersonal. [3ec. kno*n as t)e assi. [Du)aime:s Le.al cause.)ts. =ay ". -9ook D..otia1le c)oses in action and of ri..ns. and is +eculiarly a++lica1le to intan.d. [<orres. GR 11!51%. and s)all e0clude receiva1les from future e0+ectation of revenues 1y .uis)ed from t)e +articular item or +ro+erty. it is ordinarily em+loyed to descri1e t)e transfer of non-ne. fees or im+osts. 1y a le. to anot)er.ive. transfers )is credit and its accessory ri.

L. Dol. 3e+. [Qilos1ayan v. in *)ic) case. <)e act of a num1er of +ersons in unitin. 6eo+le v. 1 1. [I1id.. Assumpsit. (++. citin. <)at act contem+lated in (rt. C3C.n t)e lease *it)out t)e consent of t)e lessor. <)e errors intended to 1e ur.d.. GR 1%14!1. & (. Association. 1 5'. Associated words doctrine. Assignment of errors. 3ec. 3ee Noscitur a )ociis. or an a. 1. $.R. R( 1"1'. (nnotated. 4$!'. <o lend an aid to. 1 4.er or more ine0+erienced salaried attorneys in most firms are called. RoC'. GR 1%%11$.nor to t)e assi. =onsod. [3ec. 1 1'. (1r.ed as re7uired 1y t)e Rules to 1e contained in t)e a++ellantEs 1rief -*)ic). citin.. @ov.)t of t)e assi.d.)t to +roceed a. Com+are *it) *ecommend. 96 &88.a. GR 81" 5. Rule 55. !t) . 158.'. && 1%8 Dt.nment may 1e done eit)er . 1". t)e assi. R( &8 '. 9( Ainance Cor+. and s)all 1e num1ered consecutively. Assist. [Cayetano v. "$'. or a contract t)at is neit)er of record nor under seal. unless t)ere is a sti+ulation to t)e contrary. distinctly and concisely stated *it)out re+etition. Associated person of a broker or dealer. 1. (n em+loyee t)erefor *)om. 4$8. &&&. (u. 1$. 6ea1ody v.ona.J [3ec.a. ( doctrine under *)ic) a +erson may not recover for an in2ury received *)en )e )as voluntarily e0+osed )imself to a kno*n dan..nee *)o *ould t)en )ave t)e ri. <)e assi. &""'. Lat. Associates. $. v. 41" 6. D. to anot)er. [9lackEs La* Dict.ratuitously or onerously. <)urman.et)er for some s+ecial +ur+ose or 1usiness.ainst t)e de1tor.. viz> I<)e lessee cannot assi. 1"5 of t)e Civil Code.. )e +romised. 4. Guin. to.ed. ( +romise or en. $ 5 -1 4$. -1 &$. directly e0ercises control of su+ervisory aut)ority. =ay !. GR 11$$8!. errors s)all 1e se+arately. Assignment of lease. <o contri1ute effort in t)e com+lete accom+lis)ment of an ultimate +ur+ose intended to 1e effected 1y t)ose en. 1 &4 . +.es for t)e non-+erformance of a +arol or sim+le contract. 18& (. [3inon v. 1ut does not include a salesman. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .nment )as an effect similar to t)at of a sale [@yco 3ales Cor+.er. 4. [3ec. <)e term 1y *)ic) youn.5. ( common la* form of action *)ic) lies for t)e recovery of dama. "4 Cal. +.ent or a +erson *)ose functions are solely clerical or ministerial. 4. <o*n of Lolland. Le undertook. 6aras.ement 1y *)ic) one +erson assumes or undertakes to do some act or +ay somet)in. !. Assumption of risk.! ri.

Catolico -"! 6)il.ular )olidays unless t)e *orkin.. aut)orized a1sences and +aid re. $. ..e and +rotection. or +lace of refu. (ssault u+on a +erson in aut)ority. ( sanctuary." [Glossary of Le. *)et)er continuous or 1roken reckoned from t)e date t)e em+loyee started *orkin. <)e time in a la*suit *)en t)e com+lainin. "5'. Aswang.al <erms -6ro3e. La1or. 1 ""'. in *)ic) case said +eriod s)all 1e considered as one year. 3ervice for not less t)an 14 mont)s.ive 1irt). 4$'.ranted. La*. $. is e0ecuted 1y attac)in.. ri.ranted it. various and different forms. or so muc) t)ereof as may 1e sufficient to satisfy t)e +laintiff:s demands.. +arty )as stated )is claim and t)e ot)er side )as res+onded *it) a denial and t)e matter is ready to 1e tried. 3+. includin.n country )as t)e ri. [Glossary of Le.. 3ario. (u. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. [3ec. (n in2urious and evil c)aracter 1elieved to 1e ca+a1le of assumin.. ( +rivile. 4. ( 2uridical institution *)ic) )as for its +ur+ose to secure t)e outcome of t)e trial t)at is t)e satisfaction of t)e +ecuniary o1li. [<io+ianco.al <erms -6ro-3e.)t )ave committed. LC'. Rule !. all t)e mova1le +ro+erty of t)e defendant. Cariaso.)t to offer an asylum to fu.)t *omen *)o are a1out to . !t) . es+ecially t)at of a do.ation really contrasted 1y a +erson or 1elieved to )ave 1een contracted 1y )im. and safely kee+in. Guzman v. [<acas v.ranted 1y a state to allo* an alien esca+in.d. At least one-year service. 1. 6ol. [6eo+le v. +. GR L-$85%".rant )im asylum. [9lackEs La* Dict.. from contract or from la*. Commentaries C #uris+.d. -1 &$. citin. GR L-4%8!5 C L-4%8! . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . days in t)e esta1lis)ment as a matter of +ractice or +olicy. or 1y virtue of some crime or misdemeanor t)at )e mi. #une $%. Assured. Intl. <a. Attachment.e . Atentado contra la autoridad. <)e +erson for *)ose 1enefit t)e insurance is . [3andoval. Remedial La*. or t)at +rovided in t)e em+loyment contract is less t)an 14 mont)s.e.. +. 1.)t on t)e +art of t)e alien to claim asylum. (1r. Asylum.ation emanatin.itives from ot)er countries. t)ere is no corres+ondin. 1 . 1. Dol. 1 8"'. [Lerrera. *)ere criminals and de1tors find s)elter and from *)ic) t)ey could not 1e take *it)out sacrile.. 4%%5'. on t)e Ins. usually in t)e de+t) of ni. 3ee Direct assault. and )arassin. Code of t)e 6)il.. $1. +. from t)e +ersecution of )is country for +olitical reasons remain and . At issue. eit)er 1y virtue of a civil o1li. B)ile a forei. 4%%5'. and t)e *rit issued.

of Crim. 4%%5'. 1$ -1 !%. eit)er at t)e commencement of t)e action or at any time t)ereafter 1efore final 2ud. [Leynez v.. as security for t)e satisfaction of a 2ud.. GR L$"%$$.al <erms -6ro3e. 4. [<estate .ives affirmation to t)e fact t)at com+liance *it) t)e essential formalities re7uired 1y la* )as 1een o1served. 4. 1y *)ic) t)e +ro+erty of t)e adverse +arty is taken into le.'. Leynez. or ot)er casualty.. ( +erson t)at )as 1een trained in t)e la* and t)at )as 1een certified to . and does not +erform all t)e acts of e0ecution *)ic) s)ould +roduce t)e felony 1y reason of some cause or accident ot)er t)an t)is o*n s+ontaneous desistance. 1. carries 1eyond +re+aration. *itnesses certify t)at t)e instrument )as 1een e0ecuted 1efore t)em and to t)e manner of t)e e0ecution of t)e same. Aund. so t)at in case of failure of t)e memory of t)e attestin. v. 3ucc. C(. +arty. [(rt. [#uristEs Le.al custody. t)e testator:s e0ecution of t)e *ill in order to see and take note mentally t)at t)ose t)in.state of 6aula <oray. @ov. (n alternate *ord for la*yers. Attestation clause. v.al Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1ut lackin. Rosal. It is made for t)e +ur+ose of +reservin. t)e conduct of e0ecution and once si. 4. 51!. &8 6)il. =ar. ( se+arate memorandum or record of t)e facts surroundin. of t)at +istol at a +erson. $. 85! -1 $ . ".ment o1tained 1y t)e +revailin. 3ucc.'. ( +rovisional remedy in t)e form of an order issued 1y a 2ud.nature of t)e testator e0ists as a fact. in a +ermanent form a record of t)e facts t)at attended t)e e0ecution of a +articular *ill. Attorney. 4%%5'. C( GR "%%&-R. <)at +art of an ordinary *ill *)ere1y t)e attestin. *itnesses. of a +istol from t)e )olster at t)e )i+ and t)e aimin. de Ramos. a +erson:s +ro+erty to satisfy a court-ordered de1t. Attested will.al Dict. &1 3CR( $ $ -1 8&. [Glossary of Le. Attestation. 6eo+le v. 1 &4'.s are done *)ic) t)e statute re7uires for t)e e0ecution of a *ill and t)at t)e si. Gruen1er. +. <akin. !. "& 6)il. 1 8 t) .. e0ecution. ( felony *)ere t)e offender commences t)e commission of a felony directly 1y overt acts.d. Attack.ment. [Gre. Attempt.'. La* Rev.. R6C'. it . C( -1$& 3CR( 581.orio.ive le. Ladena. citin. suc) facts may still 1e +roved. 1 !1'.ned 1y t)e *itnesses. &. It consists in *itnessin.'.onistic movement or action of any kind and t)e dra*in. [In Re> <a1oada v. 3ee 0rdinary will. [Dda. Attempted felony. (ny offensive or anta.!# 4!8. (n endeavor or effort to do an act or accom+lis) a crime.e 1efore *)om t)e +ro+er action is +endin.

)t and +o*er over suc) 2ud. 4%%% . suc) e0ecution.encies.ent *)ose aut)ority is strictly limited 1y t)e instrument a++ointin. AttorneyDs or lawyerDs oath.. of le. 4%%5'. documents and +a+ers of )is client *)ic) )ave la*fully come into )is +ossession and *)ic) )e may retain until )is la*ful fees and dis1ursements )ave 1een +aid. [Claridades.ivin. draftin.ments for t)e +ayment of money.al advice.al functions for clients. C Cont. . <)e full te0t reads> HI. Attorney-at-law.al . 4. [Du)aime:s Le. etc. Le. +. ( reasona1le com+ensation to *)ic) t)e attorney is or s)all 1e entitled to )ave and recover from )is client for )is services. Le s)all also )ave a lien to t)e same e0tent u+on all 2ud. RoC'. Attorney-in-fact. (. to t)e suit. from and after t)e time *)en )e s)all )ave caused a statement of )is claim of suc) lien to 1e entered u+on t)e records of t)e court renderin.. 4%%5'.d. suc) 2ud.ation. Attorney of record.) )e may do t)in. *)o si. suc) 1efore courts. $58'. 1oards. AttorneyDs fee.ments. ( +erson *)o )as 1een a++ointed 1y anot)er to act in )is 1e)alf and in )is name. [6)il. and t)e +rofessional standin. 4%%14%%"'. of t)e attorney. ""'. or issuin. and s)all )ave caused *ritten notice t)ereof to 1e delivered to )is client and to t)e adverse +arty. Com+ilation of @otes. *it) a vie* to t)e im+ortance of t)e su12ect matter of t)e controversy.ment. )im.s not mentioned in )is a++ointment necessary to t)e +erformance of t)e duties s+ecifically re7uired of )im.ns all formal documents relatin.ncyc. "t) . <)e oat) of office *)ic) every la*yer in t)e 6)ili++ines )as to take 1efore )e is allo*ed to +ractice la*. *)ic) )e )as secured in a liti. ( +erson admitted to +ractice la* in )is res+ective state and aut)orized to +erform 1ot) civil and criminal le.. [9lackEs La* Dict. necessarily im+lied. (n a. t)e e0tent of t)e services rendered.ments and e0ecutions as )is client *ould )ave to enforce )is lien and secure t)e +ayment of )is 2ust fees and dis1ursements. and e0ecutions issued in +ursuance of suc) 2ud. and re+resentin..ation of )is client. t)ou.. and )e s)all )ave t)e same ri. $8.. [Glossary of Le. suc) aut)ority 1ein...al Dict.al <erms -6ro-3e. includin. TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e +rinci+al attorney in a la*suit.d. administrative a. Attorneys' liens. F1li. ( lien *)ic) an attorney s)all )ave u+on t)e funds. Rule 1$&. [3ec. +. 1. and may a++ly suc) funds to t)e satisfaction t)ereof. [<orres.!1 advice or to re+resent ot)ers in liti.al documents. +. 14&'. le.

Lat. 5t) . 3F L. t)at to t)e 1est of )is kno*led. citin. and 1elief. [<orres. false or unla*ful suit nor . (. GR L-$1 58. ( +u1lic sale of +ro+erty to t)e )i.erous instrumentality of a c)aracter *)ic) is attractive to c)ildren of tender years at +lay and *)o fails to e0ercise due dili. 41..eneral lien for t)e 1alance of t)e account 1et*een t)e attorney and )is client.d. or resortin. 1"!'.ood . Attractive nuisance doctrine. and a++lies to t)e documents and funds of t)e client *)ic) may come into t)e attorney:s +ossession in t)e course of )is em+loyment.round to su++ort it. I *ill not delay any man:s cause for money or malice and *ill conduct myself as a la*yer accordin. 4!. t)ereto. =ar.e. $.. R( 85$%'..rava.roundless. Attrition.e and discretion *it) all .)t to )e )eard s)ould not 1e ruled out.ly +romote or sue any . and t)at it is not inter+osed for delay. 1 8 . 9or2a. a++ended to t)e RoC as revised on Fct. information. 4. GFD. C Cont. deat) or transfer to anot)er office. Audi alteram partem.nature. a +arty on every +leadin. Com+ilation of @otes.al orders of t)e duly constituted aut)orities t)erein. -*)ic) si. <)e ri.. la*s. ( +rinci+le of natural 2ustice *)ic) +ro)i1its a Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . even if t)e c)ild is tec)nically a tres+asser. GR L-48$ 5. constitutes a certificate 1y )im t)at )e )as read t)e +leadin.ive aid nor consent to t)e same. 9lack:s La* Dict. [Claridades.ood fidelity as *ell to t)e courts as to my clients and I im+ose u+on myself t)is o1li.ence to +revent suc) c)ildren form +layin..ation voluntary.. t)ere*it) or resortin. [<orres v. 1 8%. is lia1le to a c)ild *)o is in2ured t)ere1y. 4.nature signature. to t)e 1est of my kno*led.. Attorney's retaining lien. 1 85'. +. Rule 8. (. 4%%% .iance to t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines. 1. F1li. I *ill su++ort and defend its Constitution and o1ey t)e la*s as *ell as t)e le.H [Aorm 4&.nation. [3ec. 1 3CR( 0v'.!2 TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT do solemnly s*ear t)at I *ill maintain alle.d. Auction. $58'. [3ec. [(m+il v. *it)out any mental reservation or +ur+ose of evasion. RoC'. I *ill not *ittin. t)ere is . retirement. Lear t)e ot)er +arty. <)e doctrine t)at *)ere a +erson maintains in )is +remises a dan. <)e reduction of +ersonnel as a result of resi. AttorneyDs si. <)e of a counsel re+resentin. I *ill do no false)ood nor consent to its commission. dismissal in accordance *it) e0istin. ( . #uly $1. 4%%1-4%%"'.L6 =.)est 1idder 1y a +erson called t)e auctioneer *)o must 1e aut)orized 1y la*.ly or *illin. Com+are *it) &harging or special lien.

(+r. [(rt. 85 . [Du)aime:s Le. made audi1le. 48& of t)e Civil Code. Authentication.. *)ic). GR 145$!5. susce+ti1le of 1ein. and includes a +u1lic instrument -one ackno*led. Com+ilation of @otes. . -1. of t)e fat)er -or mot)er. [Claridades. 1y +ersons le. Civil Code'. if its +ur+ose is to s)o* t)at t)e document is a for. GR 8"45!. H<)e acce+tance )avin. C(. susce+ti1le of 1ein. 44. v. *)ere accom+anied 1y sounds. 5$. *it) or *it)out accom+anyin. Bords and 6)rases. R( &4 $'. Fct. 1 . is t)e . GR 4$"%1.)ts *it)out . for +ur+oses of (rt. notification t)ereof to t)e donor in a Oconstancia autenticaE *as evidently not necessary. )is function com+rises t)ree as+ects> -a.encies under t)eir res+ective audit 2urisdiction. Authentic notice. [3ec. L-&18&. 4%4. v. 9artolome. 1 8&.enuine. <o e0amine an account.ed 1efore a notary +u1lic or ot)er com+etent official *it) t)e formalities re7uired 1y la*. Authentic writing.H [Qa+unan v.)t.enuine or indu1ita1le *ritin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . made eit)er 1y t)e use of t)e stet)osco+e or 1y direct a++lication of t)e ear to t)e 1ody. 1 "%'. (.an1ayan. Dol. 3ec. Code of t)e 6)il.. <o e0amine and ad2ust. citin. 4%%14%%"'. 4%.nosis and treatment. or +roof of its for. Govt. Dec.al Dict.enuineness if t)e +ur+ose is to s)o* t)at it is .)t to 1e )eard. com+are it *it) t)e vouc)ers. 1 4!. [Ramos v.ivin. [9anaa. Constancia autentica. Auditorial function of an auditor. (uditin. 1 1'. e0amination. Casilan. Auditing &ode of the #hilippines. 3e+. 1een made in t)e deed of . and to state t)e 1alance. <)e +roof of a documentEs due e0ecution and .es *)ic) im+art t)e im+ression of motion.ned into la* on #une 11. Dec.ans as an aid to dia. $1. 4%%4'. ( *ork t)at consists of a series of related ima.vid. [?nc)austi C Co. ( *ritin. Audit. all +arties in t)e dis+ute a ri. t)e e0amination 1ein. 1. 1 & . *it)in or. [(rias v. 4%%5'. a +u1lic or official document in accordance *it) t)e Rules of Court. and.ery. Auscutate. funds. audit> and -c. ++ "$ -"5%'. 6D 155! si. <o listen to t)e sounds arisin. 1st 3eries. 11. sounds. ad2ust t)e same.. Bri.ally aut)orized for t)e +ur+ose. settlement of t)e accounts. (s a re+resentative of t)e Commission on (udit.ift itself. financial transactions and resources of t)e a. made visi1le and.'.ery. GR &1!"$.!3 2udicial decision *)ic) im+acts u+on individual ri. 3andi. Audiovisual work or fi%ation. citin.

[6o7uiz. Authority. GR 1!4885. Be1sterEs $rd @e* Intl. Aut (udicare aut dedere. common to anti-terrorism treaties. La1or Rel. In an automatic manner. It is synonymous *it) ca+ital stock *)ere t)e s)ares of t)e cor+oration )ave +ar value. Authori ed driver clause. t)at re7uires a contractin.i1le. 4%%5. like or su. eit)er ad2udicate or e0tradite. Cor+. Involuntary eit)er *)olly or to a ma2or e0tent so t)at any activity of t)e *ill is lar. [(rt.. Lat. 4.'. Authori ed-cause dismissal. 45. 1 &5'. 181. under any enactment or re.)t or conscious intention. GR 1!4885. 1 & . and electronic devices to count votes and canvass/consolidate results.as v.d. LC'. Romulo. [Intl.d. GR L-$58"&. Automated election system. citin. suc) as a friend or mem1er of t)e family or t)e em+loyees of a car service or re+air s)o+. Co.a.. [(rt.li. Automatic. Dict. Be1sterEs $rd @e* Intl. La* Dict. =alayan Ins. ( document issued 1y t)e DFL. Com+are *it) 9ust-cause dismissal. Code of t)e 6)il. Authori ed capital stock. R( &5$"'. +. =ay 48. 4%%5'. [3tokes v. La1or. [Dillacorta v. Comm.'. or *it) )is +ermission. La1or.as v. (nnotated. =ay 48. state for +rosecution t)ere. Automatically. aut)orizin.ular driver. Romulo. Ins. [6rov.. em+loyer-em+loyee relations)i+ *it) a lia1ility on t)e +art of t)e em+loyer to +ay se+aration +ay as mandated 1y la*. ( rule. suc) as )is re. of a refle0 nature *it)out volition.e in recruitment and +lacement activities as a +rivate recruitment entity. of 9atan.ulations to drive t)e motor ve)icle and is not dis7ualified from so doin. [De Leon. [3ec. Ins. R( &4 $'. *)o drives t)e car on t)e insured:s order..y for votin.ulation.estive of an automation.!4 Author. C Direct. must 1e duly licensed drivers and )ave no dis7ualification to drive a motor ve)icle. a +erson or association to en. $5 '. ( system usin. *it)out t)ou.ed offender *)o is *it)in its territory or to e0tradite t)e offender to anot)er contractin. of 9atan. mec)anical. citin. 1$. <)e natural +erson *)o )as created t)e *ork. Dict. 1. 4%%5. 1 .ely ne. !4'. 1%% 3CR( 5"8'. state eit)er to +rosecute an alle. La*. ( form of terminatin. ( clause *)ic) +rovides t)at an aut)orized driver must not only 1e +ermitted to drive 1y t)e insured 1ut t)at )e is +ermitted under t)e la* and re. a++ro+riate tec)nolo. 4. +. Ae1.. [6rov. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e main +ur+ose of t)e clause is t)at a +erson ot)er t)an t)e insured o*ner.

1uses. GR 8!454.!5 Automatic appropriation for debt service. out of Relent and Guaranteed Loans 1y (++ro+riatin. Certain 6rovisions of Re+u1lic (ct @um1ered Aour <)ousand . v. Cara. @o. [Du)aime:s Le. @o. 3e+. 1$%".lao v. [=anila Resource Dev.o vans. <)at for +ur+oses of R( 445. Autonomy in contracts$ 4reedom to contract or 6iberty in contracts. Cor+. v. 2ee+neys or 2ee+ney su1stitutes. morals. &1. aut)orized 1y 6. @LRC.elin. t)e 9ud. . H1y 6. (ct. entitled HRevisin. +arties may esta1lis) suc) sti+ulations as t)ey may deem convenient. +rovided t)ey are not contrary to la*.H [Guin.d.D. (u. 2ee+s. 1st . (+r. t)e Guarantee and 6ayment 6ositions of t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines on Its Contin.. ( deviate *)o *ould rat)er )ave mastur1ation t)an make love *it) )is/)er +artner of t)e o++osite se0. [<i. 6revious conviction.n 9orro*in. 1 & '.D.H and 1y 6. [R( 445'. Autrefois acquit.ardless of seatin. 1 4'. 11$'. entitled H(n (ct 3tren. GR L-$1!"" C L-$1&58.al =ed. Autonomy. Ar. (ttainted for a felony. GR &%$ 1.D. 1188. It refers to a +erson *)o cannot 1e tried a. Ar. Le. 4%%5'. [Du)aime:s Le. It refers to an accused *)o cannot 1e tried for a crime 1ecause t)e record s)o*s )e )as already 1een su12ected to trial for t)e same conduct and *as ac7uitted. (ny four -5.t)enin.. @o.et 6rocess in Frder to Institutionalize t)e 9ud. car..ue. GR 5!81. or more *)eeled motor ve)icle re. 1 8%'. itself and its condition.ona. -4%%5. 3ee *eal evidence.i. Comelec. entitled H(mendin. Autoptic proference.. diesel. <)e ins+ection 1y t)e tri1unal of t)e t)in. 4. -(++ro+riation in t)e General (++ro+riations (ct.asoline. <)e rule in (rt. of t)e Civil Code t)at t)e contractin. 4%%5'.ood customs. Automobile. 1 "8. It is eit)er decentralization of administration or decentralization of +o*er. and s+ecial+ur+ose ve)icles s)all not 1e considered as automo1iles. electricity or any ot)er motive +o*er> 6rovided..)t Lundred 3i0ty. Autrefois attaint. 44. Autrefois convict.al Dict. +. Ar. 1 1'. trucks. *)ic) is +ro+elled 1y . 4&.al Dict.ain for t)e same offence. Ae1. =an. ca+acity. #r. $1. [Flarte. It refers to t)e +lea made 1y t)e accused if )e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ent Lia1ilities (risin.al =ed.etary Innovations of t)e @e* 3ociety. Aunds Aor <)e 6ur+ose. as (mended -Re> Aorei. Le. [Lim1ona v. c)assis.le ca1. 6revious ac7uittal. +u1lic order or +u1lic +olicy. Autose%ual.. sin.

Lat.al Dict. $. [<enc)avez v. (ny e0traordinary or accidental e0+ense incurred durin. 44. t)e a. Au%iliary social services. R( 8488'.rounds of adultery of t)e *ife or concu1ina. .re. divided 1y suc) num1er of calendar years.eneral reclassification of local . +. @ov. R( 81%5'. in contrast to t)e +recedin. 1. <)e 7uotient after dividin. <)e sum of t)e annual income as )erein defined actually o1tained 1y a +rovince. [Du)aime:s Le. le.al Dict.o unloaded.. ( +articular lan.e. 5. Average annual income. s+oken in certain +laces.. 1 &8'. <)e term is no* used to refer to a final and +ermanent divorce. 4 .scaKo. to furt)er em+)asize its restrictive +olicy on t)e matter. Ff marria.islation -(ct 481%. t)e intentional Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . t)e re7uired num1er of consecutive calendar years immediately +recedin. on t)e Ins. t)e . [<io+ianco. Au%iliary language.overnments.. and in fact it does not even use t)at term..!6 maintains t)at t)e +revious trial resulted in conviction. (ny +roduct raised ot)er t)an t)e cro+ to *)ic) t)e cultivation of t)e land is +rinci+ally devoted in eac) a. Avoidance of the law. 5. <)e su++ortive activities in t)e delivery of social services to t)e mar.e commenced until it ends and t)e car. or t)ree t)ousand +esos.ua.ned functions. $ of R( 44"$. Average monthly compensation. Average. 1 "!'. GR L-1 "81.F 45 . Au%iliary crop. 4%%5'. 4%%5'. . Ins.e. t)e voya. t)e +roduce of t)e lot referred to in 3ec. as may 1e certified to 1y t)e Commission on (udit for +ur+oses of suc) reclassification of +rovinces. Code of t)e 6)il. no* in force.e of t)e )us1and. t)at admitted a1solute divorce on . 118'. 4.e for t)e +reservation of t)e vessel. =ar. *)ic) su++orts or )el+s t)e national and/or official lan. 7uo ad vinculo matrimonii. 6D 115"'. In conflict of la*s.es in t)eir assi. [Du)aime:s Le. [3ec. +ar. city or munici+ality durin.o form t)e time it is loaded and t)e voya.ua. )is deat)/se+aration/disa1ility/retire ment. [3ec.d.ate com+ensations received 1y t)e mem1er for t)e last t)ree years immediately +recedin.. and e0cludin. 1y t)e num1er of mont)s )e received said com+ensation. cities and munici+alities. 4. *)ic) ever is smaller.ricultural year. [3ec. A vinculo matrimonii. [3ec. 4.es to t)e vessel and car. Commentaries C #uris+. does not admit a1solute divorce. <)e Civil Code of t)e 6)ili++ines.inalized sectors of society. 1 . [3ec.o or 1ot) and all dama. R( 44"$'. #uly 4!. car.

+rovided t)at )e removes t)e same *it)in t*o years. Award.ed retains t)e o*ners)i+ of it.itimate +ur+ose..'. Awning.. t)e issue in a controversy. 5! . 4. [3ec. 14%$. (ny +artial or final decision 1y an ar1itrator in resolvin. CC'. <)e se. in order to ensure t)e a++lica1ility to t)e a. [<etley. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. +arties. R( 4&!'. it to anot)er estate. <)e o*ner of t)e land to *)ic) t)e se.ainin. ( mova1le s)elter su++orted entirely from t)e e0terior *all of a 1uildin. creek or torrent from an estate on its 1ank a kno*n +ortion of land and transferrin. 1. Avulsion.ated +ortion 1elon. 4%%5'. folded.! arran. for a le. [Du)aime:s Le. [(rt. factors -contacts. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . in an a. -Internet.e in a river stream suc) as a flas) flood. [3ec. or colla+sed a. Land accretion t)at occurs 1y t)e erosion or addition of one:s land 1y t)e sudden and une0+ected c)an. 6D 1% "'. usually 1y e7ual 1ar.reement of a +articular la* or 2urisdiction.ation 1y t)e current of a river.re.ement of connectin.ainst t)e face of a su++ortin. and of a ty+e *)ic) can 1e retracted. $..reement.al Dict. 1uildin.re. <)e o++osite of evasion of t)e la* -4raude E la loi.

to lift a fe* meters 1efore e0+lodin.. 3e+. <)e 9ids and (*ards Committee esta1lis)ed in accordance *it) (rt.ranted on t)e 1asis of e7uity for earnin. <)e transfer of t)e 1urden of t)e ta0 from t)e consumer or +urc)aser t)rou. Aundamentals of <a0ation...t). <)e firecracker is a1out 1 1/4 inc)es in len. Deterans 9ank . not +rom+ted 1y an )onest mistake. &8". 4%%% . :ack pay.!! *as +revented from doin. [3tate v. :ackward shifting. so 1ecause of )is ille. GR 1%15$&. 1 4'. +. -::aby rocket.. of <ec). :ad faith of a possessor in reference to land. R( 81&$'.d.lect or refusal to fulfill a duty. 6)il.es .C. Fct. [Cat)edral 3c)l. &5 3. :A&. <)ere is a +resum+tion of 1ad fait) *)enever a +ossessor is a*are t)at t)ere e0ists in )is title or mode of ac7uisition any fla* Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4. 1%% 3. 1 ""'.al dismissal 1y t)e em+loyer. (u. 6ay a*arded for *ork t)at could )ave 1een +erformed 1y t)e em+loyee e0ce+t t)at )e :ad faith.m+loyees Gnion v. :ackwages. 1$.. 4. +. !"'. Griffin. 1 !1.al dismissal. Ba. v. D of R( 1&5. 18"'. Deterans 9ank.) t)e factors of distri1ution to t)e factors of +roduction. ( firecracker *it) a stick so constructed t)at li. <)e ne. 5t) . of t)e *ick *ill +ro+el t)e *)ole t)in. [De Leon. [(ir Arance v. cited in 9lack:s Dict. GR L-415$&... 4&. 45. GR "814!. 1.t) 1y $/& inc) in diameter *)ile t)e stick is a1out a foot in len. 1ut 1y some interested or sinister motive. @LRC. 1 %'. ( state of mind affirmatively o+eratin. *it) furtive desi. [6)il. Carrascoso.s *)ic) a *orker or em+loyee )as lost due to )is ille.d.n or *it) some motive of self-interest or ill *ill or for ulterior +ur+ose. $$1. [3ec.)tin.

Com+ilation of @otes. [3ec. CC'. GR L$1"54.. 9ouvier:s La* Dict. :adges of fraud. +. Rule 115. <)e fact t)at t)e cause or consideration of t)e conveyance is inade7uate. 9ail and 1ond are often used interc)an. Geronimo. 9ail may 1e . to t)e )a1its or *ants of t)e +articular class to *)ic) )e 1elon. 4&. 4. :ail. -d. cas) de+osit. citin. <)is o1li. 1$&8 of t)e Civil Code. +ro+erty 1ond. eit)er *it) reference to t)e immediate necessities or ultimate +ur+ose of t)e 2ourney. -c. *)en t)ere are +resent ot)ers of t)e a1ove circumstances. :ail bond..ation si.!" *)ic) invalidates it. 1. :aggage. it may still 1e +roved in accordance *it) t)e ordinary rules of evidence. t)e fact t)at t)e transfer is made 1et*een fat)er and son. for t)e trial. =oney or ot)er security -suc) as a 1ail 1ond. [Claridades. Fften referred to sim+ly as 9ond.ation means t)at t)e accused may lose money 1y not +ro+erly a++earin. 4%%1-4%%"'. [Glossary of Le. $%!'.iven for t)e release of a +erson in custody of t)e la*. <)ere is 1ad fait) *)enever t)e act *as done *it) t)e kno*led.reatly em1arrassed financially. CC'.ea1ly.ers for t)eir +ersonal use. RoC'. -1. for convenience accordin. t)e failure of t)e vendee to take e0clusive +ossession of all +ro+erty. furnis)ed 1y )im or a 1ondsman.nizance. circumstances *)ic) )ave 1een denominated 1y t)e courts as 1ad. [Comm. a sale on credit 1y an insolvent de1tor.. [(rt. *)en )e is insolvent or .e inde1tedness or com+lete insolvency. -e. of Customs v. t)e transfer of all or nearly all of )is +ro+erty 1y a de1tor. (.enerally carried 1y +assen. :ad faith on the part of the landowner. es+. a. Fnly suc) articles of necessity or convenience as are . conditioned u+on )is a++earance 1efore any court as re7uired under t)e conditions )ereinafter s+ecified. ornament. -f. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ned 1y t)e accused to secure )is +resence at t)e trial. -. Dol. 3uc) articles of a++arel. (n o1li. 1.. evidence of lar. !4". 1 88. etc. or reco. +rovided to t)e court to tem+orarily allo* a +erson:s release from 2ail and assure t)eir a++earance in court. <)is may 1e done 1y +rovin. a transfer made 1y a de1tor after suit )as 1een 1e.al <erms -6ro-3e.e of t)e lando*ner and *it)out o++osition on )is +art.s. t)e e0istence of any one of t)e follo*in.es of fraud> -a.iven in t)e form of a cor+orate surety. <)e security . Fct.un and *)ile it is +endin..ainst )im. 4%%5'. If t)e fraud or intent to defraud cannot 1e esta1lis)ed 1y means of t)e +resum+tions enunciated in (rt. 1. [(rt. 5!$. as are in daily use 1y travelers.

*)et)er or not an accused )as 1een denied )is ri.. C(. in *)ic) t)e conduct of 1ot) t)e +rosecution and t)e accused is *ei. for some s+ecific +ur+ose. !%. [(delfa 6ro+erties... [Cruz. :ailiff. Intl. +. GR 1114$&. t)e accused:s assertion or nonassertion of )is ri. from t)e delay..ment of s+eec). :aklad. conditional. Intl. =ar. 4%%5'. C(.al Dict. Inc. 41.. delivers it to anot)er. $%.d. <)e transfer of +ossession of somet)in. La*. t)e 1ailee. Ae1. 1 &&'. remainin. are considered. La* Revie*er. 4. :akia. and *)o may 1e committed to certain duties of care to*ards t)e +ro+erty *)ile it remains in )is +ossession. Booden s)oes. <a. [#uristEs Le. from t)e ori.. #an.ulation results in an indirect. 1. :alancing test. [<orres."# [Glossary of Le.al Dict. and t)e re. F1li. <a. reason for t)e delay.reater Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . citin.ement of affairs so t)at no state s)all 1e in a++osition to )ave a1solute mastery and dominion over ot)ers.a.t) of t)e delay.ulated in t)e interest of +u1lic order. 1 !'. [Du)aime:s Le.d. and suc) factors as len. t)e 1ailor. GR L5 !$". a++ro+riate courtroom decorum. 4%%5'. GR 1%&58&-8 . (n arran. interests demands t)e .. 1 " . :alance of power. t)e duty of t)e courts is to determine *)ic) of t)e t*o conflictin. [6eo+le v. t)e 1ailee. <)e +erson *)o receives +ro+erty t)rou. :ailor. for some tem+orary +ur+ose -e. <)e +erson *)o tem+orarily transfers +ossession of +ro+erty to anot)er. B)en +articular conduct is re. -1y t)e 1ailor. 1 5'. 1... +artial a1rid. (n officer of t)e court res+onsi1le for kee+in.) a contract of 1ailment. Dattel'.al Dict. :ailment. 4!. [Du)aime:s Le. C Cont.al <erms -6ro3e.inal total sum already a. ( remainder or somet)in. <)e test a++lied 1y courts in determinin.al Dict..e.)t to a s+eedy trial.)ed. [Li+olito v.reed u+on. 4%%% . 4. (lso kno*n as 4our-factor balancing test.)t. from t)e 1ailor. 4%%5'. :alance. [Du)aime:s Le. stora.. 3ee 4ish corral. +. under a contract of 1ailment. <)e relations)i+ created *)en t)e o*ner of +ro+erty. Resaya. 4%%5'.. :ailee. after *)ic) t)e +ro+erty is eit)er returned to t)e 1ailor or ot)er*ise dis+osed of in accordance *it) t)e contract of 1ailment. 4%%5'. $58'. to anot)er +erson -called t)e 1ailee. and +re2udice to t)e accused resultin. order and maintainin. v..

[Luzon 9rokera. 3e+. :angungot. as defined in 3ec. #an. 1 $'. 1 "8'. . $. 1. 48. ?a+ v.'. 1%. [(rt.y and cure )ave not as yet 1een accurately determined and scientifically esta1lis)ed and confirmed.very 1ankin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( Aili+ino citizen *)o )as 1een continuously out of t)e 6)ili++ines for a +eriod of at least one -1. as amended'. R( 185. Com+are *it) &lear and present danger rule and Dangerous tendency doctrine. 9oltron. +at)olo. [3ec 4. institution.. ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e General 9ankin. year. lendin. a Aili+ino overseas *orker. ( 1ankin. +articular lon. doin. -1. as amended. 1usiness under t)e la*s of t)e 6)ili++ines. 4. [6eo+le v. and credits. R( 4"4 '. a develo+ment 1ank. GR L-455&5.e of its mandated res+onsi1ilities concernin.. of money and to deal in notes. GR !1"&".e. R6C'.. 44. :and. or former Aili+ino citizen and )is or )er family *)o )ad 1een naturalized in a forei.anized under t)e la*s of t)e 6)ili++ines. @IRC. ( moneyed institute founded to facilitate t)e 1orro*in. Douds. (s+)y0ial cardiores+iratory failure. (ct. 9enc). [Re+. -a. 4$. money. de+osits or e0ercisin. 4 of R( $$8. [3ec. [6eo+le v. v. Inc. any ot)er 1ankin. ( 1ank may eit)er 1e a commercial 1ank. 4. :angko )entral ng #ilipinas.rou+ of more t)an t)ree armed malefactors *)o take +art in t)e commission of a ro11ery. a su1stantial +ortion of t)e 1usiness of *)ic) consists of receivin. 1ills of e0c)an. and safekee+in.. 1 "&'. <)e local term for -a. :anco. <a. $45 -1 !"."1 +rotection under t)e +articular circumstances +resented. GR L-1%$"4. $. 4. R( "8"&'. $. =ay 4&. c)air. a t)rift 1ank.. @ov. institution or.)tmares. 1. :ank. fiduciary +o*ers similar to t)ose +ermitted to national 1anks. <)e inde+endent central monetary aut)ority -of t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines. v. 3+. Dayao.n country and comes or returns to t)e 6)ili++ines. 1 C 4.overnment 1ank. R( 8"!$'. @arciso. ( . ( t)eoretical disease R *)ose remote and immediate cause. 3ec. and credit. institution or trust com+any. 1ankin.edly due to 1ad dreams or ni. GR L4%!&$. [3ec. a rural 1ank or a s+ecialized . 3ecurity Credit C (cce+tance Cor+. 4 ". 1 ! '. 1%% 6)il. 6astoral. [3ec. v. :alikbayan. *)ere t)e victim dies in )is slee+ alle. t)at s)all function and o+erate as an inde+endent and accounta1le 1ody cor+orate in t)e disc)ar. (lso "n cuadrilla. ( natural disease locally called -as suc). [(merican Communications (sso.e Co.

er *)o +urc)ases and +ays t)erefor. 4%%% . Airst @atl.s 9ank.. v. C Direct. Larr 154 -1 $!.al effect is to divert most of t)e de1tor:s assets and de1ts to t)e administration of a t)ird +erson. :anking institution and :ank. 9ank. and all ot)er cor+orations. C(. 1 1 . 9us. de1ts are +aid +ro rata. 1. :ank reserves. <)e reserves re7uired of all 1anks o+eratin. R( $$8'.. (. <)e 1ank may freely use t)is money as it 1est sees fit.ea1le and s+ecifically include 1anks. [Intl.s 1anks.. (n order for +ayment of money.e 1anks. ( 1ill of e0c)an.a. 1uildin. 1. R( 8"!$'. 1ankin. from *)ic) outstandin. and loan associations. d t)encefort) 1e called. =oney )eld 1y a 1ank. )ereinafter called 6)ili++ine 1ranc)es. 9ankru+tcy forces t)e de1tor into a statutory +eriod durin. 1 1.a. 8 4. Com+ilation of @otes.)t of t)e real o*ner. $%. :ank draft. +.ainst t)e 1ank as a . commercial 1anks. as +rovided for under t)e +ertinent la*s.. functions in t)e 6)ili++ines. [I1id. [Diaz. declared 1ankru+t under la*. (rtisans 3avin.. system. [Du)aime:s Le. *)ic) )is commercial and financial affairs are administered under t)e strict su+ervision of t)e trustee. <)is is t)e same as <rade acceptance bill$ t)e only difference is it is dra*n a. 518 1 $%.'.d. 8 1. Inst.rantin.ainst a 1ank instead of t)e 1uyer. 6olotsky v. ( 1ill of e0c)an. :ankerDs check. trust com+anies. 4%%1-4%%"'. citin. 4. [3ec. institutions. <)e le. Del. <)e formal condition of an insolvent +erson 1ein. (n aut)ority .ainst t)eir de+osit lia1ilities in order to control t)e volume of money created 1y t)e credit o+erations of t)e 1ankin.o. issued at t)e solicitation of a stran. 4%%5'.al Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (+r. 1ankerEs acce+tance credit.e of *)ic) t)e acce+tor is a 1ank or 1anker en.. :ankerDs acceptance bill. ( c)ose in action. <)e terms are synonymous and interc)an.d. $"!'. 1&% (. sometimes called a trustee in 1ankru+tcy. 1ranc)es and a. or evidence of t)e ri. 5 . in t)e 6)ili++ines to maintain a. 5.e dra*n 1y a 1ank u+on its corres+ondent 1ank.ed ..n 1anks. Cor+. 1usiness -in t)e 6)ili++ines. mort. :ankruptcy. :anking franchise. +. 5!'. savin. @e. GR 4! 1. 4."2 :ank deposit. 4& 6 58. ( de+ositor only )as a claim a. com+anies. and associations +erformin.encies in t)e 6)ili++ines of forei. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [Claridades.eneral creditor and not as a 1ailor of s+ecific +ro+erty de+osited *it) t)e 1ank. La* Dict. [3ec. +artners)i+s.'. 8 BB. 1ankin. 1!8 Bas). La* Rev. Qo)ler v.ranted 1y t)e monetary 1oard to conduct 1ankin. citin.enerally in t)e 1usiness of . [Citytrust 9ankin.

insurance com+anies. to safe. a fres) start. +ersons or 1usinesses t)at cannot +ay t)eir de1ts and seek t)e assistance of t)e court in . Collectively. :anks. GR L-484 &. Gnder t)e +rotection of t)e 1ankru+tcy court. investors. stock 1rokers and dealers in securities and forei. coo+erative 1anks.. Collectively. 4%%5'. and +rivate develo+ment 1anks as defined in +ar. 1ein. 1 8"'.ed in a form suita1le for use in t)e )ouse)old. 1$1. finance and investment com+anies.es. stock markets. 1& and 1 . =ar.ulation. -it. *)ic) are )azardous +er se. <)e *)ole 1ody of attorneys and counselors. 5. $ of R( 8"%8. )earsay.al +rofession. R( 81"%'. @on-1ank financial intermediaries.s involvin. not necessarily com+etent evidence of t)e veracity of entries t)erein *it) res+ect to t)e c)ild:s +aternity. t)e rural 1anks. R( 8$ 5'. lendin. t)e term means t)e *)ole 1ody of la*yers. *)ic) t)e im+lementin. $. Listorically. 1.n e0c)an.uard +u1lic )ealt) and safety. 3ec. any )azardous su1stance intended or +acka. 5. C(. [3ec. 4.ettin. la*yers. [In Re> 6a1ellar v. may 1e considered -a. money s)o+s. :anks and other financial institutions.d. 4. =ore commonly. +a*ns)o+s. is not a conclusive +roof of filiation -and. t)e e0istence of cautionary la1els. 3tatutes and 2udicial +roceedin.. 5.s. -It is. or -1. de1tors may 1e released from or disc)ar. t)e . an official or +u1lic document.ulations t)ereunder. classifies as 1anned )azardous su1stance not*it)standin. *)ic).eneral +u1lic from t)e s+ace occu+ied 1y t)e 2ud. and ot)er +artici+ants in a trial. +u1lic document. a +ortion of eac) de1t. R( 8"%8'. 1 5'. "t) . <)e +erson *it) t)e de1ts is called t)e de1tor and t)e +eo+le or com+anies to *)om t)e de1tor o*es money are called creditors. Ae1. ( +rivate document. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . :anned ha ardous substance. 4%%5'. :aptismal certificate. or *)ic) 1ear or contain su1stances )armful to )uman 1ein. [Glossary of Le.e. -a.. a. B)ile -it. 4.. 4%%5'. t)e +artition se+aratin. (ny toy or ot)er articles intended for use 1y c)ildren. 1. 15&'. or rules and re. t)e mem1ers of t)e le. [Aernandez v. can only serve as evidence of t)e administration of t)e sacraments on t)e dates so s+ecified. 18. :ar. 1".ency 1y re. [9lackEs La* Dict.al <erms -6ro-3e.ed from t)eir de1ts. GR 1%&$"". does not )ave t)e same +ro1ative value as a record of 1irt). [(rt."3 Dict. +er)a+s 1y +ayin. [Glossary of Le. as defined under a++lica1le la*s. +..al <erms -6ro3e. [3ec. C(.

all 1arrios in t)e 6)ili++ines as 1aran. <)e act 1y *)ic) one is licensed to +ractice 1efore t)e courts of a +articular state or 2urisdiction after satisfyin. "t) . 6D 1!"8 entitled I. <)ey are 7uasi-munici+al cor+orations endo*ed *it) suc) +o*ers as Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Gnits of munici+alities or munici+al districts in *)ic) t)ey are situated. [Claridades. 4%.overnment or. 6D !!8 entitled IDeclarin. (u. funds t)ereforJ si.. from loans 1ut e0clusive of t)e land on *)ic) t)e +articular 1usiness entity:s office.d.>. 1 & '. 41. :arangay health worker. :arangay =ealth Borkers' :enefits and 1ncentives Act of +. or manufacturin. 1 8&. +. (.rams under any accredited . ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e H9arrio C)arter La*H. :arangay 9ustice. :arangays. :arangay.ned into la* on #une 11. GR &5488-8&. as amended.%%%. R( 8&&$'."4 :ar admission. tradin.uy. <)e name 1y *)ic) any 1arrio reco.nized under R( $! %.a. s)all not 1e more t)an 6$..%%. :arangay micro business enterprise 2:. +ro.overnment and non. of +roducts or commodities. [6eo+le v. 9atas. [9lackEs La* Dict.ays.. 4%%14%%"'.ated 1y t)e De+artment of Lealt) -DFL.ay and a++ro+riatin. *)ose total assets includin. [3ec. <a. t)ose arisin.. :arangay Decree. and services.. a day care center in every 1aran. +eriod of residency or admission on .ay )ealt) *orkers and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. 1een accredited to function as suc) 1y t)e local )ealt) 1oard in accordance *it) t)e . Com+ilation of @otes.. R( 8&&$ entitled I(n (ct creatin.uidelines +romul. certain re7uirements suc) as 1ar e0aminations.ned into la* on 3e+. 3ee !atarungang #ambarangay. $.anization and *)o voluntarily renders +rimary )ealt) care services in t)e community after )avin. includin. 1 85. a. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ si.sta1lis)in. 1 !.8-. 4.rounds of reci+rocity after a +eriod of years as a mem1er of t)e 1ar of anot)er 2urisdiction.. +lant and e7ui+ment are situated. t)ose t)at *ere su1se7uently created in accordance *it) su1se7uent la*s *ould t)encefort) 1e called.one trainin.) . :arako.. 15 '. :arangay Day &are &enter 6aw of +. R( 18&'.ed in t)e +roduction. 1enefits and incentives to accredited 1aran.:"3.%%%. (ny 1usiness entity or enter+rise en. includin. ( +erson *)o )as under. [3ec. <ou. $.ro-+rocessin. +rocessin.

after )a.. Grou+. 5. (lso *es (udicata.overnments in conformity *it) la*. 1 8$'.. GR L-"$5% . GR &18"1. 1&. Ae1. [(rt. [Glossary of Le..ay .) t)eir res+ective 1aran.al <erms -6ro3e. 1 &&'. @LRC. #uly 1!. =ay $%. [3ec.ment in t)e first case constitutes an a1solute 1ar to t)e su1se7uent action *)en. GR &8"!$. 4&. 1 5'. 1 & '. Inc. 1 %'. 6lateros. su12ect matter and cause of action.. 4%%5'. Comrade or cocons+irator. Close friend. !. :arkada. :arker. LC'. GR L-$81"4.. 11. 4!. :areboat."5 are )erein +rovided for t)e +erformance of +articular . ( caller of 2ee+ney +assen. Literally.ers. Dec.anization or any officer or a. [6eo+le v. GR L-8!$ %. ( state e0amination -administered 1y t)e 3u+reme Court of t)e 6)ili++ines. 1 8&'. $. [6eo+le v. a.iven 1y t)e +arties to arrive at a common understandin. :argaining unit. [6eo+le v. 1 &%'. consistent *it) e7uity to t)e em+loyer. 4. as amended'. #uly 4". GR !1 1%... ( +rocess *)ere t)e +arties discuss t)eir demands and counter-demands and. (+r. 1 &"'. 1%. <)e rule t)at t)e 2ud.J [Liton2ua 3)i++in.rou+ of em+loyees of a . v. R( $! %. *)ic) t)e collective interest of all t)e em+loyees. :ar by prior 2or former3 (udgment. GR 1%41$%. :areboat charter. 1 &"'.)t to 1e 1arred.ainin. <a. v. Ae1. 3ec. ".overnment functions. Cuya. GR L-4$4$5. ( .itimate la1or or. =ar. 1et*een t)e first case *)ere t)e 2ud. indicate to 1e t)e 1est suited to serve t)e reci+rocal ri.. +rovisions of t)e la*.ree on *)at is essentially a com+romise reflectin. GR L-$4!%& C L541%5. 6ar1a. @39. :argaining representative. Com+anion. C(. [6eo+le v. [6eo+le v.ent of suc) or. Catindi)an. 9uddies. 1. 6ayumo. 1 4'. :argaining. Resaya. [(7uino v.)ts and duties of t)e +arties under t)e collective 1ar. t)ere is identity of +arties. GR L$$%5". 1 8!'. (u. t)e concessions mutually . taken 1y +ros+ective la*yers in order to 1e admitted and licensed to +ractice la*. La*. 3ee Demise charter. =ar. Gan. #r. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4.iven em+loyer com+rised of all or less t)an all of t)e entire 1ody of em+loyees. 414. ( le. to 1e e0ercised 1y and t)rou.ment *as rendered and t)e second case *)ic) sou. Daldez. #uly 4. :ar e%amination. [Comilan.lin.a. =ay $%. 4". of La1or.anization *)et)er or not em+loyed 1y t)e em+loyer. I*it)out a cre*. [6eo+le v. [6eo+le v. [Golden Aarms v.

Le. [3ec. ( contract *)ere1y one of t)e +arties 1inds )imself to ..al and #udicial . +rovidin. [3ec.d. G3 Ins. 4%%5'. Co.al .overnment functions. t)e latter *it) e0clusive +rivile."6 :arking. clients.d. [<io+ianco. in a court on 1e)alf of a client.d. =ar. for +assen. and stirrin. :arratry.ers to ride on *aitin...t)ics.) t)eir res+ective 1arrio .al Dict. Land1ook on La* of Ins. In . 2ee+neys. +. -3ec. [(rt. 1. [6ineda. :arrel.ive one t)in. +. autonomy to 1arrios of t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on #une 4%.. in consideration of t)e ot)er:s +romise to ..rantin. Gnits of munici+alities or munici+al districts in *)ic) t)ey are situated. =ar. Commentaries C #uris+. 58'. :arter or e%change contract.ive anot)er t)in. u+ 7uarrels and suits. 1 . 4%%% . to 1e e0ercised 1y and t)rou. <)ey are 7uasimunici+al cor+orations endo*ed *it) suc) +o*ers +rovided in t)e la* for t)e +erformance of +articular . 4 .t)ics. Com. La*. 5".n. 54 G. ( liti. [Du)aime:s Le.. (ny *illful misconduct on t)e +art of master or cre* in +ursuance of some unla*ful or fraudulent +ur+ose *it)out t)e consent of t)e o*ners. 1. :arratry clause. Le. +. 4. Code of t)e 6)il. 1 ! . <)e offense of fre7uently e0citin. :arrier between the legitimate family and the illegitimate family rule. 1% '.. 1 "1. eit)er at la* or ot)er*ise. 4.al distinction is made 1et*een 1arristers and solicitors.. a le. ( clause *)ic) +rovides t)at t)ere can 1e no recovery on t)e +olicy in case of any *illful misconduct on t)e +art of t)e master or cre* in +ursuance of some unla*ful or fraudulent +ur+ose *it)out t)e consent of t)e o*ners and to t)e +re2udice of t)e o*nerEs interest. @o* called :arangay. <)e fraudulent act of t)e master or mariner a. 3ee 1ron curtain rule. [=orenoEs La* Dict. citin. on t)e Ins.es of advisin. and t)e former *it) e0clusive +rivile. -1 . 6D &8'. R( 4$8% entitled I(n (ct . $"&'.es of a++earin. le. a la*yer t)at restricts )is +ractice to t)e court room. . :arrio or :arrios. +.ation s+ecialist. CC'.ainst t)e s)i+ o*nerEs interest.land and some ot)er Common*ealt) 2urisdictions. Callin.overnments in conformity *it) la*. Litt.3. 4. ( contract *)ere1y one +erson transfers t)e o*ners)i+ of non- Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 7uoted in Dance. Ins. :arrister.. $.al advice. $. and to t)e +re2udice of t)e o*ner:s interest. 181. La*.. 5 9la.allons or 8%4 cu1ic inc)es at tem+erature of "%U Aa)ren)eit. R( 4$8%'. :arrio &harter Act. 1"$&. 1$5.

coffee. :aseline.iven task. $ of R( 8448. 2o1. R( 1!!'. [3ec. c)ildren.s classified as essential 1y t)e DFL. <)e education intended to meet 1asic learnin. Inc. <)e term includes> rice. can 1e 1ased. :ases &onversion and Development Authority 2:&DA3. De La 3erna. deter. 7uantity. oil. root cro+s. [9oie<akeda C)emicals. R( &54!'. fres) +ork.s. R( &5$!'. [3ec. dried and canned fis) and ot)er marine +roducts. victims of calamities and disasters. differentlya1led +ersons. 1eef and +oultry meal. :asic skills training. laundry soa+. *orkers in t)e formal sector and mi. 1 !5. [Intl. *omen.overns t)e trade or movement of )azardous and to0ic *aste across 1orders. artisanal fis)er folk. <)e first sta.s of t)e same kind. (ll metallic minerals e0ce+t no1le metals. corn. 5.ar.eta1les. [3ec. ( rate of +ay for a standard *ork +eriod e0clusive of suc) additional +ayments as 1onuses and overtime. 5.. 4. :asic education.ation on t)e +art of t)e latter to . <)e identification. R( &58 '. t)e fundamental Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e international accord *)ic) . :asic necessities. fire*ood.s to anot)er *it) t)e o1li. Dec. salt.rou+ of occu+ations. and dru.ents.ive t)in. and ur1an +oor. R( 8!&1'. systems four out-of-sc)ool yout) and adult learners and includes education for t)ose *it) s+ecial needs. v.oods and services for consum+tion of rural communities. 1read. 1%.ed sectors of 6)ili++ine society. 4%%5'. candles. [(rt. $. It encom+asses early c)ild)ood.rant *orkers. $ -1.. namely> farmer-+easant. occu+ation or . fres) ve. elementary and )i. ( 1ody cor+orate created under 3ec. <)e line from *)ic) territorial seas and ot)er maritime zones are measured. +rocess of a vocational c)aracter for a . :asic salary. [3ec.enous +eo+les and cultural communities." fun. 1 $'.i1le t)in. yout) and students.e . GR 4185. c)arcoal. of *a. fres) and +rocessed milk. R( 5% !'. fres). C Direct. aimed at develo+in. La* Dict. cookin.) sc)ool education as *ell as alternative learnin. [3ec. :asic sectors. [3ec. :ase metals. needs *)ic) lays t)e foundation on *)ic) su1se7uent learnin.. su. 5. :asic needs approach to development. *orkers in t)e informal sector. CC'. :asel &onvention. and 7uality.e of t)e learnin. fres) e. indi. senior citizens. <)e disadvanta. +roduction and marketin.

[Du)aime:s Le.rated into t)e re. :asin. allo*ances. 1 &8'. 1$t) mont) +ay. [IRR. $. :attered woman syndrome. ( desi. (veria. +remium +ayments.ical and 1e)avioral Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +rofit s)arin. [3uarez. 1 &8'.al Dict. allo*ances. all sta. entrance fee.arded as dimensionally inde+endent. GR L-448! . [3ec. or device t)at identifies t)e 1atc)."! attitude. ( *ell-defined unit *)ic) 1y convention is re. +ayments. Con. (ll remuneration or earnin. and ot)er monetary 1enefits *)ic) are not considered as +art of or inte. -1 $. 54'. 3tat.ular salary of t)e em+loyee on t)e date t)e Frder 1ecame effective. 6D " '. . =ar. days and )ours 1ut does not include cost-of-livin.. 96 &'. (mounts +aid for t)e +rivile. days and )ours 1ut does not include cost-of-livin. 4 . [3ec..iven cycle of manufacture. ". =ay 44. :asic tuition fees. IRR of LC'. .nation +rinted on t)e la1el of a dru. 6remium +ayments. 9ook $. 1. :atas #ambansa 2:#3.. not in *edlock.e to receive instruction in a )i.e. :astard. [3ec. ". <a. +ayments. 1$t) mont) +ay or ot)er monetary 1enefits *)ic) are not considered as +art of or inte. Rule 1. 5. ( naturally or enclosed or nearly 1ody of *ater communication *it) [3ec. la1oratory fee. [3ec. $%.s +aid 1y an em+loyer to a *orker for services rendered on normal *orkin. (n ille. RF<C fee. ( fis)in.s +aid 1y an em+loyer for services rendered on normal *orkin. (ll re. and +ermits t)e +roduction )istory of t)e 1atc) includin. [3ec. +. :asnig.es of manufacture and control. :atch.F 18!. Rule 8. 1. 1. :atch number.F 18!.itimate c)ild. 6am1ansa. student council fee. .rated into t)e re.F 18&'. IRR of LC'. or *)o are not married at t)e time of t)e c)ild:s 1irt). 1orn in a relations)i+ 1et*een t*o +ersons t)at are not married -i. a . :asic unit. or device +roduced durin. and ot)er miscellaneous fees as li1rary and at)letic fee.ular remuneration or earnin. 1 "&'. :asic wage. 6D &!8'. 9ook 4. =ay 44.e. to 1e traced and revie*ed.raduation fee and similar fees.) sc)ool 1ut does not include matriculation fee. kno*led. 1oat. skill or 1e)avior +attern to s+ecified standards. [#imenez v. +rofit-s)arin. . ( scientifically defined +attern of +syc)olo. ( 7uantity of any dru. 4. artificially enclosed in free t)e sea..ular salary of t)e *orkers. [3ec. 3tatutes a++roved 1y t)e 9atasan. 4%%5'.

Inst. 9rot)er-in-la*. Com+are *it) :ilas and =ipag. :earer check. @IL'. c)arm. 11. <)e actual t)reat to use force is an assault.cuan. [=orenoEs La* Dict. =analo."" sym+toms found in *omen livin.. 4". (u. +. 5&'. 1 & '. @e.&. :ayaw. R( 4"4'. $. 3e+. <)e +erson in +ossession of a 1ill or note *)ic) is +aya1le to 1earer. 3on. 1 5'. 1. 4%%5'.)tstick used 1y 1aran. ( c)eck +aya1le to t)e order of cas). in 1atterin. :eauty contest. ( firecracker lar. Intl. "4'. relations)i+s as a result of cumulative a1use. :ay.. 4.ay tanods. 3ee :ases &onversion and Development Authority. +)ysical )arm u+on t)e *oman or )er c)ild resultin. 5&'. <a. GR L-54!%!.d. 18. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al <erms -6ro3e.d... [6eo+le v. [3ec. 4%%% . 3ometimes loosely used to refer to a -male. GR 1%!$8&.ulo *it) 1/$ teas+oon of +o*der +acked in card1oard tied around *it) a1aca strin. :&DA. (ny com+etition o+en to any male or female. intelli.ins at conce+tion. 6ersonality 1e. [6eo+le v. 1. 1 $'. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1 &5'. :atuta.. <a. [3ec. to t)e +)ysical and +syc)olo.race or ot)er similar 7ualities. ( 1eatin. t)e +ayee of *)ic) does not +ur+ort to 1e t)e name of any +erson. R( 4"4'. :earer. 3adan. :attery. [6eo+le v.arlic. Dec. ( ni. *)ic) usually includes an assault. 4. or *ron.d. R( 81&$'. $. [Cruz. [3ec. :aul. ( *ell-marked indentation *)ose +enetration is in suc) +ro+ortion to t)e *idt) of its mout) as to contain landlocked *aters and constitute more t)an a curvature of t)e coast.ical or emotional distress. 1 1. <a.er t)an a trian. *)et)er *it) or *it)out international affiliation. *)ic) is national in c)aracter or sco+e. t)e use of it is a 1attery.. :awang. [Glossary of Le. 4. :eginning of personality. 4%%% . . 9alderama. Intl. [6eo+le v. +. La* Revie*er.s and *ra++ed in s)a+e of . cousin-in-la*. Commonly kno*n in local +arlance as *ooden trunk. GR & ! 8. :earer instrument.o. :ayanihan.ful +)ysical violence. 3ee #alusong. [3ec.. [LFI 1$8"'. +.. La*.. <a. (n act of inflictin.. 1 " . GR 8$%8%.. *)erein t)e *inner or *inners are c)osen on t)e 1asis of 1eauty or ot)er +)ysical attri1utes or a com1ination of 1eauty and talent. #une 48. ( c)eck +aya1le to cask...ence.

La* Revie*er. [(rts. (lcantara. it is not deemed 1orn if it dies *it)in t*enty-four )ours after its com+lete delivery from t)e maternal *om1. 51 of t)e Civil Code. [Arom t)e $rd +ream1ulatory clause of 6roc. La*.ents. GR L-8%""%. Com+ilation of @otes. :einte nueve. =ore 1roadly. to t)e la*s of *ar. 45. fan knife. Intl. CC'.e. La* Revie*er. 4%%5'. 18'. ( .ainst t)e le.ents are in de facto control of a +ortion of t)e territory and +o+ulation. :ehest loans. Intl.anized civil . c)aracterized 1y +ain. to esta1lis) a se+arate . 3e+. 1 !'. 1$ '.CC. dated =ar.edly u+on orders of t)e =arcos re. (. [6eo+le v. :ells palsy. :elligerent community.rou+ of re1els under an or. are a1le to maintain suc) control. +. [Intl.ilitary occupation. It e0ists *)en a sizea1le +ortion of t)e territory of a state is under t)e effective control of an insur. La*. 1 &8'. Intl. <)e loans e0tended 1y . 1 " .. 1 &8'. [Cruz.ent community *)ic) is seekin. :ench. $.overnment.overnment en.d. :elligerency. *eakness or +aralysis of t)e affected side of t)e face. :elligerent government. forces of t)e ot)er 1elli. 4%%1-4%%"'. +rovided it 1e 1orn later *it) t)e conditions s+ecified in (rt. t)e foetus is considered 1orn if it is alive at t)e time it is com+letely delivered from t)e mot)er:s *om1.ed in a *ar *it) insur. 6ol. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3andoval. 4%%5'. 18. 5% and 51. )ave a +olitical or. Lat. #an. .. 1 " .erent is +laced under t)e aut)ority and control of t)e invadin. [Claridades..erent. #ust *ar. &4.anization. (lso ?einte nueve. :ellum (ustum.d.ime to its favorites and cronies *)o o1tained amounts unconsciona1ly far in e0cess of t)eir loan values and kno*in. [Galanida v. (n incident of *ar *)ic) occurs *)en t)e territory of one 1elli..itimate . t)e court itself. -( local. :elligerent occupation.overnment financial institutions alle.overnment *)o )ave taken u+ arms a. ( .a. +.1## suc) t)at t)e conceived c)ild s)all 1e considered 1orn for all +ur+oses t)at are favora1le to it. Aor civil +ur+oses. Lo*ever. if t)e foetus )ad an intra-uterine life of less t)an seven mont)s. fully *ell t)at t)ey *ould never 1e re+aid. (n acute lo*er =otor @euron 6alsy of t)e facial nerve. <)e seat occu+ied 1y t)e 2ud. [Cruz. C Direct. Intl. and conduct t)emselves accordin. La* Dict. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. Com+are *it) . GR 14&$. [Glossary of Le..overnment and t)e insur.al <erms -6ro-3e.

1ut not 1e limited to. <)e t)eory t)at t)e . [<io+ianco. fis)eries. +. <)e +erson *)ic) is desi. [Glossary of Le.. +. <)is sym1iotic relations)i+ is t)e rationale of ta0ation and s)ould dis+el t)e erroneous notion t)at it is an ar1itrary met)od of e0action 1y t)ose in t)e seat of +o*er.e for t)e arrest of a +erson. *)o are t)e +rimary 1eneficiaries.. 4%%5'. [Comm. <)e +erson for *)ose 1enefit t)e trust )as 1een created. a +erson *)o is to receive 1enefits from t)e trust.. of Int.itimate descendents *)o are t)e secondary 1eneficiaries. at a +ier. t)e de+endent +arents and su12ect to t)e restrictions im+osed on de+endent c)ildren and le. v. :erthing charge. 1.ive a . *)arf.) a *ill. Ae1. 4nd "$ '. 4%%5'. LC'. Gifts made in a *ill.d. 48. Code of t)e 6)il. [Glossary of Le. 18. 3ee 6egacy. accordin. 3omeone named to receive +ro+erty or 1enefits in a *ill. recreational and ot)er +ur+oses. livestock raisin.al <erms -6ro-3e. industrial.i1le 1enefits intended to im+rove t)e lives of t)e +eo+le and en)ance t)eir moral and material values.d. :equeath. munici+al. :enefits-protection theory. <o . Commentaries C #uris+. [Glossary of Le. river or c)annel mar. :eneficio neto. $. 6rovided. 55 (m..ainst a vessel for moorin.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. :eneficial use.. R( 48!'.eneration.al <erms -6ro3e.ation. u+on t)e deat) of t)e insured. #ur.al <erms -6ro3e. )ealt) or accident insurance as t)e one *)o is to receive t)e 1enefits *)ic) 1ecome +aya1le. safety and )ealt). 1"8. or 1ert)in.ment t)ereof conducive to +u1lic or +rivate *elfare. 155%. and s)all include. Ins. :eneficiaries. <)e de+endent s+ouse until )e/s)e remarries and de+endent c)ildren. [(rt.i1le and intan. :equests. 4%%5'. :eneficiary or cestui que trust.1#1 :ench warrant. [Glossary of Le. 4%%5'.nated in a contract of life.overnment is e0+ected to res+ond in t)e form of tan. 1ulk)ead-*)arf. 3+. 5 '. 4. In a trust. t)e use of *ater for domestic. CC'. C(. 1 &&'. [(rt. <)e use of t)e environment or any element or se. citin. 1 . Rev. In t)eir a1sence. irri.. GR L-4&& ". (n order issued 1y a 2ud.ed natural c)ild s)all 1e considered as a +rimary 1eneficiary *)en t)ere are no ot)er de+endent c)ildren *)o are 7ualified and eli. <)e amount assessed a.inal *)arf at any Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%% ..al <erms -6ro3e. [3ec 5.ift to someone t)rou. @et +rofit. on t)e Ins.. t)at t)e de+endent ackno*led. +o*er .i1le for mont)ly income 1enefit. to t)e terms of t)e contract.

s of security of t)e c)ild and most encoura. develo+ment %%-5-%8-3C'. 1. R6C'. t)e contents of *)ic) are t)e su12ect of in7uiry. [(rt.. itself e0ce+t. ( +erson *)ose se0ual desire is to*ards animals. t)at no evidence s)all 1e received *)ic) is merely su1stitutionary in its nature so lon. *it)out t)e consent of )is first client. ot)er t)an t)e ori. or for moorin.amecocks and t)ose of ot)er 1ettors 1efore )e orders commencement of t)e cockfi. -4%%5. <)e totality of t)e circumstances and conditions as are most con.d. It also means t)e availa1le safe. :etterment. )avin. se0 *it) an animal. <)e o*ner. [Flarte.e. :est interest of the child. #uly 15.al =ed. s)all +re2udice )is client.li. <)e felony committed 1y any attorney-atla* or solicitor -+rocurador 2udicial.)t and t)ereafter distri1utes *on 1ets to t)e *inners after deductin. :et taker of promoter. . +rotection and feelin. ot)ers. 4%%5'. 1 !'. ( +erson *)o calls and takes care of 1ets from o*ners of 1ot) . *it)in any sli+.enial to t)e survival. 11$'. RoC'. 1asin river or canal under t)e 2urisdiction of any +ort of t)e 6)ili++ines.inal *ritin. 3ee . 4% . 3ee #rimary evidence :est evidence rule. or *)o. ( rule +rovidin.ro*t) and of t)e c)ild. undertaken t)e defense of a client or )avin.e(ora. amon. :est evidence. Rule 1$%. or cannot 1e +roduced in court. Le. *)o. LR. [3ec. 4 %1. GR 11&! 8. [(= :estose%ual. +. or reveal any of t)e secrets of t)e latter learned 1y )im in )is +rofessional ca+acity.norance. c)annel. 6D 55 '.. It is attained 1y )avin. a. $.in.al <erms -6ro-3e. least detrimental alternative for t)e . <)e 1est evidence availa1le. +arty in t)e same case. or moorin. t)at is. 1y any malicious 1reac) of +rofessional duty or of ine0cusa1le ne. [3ec.uardin.. fast to a vessel so 1ert)ed. :etrayal of trust or revelation of secrets by an attorney or solicitor. s)all undertake t)e defense of t)e o++osin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( rule of evidence t)at t)ere can 1e no evidence of a *ritin. [3ec. received confidential information from said client in a case. +syc)olo.ence or i. or for 1ert)in. o+erator or master of t)e vessel is lia1le for t)is c)ar. *)en t)e ori.inal letter is 9est evidence.. to )is +)ysical.vidence s)ort of t)is is secondary.ical and emotional develo+ment. a certain commission. destroyed. [Glossary of Le. La*. an ori. 5.inal evidence can 1e )ad.<. 1st .1#2 +ort in t)e 6)ili++ines.al =ed.inal )as 1een lost. R( 1 $8'. [(rroyo v. Crim. Le. or makin. 4.ent. and a +)otoco+y is 3econdary evidence. as t)e ori.

R6C'.)tin. 3i. "%$. distri1utor. :everage.ned offer or +ro+osal su1mitted 1y a su++lier. <)e standard in a criminal case re7uirin. [3ec. :ettor. (n indis+ensa1le re7uirement for t)e validation of a 1id +ro+osal. committee. [3ec. 1 & .nt. CC. races and ot)er s+orts contest. Cal. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. 9lack:s La* Dict. 4%5'.. 4. [3ec. :etting in sports contests. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all 1et money or any o12ect or article of value or re+resentative of value u+on t)e result of any 1o0in. 5t) . ( li7uor or li7uid for drinkin. of t)e ac7uisition cost. 4%%5'. :icameral committee.. manufacturer. or ot)er s+orts contests. C(. 9urnstein v. 1 8. u+on t)e result of t)e cockfi. La*. [3ec. =. :ettor.1#3 :etting. +er 3ec.. Crim. Le may 1e t)e o*ner of fi.. 1. 1ut it does re7uire t)at t)e evidence 1e so conclusive t)at all reasona1le dou1ts are removed from t)e mind of t)e ordinary +erson..al <erms -6ro-3e. v. <ayador or variants t)ereof.ame o+eration. [Glossary of Le. <)e 1ond insures . (lso #roposal bond. 5..)t as announced 1y t)e referee or sentenciador. money or any o12ect or article of value or re+resentative of value u+on t)e result of any . 3ee conference &onference :id. GR 8&51$.t. ( +erson *)o +artici+ates in cockfi. G3. !.overnment or *)en t)e cost to re+air an item is over si0ty +er cent -"%V. ot)er t)an t)e +ersonnel or staff of any ille. <)e condition of t)e su++lies *)en t)e cost of re+airin. (ny +erson *)o +laces 1ets for )imself/)erself or in 1e)alf of anot)er +erson..d.)ts and *it) t)e use of money or ot)er t)in. 6D 55 '.al num1ers . 1ecomes +ro)i1itive and disadvanta. Inc.eous to t)e . LGC'. !! A4d ! . :eyond reasonable doubt.s of value. contractor or consultant in res+onse to t)e 1iddin. (. documents. :eyond economical repair. =ananaya. &.) t)e 1et taker or +romoter and *ins or loses )is 1et de+endin. :id bond.ame. [Ca. [(rt. <)is standard of +roof does not re7uire t)at t)e state esta1lis) a1solute certainty 1y eliminatin. citin. 6D 5&$'. R( 1&5'. 1.ayan Dalley . $&$. or any +erson. t)at t)e court 1e satisfied to a moral certainty t)at every element of a crime )as 1een +roven 1y t)e +rosecution.ood fait) of t)e 1idders and 1inds t)em to enter into a contract *it) t)e Government s)ould t)eir Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 9ettin. cock. @ov. all dou1t. 1ets *it) ot)er 1ettors or t)rou. R( 4&8'.

<)e fifteenyear +rescri+tive +eriod commences to run from t)e day on *)ic) t)e crime is discovered 1y t)e offended +arty.amy carries *it) it t)e im+osa1le +enalty of +rision mayor. GR 1% 5!5. entity as t)e 1asis for 1ids. [Intl. certified or cas)ier:s c)eck or surety re7uired of 1idders 1efore t)ey can +artici+ate in any com+etitive 1iddin.e committed 1y contractin. GR L15%8%. ( +ro+osed la* filed in Con. 3antos.e )as 1een le. =.uarantee in . :ilateral contract. 1. <a. +assed u+on and a++roved 1y Con. 1. 4 . [6eo+le v.ment rendered in t)e +ro+er +roceedin. [6eo+le v.. Com+ilation of @otes.e )as 1een le. GR L-$481".s.ents. C(. =alillos.ress +ro+osin. t)is crime +rescri1es in fifteen -1!. =ar.ress and 1y t)e 6resident of t)e 6)ili++ines. :idder's bond. [3ec.ment rendered in t)e +ro+er +roceedin.ress *)ic) 1ecomes la* only after it is considered. <)e )us1and of -oneEs.ally dissolved. :igamy. 1. to aut)orize t)e . <)e contractin. :idding documents. [Claridades. LGC'. 14 3CR( 4"%'. from e0ternal sources Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . all information necessary for a +ros+ective 1idder to +re+are a 1id for t)e . (n ille. L-448& . La* Dict. (. or t)eir a. [6adilla v. 1 "5. Co-1rot)er-in-la*. Dentura. 9i. or 1efore t)e a1sent s+ouse )as 1een alle. services to 1e +rovided. Fct. *ife:s sister.. or 1efore t)e a1sent s+ouse )as 1een declared +resum+tively dead 1y means of a 2ud. t)e aut)orities. 4%%14%%"'. ( 1ill filed in Con.e 1efore t)e former marria. $5 . $&$. R( 1&5'. )ynallagmatic contract. 1 "1'. and consultin. #uly 4 . 1 88'. furnis)in. Waldivar. Com+are *it) :ayaw and =ipag. ( 1ond in cas). 3ee :ilateral treaty. Documents issued 1y t)e +rocurin.1#4 +ro+osal 1e acce+ted. Aormal 1indin. Dec.oods.al marria. years. R6C'. 1 5'. :ill increasing public debt.reement 1et*een t*o states. :ilas.overnment to 1orro* money.. [(rt.. of a second or su1se7uent marria. 9ein. 4.. Auture +ro+erty.e 1efore t)e first marria.. !. 3+. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+.ed declared +resum+tively dead 1y means of a 2ud.t. eit)er 1y 1orro*in. 4. a second or su1se7uent marria. :ill. +er 3ec. $%. +unis)a1le 1y an afflictive +enalty. 1 "&'. 4%%5'. C Direct.ally dissolved. #une 15. infrastructure +ro2ects. GR L-4"!"&. to . [3ermonia v.ood fait) t)e su1mission of t)eir tenders and acce+tance of all t)e terms and conditions t)ereof. :ienes futuros. [9las v. a.

1. num1ered. t)e +ara. 4%%14%%"'. si. 4.'. C Cont. city or +rovince.ra+)s *)erein t)ey are contained. 4. 4$.o. a reference to t)e ot)er +arts. all of *)ic) +arts constitute one 1ill. 54'. [Claridades. ( *ritten ackno*led. 1. more Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. it. 3uc) motion s)all +oint out t)e defects com+lained of. +.ned 1y t)e +erson . re7uirin. @IL'. :ill of e%change. ( *ritten a. [Claridades. eac) +art is num1ered and contains a reference to t)e ot)er +arts. Rule 14. :ill of lading.. ( 1ill com+osed of several +arts..d.ress t)at is local in c)aracter like t)e creation of a ne* to*n. t)e *)ole of t)e +arts constitutes one 1ill. 4. 14". recei+t. [3ec. [3u. 1 1 . C(. $88'. 4%%14%%"'. 1onds for +u1lic su1scri+tions. to a +leadin. 5& 3CR( $&4.ivin.1#5 or 1y offerin... ordered 1y t)e court on motion of a +arty. 1. [Claridades. 9us. Dec. +. La*.. t)e office of -*)ic). RoC'.ested (ns*er for t)e 1 & 9ar.d. [3aludo v. for*arder:s recei+t and recei+t for trans+ortation. (.s v. F1li. citin. any matter *)ic) is not averred *it) sufficient definiteness or +articularity to ena1le )im +ro+erly to +re+are )is res+onsive +leadin. :ill of local application. La* Rev. Rem. L-$4"1$15. Com+ilation of @otes. ( definite statement *)ic) a +arty may move for 1efore res+ondin. 4%%% . Aerrer. ( le. ( more definite statement. t)e motion must 1e filed *it)in ten -1%. +. =ar. @e. G3. 48.oods and a common carrier. 1 84. GR !!$".. is a re+ly.. addressed 1y one +erson to anot)er. and containin. (.d. +. [<orres. Inst. ( 1ill filed in Con. 1. $. G6LC. 4.. (. (n unconditional order in *ritin. ( ne.nated sum of money to t)e +ayee or su1se7uent )older. $5&'. ( 1ill dra*n in a set. Cummin. and t)e details desired. If t)e +leadin.. 1 4'.. :ill in set.reement to trans+ort and deliver t)em at a s+ecified +lace to a +erson named or on )is order. concernin. -4%%4. :ill of attainder. [<orres. Com+ilation of @otes. C Cont. days from service t)ereof. [Diaz. t)e +erson to *)om it is addressed to +ay on demand or at a fi0ed or determina1le future time a sum certain in money to order or to 1earer. Com+ilation of @otes. 5 Ball. 4%%1-4%%"'. Com+are *it) #romissory note.ment of t)e recei+t of t)e .reement 1et*een t)e s)i++er of t)e .. [3ec. :ill of particulars. is limited to makin.otia1le instrument 1y *)ic) t)e dra*er re7uires of t)e dra*ee to +ay a desi. 4%%% .. 1. eac) +art of t)e set 1ein..oods and an a. 488 -1&"8. 3uc) instrument may 1e called a s)i++in. [6eo+le v. F1li.islative act *)ic) inflicts +unis)ment *it)out trial. $5&'.

. not contained in t)e +leadin. to t)e o++osite +arty and t)e court as to t)e +recise nature.uaranteein. +. and t)at t)e o++osite +arty may 1e aided in framin. GR 1%"!48.)ts and +rivile. ++. alle. to t)e end t)at t)e +roof at t)e trial may 1e limited to t)e matters s+ecified. 1$ '. &"'.)ts and li1erties.1#6 +articular or definite t)e ultimate facts in a +leadin. action u+on t)e a++lication and t)e actual issuance of a +olicy.. v. !t) .. of Canada. ( formal and em+)atic le. s+ecify more minutely and +articularly a claim or defense set u+ and +leaded in . 4"5'. 3uc) a sli+ issued 1y t)e duly aut)orized a. (lso :inder. 51 6)il. La*. In life insurance a H1indin. 4.ive information. +.an1ayan.d. or to +re+are for trial. <)at +ortion of t)e Constitution . and assist t)e court.. :ill of particulars. a loss of control.d. ( document . It is not its office to su++ly evidentiary matters. 1. t)e ri. 1st . ( mere ackno*led.ment on 1e)alf of t)e com+any t)at its 1ranc) office )ad received from t)e a++licant t)e insurance +remium and )ad acce+ted t)e a++lication su12ect to +rocessin. 1y t)e )ead office. <)e ra+id and 7uick consum+tion of lar. GR 1%&11 . -t)at *ere. clarify. :inding slip. C(.ed too . and limit or circumscri1e t)e issues in t)e case. and needless +re+aration for.enerally or not averred *it) sufficient definiteness or +articularly -as. to ena1le an -adverse +arty.d.es to t)e individual. Ins. durin. sco+e. !1-!4'. Le. -1 &$. [Dirata v.al =ed. :inding receipt.eneral terms. c)aracter. t)e trial may 1e avoided. Const. 3ee :inding slip..iven to t)e insured to 1ind t)e com+any in case a loss occurs +endin. 3andi. sli+H or H1indin.islative assertion and declaration of +o+ular ri. [9lackEs La* Dict. +ro+erly to +re+are )is res+onsive +leadin. 3un Life (ssurance Co. and +re+arin. to e0+edite t)e trial. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al =ed.ent of an insurance com+any constitutes a tem+orary contract of insurance under *)ic) t)e com+any is lia1le for any loss occurrin.. 4%%% . La*. (1r. [De Lim v. [=orenoEs La* Dict. )is ans*erin.. Rem. +articularize. (+r. 6ur+oses> 1. t)e +eriod covered 1y it. and a++rise t)e o++osite +arty of t)e case *)ic) )e )as to meet. :ill of rights. #an. [Flarte. [Aortune Cor+. <o define. -4%%5. recei+tH does not insure of itself. Le. :inder.e amounts of food *)ile feelin. 1 5'. for trial. 1 . +leadin. 4. ". <o am+lify or limit a +leadin. :ingeing. 1 $'. and e0tent of t)e cause of action or defense relied on 1y t)e +leader.. and in order t)at sur+rise at..

a la*less secret society *)ose mem1ers en. 4 . 9am1oo-and-net device used to catc) Italan. or +urc)ase and sale of forei. ot)ers.. [6eo+le v. Be1ster.. :iomedicine.e derived t)ere from solely for commercial +ur+oses.a. *)et)er livin. :io-conversion to fuels. :lackhander.: [3ec. [3ec.. Diruses.ical and . refuge. 54.anic *aste. 1 "". ( la*less secret society *)ose mem1ers en. and ot)er crimes.a. citin.. [6eo+le v.: or :cosmo+olitan medicine.a.: :*estern medicine. :iologic products.anic matter. !.. Dict. <)e various +rocesses. (7uino. [3ec. citin.e in e0tortion. R( &54$'. steam or +o*er.ricultural cro+s or 1y-+roducts to yield su1stitute fuels suc) as alco)ol. :io-mass. 4 . Fr.enetic resources for +ur+oses of a++lyin. 6D 1%"&'. ( fuel . 4. @e* Intl. Dict.: :ort)odo0 medicine. 1io-mass feedstock. GR L4$ %&. It is also called :allo+at)y. 1&. fermentation of a. [3ec. R( 158'. animal and a. 6D 1%"&'. to0ins and analo. (7uino. ( +erson 1elon. [3ec. :io-gas.J [6eo+le v. terrorism. of !%-8%V met)ane and t)e rest non-com1usti1le . trees. GR 1%!"" 8%.ular medicine. al. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . or not. +. 4. terrorism. com1ustion of fire*ood to yield )eat. 4.n currency in violation of e0istin. t)era+y *it) remedies t)at +roduce effects differin. from t)ose of t)e diseases treated. <a. Fct. +.as. Fct.1# :intol. 1. :lackmarketing of foreign e%change.ka. Re2ano. 4&%'. 1y *)ic) a solid.aseous fuel is +roduced 1y utilizin. Be1ster.. natural or synt)etic. :ird sanctuary.ricultural *astes and decayin. to or associated *it) 9lack Land. :ioprospecting. 4&%'.: :conventional medicine.ases +roduced 1y t)e anaero1ic fermentation of or. and ot)er crimes. 3ee )alting of foreign e%change.d. la*s or rules and re. 1 "". 1 5'.: :mainstream medicine. @e* Intl.: :re. 3ee 5ame :lack =and. +lants in s*am+s.ae. 6D 1%"&'. R( ! 41'. 4nd .in.. amon. Fct. <)e crime committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all en. [3ec.d.as consistin. 4nd . collection and utilization of 1iolo. li7uid or .ulations of t)e Central 9ank. anaero1ic fermentation of animal manure to yield 1io-. e.e in t)e tradin. 6D 1&&$'. <)is *ould include.e in e0tortion. <)at disci+line of medical care advocatin. 5. [3ec.ous +roducts used for t)e +revention or cure of )uman diseases. t)e kno*led. <)e researc). sera. GR L4$ %&.

a. trans+ort and issue 1lood for transfusion and +rovide information and/or education on 1lood transfusion transmissi1le diseases. [Cruz. R( 881 '. +.ee created su1se7uent to t)e e0ecution of t)e contract. [3ec. [3ec. includin.or to t)e mort. :lood collection unit. :lood bank or center. 1 " . <)e analysis of 1lood sam+les of t)e mot)er. 1 "". of a fuel and o0idizer used to set off e0+losives. 4 %'. to s)ut off t)e +lace from international commerce and communication *it) ot)er states. GR L-4$ %&.or to t)e mort.. inde1tedness. and inde1tedness of t)e mort. +.. :lock. from enterin. $. a++ro0imately ei. 1ndorsement in blank. $. $.or. 96 44%'. minute of lon..a. tendin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . and t)e alle. citin. 9ut -suc) test. :lank indorsement. La* Revie*er. (lso . cannot s)o* t)at a man is t)e fat)er of a +articular c)ild. or leavin. [3ec. $. ( )ostile o+eration 1y *)ic) t)e vessels and aircraft of one 1elli.a. 4 .a. e0istin. :lockhead. :lighted lands. (n institution or facility duly aut)orized 1y t)e DFL to recruit and screen donors and collect 1lood.)tyone )ectares -&1 )as. containin. to de+reciate t)e value of t)e land and +revent normal develo+ment and use of t)e area.a. advances to 1e made 1y t)e mort.a. [3ec. Intl. -1y *)ic).a. $. t)e +ur+ose 1ein.d. 1ut at least can :lasting agent. [6eo+le v.eridional block.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. o1solete and unsanitary. Dict.. Intl. minute of latitude and one-)alf -1/4. <)e areas *)ere t)e structures are dila+idated.d.ee of +ast or future ori. store. 4%%% .e *)ic) 1roadens t)e security clause to cover all inde1tedness of t)e mort. R( 848 '. !4'. [3ec. $. Be1ster Intl.itude. +rocess. it can 1e esta1lis)ed conclusively t)at t)e man is not t)e fat)er of t)e c)ild. t)e c)ild. (7uino. 3ee :lockade. ( +rovision in a mort. +.in.ed fat)er. La*. t)e +orts or coasts of t)e ot)er 1elli.ee to t)e mort.. (n area 1ounded 1y one-)alf -1/4. Fct. t)ose of neutral states.s. 1!!'. :lock. R( 881 '. [3ec. R( 8 54'. (ny material or mi0ture consistin. ( +erson deficient in understandin. ( la1oratory or institution *it) t)e ca+a1ility to recruit and screen 1lood donors.erent. :lood grouping test. ( +arcel of land 1ounded on t)e sides 1y streets or alleys or +at)*ays or ot)er natural or manmade features.1#! :lanket mortgage clause. and occu+ied 1y or intended for 1uildin.erent +revent all ot)er vessels. collect.. 6D 11&!'.

[3ec. <)e a. and recordin. $. "$. 3tat. !$'.ations of t)e +arty:s claims or defenses. 1 &8'. 1. GR L-5 1"4. 4%%% . 6D &!"'. :lood transfusion transmissible diseases. t)at sets fort) its desi. of votes in t)e +ollin. La*. and t)e date of t)e +leadin. R( "1$!'. [Claridades. ( 1lue 1and used to seal a +acka. t)e mem1ers of t)e cor+oration. ( 1uildin. Rem. and are to )old office for one -1.. [.arettes. (. R( 881 '. re.. 4. Loly <)ursday and Good AridayJ enacted on #une 4%. +rocessed or un+rocessed and includes 1lood com+onents. [3ec... and controls and )olds all +ro+erty of suc) cor+orations. +lace. [3uarez. +. [3ec. $. C(. :oard of directors or trustees. R( &5$"'. <)e +art of a +leadin.ency created 1y R( !1&". its +roducts and derivative. :oard of 1nvestments 2:013. t)e relief +rayed for. ( 2o1 undertaken on a motor ve)icle in order to Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .d. R( 5" entitled I(n (ct to +ro)i1it la1or on 3unday. @e* ?ear:s day.ed for slee+in. year until t)eir successors are elected and 7ualified. Com+ilation of @otes. Luman 1lood. Le+atitis-9. :oarding house. 6D 54"'. 3tat. R( 881 '. :oard of election inspectors. accommodations and meals. [3ec.0+ressly re+ealed 1y t)e La1or Code'. Diseases *)ic) may 1e transmitted as a result of 1lood transfusion. unta0ed ci. (ny )ouse *)ere 1oarders are acce+ted for com+ensation 1y t)e *eek or 1y t)e mont).e of forei. and *)ere meals are served to 1oarders only. :lue )unday 6aw. Con. t)e alle. ( 9oard in every +recinct com+osed of t)ree -$. :lue seal. countin. [3ec.1#" s)o* only a +ossi1ility t)at )e is.n-made. 1. :lood or blood product. 1 !$.. +. 4. t)e )olders of stocks. :ody. [#ao v..nation. It contains t)e su12ect matter of t)e statute. *)ere selected +ersons for fi0ed +eriods of time are su++lied *it). 1. =alaria and 3y+)ilis. [=orenoEs La* Dict. t)e directors or trustees of *)ic) are elected from amon. RoC'. (ID3. or *)ere t)ere is no stock. C)ristmas day. includin.ular mem1ers *)o s)all conduct t)e votin. 4%%14%%"'. Rule 8. 5"'. 4. #uly 4&. 4. from amon. [3ec. Com+are *it) 6odging house. $. -1 $. and c)ar. Con. :ody-building. conducts all 1usiness. [3ec.. kno*n as t)e Investment Incentives (ct. <)e 1ody +olitic and cor+orate *)ic) e0ercises t)e cor+orate +o*ers of all cor+orations formed under t)e Cor+oration Code.

+.. Lat. [<orres. [. [(rt.. 4%%5'. 1$.al <erms -6ro-3e. #an.. :ona fide occupant. LGC'. t)at is sufficiently secured.otia1le instruments in . 4.norant t)at t)e title is contested 1y any ot)er +erson claimin.enuine. $1. :ona fide. 4%!" of t)e Civil Code and in s+ecial la*s. :onded warehouse. +roducer. 4%%5'. .)t to it. <)e H1ona fideH re7uirement necessarily aut)orizes 2udicial in7uiry into t)e lando*ner:s motives in decidin. any +erson *)o ac7uires +ro+erty or ne.ood fait) or *it) . 1 4'.. 4%%5'. !$'. :ona fide bidder. ( facility at a +ort of entry *)ere s)i++ers can store . :ona fide intention to cultivate. [Glossary of Le. GR 5144 . In 3ec.ood fait) and for valua1le consideration. a su+erior ri. +er 3ec.. C Direct.11# re+lace its entire 1ody *it) a ne* 1ody. ( *ritten a. t)e dis+ossession of )is tenants. :olo.le-ed.. [3ec. ( surety offered in virtue of a +rovision of la* or of a 2udicial order *)o s)all )ave t)e 7ualifications +rescri1ed in (rt. F1li. C(.. 4%%% . GR L-18!"5.ood title and kno*s of no adverse claim. !% -a. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 9ernardo. 4%%5'. *it)out fraud or deceit.reement 1y *)ic) a +erson insures )e *ill +ay a certain sum of money if )e does not +erform certain duties +ro+erty.elista v. 1 "4'.. (costa. Certificates of de1t issued 1y a com+any -or .oods until t)ey clear customs.ular dealer or service esta1lis)ment *it) re+uta1le esta1lis)ment for at least t)ree -$. In . (s used in sales or ordinary contracts. 1. La* Dict. C Cont. mont)s +rior to t)e +u1lic 1iddin. to mec)anize )is o+erations. as amended. +ayment of an ori.overnment. =. C Direct. CC'. ( re. [<etley.d..van. -t)e term. )e intends to +artici+ate in. one *)o not only )onestly su++oses )imself to 1e vested *it) true title 1ut is i. R( "!$ '. La* Dict.ood fait). :ona fide purchaser for value. [9ernardo v.ed knife. 4. )eavy 6)ili++ine sin.d. :ond. :onds. re. 4 . 4%%% . . [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. 1 !5'.inal investment +lus interest at a s+ecified future date.t. )as reference not only to t)e lia1ility and firm decision of t)e lando*ner to mec)anize 1ut also to t)e motive 1e)ind )is action in seekin. [De 3antos v. @ov. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ation or undertakin. of R( 11 . Glossary of Conflict of La*s. Fne *)o su++oses )e )as a . $5&'.istered merc)ant licensed as manufacturer.. ( lon. GR L!&84. [Intl. $&$. ( *ritten o1li. #an.uaranteein. :ondsman. [Intl. 4%&4. +.

[Claridades. +. Lat. for t)e develo+ment of t)e 1ook +u1lis)in. 1". <)e art or +ractice of kee+in. <)ey are Batered shares. Lat. o+erates outside t)e com+ounds of racin. and it )as no +ro1ative value as an e0tra2udicial statement of t)e +erson 1ein. . 1 $'. v.)ts. 9us. 1& 3CR( 485 -1 %. +. 1.nin. GR L-$ 4 . CIR. GR &"!!!. 1y t)e accused of t)e 1ookin. :onus (ude% secundum sequum. and Luzon 3tevedorin. [<raders Royal 9ank v.d.. :ookkeeping.al <erms -6ro-3e. [6an. R( &%58 entitled I(n (ct +rovidin. :onus shares.. ( record of arrest and a statement on )o* t)e arrest is made.er+rintin. s)eet and arrest re+ort is not a +art of t)e custodial investi.) t)e formulation and im+lementation of a national 1ook +olicy and a Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (. :ooking. Fct. C(..id la*. 4%%5'.. 48. La* Rev. :ook #ublishing 1ndustry Development Act.. 4%%% . [6eo+le v. :onus pater familias. [Glossary of Le. Commentaries and #uris+. *)ic) is usually 1%V. 4%%14%%"'. <)ose issued .d. GR 11!%55. to 2ustice ands ri. <)e +rocess of +)oto. 1! 3CR( ""% -1 "!..)t and +refers e7uity to strict la*. @ov. #an. (n amount . industry t)rou. [=orenoEs La* Dict. ( +erson. 1 && Rev.ranted and +aid to an em+loyee for )is industry and loyalty *)ic) contri1uted to t)e success of t)e em+loyer:s 1usiness and made +ossi1le t)e realization of +rofits. :ookie. fin. <)ey +ay dividends to *inners minus a commission.ratuitously. 6ac7uin. <)is +rocess follo*s t)e arrest. on Comml.. *)o *it)out any license t)erefor. Com+ilation of @otes. !5'. detained. La*. 1&. and t)e state of t)e 1usiness in *)ic) t)ey occur. :onus (ude% secundum aequum at bonum (udicat stricto (uri praefert. ( .ood decides accordin. Cor+. Lat. 1 &&'.'. 4!%'. It is somet)in.iven in addition to *)at is ordinarily received 1y or strictly due to t)e reci+ient.an v. +. Decidin.ra+)in. 1 1 . It is sim+ly a +olice re+ort. identifyin. [Lim v. [=artin.d. and recordin.ation *)ic) *ould ot)er*ise re7uire t)e +resence of counsel to ensure t)e +rotection of t)e accused:s constitutional ri. =anzano. clu1s and acce+ts 1ets from t)e +u1lic. accordin. [Diaz. :ooking sheet. Dol... so as to s)o* t)eir relations to eac) ot)er. <)e si. to 2ustice rat)er t)an ri. La*s. data of a sus+ect.111 :onus. a systematic record of 1usiness transactions. Good fat)er of t)e family. 1 !'. @LRC.. $4'. .

.a. +. :ore.as. [6o7uiz. t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Commentaries and #uris+.as and met)ane . citin.as and met)ane . [(.112 national 1ook develo+ment +lanJ enacted on #une 8. natural . is e0+ressly +ro)i1ited under t)e la* for t)e +arties are re7uired to 1ar. Conf. or *)ic) ta+s or is likely to ta+ . $. 9oul*are of Gen. 4. or durin.y.'.as and includes any )ole in t)e . :orrowing statute.. [Du)aime:s Le. attitude of t)e mana.es t)e s)i+ as a security of its re+ayment. natural . [<io+ianco. 96 44 entitled I(n (ct +enalizin. t)e forei. an infant usin. ". +i+e..eot)ermal ener.ainin.el. and for a definite term and +led. sunk or made in t)e . ( -statute *)ic). 1 &8 Const. <)e met)od of feedin.e. t)e contents of *)ic) can 1e any ty+e of fluid. Conflict of La*s. e7ui+ment or re+air of t)e vessel. sti+ulated t)at if t)e s)i+ 1e lost in t)e course of t)e s+ecific voya. *it) t)e +rior concurrence of t)e =onetary 9oard.d. (ny *ell. ( contract in t)e nature of a mort. citin.d. 4. [I1id. ( Itake-it-orleave-itJ 1ar. :ottomry loan. [3ec. or +roducin.as. R. claims 1ased on a forei.y.ainin.round *)ic) ta+s . )as t)e +ractical effect of treatin.n la*. (rt.+alo.eot)ermal ener. +ros+ectin. natural . [3ec. 9lackEs La* Dict. La1or. Conflicts 1&$ -1 8!. :orn out of wedlock. on t)e Ins. 1 . . Code of t)e 6)il..ood fait). t)e limited time 1y any of t)e +erils enumerated in t)e contract. o1tainin.'. 4%. R( 8"%%'.al Dict. DII. 1%$. )ole. it 1ein. 1y *)ic) t)e o*ner of a s)i+ 1orro*s money for t)e use. [3ec. <)is ty+e of 1ar. -G3.round for t)e +ur+ose of investi.. and su12ect to suc) limitations as may 1e +rovided 1y la*.'.atin.n statute of limitation as one of su1stance.e. Goodric). drilled. La*. *it) maritime or e0traordinary interest on account of t)e maritime risks to 1e 1orne 1y t)e lender.. +. directs t)e state of t)e forum to a++ly t)e forei.n statute of limitations to t)e +endin.as and met)ane . 9orn of +arents *)o *ere not married at t)e time of 1irt). 18 '. of La*s. . 1 . :ottle-feeding.ement introduced 1y L.'. 1.. La1or Rel.uarantee forei.eot)ermal ener. :oulwareism. 4%%5'.lectric Co. a 1ottle *it) artificial ni++les. Conflict of La*s 1!41!$ -1 $&. :ouncing &heck 6aw.ain collectively and in . +. 1 !. t)e lender s)all also lose )is money. ( statute -*)ic). or e0cavation of any kind *)ic) is 1ored. :orrowing power of the #resident. R( !% 4'. 3ie. <)e +o*er of t)e 6resident to contract or ..y.n loans on 1e)alf of t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines.

1et*een a 2ee+neyo*ner and a driver -under *)ic). "1'. 1. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (+r. <)e +ro+rietary name ..lements> -a. 4%%5'. It is not se+arately incor+orated.. La. *it)out any valid cause.e 1ut . <)e +revalent.. Ramos. :ranch. LFI &!$'..ets only t)e e0cess of t)e amount of fares collected 1y )im over t)e amount )e +ays to t)e 2ee+-o*ner. Intl. R( ""8!'. $. to o1tain *it)dra*al of +u1lic +atrona. [3ec. :ouncing &heck 6aw violation .)t t)rou. t)e driver does not receive a fi0ed *a. 1 "$'.e of t)e maker.iven 1y t)e manufacturer to distin. [=orenoEs La* Dict. (nd 3ec. <)e makin. Gnit or +art of a com+any.anization *)ere1y it is sou. :oundary rivers.) *)ic) t)e functions of t)e . and -c. like t)e 3t. Rivers *)ic) divide t)e territories of states. C Direct. $!4 G3 " '.d. Code. [9urke v. (n em+loyer-em+loyee relations)i+ e0istin. (1out t*o -4. La* Revie*er. Gnder (rt IX -9. 9ernardo. (ny activity on t)e +art of a la1or or. and issuance of a c)eck *it)out sufficient funds or credit and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on (+r. :oundary system. and t)e . La* Dict.d. GR 1%&$4.overnment or to t)e +rovincial or munici+al 1ranc)es or ot)er forms of local . La*rence River 1et*een t)e Gnited 3tates and Canada. [Cruz. (dams Dairy. [IB)ereasJ clause. [6eo+le v. :ranch and subdivision of the government. Dec. dra*er or issuer t)at at t)e time of issue )e does not )ave sufficient funds in or credit *it) t)e dra*ee 1ank for t)e +ayment of suc) c)eck in full u+on its +resentment. 4. 2ee+neys and ta0is. su1se7uent dis)onor of t)e c)eck 1y t)e dra*ee 1ank for insufficiency of funds or credit or dis)onor for t)e same reason )ad not t)e dra*er. La*. (dmin. ot)er t)an 1y reason of la*ful com+etition.overnment are e0ercised. !5'. [G3 v. 1 " .ui. 4 of t)e Rev. 1 8 . 4%%% .uis) its +roduct from t)ose of com+etitors. Intl. land trans+ortation services.e from one in 1usiness. $.113 makin. to t)e central .overnment. GR L-1"8 %. t)e kno*led.. or dra*in. [Intl. of t)e 1 &8 Const. *)et)er +ertainin. +ersistent and acce+ted mode or contractual relations)i+ 1et*een o+erators and drivers of +u1lic utilities +rovidin. (dmin. yards. :oycott. :rand name. 3+. :ra a. t)e cor+orate entity t)rou. La*. dra*in. 181 3CR( $%!'.asoline consumed 1y t)e 2ee+s is for t)e account of t)e driver. and issuance of any c)eck of a++ly to account or for value. 1. -1. +articularly mini-1uses.) concerted action. [=a. ordered t)e 1ank to sto+ +ayment. +.1oo v.. +. $%.

GR L-18"%$.)t. <)e failure of one +art to carry out any condition of a contract. [Du)aime:s Le. 1 44'. <)e *ord is derived from t)e Latin *ord 1revis. [3ec. a 1reac) of +romise to marry +er se is not actiona1le. 4%%5'. a 1reac) of contract is a +rere7uisite of any suit for dama. v. and 1y fair ar.al <erms -6ro3e. [Glossary of Le. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%5'. :reach of trust. 1. . =ar. [Casilan v. 4. ri. (n un2ustified failure to +erform *)en +erformance is due. [Du)aime:s Le. *)et)er or not suita1le for t)at +ur+ose. :reach of promise to marry.es is allo*ed in cases s+ecified in or analo. GR L-18$$5. an infant directly from t)e )uman 1reast. C(. of a la*. or violatin. #uly 1%.es 1ased on t)e contract. :reastfeeding.ument on t)e facts and la* of t)e case.reement or t)e la* of trusts. and literally means a s)ort or condensed statement. 3ee :rief..F !1. 6rovin. at a 2ust and +ro+er conclusion. R( 8"%%'.ous to t)ose +rovided in (rt. 1 4'. :reach. eit)er 1y commission or omission.114 11. $. 41 of said Code. 4&. 1 &"'. Generally. [9uKa. <)e failure to do *)at one +romised to do under a contract. 1. . a statement of t)e 7uestions of la* involved. (ny act or omission on t)e +art of t)e trustee *)ic) is inconsistent *it) t)e terms of t)e trust a. e0ce+t *)ere t)e +laintiff )as actually incurred e0+enses for t)e *eddin.5. :reastmilk. [3ec. :reach of contract. :reastmilk substitute. <raditio brevi manu. (ny food 1ein. [3ec.al Dict. and t)e Arenc) 1rief. <)e +ur+ose of t)e 1rief is to +resent to t)e court in concise form t)e +oint and 7uestions in controversy.an. :revi manu$ traditio. [Glossary of Le. 4...7ual to 1. [6eo+le v. 1 1"'. <)e a*ard of moral dama.al <erms -6ro3e. 4%. and t)e a++lication )e desires made of it 1y t)e court. to assist t)e court in arrivin. C)avez. 4%%5'. R( 8"%%'. GR 1%185 . t)e ve)icle of counsel to convey to t)e court t)e essential facts of )is client:s case.al Dict. 441 . Ae1. 1% of said (rt. It is. <)e met)od of feedin."81& meters. $. and t)e necessary incidents t)ereof. 4%%5'. certainly. Fct. 441 of t)e Civil Code and under (rt.. marketed or ot)er*ise re+resented as a +artial or total re+lacement for 1reastmilk. <)e )uman milk from a mot)er. t)e la* )e s)ould )ave a++lied. 6anali. or duty. <)e 1rief s)ould 1e so +re+ared as to minimize t)e la1or of t)e court in e0amination of t)e record u+on *)ic) t)e a++eal is )eard and determined.. <)e 1reakin. in relation to +ar.

<)e commonest +rimary mali. ne. a case.uin. =ore t)an t)ree armed +ersons *)o form a 1and of ro11ers for t)e +ur+ose of committin. [3ec. <)e transmission 1y *ireless means for t)e +u1lic rece+tion of sounds or of ima.anization or *it) its consent. [Glossary of Le. R6C'. ( *ritten ar.e in 1roadcastin. and -c. Fct. t)at t)e +ur+ose for *)ic) t)e offenders )ave . 4%4.ent of 1ot) +arties.otiatin.. GR L-18"5&. [3ec.ed. 1.an.)*ay.115 1 "4. 3ee =ighway robbery. )e is strictly a middleman and for some +ur+oses t)e a. [#imenez v. :roker. never actin. $. a1out %V of all tumors occurrin. t)e ne.rou+ed to. =ar. R( &8 '. :rigandage. GR L-!&18". securities for t)e account of ot)ers. CC'.. &"%. and it is ra+idly fatal if untreated. t)at t)ere are at least four +ersons in t)e . 4. 4.d. (lso called a =emorandum of la*. are +rovided to t)e +u1lic 1y t)e 1roadcastin. *)ere t)e means for decry+tin. :rigands. 1. 1 &5'. R( &4 $'. Fne *)o is en. suc) transmission 1y satellite is also 9roadcastin. or. In t)is se0. [(rt.s. Dol.. +. 4$.)*ay or to kidna+ +ersons for e0tortion or ransom or for any ot)er +ur+ose to 1e attained 1y force or violence.ssential elements> -a.ument of )o* t)e la* a++lies to t)e fact situation.. ro11ery in t)e )i. 1 "5'.et)er is to commit ro11ery in t)e )i. t)at eac) and everyone of t)em is armed. of Int. [Quenzle C 3treiff v. It is +redominantly a disease of t)e male se0.d. $%". and an ar. Rev. [3ec. +ersons for t)e +ur+ose of e0tortion or to o1tain ransom or for any ot)er +ur+ose to 1e attained 1y means of force and violence. 811'. for ot)ers. 4%%5'. :rief substitution. +. :ronchogenic carcinoma. citin. !!'. [(rt.a... $1. 4. 4%4. or kidna++in.al <erms -6ro3e. R( &4 $'. :roadcasting.otiator 1et*een ot)er +arties. it is t)e commonest cause of deat) from Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . contracts relative to +ro+erty *it) t)e custody of *)ic) )e )as no concern. 4%%% . on a commission. Comm. in )is o*n name.a. Cancer of t)e lun.es or of re+resentations t)ereof.. :roadcasting organi ation. -1. (lso =ighway robbers. .ument 1y counsel ar. ( natural +erson or a 2uridical entity duly aut)orized to en. 1 !8 . Comments on t)e Rules of Court. and sellin. 1.CC.nant tumor of t)e lun. . <)e su1stitution of t*o or more +ersons for one )eir. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ed in t)e 1usiness of 1uyin. *)ic) contains a summary of t)e facts of t)e case.a. in men. +ertinent la*s. 1ut in t)e name of t)ose *)o em+loyed )im. ( +erson en.

strate. 9ook DI. :udget. :udgeting process. <asked on t)e .etin. $%.. *itc).. 1. <)e fourt) +)ase -in t)e . DIII of t)e Constitution. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . covers t)e various o+erational as+ects of 1ud. and vie*in. reflective of national o12ectives. -c.. [6eo+le v. 1 5'. 44. v. .ue. includin.116 cancer.etin. 1'. t)e re. GR !!851.et cycle. Com+uter soft*are +ro.. 15. 44. #r. :udget document. #r. GR "&%$$. -1. [Lata. :udget accountability. as t)e 1asis of t)e . [6eo+le v. 1 &8 Const.etmakin.. 44. Canillo.ets set at t)e time t)e a. :uang. GR 1%"!8 . +ersonnel )ired and *ork accom+lis)ed are com+ared *it) t)e tar.eneral a++ro+riations 1ill. Dis. 1ud. Dis. :ruha. DII.ations incurred. t)e Borld Bide Be1.overnment 1ud. ( financial +lan re7uired to 1e +re+ared +ursuant to 3ec.et of e0+enditures and sources of financin. 4. Insane.ulation of funds releases.. 1 1. Aoolis) or stu+id. C Direct. [Guin. [3ec. and ot)er related activities com+rise t)is +)ase of t)e 1ud. [Guin. v. !"'. 1" -1. t)e evaluation of *ork and financial +lans for individual activities.et +re+aration. [=orenoEs La* Dict. (rt. 1 1'. Cara. [3ec.et e0ecution. #r. <a. o1li. a 1ud. <)e esta1lis)ment of o1li. [Guin. 1 1'.et +rocess -*)ic).ona.ation aut)ority ceilin. and +ro+osed revenue measures. 1ody. aut)ority to +resent a com+re)ensive financial +ro. (u.etin.overnment 1ud. of t)e re.overnment fiscal +osition. <)e +o*er of t)e 6resident to su1mit to t)e Con. (+r. 3e+. .ular session. Gica. #uly $1.CC.d. [3ec. (rt.s. :udget e%ecution. <)e instruments used 1y t)e 1ud. revie* of . le.islative aut)orization. refers to t)e evaluation of actual +erformance and initially a++roved *ork tar.ram to t)e a++ro+riatin. =entally defective. GR 5!81. GR 5!81. and -d.ets *ere a++roved.0ecutive. ( vernacular *ord meanin. [Intl. C)a+.ona.ue.ies and +ro. t)e continuin. :rowser. (+r. 1ud.. 4.et accounta1ility. 1 4'.ram for accessin. v. 11.ency 1ud. +rocess *)ic). . 41. 4%%5'. t)e t)ird +)ase of t)e 1ud.an v. Cara.ress *it)in t)irty days from t)e o+enin.ona. +rocess consists of four ma2or +)ases> -a. Lavana. 6D 588'. :uangon. La* Dict.ets. GR L-$"&%%. 4%%% .F 4 4'.'. [=ontecillo Fct. :udgetary power of the #resident. v. 1ud. +. recei+ts from e0istin. 3te+s> <)e . 1 85'.rams. t)e im+lementation of cas) +ayment sc)edules.

critical facilities *)ic). must 1e o+erated directly 1y t)e Government.ement *)ere1y t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent undertakes t)e financin...et estimates in line *it) t)e re7uirements consistent *it) t)e .overnment a.ency or local .)t to 1uild t)ereon. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. and t)e translation of desired +riorities and activities into e0+enditure levels.ue.etin.et Coordinatin.ency *)ic) s)all not 1e used in its normal or re. R( " !8'. C(. <)e first ste+ -in t)e . ( contractual arran.d. a. t)e determination of 1ud. GR &"8&8. -It. :uffer fund. :udget preparation.11 Cara.eneral ceilin. GR 1 1'. <)is arran. *)ic) s)all +ay t)e +ro+onent on an a. for security or strate. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [9is)o+ v. . ( *are)ouse is not a 1uildin.ement may 1e em+loyed in t)e construction of any infrastructure or develo+ment +ro2ect. Fne *)o is una*are of any fla* in )is title to t)e land at t)e time )e 1uilds on it.et call issued 1y t)e De+artment of 9ud. [Guin.ency 1ud. =ay &. limits. and construction of a .ular o+erations 1ut only for +ur+oses +rovided for in R( 8!&1. :uilder in bad faith. +lus a reasona1le rate of return t)ereon. :uffer ones.0ecutive 9ranc) and covers t)e estimation of ..ac) a. +. Council -D9CC. 1 4'. clu1s. v. [3ec. ( 1uilder *)o 1uilds kno*in.overnment 1ud. II.s set 1y t)e Develo+ment 9ud. +. to )im and )e )as no ri. 1uilt for t)e +ur+ose of 1ein. ( . 5!81. :uild-and-transfer.ency is re7uired to su1mit a. :uilder in good faith.eneric term for all arc)itectural *ork *it) roof. GR 5!81.iven infrastructure or develo+ment facility and after its com+letion turns it over to t)e .nated +rotected areas +ursuant to 3ec.ement.reed sc)edule its total investments e0+ended on t)e +ro2ect.ona.overnment unit concerned. R( 8!&"'.et and =ana. $. ( contin. t)eaters. 4.. :uilding. includin.overnment revenues. 5. !8'. 3ec.. [3ec. used as a manEs d*ellin. R( 881&. Re+r.. #r.ent fund in t)e 1ud.etary +riorities and activities *it)in t)e constraints im+osed 1y availa1le revenues and 1y 1orro*in. [3ec. (+r. R( 8!&1'. Cara. & of R( 8!&" t)at need s+ecial develo+ment control in order to avoid or minimize )arm to t)e +rotected area.et of t)e im+lementin. 4%%1. starts *it) t)e 1ud. 44. Identified areas outside t)e 1oundaries of and immediately ad2acent to desi. +rocess *)ic). [<olentino. 4. t)at t)e land does not 1elon. etc.ic reasons. 1%8.ue. 44. 4%%% . 1 1'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . or for offices. is essentially tasked u+on t)e . Dol. (+r.

o+erate and maintain an infrastructure or develo+ment facility from *)ic) t)e +ro+onent is allo*ed to recover its total investment.. :uild-transfer-and-operate.overnment a. R( " !8 entitled I(n (ct aut)orizin. construction. 4. 4.e facility users a++ro+riate tools. delay. fees.otiated and incor+orated in t)e contract to ena1le t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent to recover its investment. o+eration and maintenance of infrastructure +ro2ects 1y t)e +rivate sector. !$"'. <)e +ro2ect +ro+onent transfers t)e facility to t)e . 6oizat. construct.ement *)ere1y a +ro2ect +ro+onent is aut)orized to finance and construct an infrastructure or develo+ment facility and u+on its com+letion turns it over to t)e . rentals or ot)er c)ar. :uild-0perate-And-<ransfer 6aw. of a . R( " !8'. 6)il.ency or local . t)e financin. o*n.overnment a. ( contractual arran.11! citin. financin. 5& 6)il. [3ec.iven infrastructure facility.overnment a. [3ec. R( 881&'.. and c)ar. includin. <)e +ro2ect +ro+onent o+erates t)e facility over t)e fi0ed term durin. ( contractual arran. and maintenance e0+enses in t)e +ro2ect.istered *it) t)e 3. and o+eratin. rentals.ar .es from facility users.overnment unit concerned at t)e end of t)e fi0ed term *)ic) s)all not e0ceed fifty -!%. t)e +ro+onent must 1e Aili+ino or. :uild-lease-and-transfer.state Devt. R( 881&'. if a cor+oration.ency or local .ement *)ere1y a +ro2ect +ro+onent is aut)orized to finance. and t)e o+eration and maintenance t)ereof. 1y Aili+inos.es not e0ceedin. :uild-operate-and-transfer. cost overrun. ( contractual arran. [3ec. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ency or local . ( contractual arran. 4. and s+ecified +erformance risks. [3ec. 4. D. fees. and maintenance costs +lus a reasona1le return t)ereon 1y collectin. 1 %.ement for a fi0ed +eriod after *)ic) o*ners)i+ of t)e facility is automatically transferred to t)e . tolls. R( 881&'. must 1e duly re. R( 881&. 3ec. o+eratin. *)ic) it is allo*ed to c)ar. years> 6rovided. 3u.C and o*ned u+ to at least si0ty +ercent -"%V. t)ose +ro+osed in its 1id or as ne. and for t)e ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #uly . assumin. <)at in case of an infrastructure or develo+ment facility *)ose o+eration re7uires a +u1lic utility franc)ise.overnment unit concerned. 4.ement *)ere1y t)e +u1lic sector contracts out t)e 1uildin. :uild-own-and-operate.ement *)ere1y t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent undertakes t)e construction. of an infrastructure facility to a +rivate entity suc) t)at t)e contractor 1uilds t)e facility on a turn-key 1asis.overnment unit concerned on a lease arran.

follo*ed 1y +ur. La*. *)en t)e sale. -4%%4.e or assi. +. Lessee. [3ec.oods. la0atives. :um check. +. t)e necessity or duty of affirmatively +rovin. ( *ort)less c)eck or a c)eck t)at is dis)onored u+on its +resentment for +ayment. +. transfer or dis+osition is ot)er t)an in t)e ordinary course.. R( 5""$'. Com+ilation of @otes.ein.d. evidence. or 1ot).ical necessity on a +arty durin. In t)e la* of evidence.. :ulkhead line. t)e accused ...ulates t)e sale. diuretics. (. Lo. [3u. *)en t)e sale is of all or su1stantially all of t)e fi0tures and e7ui+ment. in 1ulk.d. [3ec. La. [6eo+le v. :urden of proof..er... +rovisions or materials. Le.. :ulk sale. transfer. ( rule of evidence t)at makes a +erson +rove a certain t)in. [Luft)ansa German (irlines v. [=iravite. 1&'. GR 8"4"4-"$. 1 & '. 1st . [<orres. t)e +rosecution )as t)e 1urden of +rovin. cited in =iravite... 4%%14%%"'..a. R( 8"41'. -4%%4. ( disorder c)aracterized 1y re+eated e+isodes of 1in. 3tructure servin. [Claridades.e eatin. <)e ac7uisition of all or a . <a. [Flarte. :ulk )ales 6aw. !&'. C( GR &$"14.nment of ..reater +art of stock and fi0tures of a 1usiness in a manner ot)er t)an in t)e ordinary course of its 1usiness. 1&'. 1 5'. mort.. 4. or e0cessive e0ercisin. 14t) . 4%%5'. @ov..d. :ulkhead. in criminal trials. 14t) . $. (lso )ale in bulk. 1$ '. 1. 1. ri. F1li. $5&'. =ar.d. 1 !&.. as amended 1y R( 111.. 9ar Revie* =aterials in Comm.uilt 1ecause innocence is +resumed.in. La*. -1..d. 1". :urden of evidence. <)e limitin.orous dietin. Aor e0am+le.. *ares. 4. :umubuwis. or t)e contrary *ill 1e assumed 1y t)e court. line 1eyond *)ic) no 1ulk)eads or solid fill may 1e e0tended. Com+are *it) Anore%ia nervosa. :umping-off.ainst )im 1y +resentin.11" :ulimia nervosa. *)en t)e sale is of all or su1stantially all of t)e 1usiness. C Cont. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4%%% . and -c.al =ed. merc)andise. ( sale is considered to 1e in 1ulk> -a. 5 -. *)ic) re. a fact or facts in dis+ute on an issue Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students ... 9ar Revie* =aterials in Comm. -4%%5. [Du)aime:s Le. 4%%% . to divide land and *ater areas.ested ans*er to 9ar 1 58. +. to counteract t)e effects of 1in. -self-induced vomitin. (ct $ !4. or takin. +. 45. Refusal to carry or trans+ort a +assen.ui.al Dict. a +articular time of t)e trial to create a +rima facie case in )is favor or to destroy t)at created a.

:usiness goodwill.ricultural. [R( 445'.d.. :usiness agent. or assem1ly of . advertisin.ross ve)icle *ei.rave. :usiness enterprise. 4%%5'. [3ec.eneral encoura.ro-industrial esta1lis)ments en.enerated *)en t)e client-+u1lic re.ed in t)e +roduction manufacturin.al <erms -6ro-3e..)t of 5. :urial grounds. (ny +rinci+al su1division or unit of any de+artment. a +oint -t)e 1urden of +roof. re. [3ec.overnment a.. <)e res+onsi1ility of +rovin. R6C'. 6D 54"'.ardless of actual name or desi. . <)e advanta. Interment of remains in a . em+loyment.in. 1$1. ! '. [3ec.ularly en. :urning one's own property as means to commit arson. Crim.encies.ement and +atrona. [(rt. R( " 81'.ent of ot)ers in t)e transaction of 1usiness *it) any +u1lic officer. or a. <rade or commercial activity re.enerally acce+ted and s+ecially desi.a.uration *it) . even t)ou. :us. +. a.iven or assi. +rocessin.al entry *it) t)e intent to steal. & . 1. <)e act of ille. [3ec. R( 81"%'. includin. 4. ( motor ve)icle of any confi. <)is s)all include any +rinci+al su1division or unit of any instrumentality . 6D &!"'. Code of 1 &8'. 3ee Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 6D &!"'. [Glossary of Le. <)is is . :urial. (lso Agente de negocios.a. [3ec.ard favora1ly t)e +roduct or services turned out 1y t)e 1usiness concern.e of t)e +u1lic. Industrial. [Glossary of Le.12# raised 1et*een t)e +arties in a la*suit..reat destruction of t)e +ro+erty 1elon. La*. It deals *it) *)ic) side must esta1lis) a +oint or +oints.ned for mass or +u1lic trans+ortation.nation. duly certified as suc) 1y a++ro+riate .ional offices..ned t)e rank of a 1ureau. as in t)e case of de+artment*ide re.. & . Cemetery. tom1 or t)e sea.uilty of arson or causin.oods. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson . (ll +ersons *)o act as a.e ac7uired 1y any +roduct or services 1ecause of . :ureau. 4%%5'.% tons or more *it) any num1er of *)eels and a0les. as *ell as t)ose *)o conduct collectin. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ed in as a means of liveli)ood or *it) a vie* to +rofit. :usiness. service-oriented enter+rises. to anot)er.. [3ec... re+ackin.al <erms -6ro3e. (dmin.) )e s)all )ave set fire to or destroyed )is o*n +ro+erty for t)e +ur+oses of committin.encies. 5. memorial +ark of any +lace duly aut)orized 1y la* for +ermanent dis+osal of t)e dead. $4!. or +rivate detective a. t)e crime. 4%%% .. *)ic) is . :urglary.

3ec. [3ec. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on @ov. Code of 1 1. ( ta0 im+osed 1y t)e munici+ality on 1usiness.. 3ee #urchaser in good faith and for value. C Direct.no(damos v. #une 4&. Com+ilation of @otes. GR 8 "44. 1 $1. Com+ilation of @otes. 4. in a su1division +ro2ect or a condominium unit in a condominium +ro2ect. La*. for money. :uy-bust operation. if any. (. 4%8'. La* Dict. 9utterfly-s)a+ed +yrotec)nic device desi. includin..les. and ot)er im+rovements. 4. (ny contract to 1uy. :utterfly. 4%%1-4%%"'. 4 . <a.. ?uman. (. t)emselves in reference to t)e mana. or ca+turin. 9a. +rovidin. (nyone *)o +urc)ases anyt)in. Lomestead 6ro+erty Cor+. :uwisan. :uy and purchase. [Claridades. :usiness income. +. (ct $&&$ entitled I(n (ct to re. [Claridades. :y-laws or bylaws. t)e duties of t)e Director of t)e 9ureau of Commerce and Industry in its enforcement.asao. [3ec. 4.)ts and duties of its stock)olders or mem1ers to*ards itself and amon. 6D 1"14'. 3e+. -1%. =ay 18. (. 4%%5'. [IRR.. <)e transaction *)ere1y one +urc)ases used second)and articles for t)e +ur+ose of resale to t)ird +ersons. leased under a cro+s)arer. under (rt. [<e2ada v. :y-bidding. GR L"$"81. 1 & '. :uyer. +urc)ase.121 also &ompany goodwill and 5oodwill. li. 15. +rescri1in. 1 $'.overnment and for t)e re. :uyer in good faith and for value. 1.ned to lift a1ove .)t. :usiness Name 6aw.. 4. ( form of entra+ment em+loyed 1y +eace officers to catc) a malefactor in fla. 4%%1-4%%"'. :uy and sell. ". <ract of land -es+ecially rice land. 3ee #uffing. 6D !8'. or ot)er*ise ac7uire for a valua1le consideration a su1division lot.ulation of conduct *)ic) +rescri1e t)e ri. <)e rules of action ado+ted 1y a cor+oration for its internal . t)e 1uildin. 1 &&. 1. a la* 1reaker. Cor+. 6an. +enalties for violation t)ereof.s or +rofits made 1y com+anies.round *)ile +rovidin.ulate t)e use in 1usiness transactions of names ot)er t)an true names. GR 5 88.rante delicto.ani1an Diksyunaryo <esauro 6ili+ino-In.. citin. <)e em+loyment of suc) *ays and means for t)e +ur+ose of tra++in. 15$ of R( 81"% or t)e Local Govt. [6eo+le v. :usiness ta%. R( 81&$'. <)e earnin. [=a. [Intl. Rules or la*s ado+ted 1y an association Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ement of its affairs.

&abo. 4%%5'. "1'.. $. in t)e . instituted 1y t)e . su++lies *orkers to an em+loyer.. "1'.. Aruits and De.overn its actions. Inc. [3ec. +... -&& F 4. La1or. [3ec. 4%%1-4%%"'. [3ec.uise of a la1or or. ( land re. 1. 3ee &ost and freight. v. 4%%% . #uly $. R( 158'.arded as not)in. *it) or *it)out any monetary or ot)er consideration *)et)er in t)e ca+acity of an a. 4.'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [I1id. &A. +. &adastral proceeding. 1.ain collectively. &abalieri a. (ny +art taken or su1stance e0tracted from *ildlife.)t to interfere at all in t)e election. <)e only e0ce+tion )ere is *)ere t)e em+loyer )as to file a +etition for certification election +ursuant to (rt. more t)an a 1ystander *it) no ri. ( sta1le.anization.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. entrance. !. La1or contractor. &abaret or dance hall. in ra* or in +rocessed form. GR 4$ 1. 9ook !.al <erms -6ro-3e. [6)il. [=orenoEs La* Dict.d..ent of t)e em+loyer or as an ostensi1le inde+endent contractor. <orres. or any ot)er fee +aid on. 6D 54"'.eta1le Ind. 1efore or after t)e dancin.ame of 2ueten. <)e rule t)at a certification election is t)e sole concern of t)e *orkers and t)e em+loyer is re.d. 4!& of t)e La1or Code 1ecause it is re7uested to 1ar.. (ny +lace or esta1lis)ment *)ere dance is +ermitted to t)e +u1lic in consideration of any admission.overnment *)ic) does not assert o*ners)i+ over t)e land 1ut merely +rovokes t)e issue for t)e settlement and ad2udication of +o*er. (. and *)ere +rofessional )ostesses or dancers are em+loyed. Rule 1. [Claridades. 1. IRR of LC'. [Glossary of Le. ( +erson or . Court of (++eals. :ystander rule.istration +roceedin.. a )orse s)ed. ( collector of 1ets from ot)er collectors relative to t)e . 1 4'.122 or cor+oration to . Com+ilation of @otes. 4%%% . <)is includes stuffed animals and )er1arium s+ecimens. :y-product or derivatives.rou+ or +ersons or to a la1or .rou+ *)ic).

&adet room. La*.. or dra*in. $4 '. [3+s. &alendar... of . 6ila+il v. -1 ". &ampaign. GR L-48&$$.d.123 &adastral survey. +. ( connected series of o+erations to 1rin. of La*s.d.. ( numerical survey to *)ic) t)e entire area of t)e munici+ality is su12ected and *)ic) results in t)e +re+aration of com+lete survey returns and tec)nical descri+tions of individual lots necessary for re. #une $%. for t)ird mate. Conflict of La*s.. Comelec. Graveson. $45'. 1. t)e *ord IcancelledJ. 1 4.d. &amino vecinal. "4'. 3+. a trainee *orkin.n or ot)er +u1lic aut)ority of a country in *)ic) t)e deceasedEs +ro+erty is situated to t)at +ro+erty on failure of all +ersons entitled to claim under t)e a++ro+riate la*. [6eo+le v.@R. "4'. 3+. [Dir. It is not limited to *ritin.n state and limits )imself to t)e remedies availa1le under t)e la*s of t)at state. 4%%% . 1. +.al <erms -6ro3e. [Gonzales v. +. Conf. Ae1.. to . 6)il.. ( sti+ulation 1y virtue of *)ic) an alien *aives or restricts )is ri.)t to a++eal to )is o*n state in connection *it) any claim arisin.. for a merc)ant marine license. 4.. 11%'. from a contract *it) a forei. ( +lain room in a s)i+ to accommodate a cadet or trainee *orkin.. Com+are *it) 4iscal year. 48. Intl. +.apping pro(ects. &aduciary rights. ( c)emise. 1 1'. GR 8"1 .istration +ur+oses. of criss-cross lines Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. [3ec.. 1 . Conflict of La*s. 4%%5'. [I1id. +. La* Revie*er. o1literatin. Gamao. [6aras.F 4%". <)e claims of t)e soverei. a1out some desired result. In maritime +arlance.. &t) . 4%%% . &alvo clause.. [Cruz. It includes t)e act of tearin. <)e ri. 4".. or 1urnin. Ae1.' &amison. also +ro+erty for +u1lic use. GR 8 "&5. or I+aidJ.ain a merc)ant marine license -e. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. +. 1 " . 3+. furnis)ed *it) sim+le facilities. . &ancellation. It s)all cover t)e +eriod from #anuary 1 to Decem1er $1. Intl. 4%%% . ( munici+al road -and. "4'.) esc)eat +roceedin. erasin. 1 &8'.)t of t)e state to claim t)rou. citin. Com+are *it) . Gnder*ear. [=orenoEs La* Dict. &alendar year. of Lands v.d. [=orenoEs La* Dict. ( list of cases sc)eduled for )earin.d. [Glossary of Le.s t)e +ro+erties of decedents *)o are not survived 1y any )eirs. (+r. GR L-1 $58. 1&.. 1 "&'. in court. 1 " '. 3ec. &adet.. C(. &amison de baGo. @ov.

e0tract. c)urrus and . <)e 1ase unit of luminous intensity *)ic) is t)e luminous intensity. in t)e +er+endicular direction. (.nant.R. is not 1indin. and +ro2ectin. Rule 1.. 1. or fruitin. &5. *)et)er dried or fres) and flo*erin. [Claridades. ( +erson *)o actually su1mits )imself and is voted for at our election.ro*t). of a surface of 1/"%% %%% s7uare metre of a 1lack1ody at t)e tem+erature of freezin.uaza. 6ol.. 1ut not limited to. $! 6)il. &ancellation proceeding. in t)e medical sense. to t)e revocation of t)e re.d.al effect today.. &annabis.ra+)ic varieties. Canna1is americana. Fne *)erein an offer is received 1y t)e aut)orized official in a sealed envelo+e or t)e like. Derived from t)e Latin *ord Cancer *)ic) means Cra1. GR L-5$$55. citin. (lso kno*n as "cclesiastical law. La* Dict. 9ook !. 15$'. [3ec. =iranda. over a *all or side*alk. [3ec $. "5$.enus.Es Dict. to+s. R( 1"!'. u+on citizens and )as virtually no reco. usually fatal. tincture or in any form *)atsoever. and all its . [Du)aime:s Le. <)e term em1races every kind. &anopy or marquee. Commonly kno*n as . includin. tumor or . Las little or no le. IRR of LC'. 3c)midt:s (tty. 4%%5'. 1 8". +. 14%$. . [3antos v. &ancer. 1%8. &andela. class and c)aracter of mari2uana. Com+ilation of @otes.(. &anvass$ sealed. Lirsc). citin. 96 &'. flo*erin. 3e+. *)et)er as a reefer. =oreno. 5. 1 "! 3u+. <)e +rocess leadin. and em1races every kind. . L.nition in t)e 2udicial system. "5& -1 1".. or any +art or +ortion of t)e +lant and seeds t)ereof. or s+ecie of t)e +lant Canna1is sativa L. [3ec. BCC. 1 84 4nd . 6D 1% "'. 3tate v. it refers to a mali. De Laron v. It may 1e made 1y any ot)er means 1y *)ic) t)e intention to cancel t)e instrument may 1e evident.ari(uana or 1ndian =emp or 1y its any ot)er name.al Dict. in virtually all +laces. La*. 4%8.an2a1. +latinum under a +ressure of 1%1 $4! ne*tons +er s7uare metre. <)e la* of t)e C)ristian C)urc). [Dda.. ( +ermanent roofed structure a1ove a door attac)ed to and su++orted 1y t)e 1uildin.istration certificate of a la1or or. 14! Ind. 4%%1-4%%"'. class. &anon law. 6)il.. [3ec. of =ed. <)is includes any o12ect or decoration attac)ed t)ereto. &andidate. Canon la* refers to t)at 1ody of la* *)ic) )as 1een set 1y t)e C)ristian C)urc) and *)ic)..124 across t)e instrument..eo. 1)an.anization after due +rocess. resin. [IRR on Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. 4 . )as)is).

.. Gnder t)e la*. in micro finance tec)nolo. $& 6)il.d.) *)ic) money 2ud. for instance. suc) as on account of minority. It includes t)e amount invested 1y t)e stock)olders +lus t)e undistri1uted earnin.. enterin. [=adri. 4%%5'.e. 4&. [Colum1ia 6ictures v. La*. <)at you take to satisfy. [Lozano v.al relations)i+. Rafferty. of accountin. <)e +rocess of en)ancin. t)e term refers to t)at +ortion of t)e net assets Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . R( &54!'. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. u+.al effect. C Cont. (lso. and auditin. &apability building.. 8. Cor+. of sound mind. GR 11%$1&.. monitorin. 1 "'. 4%%% . [Glossary of Le.d. $8. ( +laintiff:s . 1. tec)nical assistance for t)e installation or im+rovement of mana.. a. <)e +o*er to do acts *it) le. (u. insanity. Lat. &apacity to act. CC'..al action. capacity to sue.al 7ualification -e. 1. 1 1&'. under t)e la*.. Com+are *it) 9uridical capacity. C(. [(rt. as ca+acity to contract. at an instant of time. $. ( fund of +ro+erty e0istin. &apacity to sue. 4.al v.ainst t)e +erson or 1ody of t)e de1tor. +er 3ec. 1 &"'. of enterin. (t common la*. into a 1indin. t)at determines if one is ca+a1le. +. le.ies...t. F1li. =artinez. 4. =.al aut)ority or mental a1ility. 9y means of t)is *rit.s less losses and e0+enses. &apata . ( le. In t)e strict sense. "4'.nized le. 3u+ervisor of t)e )acienda. $. [<etley. Com+are *it) #ersonality to sue$ lack of.) activities t)at include trainin. a de1tor could 1e seized and im+risoned at t)e instance of t)e creditor until )e makes t)e satisfaction a*arded.ments arisin. 9ein. &apacity. (u. It is used 1roadly to indicate t)e entire +ro+erty or assets of t)e cor+oration. 4%%5'.al <erms -6ro-3e. from actions for t)e recovery of a de1t or for dama. $5&'.ement information systems.es from 1reac) of a contract could 1e enforced a. [=orenoEs La* Dict. into a le. +. etc.125 3u++ly C 6ro+. [3ec. lack of 2uridical +ersonality or any ot)er . Dec. [<orres..eneral dis7ualifications of a +arty. 3+. t)e via1ility and sustaina1ility of micro finance institutions t)rou. it is t)e natural +o*er or com+etency to +erform an act. incom+etence. Lavin. of loans and ot)er related activities. &apital. GR L-"$51 .. 1&. LGC'. t)e *rit t)rou. systems. contract.eneral disa1ility to sue. 4%%% . t)e a1ility of a +erson to take a reco. &apias ad satisfaciendum. $&$. 515.radin. 3ee 6egal &apacity to sue$ lack of.

citin.. as amended'.d. 1 & . may 1e +unis)ed *it) deat). C Direct. 1ut does not include stock in trade of t)e ta0+ayer or ot)er +ro+erty of a kind *)ic) *ould +ro+erly 1e included in t)e inventory of t)e ta0+ayer if on )and at t)e close of t)e ta0a1le year. at t)e time of its commission. [IRR. &apital investment. 6aid-u+ ca+ital. 2urisdiction. t)e 1enefits of *)ic) e0tend 1eyond t)e fiscal year and *)ic) add to t)e assets of t)e Government. !5'. 1$1.126 +aid 1y t)e stock)olders as consideration for t)e s)ares issued to t)em *)ic) is utilized for t)e +rosecution of t)e 1usiness of t)e cor+oration. R( 81"%'. &apital outlays. <)e +artner *)o contri1utes money or +ro+erty to t)e +artners)i+. 6ro+erty )eld 1y t)e ta0+ayer -*)et)er or not connected *it) )is trade or 1usiness. or +ro+erty used in t)e trade or 1usiness. Cor+. 9ook $. +.d. includin. &apitali ation. under t)e la* e0istin. La* Dict. IRR of LC'. 1. It may include 1onds. &apital e%penditures. [3ec. 14%'. v. +. Clave. and at t)e time of t)e a++lication to 1e admitted to 1ail. 1. 3ec. &apitalist partner. (n a++ro+riation for t)e +urc)ase of .le +ro+rietors)i+. Rule 115. cor+oration.oods and services. Code of t)e 6)il. [De Leon.d. investments in t)e &apital gains..term investments. 1 4.. &apital assets. 4. in t)e case of a cor+oration. 3ee 4inancier. #une 1%. [3ec. Com+are *it) 1ndustrial partner. de1entures. Intro. of a c)aracter *)ic) is su12ect to t)e allo*ance for de+reciation. +. &apital offense. Com+are *it) &apital stock and 6egal capital. $ . 4%%5'. 1. 1 !. <)e ca+ital *)ic) a +erson em+loys in any undertakin. [3ec. in t)e case of a +artners)i+ or sin. to La*.. or +ro+erty )eld 1y t)e ta0+ayer +rimarily for sale to customers in t)e ordinary course of )is trade or 1usiness. (lso &apital e%penditures. RoC'. R( "848. @IRC. 1 %'. or any ot)er 2uridical entity or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . GR L-!1%% . and total invested ca+ital. +referred and common stock and sur+lus. &apital outlays. Rule 8. [3uarez. [Luzon 6olymers Cor+. 3ee association in a +articular ta0in. or *)ic) )e contri1utes to t)e ca+ital of a +artners)i+. <)at *)ic) re+resents t)e total amount of t)e various securities issued 1y a cor+oration. Increases in t)e value of ca+ital or ot)er lon. 5. !t) . 9lack:s La* Dict. $rd . &apitalist. (nnotated.. [Intl. or real +ro+erty used in trade or 1usiness of t)e ta0+ayer. (n offense *)ic)...

. &aptive-breeding$ culture or propagation. 1. 155'. 4&. individuals under controlled conditions or *it) Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( +ayment mec)anism *)ere a fi0ed rate. 1. 1.a. made eit)er directly t)rou.otiated *it) a )ealt) care +rovider *)o s)all 1e res+onsi1le in deliverin. <)e most severe of all sentences> t)at of deat). Leadin. 15. +. <)e +art of a +leadin. &aptain-of-the-ship doctrine. (+r. *it)out re. or arran. 4%%4'.rou+. on in t)e o+eratin. 1 "&.al Dict. 4.12 ca+ital of . &aption.eon is likened to a ca+tain of t)e s)i+ in t)at it is duty to control everyt)in..ed. Dec. <a0es of a fi0ed amount u+on all +ersons. e0ce+t furniture and normal .d.reed to 1e +aid in 1y t)e s)are)olders of a cor+oration in money.. [Ramos v. room. 4%%5'.overnment-o*ned or controlled cor+orations and t)eir su1sidiaries.d. services. 4. ""-"8'. [3ec. 1 & .in. and t)e docket num1er if assi. 11. 1. suc) contri1utions 1ein. . Intl. or ot)er means.) t)e declaration of stock dividends. forts or districts in accordance *it) t)e rules of military )onor. (lso kno*n as t)e Deat) +enalty. &apitation or poll ta%es. <)e doctrine under *)ic) a sur.oin. 4. Code of t)e 6)il.) stock su1scri+tion or indirectly t)rou. C(. citin. resident *it)in a s+ecified territory. )ouse)old or .al <erms -6ro-3e. RoC'. Cor+. &apitation. [Cruz. Cor+.anization of t)e cor+oration or after*ards and u+on *)ic) it is to conduct its 1usiness.overnment o+erations. for t)e delivery of )ealt) services re7uired 1y t)e covered +erson under t)e conditions of a )ealt) care +rovider contract. Com+are *it) &apital.. [Du)aime:s Le. La*. !1 (m. La*. GR 145$!5. *)et)er +er +erson. [Glossary of Le.ned. [3ec. <)e +urc)ase of . <)e surrender of military troo+s. C)a+. &apital stock. <)e amount fi0ed in t)e articles of incor+oration to 1e su1scri1ed and +aid in or a. Rule 8. [3ec. . at t)e or. is ne. City of Iloilo. Intl. 1 " . [Dillanueva v. 1eyond t)e fiscal year and *)ic) add to t)e assets of t)e local .overnment concerned. (nnotated. t)e title of t)e action. 4%%5'.. GR L-4"!41. family. or introductory +arty of a +leadin. La* Revie*er. <)e +rocess of +roducin.oods and services of a life-e0+ectancy e0tendin. +ro+erty.F 4 4'.ard to t)eir +ro+erty or t)e occu+ations in *)ic) t)ey may 1e en. 6D 588'. #ur. R( 451'. +. !4'. [3ec. t)at sets fort) t)e name of t)e court. or u+on all t)e +ersons of a certain class. 9ook DI. &apitulation. &apital punishment. [De Leon.

(ny +erson *)o does not directly o+erate an aircraft for t)e +ur+ose of en. *)o.RC. on 1oard t)e vessel at t)e +ort or in t)e terminal or container yard suc) as. or ot)er*ise as one *)o sells.oods.. 4 1. and merc)andise a1oard s)i+ *)ic) do not form +art of t)e s)i+:s stores. attention.ivin. merc)andise. &argo sales agent. 1 4.e of motion and function of t)e )eart. R( 4 !'. advertisement. Fct.. .t. 41. R( 1$"'. suc) air trans+ortation of car.12! )uman interventions. +er)a+s. 1. =. all s+are +arts. found on 1oard. [G3 v.rants and t)eir 1a.o. +lace *)ere foods already cooked are served at a +rice. <ena. &aptive market. *ares.o. <)e entire ladin. includin.in. 4.. 3ec. 3teams)i+ Ru1i.'. contracts or arran. in air trans+ortation or air commerce and not a 1onafide em+loyee of an air carrier. forklifts.lectricity endusers *)o do not )ave t)e c)oice of a su++lier of electricity. GR 4$!. sells or offers for sale any air trans+ortation of car. 4. 5. +allet 1oards and t)e like. 1. stackers.ear or e7ui+ment used 1y t)e s)i+ o+erator or a duly aut)orized and licensed +ort o+erator to service or )andle car.otiates for.ner. +assen. citin. 1 1!'.e amounts of fluid or 1lood *it)in t)e +ericardial s+ace t)at limits t)e normal ran. @ov.o. interest and safety to su++lies or +ro+erty. 1ut not limited to cranes. Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. +er 3ec.ent.e. +rovides. &ardiac tamponade. e0ce+t suc) t)in. R( 158'. articles. to+ lifts.es for. (ny +u1lic eatin. [3ec. in accordance *it) R( 1$". LGC'. or ne. as may 1e determined 1y t)e . v. &arinderia. of t)e s)i+ *)ic) carries it and includes all . . [Dentec) =f. t)e act of . 6D 15"4'. [3ec.a. *ares. [3ec. &argo. and e0ce+t also. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. a++urtenances accessories. or )olds )imself out 1y solicitation. [6eo+le v. citin.ers or immi.oods. tractor )eads. &argo handling equipment. (ll . [3ec. &are.a. 3teams)i+ Islas Aili+inas -4& 6)il. Dict.y Re. [3ec. !. $&$. Cor+.ulatory Commission -. 88 of (ct $!!'.ement or direction of t)e vessel. containers. =ec)anical com+ression of t)e )eart 1y lar. re+lacement +arts. of every kind or descri+tion. and are not intended for delivery at any +ort of call. and indeed everyt)in. as +rinci+al or a. 18. 6D 54"'.s as are used or intended for use in connection *it) t)e mana. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1. 1. $. su++lies and materials t)ereof. effects.. furnis)es. ( modest cafeteria. GR 1%% % . <)e +ro+er use and maintenance of su++lies or +ro+erty. (ny mac)inery. [G3 v.

e of +risoners. and t)e e0c)an. &arteli ation. [3ec. or 1y means of violence a. 4. 1 $.oods 1y its mem1ers. La* Revie*er. (u. in restraint of trade or free com+etition. 1. or 1y usin. [3ea-Land 3ervice v.. for a +rice or com+ensation. &arriage or transportation contract. &arrying on business. &arrying capacity. It is a relations)i+ *)ic) is im1ued *it) +u1lic interest. [6eo+le v. includin. [Claridades. to t)e +articular 1usiness. *ater or air.ates to trans+ort +ersons. &arriage of 5oods by )ea Act 2&05)A3. GR &1588.ainst or intimidation of +ersons. ( com1ination of inde+endent 1usiness firms or. *ar on suc) matters as +ostal and tele. t)e rece+tion of fla. Intl. ca+a1le of 1ein. eit)er 1y +roducts or 1y areas. &artel.ra+)ic communication. GR 1%%4$4.radation.12" @LRC. citin. or allocate markets. *it) intent to .ulate intercourse durin. <)e ca+acity of natural and )uman environments to accommodate and a1sor1 c)an. <)e takin. [3ec. =ay 45.. <)e act of a man )avin. 6D 15$$'. (ny a. 1 $".anized to re. .. 1 . [Cruz. 1y land. 4. 1 " . 1 & '. "$'. enacted on Fct. La*. [=orenoEs La* Dict. se0ual 1odily connections *it) a *oman.in. (. +. or t)eir re+resentatives.. of a motor ve)icle 1elon.. [Intl. of .reement.ain. restrict out+uts or divide markets.. 4%%% . im+orters and/or dealers. 1 $'. o1li. &arnapping. C Direct. Intl.e *it)out e0+eriencin.oods. t)e occu+ation or em+loyment as a liveli)ood or source of +rofit and it must 1e a series of acts rat)er t)an t)e doin. 1 &8'.d. used as means Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . GR 8!11&. any &arnal knowledge. eit)er 1y +roducts or 1y areas. [3ec.d.n trade 1y C( "!. of trans+ortation in land. air or *ater. $1. 4. Com+ilation of @otes.. (n a. to anot)er *it)out t)e latter:s consent.ulate t)e +roduction. se0ual intercourse. R( 8 54'. com1ination or concerted action 1y refiners. La* Dict. -6ursuin. or 1ot).e of . +ricin. ( contract *)ere1y a +erson. !t) . 4%%14%%"'. G3 6u1lic (ct !41 *)ic) *as made a++lica1le to all contracts for t)e carria.. force u+on t)in.. conditions of insta1ility and attendant de. 154'. 9lack:s La* Dict. $.reement to re.s. (li1. R( "!$ '.. I(C.s of truce.d. 44. (ny sort or craft or ot)er artificial contrivance used. to fi0 +rices. +. &arrier. natural or 2uridical. (+r.oods 1y sea to and from 6)ili++ine +orts in forei. from one +lace to anot)er. 4%%5'.le act +ertainin. and marketin. of a sin.

-1 &$. &asero. [Du)aime:s Le. [9lackEs La* Dict. La*. +risoners of *ar.ant 1rou. 4.. @ov..d. La* Rev. "$'.. R( &58 '. [Glossary of Le. [<orres. 1. <)at +ortion of +rofits and sur+lus +aid to stock)olders 1y a cor+oration in t)e form of cas). +. [3ec.. &ase law. or t)e +revention. &ash price.s as are esta1lis)ed 1y la* or custom for t)e +rotection or enforcement of ri. !t) . (1r.d. [=orenoEs La* Dict. &ash. usually ready money. under a safe conduct for t)e +ur+ose of carryin. &artel ship. General term for an action. &ases.s. cause. redress or +unis)ment of *ron. Intl.ular +roceedin. cas) +rice re+resents t)e amount received 1y t)e de1tor u+on consummation of t)e credit transaction. +. !t) .d.al <erms -6ro-3e. [Glossary of Le. <)e *ord 2uris+rudence )as 1ecome synonymous for case la*. suit. ( transaction t)at re7uires t)e 1uyer to +ay for t)e merc)andise in cas) *)en it is delivered to )im. ne. contri1utes a lar. 4%%5'. $&%'. Com+are *it) )tock dividend. 3ee )tare decisis. 3alaveria. &ash on delivery 2&0D3. <)e entire collection of +u1lis)ed le... &ashierDs check. In case of trade transaction. 3+. -1 &$. 4%%5'. &ase.d.al <erms -6ro3e. $5&'.. (lso Delivered price. net of finance Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .e +art of t)e le... 11$'. Currency and coins. (1r.. ( c)eck dra*n 1y t)e cas)ier of a 1ank. GR 1$"8&. 11. or controversy. 114'. La* Revie*er...ins.otia1le c)ecks.ainst t)e 1ank itself +aya1le to t)e order of a t)ird +erson. at la* or in e7uity. 1 " . +articularly t)e 3u+reme Court.)ts. levels and +rofit mar. Intl. +. 4%%5'. C Cont. 1ecause of stare decisis. &ash dividend. 154'. [Diaz. F1li.13# contractual sti+ulation *)ic) +rescri1es +ricin. it is t)e amount of money *)ic) *ould constitute full +ayment u+on delivery of t)e +ro+erty -e0ce+t money. 1 1&'.. 4%%% .al Dict.al decisions of t)e courts *)ic). 14. 4%%% . in t)e name of t)e 1ank a. La* esta1lis)ed 1y +revious decisions of a++ellate courts. <)at *)ic) circulates as money. [9lackEs La* Dict.)t 1efore t)e court for determination 1y suc) re. 1 1 . 9us. <)e claims of a liti. Lousekee+er.. +. and 1alances in 1ank accounts. In t)e case of financial transactions.d. or service +urc)ased at t)e creditor:s +lace of 1usiness. 7uestions contested 1efore a court of 2ustice.d.. [G3 v. [Cruz. +. +. =oney or its e7uivalent. ( vessel sailin.al rules *)ic) a++ly in modern society.

inal of t)e invoice constitutes in itself a recei+t *)ic) is in t)e +ossession of t)e 1uyer if t)e .. or *)ic).ed to *ork on an activity t)at is not usually necessary or desira1le in t)e usual 1usiness or trade of t)e em+loyer. t)ou. [#urado.d. <)e mere difficulty to foresee t)e )a++enin. 1 1 &t) . R( 8$ 5'. [<io+ianco. 41 3CR( 48 -1 "8. +. ( condition t)e fulfillment of *)ic) de+ends e0clusively u+on c)ance and/or u+on t)e *ill of a t)ird +erson. on t)e Ins. &asual employees. +. [6o7uiz. 1 88. [=orenoEs La* Dict... 1 5'. 3+. &asualty or accident insurance. La1or Rel. 6D &8'.d. as is commonly 1elieved. If not +aid for. 44$'.) foreseen. are inevita1le.anhandling. $. GR 8!!%&. &ash-surrender value. +. ( condition *)ic) de+ends u+on c)ance.0traordinary events not foreseea1le or avoida1le.d. .a. e0cludin. loss or lia1ility arisin. La*. 9us. from accident or mis)a+. "5'. &asual condition. 1 . events t)at could not 1e foreseen. on 3uccession.inal of t)e invoice is retained 1y t)e storeo*ner.d. Comments C #uris+. 3ee *egular employment. (n em+loyment *)ere an em+loyee is en. <)e amount of money t)e com+any a.'. (n invoice issued in t)e ordinary course of 1usiness transactions suc) as t)e +urc)ase of . La* Rev. Cor+.rees to +ay t)e +olicy)older if )e surrenders it and releases )is claim u+on it. &ash sales invoice. 5. It is. 3..) t)at t)e event s)ould not )ave 1een foreseen or antici+ated. (lso 4orce ma(eure. if any.. . Civ.. [DFL.as 1y se+aration or 1y any c)emical or +)ysical +rocess.oods are +aid for.131 c)ar. 1. Commentaries C #uris+. 1 . v. 6adilla.es collected at t)e time t)e credit is e0tended. <)ose em+loyed for a s)ort term duration to +erform *ork not related to t)e main line of t)e 1usiness of t)e em+loyer. La*. Code of t)e 6)il. t)e ori. e0clusively *it)in t)e sco+e of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Luzon 3tevedorin. 1ut it must 1e one im+ossi1le to foresee or to avoid. #une 1%. 4%%% . 4"'. [Diaz. 11'. &aso fortuito. 4%.oods from stores. Insurance coverin. <)e ori. &asual employment. 4. [3ec. +. 1&$'. [6eo+le v.. t)erefore.'. is not im+ossi1ility to foresee t)e same [Re+. (ny li7uid )ydrocar1on o1tained from natural . +. 1 1 .d. certain ty+es of loss *)ic) 1y la* or custom are considered as fallin.. [(rt. &astigo. not enou. 6olicy Instructions @o. &asing head petroleum spirit.

[(rt. a*ay 1y any means. Ares)*ater fis)es *)ic) mi. [3amson v.d.d. 1 1. sta. &attle rustling. . <)e act or a. R( 5% !'. 4%%5'.e cattle. 4nd . or one *)ic) affects only a +art of t)e lens or its coverin. [3ec. and )armful de+letion of 1reedin. Dict. 1. [3ec. &ausal fraud. 185. *it)out t)e consent of t)e o*ner/raiser.132 ot)er ty+es of insurance suc) as fire or marine. &ataract immature.. citin. [6eo+le v. or takin. and dairy animals. &ausation. e7ui+ment. 4. =erriam-Be1ster:s $rd @e* Int. Causa> Reason. [I1id. 5.. materials and mac)ineries directly connected *it) t)e industry. Dict.d. C(. R( &!!%'. [(. for La*yers. Civ. Lat.at)ered or )arvested from any fis)in. !. (+r. result.. t)e manufacture and +rocessin. or to 1ovine animals suc) as co*s. <)e annual catc) limits allo*ed to 1e taken. Illustrated =ed. 1 !1'.. &attle and dairy industry. Dict. =ed. (ny cataract in t)e 1e. +.. (n o+acity of t)e crystalline eye lens or of its ca+sule. @ov. or conse7uence. <)e essential or more a++ro0imate reason for Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . of lar. 45t) . of cattle and t)e ac7uisition of 1reedin.. or . citin.ency t)at +roduces an effect. <)e raisin. <)ose dece+tions or misre+resentations of a serious c)aracter em+loyed 1y one +arty and *it)out *)ic) t)e ot)er +arty *ould not )ave entered into t)e contract. La*. [=orenoEs La* Dict. of meat and dairy +roducts. La* Dict. area in consideration of t)e need to +revent overfis)in. It includes t)e killin.enerous. &ausa liberalitatis. 1 "!'.. )orses and s*ine. citin. or *)et)er committed *it) or *it)out violence a.ratuitous cause or consideration. 4%%% .innin. Domesticated 7uadru+eds suc) as s)ee+.es. <)e takin. 4. ( dece+tion em+loyed 1y one +arty +rior to or simultaneous to t)e contract in order to secure t)e consent of t)e ot)er. (lso Dolo causante. &atch ceilings. $%. GR 1%&45!. 1ulls and steers. 4!. [Intl. [3ec.ainst or intimidation of any +erson or force u+on t)in. stocks of a7uatic or.. IC'. R( &!!%'. includin.'. [3ec. 4. =aloy. 1$$&. 6D !$$'. 1 8". Lat. 4. &atadromous species. [3ec. met)od or sc)eme. CC'. C Direct.rate to marine areas to s+a*n.ain. @azareno. 5.u2a v. &ause. Dorland. (u. GR L5%%$8.s. 1 5'. G3I3.anisms. GR &5&5". Li1eral. 1. "!'. &attle. its meat or )ide *it)out t)e consent of t)e o*ner/raiser.. of any of t)e a1ove-mentioned animals *)et)er or not for +rofit or . 1. .

) to +ermit an individual to enter. <)e term also includes cave Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . cavity.)ts of anot)er. 1 5. 41. 1 &8.lements> -a.ation of t)e defendant to t)e +laintiff [9ali*a. to com+el. to effect as an a. [3ec. direct and +ro0imate reason *)ic) 2ustifies t)e creation of an o1li. 9ank of Rizal v. located eit)er in +rivate or +u1lic land. <)at t)e accused are +u1lic officers or +rivate +ersons c)ar. to make to induce.. 4. ( ri. 5t) .. +arties to enter into it [<on.li. 1 1 . &ause of action. of R( $%1 are as follo*s> -a. and -e. <)e essential reason *)ic) moves t)e contractin. Rem. -1.)t in favor of t)e +laintiff 1y *)atever means and under *)atever la* it arises or is created. un*arranted 1enefits. Dec. 5!%'. Rule 4. 4. void. GR 8$ 1&. It s)all include any natural +it. $ Castan. [6once de Leon v.'. . into a contract. a 1reac) of t)e o1li. $58. 4%%'.. 4. <)e immediate.e enou. a1out.an1ayan. [<on. citin. *)et)er or not t)e entrance.. and -c. <o 1e t)e cause or occasion of. evident 1ad fait) or . . citin. +. [6ec)o v. 9us. citin. to 1rin. 9lack:s La* Dict.ation on t)e +art of t)e named defendant to res+ect or not to violate suc) ri.d. t)at suc) in2ury is caused 1y ..d.ent. 1 $'. $ -e.'. Der1. -c.lements> <)e elements of 3ec. (n act or omission of one +arty in violation of t)e le. recess or system of interconnected +assa. 1&" 3CR( 85! -1 %.ed in cons+iracy *it) t)em. Dec. [Dev. GR 8$ 1&. -1. 9rot)ers Co v. . +arties. *)et)er t)e Government or a +rivate +arty. an o1li. RoC'. -d. <)at t)e +u1lic officers )ave acted *it) manifest +artiality. 1 &8. to 1rin. (ny naturally occurrin.133 enterin. & =anresa. !t) . &ave. Com+are *it) *ight of action.. <)e act or omission 1y *)ic) a +arty violates a ri.)t of anot)er. GR &!51 . &ause of action. @ov. 181 3CR( 4!% -1 & .d.)t or ri.ivin. 3ima Bei. !t) .e and *)ic) is lar.al ri. GR 111$ . +. La*. =ar.)t of t)e +laintiff or constitutin.)t. I(C. t)at said +u1lic officers commit t)e +ro)i1ited acts durin. into e0istence.es 1eneat) t)e surface of t)e eart) or *it)in a cliff or led. advanta. +. <ransit v. 41. [Diaz. an act or omission on t)e +art of suc) defendant violative of t)e ri. 9rot)ers Co v. I(C. 15. 3andi. &ausing undue in(ury to the government. 1. &ause of a contract. 85'. t)e +erformance of t)eir official duties or in relation to t)eir +u1lic +ositions.an1ayan. La* Rev. 1.. is naturally formed or man made.ence. F+le.e or +reference to suc) +arties.ross ine0cusa1le ne.ation t)ru t)e *ill of t)e contractin. 4. 3andi. t)at t)ey cause undue in2ury to any +arty. sink)ole or ot)er feature *)ic) is an e0tension of t)e entrance.d.

. R( %84'. 4.. 1ou. 155. <)e filin. &aveat. Let t)e 1uyer 1e*are or t)at t)e 1uyers s)ould e0amine and c)eck for t)emselves t)in. of t)e collective 1ar.. [3ec. $. Fct. limestone naturally containin.ical and arc)aeolo. a. a7ueduct or ot)er manmade e0cavation.e of )ostilities 1y order of an international 1ody like t)e G@ 3ecurity Council for t)e +ur+ose of em+loyin. 4%%5'. t)e conflict. R( %84'. sc)ool Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 3ee &ollective :argaining Agreement. 1 88'. s+eleo. [3ec. Coo+erative Develo+ment (ut)ority. t)e vendor:s title takes all t)e risks and losses conse7uent to suc) failure. IRR of LC'. &elebrity. [#uristEs Le.reement *it) t)e Re. a suita1le +ro+ortion of clay.d. 4. 4%%5'.a and ?a+. R( 5% !'.)t.. $. 1..ical de+osits. a note of caution. 4&. and ratification and +ayment of fee. mine tunnel. [Dacasin v. 4%%5'.al <erms -6ro3e. 1 " . &:A registration.al <erms -6ro-3e. &ave resources. &DA. re7uires t)e +urc)aser to 1e a*are of t)e su++osed title of t)e vendor and )e *)o 1uys *it)out c)eckin. a +erson or 1usiness from continuin. &ensure. Rule 1. ( formal *arnin. +. GR L-$484$. (n unconditional sto++a.al Dict. C(. a +articular course of conduct.. suc) as animal life.ainin. +eaceful means of settlin.ional Fffice or t)e 9ureau of La1or Relations accom+anied 1y verified +roof of +ostin. [Glossary of Le. &ement manufacturing. <)e manufacture of cement o1tained 1y firin. ( *arnin. <)e rule -t)at..ems and s+eleot)ems. +aleontolo. +lant life. and 1y su1se7uent crus)in. citin. cultural artifacts or +roducts of )uman activities. Intl. 1. &aveat emptor.. &:A. 9ook !. institute. naturally in caves. La*. (n order of an administrative a. Let )im 1e*are. &enter of e%cellence. [Glossary of Le. of t)e clinker so o1tained -6ortland Cement. La* Revie*er. (ny material or su1stance occurrin. [Cruz.s *)ic) t)ey intend to +urc)ase and t)at t)ey cannot later )old t)e vendor res+onsi1le for t)e 1roken condition of t)e t)in.134 resources t)erein..ency or court +ro)i1itin. [3ec. minerals. 1ut not any vu. 5!15!4'. &ease and desist order.e. 4. 3alon. sediments. &easefire. 3ee #ublic figure. or mi0ed artificially *it). Intl. 1. ( +u1lic or +rivate colle. [Du)aime:s Le. includin. (n official re+rimand or condemnation of an attorney.. 4%%5'.al Dict. [3ec.

&erebro-vascular accident 2&?A3.nizin. DIII of R( 1"!.+alo. 1 "!.ost significant relationship theory. 4%%% . R( &%5"'. t)e ri..)ts of Indi.raduates are models of inte.. ( title formally reco. Conf. (ny of t)e treatment and re)a1ilitation centers for dru. 3ee )entral ng #ilipinas. 1"%'. &entral counting center. en.enous 6eo+les -ICCs/I6s. &entral :ank.nizin. +. t)e ri. C)oice of la* +ro1lems are resolved 1y t)e a++lication of t)e la* of t)e 2urisdiction *)ic) )as t)e most si. "8'. <erm is used synonymously *it) t)e . &enters. researc). Conflict of La*s. t)at )as esta1lis)ed and continues to maintain a . :angko canvassin. 5. s)all 1e conducted. Ae1. +.ives several causes. of La*s. *)ic) are )y+ertensive vascular diseases and arterial aneurysms *)ic) are .135 or a. 4% . 4%%% . 9rain 2arrin. formal and nonformal. +.a. 1 $. [3ec $. 4.. GR L-54!%8. and community service. resultin. *)ose . ( title formally reco. &ertificate of ancestral domain title.enous Cultural Communities/Indi. Ai0ed. Cecil-Loe1. [<rinidad v. commitment and dedication in education.radual +rocesses t)at *orsen over t)e years if left unc)ecked.enous Cultural Communities/ Indi. over t)eir ancestral domains identified and delineated in accordance *it) t)is la*.d. amon. of teac)ers and to+-notc) educators. ( +u1lic +lace desi. &enter of gravity doctrine. from )ead in2ury. of 1allots and Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ation and t)e issue t)erein. [(.e for *)ic) t)e science of medicine . 1 8&.d. 4&.. &ertain. <)e 1reakin. (lso kno*n as 5rouping of contacts. 4.$5. de+endents referred to in 3ec. [3ec.ood record in teac)er education. 1$t) .nated 1y t)e Commission on . &erebral concussion. +. (rt. +.rity. 58'. R( 8"!$ enacted on #une 15.d. R( 1"!'.enous &entral :ank Act$ <he New. BCC.. education. citin.nificant relations)i+ to or contact *it) event and +arties to liti. [3ec. [3ec. R( 88&5'. "'.ency. [=orenoEs La* Dict. "8'. of a 1lood vessel *it)in or a1out t)e 1rain.)ts of +ossession and o*ners)i+ of Indi.lection *)ere countin. Definitely settled so as not to 1e varia1le or fluctuatin.s: Dict. &ertificate of ancestral lands title.ed in t)e +reservice and continuin. of =edicine.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. R( &$81'. It is also kno*n as cere1ral or intracranial )emorr)a. [3c)midt:s (tty. <e0t1ook of =edicine.

6D 5"5'.136 6eo+les -ICCs/I6s. is re7uired 1y la*. GR 11 !4&.ement. munici+ality. La* Dict. (n instrument in t)e form of a recei+t . (n aut)orization issued for t)e o+eration of +u1lic services for *)ic) no franc)ise. 8". or to some ot)er +erson or order. [=artin. t)e name of t)e +urc)aser. ( mac)ine-. over t)eir ancestral lands. [3ec. 4". Commentaries and #uris+.ment 1y t)e cor+oration of t)e interest. "&'. R( 4 !'. as *ell as t)e e0act amount of t)e ta0es and +enalties due and t)e costs of sale received 1y t)e +urc)aser at +u1lic auction of delin7uent +ro+erty from t)e +rovincial or city treasurer.ment 1y a 1ank of t)e recei+t of money or de+osit *)ic) t)e 1ank +romises to +ay to t)e de+ositor. district. 4. C Direct.talunan v. at a time certain. C(9.enerated document containin. <)e license on aut)ority issued 1y t)e =aritime Industry (ut)ority -=(RI@(. and +artici+ation of a +erson in t)e mana. GR 11 !4&. ri. [Intl. Dol. &ertificate of public convenience. ( *ritten ackno*led. =ar. 1. or +rovince. +. &ertificate of canvass of votes. t)e sale +rice. [3ec. or )is de+uty. a descri+tion of t)e +ro+erty sold.iven 1y a 1anker for a certain sum of money. &ertificate of land transfer.)t.a. It is a *ritten ackno*led. 1 8'. $. 1. 4. [3ec. +lus interest. to a domestic s)i+ o+erator to en. &ertificate of deposit. <)e certificate -*)ic). &ertificate of stock. 1 8'. <amayo.. 1 . &ertificate of public convenience and necessity. ( certificate settin. 4. on Comml. &ertificate of sale. =ar. 1. 1 %'. as t)e case may 1e. 1 && Rev.ures o1tained 1y eac) candidate in a city. sim+ly evidences t)e .s )ad at t)e sale. La*s. +rofits. ( +romissory note issued 1y a 1ank in *)ic) t)e 1ank +romises to re+ay money it )as received. R( &5$"'. C(9. 5. =ar.nition of t)e .overnment:s reco. [3ec.d. or order. [6a.islative.. It is a documentary evidence of t)e )olderEs o*ners)i+ of s)ares and is a convenient instrument for t)e transfer of title. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .e in domestic s)i++in. [6(L v. R( &$81'. t)e total votes in fi. GR !54&1. It does not vest in t)e farmer/. [De Leon. . 1earer. [6(L v. eit)er munici+al or le.rantee o*ners)i+ of t)e land descri1ed t)erein. 4%%5'. fort) t)e +roceedin.rantee as t)e +arty 7ualified to avail of t)e statutory mec)anisms for t)e ac7uisition of o*ners)i+ of t)e land tilled 1y )im as +rovided under 6D 48.. and assets of a cor+oration. 4". ( certificate issued to a +u1lic service for *)ic) a franc)ise is re7uired 1y la*.

al <erms -6ro-3e. IRR of LC'. !"-!8'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . days t)erefrom to t)e court *)erein )is aforesaid com+laint or initiatory +leadin. tri1unal or 7uasi-2udicial a. and -c. )as 1een filed. &ertification proceeding. t)at an instrument is a true and correct co+y of t)e ori... &ertification against forum shopping. 4. Com+are *it) &onsent election. t)e 1ill certified. !. action or claim.ainin. Civ.istered under t)e <orrens 3ystem.reement 1y *)ic) a 1ank +romises to +ay t)e c)eck at any time it is +resented for +ayment. &ertification. "&'. [3ec. t)at )e )as not t)eretofore commenced any action or filed any claim involvin. ++. 4%%% . 1 5'. 1 & . a com+lete statement of t)e +resent status t)ereof.istration made 1y t)e re. <an Fn. a.. assertin. Dec.. t)rou. )e s)all re+ort t)at fact *it)in five -!. RoC'. [=orenoEs La* Dict. I(C. t)e same issues in any court... 4%%5'.istrar of deeds in t)e re. [Glossary of Le. 45. 4. for +ur+oses of collective 1ar.. Document issued 1y t)e [Re. 1. 1. 4%%5'. 3e+. Code of t)e 6)il. or in a s*orn certification anne0ed t)ereto and simultaneously filed t)ere*it)> -a.al <erms -6ro-3e.ation of a nonadversary. Britten attestation. Rule 8. 1.inal. (ut)orized declaration verifyin. in *)ic) t)e investi. ( mere investi. (nnotated.13 Cor+. Wse. c)aracter. It may 1e made on t)e c)eck itself or on anot)er instrument. [3ec. ( *ritten a. merely to ascertain t)e desires of t)e em+loyees as to t)e matter of t)eir re+resentation. unit. [=anila Golf C Country Clu1. Inc. t)erein. no suc) ot)er action or claim is +endin. 1 48'.e. &ertification of check.istry. if )e s)ould t)ereafter learn t)at t)e same or similar action or claim )as 1een filed or is +endin. <)e certification under oat) 1y t)e +laintiff or +rinci+al +arty in t)e com+laint or ot)er initiatory +leadin.ainin.ent of t)e em+loyees in an a++ro+riate 1ar. if t)ere is suc) ot)er +endin.atin.d. 6roc. [6@9 v.ency +lays t)e +art of a disinterested investi. fact-findin. a. GR 48 1. t)e sole and e0clusive 1ar. v.ister of Deeds' for real estate re. Rule 1. identifyin. La1or. -1. *)ic) is considered conclusive evidence of t)e +resent o*ners)i+ and state of t)e title to t)e +ro+erty descri1ed t)erein. &ertificate of title$ original or transfer 20&< or <&<3.. 9ook !.ency and. <)e +rocess of determinin. La1or. <)e transcri+t of t)e decree of re.d. 48. GR "5 5&. &ertification election. a claim for relief.ainin. +. [Glossary of Le.) secret 1allot. to t)e 1est of )is kno*led.ator seekin.

science and +ractice of accountin.e. 1 1 . or t)e +re+aration of income ta0 returns *)en related to accountin. 4%%5'. s+eedy.)er court to a lo*er court.rieved 1y t)e action of any tri1unal. installation. re. )oldin.rants a *rit of certiorari. CF=. and +resentation of financial facts or data. If an a++ellate court .istered or certified seeds t)at are so )andled as to maintain satisfactory . accountin.. *it)out or in e0cess of its or )is 2urisdiction. citin. firm. and as a 7ualified +erson to render +rofessional services as a certified +u1lic accountant. or *)en )e/s)e re+resents clients 1efore . and related sc)edules. ( c)eck *)ic) 1ears u+on its face an a. it a. ( verified +etition filed in t)e +ro+er court 1y t)e +erson a.L.. 1. R( 8"%8'.13! &ertified check. Dec. &ertiorari. to accountin. and ot)er financial. ( +erson. 1 &%. [3ec. 1oard.overnment a. R( 4 &'.al <erms -6ro3e.ettin. or officer e0ercisin.. 9us. 3eeds t)at +assed t)e seed certification standards of t)e 9ureau of 6lant Industry and *)ic) are t)e +ro. t)e *ord IcertifiedJ u+on t)e c)eck. +.overnment a.eny of foundation. [6imentel v..d. out )imself/)erself as one skilled in t)e kno*led.ency.reement 1y t)e dra*ee 1ank t)at t)e c)eck *ill 1e +aid on +resentation. or to 1e filed *it) a court or . records. services as suc) as t)e audit or verification of financial transaction and accountin. 5.encies on ta0 and ot)er matters relatin.. an a++ellate court to revie* a lo*er court:s decision. [Glossary of Le. La* Rev. t)e latter to send u+ t)e record of a +articular case. &ertified seeds. or renderin.. si. or offerin. ( *rit of revie* issued 1y a )i. or *it) . or certification for clients of re+orts of audit. e0)i1its. nor any +lain.C. 4. [Diaz. or to 1e used for any ot)er +ur+oses. +rocedures. &ertified public accountant 2&#A3. $&1'.rave a1use of discretion. and revision of accountin.nin. or *ritin. and ade7uate remedy in Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 2udicial functions. or as a staff mem1er in an accountin. 1e it )is/)er individual ca+acity. +rocedures and t)e recordin. 5. or render +rofessional assistance in matters relatin.enetic identity and varietal +urity.rees to take t)e a++eal. or auditin. statement of re+orts *)ic) are to 1e used for +u1lication or for credit +ur+oses. [3ec.n. system. or 1ot) or more t)an one client on a fee 1asis or ot)er*ise. or to desi. GR L-!$!&1-&$. 15 C#3 141'.. or t)e +re+aration. 1alance s)eet. to accountin. &ertiorari$ petition for. and t)ere is no a++eal. 1 . ( *rit from a su+erior court to an inferior court or tri1unal commandin. <)e usual +ractice is 1y stam+in. ( means of .

Intl. De Guzman. Rule "!. RoC'. La*.lements> -a. t)at 2ud.in. GR 51&! . 4%%5'. as t)e la* re7uires. &estui que trust.. +. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . &estui que use. &ertiorari$ petition for. Lat. 14%'. 4.d. 1 & .13" t)e ordinary course of la*. suc) a . <)at it is directed a. Civ. of suc) tri1unal. Rule "!.al Dict.. [Du)aime:s Le. F1li. RoC'. & =ar.rave a1use of discretion.ainst a tri1unal. 1. Arom Lat. . 1. Aor t)e 1eneficiary of a trust. Lat.al Dict. 2udicial functions. 5... [<orres. &41.. 1oard or officer. is . 14%'. 4 . 4%%5'.)t to recruit for +rofit one or more additional +ersons *)o *ill also 1e . similar investments. [3ec. 1. &ession. 4%%5'. t)at suc) tri1unal. &hain distribution plans or pyramid sales schemes. cessio from cessare> to yield. 4%%% .ranted 1y t)e manufacturer of )is re+resentative a ri. and -c. 1oard or officer e0ercisin. &essante ratione legis$ cessat et ipsa le%.ranted suc) ri. ( *rit t)e function of *)ic) is to kee+ an inferior Court *it)in t)e 1ounds of its 2urisdiction or to +revent it from committin. [Intl. 181 3CR( 5 '. t)e de1tor is re7uired to deliver all )is +ro+erty to all )is creditors.. u+on condition t)at )e makes an investment.)t to recruit u+on condition of makin. B)ere t)e reason of t)e la* ceases. 1oard or officer )as acted *it)out or in e0cess of 2urisdiction or *it) . <)e transfer of territory from one state to anot)er 1y treaty. C Direct. 3ales devices *)ere1y a +erson. <)e a1andonment of all +ro+erty of t)e de1tor for t)e 1enefit of )is creditors in order t)at t)e latter may a++ly t)e +roceeds t)ereof to t)e satisfaction of t)eir credit.nment. Court of Airst Instance. -c. at t)e time of t)e cession or assi. F1li. t)e creditors may sell t)e +ro+erty and a++ly t)e +roceeds to t)eir credits +ro+ortionately. t)e la* itself ceases. -1. Re7uisites> -a. to e0cess of 2urisdiction [Central 9ank v.ment 1e rendered annullin. and t)at -d.. &ertiorari$ writ of. eit)er +artially or totally. [(rt. GR L-4% 5%. 1 "8'.d. s+eedy and ade7uate remedy in t)e ordinary course of la*. t)e +roceedin.. R( 8$ 5'. or modifyin. t)e facts *it) certainty and +rayin. La*. <)ere must 1e at least one de1tor and t*o or more creditors. C Cont. t)e de1tor is in a state of insolvency.. 3e+. [Du)aime:s Le. La* Dict. +. [3ec.rave a1use of discretion amountin. &ession. suc) +etition alle. -1. Aor t)e donee of a trust. C Cont.s. [Lonaria v. C(. t)at t)ere is no a++eal nor any +lain. 4%%% . [<orres. Lat.

Gonzales. refused to acce+t a c)allen. $-$'.e anot)er. of trees or t)e cuttin.e results as a le.d. and -f. [(rt. +u1lication. and may 1e ordered 1y t)e court if +ro+er and reasona1le cause e0ists to 2ustify it. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all c)allen. Ae1. -c. $45 -1 !&. 1y *)ic) suc) t)ird +erson undertakes to carry on t)e liti. 4%%% . +. ( )earin. or s)all scoff at or decry anot)er +u1licly for )avin. B)en t)e c)an. -e. &hange of name. [9autista v.s to enforce t)e client:s ri. im+lement.e. [=orenoEs La* Dict. (ny +orta1le +o*er sa* or similar cuttin. t)at t)e desired c)an. &hange of name. Grounds> -a. ( 2udicial +roceedin. citin. una*are of )er alien +arenta.. $. B)en t)e surname causes em1arrassment and t)ere is no s)o*in. [3ec..e to fi. 4. t)at may 1e used for.. rendered o+erative 1y an electric or internal com1ustion en. 1 %.ive or acce+t a c)allen. dis)onora1le or e0tremely difficult to *rite or +ronounce.rees to +ay e0+enses of +roceedin.e. 8%'. in rem.e:s +rivate office.e of name *as for a fraudulent +ur+ose or t)at t)e c)an.'..e of name *ould +re2udice +u1lic Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . any1ody. or incite anot)er to .al <erms -6ro-3e. Lavin.e to a duel.14# &hain saw. in c)am1ers takes +lace in t)e 2ud.)ts. 3u++. 4%%5'. <)e act of a +erson in a.ation at )is o*n cost and risk in consideration of receivin. &hampertous agreement 2or contract3. ( 1ar. R6C'. &hambers.e *ill avoid confusion.er *it) a +arty to a suit. 1.ns of former aliena. [Du)aime:s Le. natural or 2uridical. 14. Cor+. #96 Loldin.. as in le. &hallenging to a duel. $.al Dict. La*.)t a duel. v.reein.es. B)en t)e c)an.al conse7uence. ( sincere desire to ado+t a Aili+ino name to erase si. distri1ution.ood fait) and *it)out +re2udicin.itimation. en. &hamperty. R( 18!'. t)e fellin. all in . R( 18!'. +urc)ase and/or sale of c)ain sa*s. (= 1"4!. 4%%5'. ( 2ud. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. im+ortation. re7uirin. B)en t)e name is ridiculous. a +art of t)e +roceeds or su12ect sou. ( +erson. -d. [3ec. 4"1. -1. &hain saw dealer.)t to 1e recovered.e for a +ortion of t)e 2udicial a*ard. G3 1"" A. if successful. (.a. Crim. [Glossary of Le.reement *)ere1y an attorney a. 1ut is not limited to. to finance someone else:s la*suit in e0c)an. +. of tim1er.ine or similar means.ed in t)e manufacture.e:s office outside of t)e +resence of t)e +u1lic.ain 1y a stran. continuously used and 1een kno*n since c)ild)ood 1y a Aili+ino name.

44. <)e +ossession 1y a +erson of certain 7ualities of mind and morals. In c)ar. <)ose officially 1elo* t)e rank of t)e ministers resident. (ll ta0es or contri1utions in favor of t)e . 1ut 1ecause of it. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. 6ol.al <erms -6ro-3e. Conflict of La*s.enerally entertained of a +erson derived from t)e common re+ort of t)e +eo+le *)o are ac7uainted *it) )im. <)e +rocess of decidin. 5 =anresa 4&4'. are e0am+les of suc) c)ar. Re+r. citin. etc. 3ec. &harges dDaffaires. <)e +ur+ose of c)aracterization is to ena1le t)e court of t)e forum to select t)e +ro+er la*. +. it is t)e o+inion . C(. GR 8 %". Ar. La1or. 1 &5'. <)ose *)ic) are incurred. In ot)er *ords. Gnder settled 2uris+rudence. 1$1.overnment.ainst +ersons or +ro+erty. [(. [Glossary of Le. (n attorney:s s+ecific lien for com+ensation on t)e fund or 2ud. <)ey include every +restation re7uired of t)e +ossessor 1y reason of t)e +ossession of t)e t)in.uis)in. II. until decided. 4. <)ey take over *)en t)e latter is a1sent. (lso Doctrine of qualification. La* Revie*er. 6ecuniary lia1ility. distin. 1 4'. of La*s. not on t)e t)in.. Conf. t)e +endency of a formal c)ar. =ovin. &harging or special lien. [3uarez.. 4%%1. *)et)er or not t)e facts relate to t)e kind of 7uestion s+ecified in a conflicts rule. R( 81"%'. 3ee Natural bed. Dol..+alo. 1ars +roceedin.es. GR L-!1$$8. [<olentino. 1&'. 1%55'. 4%%4'. [6eo+le v.ment *)ic) )e )as recovered 1y means of )is +rofessional services for )is client in a +articular case and is +rovided in t)e second +art of Rule 1$&. &hange of venue. &hannel.e of com+any domination is a +re2udicial 7uestion t)at. and interests on mort.a. [3ec.company domination rule. Lee.es. $8 -of t)e Rules of Court. v. 1. itself. +. a la*suit or criminal trial to anot)er +lace for trial. =ar. as rents or fees a.. 1st . 4%%5'. )im from ot)ers. =ay !. +. *)et)er it constitutes a real ri. &haracteri ation. 4%%4.)t or not.141 interest.e of affairs. [Gnited C=C <e0tile Borkers Gnion v.d. t)ey are tem+orarily in c)ar. GR 1$ %8%. t)e reason 1ein.. t)at t)e votes of t)e mem1ers of t)e dominated union *ould not 1e free. &haracter.nation may 1e. 4 1. [Re+. =ay 41. 9LR..of . &harge .ment *as o1tained and takes effect under t)e cited rule after t)e attorney s)all )ave Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .e no matter *)at t)eir official rank or desi. &harges. It covers only t)e services rendered 1y an attorney in t)e action in *)ic) t)e 2ud.s for a certification election. *)et)er on t)e ca+ital or on t)e fruits.

41 L.142 caused a statement of )is claim of suc) lien to 1e entered u+on t)e records of t)e +articular action *it) *ritten notice t)ereof to )is client and to t)e adverse +arty. &hartered institution.oods or +ersons from one +ort to anot)er. u+on t)e latter t)e ri.rants t)e attorney Ht)e same ri. 1 8%'.d.)t to a++oint t)e ca+tain. [Gre. ( contract 1y *)ic) an entire s)i+..ers on a +articular voya. (n unmarried *oman *)o )as )ad no carnal kno*led.)t and +o*er over suc) 2ud. of t)e vessel leased or c)artered durin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students ..anization of a 2uridical entity. 1y vestin. t)e duration of t)e contract. 84'. citin. under a s+ecial c)arter.ments and e0ecutions as )is client *ould )ave to enforce )is lien and. (n instrument or aut)ority from t)e soverei. +. GR L48$ 5.n +o*er 1esto*in. Le.)t or +rivile. Lum+rey and 6eues. 1. Code of t)e 6)il. 54&'. Aund.. officers and mem1ers of t)e cre*. (ny a. [Flarte. 1!. GR 1%1!%$.ment for )is client and .oods and/or +assen. 1 & ..e *it) men or *)o never voluntarily )ad unla*ful se0ual intercourse. Com+are *it) AttorneyDs retaining lien. desi.J [(m+il v. It +resu++oses t)at t)e attorney )as secured a favora1le money 2ud. 3e+. 8% (m #ur 4d. ( contract in *)ic) t)e o*ner of a vessel lets for consideration t)e *)ole or +rinci+al +art t)ereof for t)e conveyance of . . La* Dict. 1. +.ent of t)e vessel leases for a certain +rice t)e *)ole or a +ortion of t)e vessel for t)e trans+ort of .rava. [Intl.e to one or more +laces or until t)e e0+iration of a s+ecified time and surrenders unto t)e lessee or c)arterer t)e control.. 4. &harter-party. &harter vessel. &harter. 4%%% . functions. 1$%. 455. ( mock serenade of discordant noises made *it) kettles.ned to deride or annoy. is let 1y t)e o*ner to anot)er +erson for a s+ecified time or use.d. ( document outlinin. or some +rinci+al +art t)ereof. 4%%5'. $4"'. and or.ency or.d. 1 $. 1" Ball. 1. t)e ri.e to 1e and act as a cor+oration. [6lanters 6roducts v. [De Leon. ( contract 1y *)ic) t)e o*ner or a. (nnotated. C(.. (dmin Code of 1 &8'. citin.es and t)e monetary aut)ority of t)e 3tate. tin )orn. It also denotes +urity of mind and innocence of )eart. #uliano-(. !&%'. -G3.d.al =ed. +. secure t)e +ayment of )is 2ust fees and dis1ursements. to s+ecific constitutional +olicies or o12ectives. [R( 1$'. 1 8 t) . <)is term includes t)e state universities and colle. +. etc. and vested 1y la* *it) functions relatin. La* Rev.orio. [3ec. 4. t)e +rinci+les. C Direct. #uly $1. Cor+.anized or o+eratin. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4. &harivari. &haste. of Crim..

ency fees from t)e latter:s *a.143 Le. 1 %". 4. !8 (m. <)ere is a1stinence from unla*ful se0ual connection. <)at virtue *)ic) +revents t)e unla*ful intercourse of t)e se0es. 1y a +arty )avin. C. 1.al <erms -6ro-3e. &heck-off.ainin. &hemical diversion. 4 Dan. Aed. distri1ution.al =ed. in Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1st .e Re.al =ed. Bilson..d. 415%. 1. <)e sale. [6eo+le v. @e. or to suc) +erson or order. 5"5'.e dra*n on a 1ank +aya1le on demand. Dec. 5. $. [3ec.a.. manufactured or +rocured controlled +recursors and essential c)emicals. on t)e 1usiness of 1ankin. [Loly Cross of Davao v. 4%%5'. on +resentment. 9ro*n. GR 11%%%8.d.) attac)ment to real +ro+erty.reement *it) t)e union reco. @IL'. $!%. to a +erson t)erein named or 1earer. 18%. B)ite.. ( 1ill of e0c)an. Cas. 4d "5%. Le. 4. 1&!. &1 Bas). GR 8! !5. 4& Gratt.. 4%%5'.. [6eo+le v. ( mort. citin. citin. GR 8! !5. [Glossary of Le.ister as a security for t)e +erformance of an o1li. 514.C.. 1 4.. !%$ +. @itafan.. &hattel mortgage. CC'. Fct. @itafan. ( draft dra*n u+on a 1ank and +aya1le on demand.al =ed. ( +rocess or device *)ere1y t)e em+loyer. si. containin. an unconditional +romise to +ay a sum certain in money to t)e order of t)e +ayee. ( +erson *)o )as never voluntarily )ad se0ual intercourse outside of marria. #oa7uin. [(rt. 4d 1%"$. a named sum of money. Fct. [Du)aime:s Le. on a. -D.. Le. 6ascual. or on +rior aut)orization from its em+loyees. 3ee C)a+man v.itimately im+orted.e suc) as unmarried vir. +. Deener v.nized as t)e +ro+er 1ar. !4&. 44.ins. La*. Inst. 1 ". 4%%5'. at 18$'. " @. ( *ritten order or re7uest to a 1ank or +ersons carryin. Com+are *it) *eal estate mortgage. citin. 1st . (n article of +ersonal +ro+erty.a. 1. 1%""'. @o. 141'. Com+are *it) ?irgin. &hattel . La1or Rel. 1&. In re 9ro*n.. 1 =ac (rt).al Dict. &heck or cheque. 141'. 6erri..e *)ere +ersonal +ro+erty is recorded in t)e C)attel =ort. Fct. +. 1 4. &hastity. [Du)aime:s Le.. ?. &hattel. 44..e dra*n on a 1ank +aya1le on demand. re+resentative. !%4. 9lair v. -4%%5. (ct 1!%& enacted on #uly 4. eit)er directly or vicariously t)rou. -4%%5. [Flarte. desirin. t)em to +ay. 3tate v. money in t)eir )ands.al Dict. =ovea1le items of +ro+erty *)ic) are neit)er land nor +ermanently attac)ed to land or a 1uildin. deducts union dues or a.ned 1y t)e maker or dra*er. su++ly or trans+ort of le.es and remits t)em directly to t)e union.oue.ortgage 6aw. Com+are *it) ?irginity. ( 1ill of e0c)an. 4 3to. intransit. -Da.ation. 4. &!.

or +re+aration of s+ecifications for or estimates of industrial +lants. R( 81!8'. $. alteration or o+eration of industrial +lants. destruction of documents.144 diluted. or any +erson a++ointed 1y t)e 6resident to suc) +osition.ation. use of front com+anies or mail fraud. C(.) fraud. 4&. &hief of mission. !. and s)all include +acka.lect. la1elin. <)e doctrine *)ic) advocates t)e im+erative necessity to take account of t)e actual e0istence of a statute +rior to its nullification.istration and 6rofessional Identification Card issued 1y t)e 9oard of C)emical . acce+tance of a +rinci+le of a1solute retroactive invalidity. or even *it)out suc) re*ard or com+ensation. &hemical name. or undertake t)e su+ervision of construction. re-la1elin. &hemical engineering$ practice of. [3ec. valuation.istered and a )older of a valid Certificate of Re. R( ""8!'. Re+.nin. 3ee 0perative fact doctrine.ulation Commission -6RC. +aid to )im or t)rou.) anot)er +erson. &hemical engineer. salary or ot)er re*ard or com+ensation. Fct. 4.e unless sooner emanci+ated 1y la*. erection. +lannin. &hicot doctrine.n. v. &hia. of c)emical en. R( 4"8'. or concealment of suc) transaction t)rou. $. [3ec. =ay 4$. misdeclaration. [3ec $. citin.in..)teen -1&.n service. $85 -1 5%.)teen -1&. re+acka. 9a0ter 3tates 9ank.ed in t)e manufacture of any dan. C)i. to any +erson or entity en. <)e )ead of an em1assy or ot)er di+lomatic missions of t)e 6)ili++ines.. service in t)e form of consultation. service 1y a +erson *)o s)all. ( +erson duly re. cruelty. as an o+erative fact ne.J [Co v. <)e renderin. in t)e )ome office or forei. [3ec. 1. [3ec.in. investi. 1 $. [3ec. years of a. R( &%5$'. *)et)er servin. $%& G3 $81.e or one *)o is over ei. desi. C)icot County Draina. 1 "1'. mi0tures or in concentrated form.e Dist. and t)e 6rofessional Re.ineerin.'.a.atin. [#e* C)on. or discrimination 1ecause of a +)ysical or mental disa1ility or condition. v. &hild. ( +erson 1elo* ei. ne.erous dru. render or offer to render +rofessional c)emical en.ineerin. $. R( 1"!'. <)e descri+tion of t)e c)emical structure of t)e dru. GR 1%%88". $..ineerin. or medicine and serves as t)e com+lete identification of a com+ound. R( $1&'.. e0+loitation. 1ut is una1le to fully take care of or +rotect )imself/)erself from a1use... [3ec.. fraudulent use of +ermits. Grateful. ( +erson 1elo* fifteen -1!. GR L-15$5$. 14. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . years of a. for a fee. installation.

R( &$8%. <)e relatives of suc) c)ild or c)ildren *it)in t)e si0t) de. of t)e c)ild. &hild and Houth Belfare &ode$ <he.ree of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .-)our residential care services for a1andoned.ency 1y t)e D3BD t)at +rovides t*enty four -45. mental and emotional )arm to t)em. 1ut not limited to. ( duly licensed and accredited a. of nine or more mentally . [Glossary of Le. or voluntarily committed c)ildren. 1 85. institution or )ome or under t)e care and custody of any +erson or +ersons for +ur+oses of ado+tion. ( c)ild *)o )as 1een voluntarily or involuntarily committed to t)e D3BD or to a duly licensed and accredited c)ild-+lacin. 1. $. &hild-caring institution. 1. R( &!!4'. de+endent.rams not s+ecifically desi. 6D "%$'. or c)ild-carin. a.145 R( 4%&'. *)ose +rimary +ur+ose is education. *)et)er )a1itual or not. 6D "%$ entitled I<)e C)ild and yout) Belfare CodeJ si. $. )andica++ed or distur1ed c)ildren. 6ro.ency. [3ec. Fffs+rin. R( 8"1%'. <)ese include various formats and .enre t)at a++eal to c)ildren and are made availa1le for all a. [3ec.lected.uardians)i+ or foster care. +ro.ned into la* on Dec.ical +arent-s. [(rt.ifted. 118. t)e +ros+ective ado+tive +arents. ne. of +arenta. <)e maltreatment. 1y c)ildren 1ut *)ic) serve to furt)er t)e +ositive develo+ment of c)ildren and contain no elements t)at may result in +)ysical. R( &!!4'. or .uardian or ado+ter-s. a1andoned. &hild-friendly programs. t)e care. 1%. &hild legally available for adoption. social and s+iritual *ell-1ein. custody. 4. $. (n institution t)at +rovides t*entyfour resident . R( &!!4'.eny. [3ec.al <erms -6ro-3e. mental. $. 4%%5'. institution *)en nine or more of its +u+ils or *ards in t)e ordinary course of events do not return annually to t)e )omes of t)eir +arents or . t)e ado+tion )ome study. $. [3ec.rou+ care service for t)e +)ysical. 3ec. &hild abuse. ne. freed of t)e +arental aut)ority of )is/)er 1iolo. $.lected. +rotection and maintenance of c)ildren for +lacement in any c)ild-carin. &hild-caring agency..ned for vie*in. and +re+arin. is deemed to 1e a c)ild-carin. (n institution or +erson assumin. or yout)ful offenders. $. [3ec. &hild-placing agency. R( 8 51'. evaluatin.uardians for at least t*o mont)s of summer vacation. ( duly licensed and accredited a.e. 4.es from early c)ild)ood to adolescence. a++lications for ado+tion.. . in case of rescission of ado+tion. receivin. (n institution.ency 1y t)e D3BD to +rovide com+re)ensive c)ild *elfare services includin. or+)aned.

6ersons 1elo* ei. !.ivin.)teen -1&. R( 8"1%'.lect.lect.)teen -1&. in +rostitution and ot)er se0ual a1use. $. &hirographs. ne. *)o for money. $.)teen -1&. a c)ild includes one over ei.)teen -1&. &hildren's television.uinity or affinity are e0cluded from t)is definition.rou+. R( &$8%. &hild prostitution and other se%ual abuse. $. R( 8 51'. 1 48'. $. 6ro. [3ec. R( &$8%'. in a +u1lic instrument or final 2ud. care of t)emselves as defined under R( 8"1%.8. (= %%-5-%8-3C'. e0+loitation or discrimination 1ecause of a +)ysical or mental disa1ility or condition.. ne. 5 -a. 1 8. *)et)er male or female.)teen -1&. 3ec. Inc. $. 4. [3ec.ical c)ildren of t)e victim and ot)er c)ildren under )er care. =a+ili. <)ose 1elo* ei. [6@9 v.ment. &hild-viewing hours. 118. or even over ei. 4&. R( &$8% enacted on Fct. Credits a++earin.e in se0ual intercourse or lascivious conduct.e or older 1ut are inca+a1le of takin. e0+loitation. years 1ut are inca+a1le of self-su++ort 1ecause of mental and/or +)ysical defect/disa1ility. into account ot)er activities *)ic) are necessary or desira1le for t)eir 1alanced develo+ment.)teen -1&. &hildren of a solo parent.. (ll +ersons 1elo* ei. (ny +erson *)o at t)e time of . &hild witness. v. <)ose livin. R( &$8%'. $. 1. $.e. 4&. R( & 84'. GR 4"&$$. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $. 3electa 9iscuit Co. years of a. it includes t)e 1iolo.ut). years of a. [(rt. 1y c)ildren. GR L-158"1. C)i. Lours *)ic) are considered to 1e a++ro+riate for c)ildren to *atc) television takin. (s used in R( 4"4. In c)ild a1use cases. &hildren. [3ec. testimony is 1elo* ei. [3ec. indul. [3ec. &hildren's <elevision Act of +. [3ec. R( 8"1%'. syndicate or .ned for vie*in. <)e e0+loitation of c)ildren. *it) and de+endent u+on t)e solo +arent for su++ort *)o are unmarried.)teen -1&. [3ec.. years 1ut is found 1y t)e court as una1le to fully take care of )imself or +rotect )imself from a1use. (+r.e or t)ose over 1ut are una1le to fully take care of t)emselves or +rotect t)emselves from a1use. [(rce 3ons and Co. 1. Dera. R( 4"4'.rams and ot)er materials 1roadcast on television t)at are s+ecifically desi. +rofit. &hing suan. cruelty. years of a. or discrimination 1ecause of a +)ysical or mental disa1ility or condition. #an. unem+loyed and not more t)an ei..146 consan. years old. 6D "%$'. years. 1 "1'. cruelty. [3ec. or any ot)er consideration or due to t)e coercion or influence of any adult.

&hristian name. $4 '.. le. Dict. ( .. 4%%1-4%%"'.CC. -1 ".ularly assem1le for *ors)i+. ( slo*ly +ro. ( +lace *)ere +ersons re..ious *ors)i+.. GR 4&!%. [=artelino v.uros. 4 . [6aras. accordin. &hronic hemoptysis. GR L-1! 48. 85'. ( +ersonal t)in..al or court action. and . &hose in possession. strictures and tumors cause o1struction to t)e flo* of urine and +redis+ose to infection. [=orenoEs La* Dict. Conflict of La*s.radual develo+ment of t)e ailment.d.J [Claridades. ( t)in. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1 &"'. Aactors suc) as stones. [3armiento v. +. of *)ic) one )as +ossession. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. ( lon. $4 '. [C)avez v.CC.14 &hloride. &hoice of law. &hose. t)e +rinci+les and rules a++lied 1y courts in order to determine t)e la* a++lica1le to one or more of t)e le.. +. &hronic pyelonephritis.s. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . in action. [Du)aime:s Le. are a c)ose in action. &hronological. <a0es and customs. In conflict of la*s. ( c)attel +ersonal.-term or lon. [<etley.uis)ed from a t)in. 6)il. Lon...al issues to 1e decided. . [6eo+le v. 4%%5'.iven name. an article of +ersonal +ro+erty..d. as in IAili+inas Cia. (rran.d..ular reli.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1 "$'. -1 &". as distin. [Glossary of Le. enforcea1le t)rou. . 6ulmonary tu1erculosis accom+anied 1y 1lood vomitin. Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl.s or *)ic) are not in one:s +ossession.strella.. GR L-"&"5&. .standin. 4%%% .ressive infection of a renal +elvis and +renc)yma. (+r.d. 4%%5'. insurance claims. s)ares in com+anies and +ensions.al +roceedin. 11%&'. to date. . GR L-"1 $1. (11rev. &t) .eles. 4%%5'. &ia. +. In conflict of la*s.) le.ed in t)e order in *)ic) events )a++ened. ( com+ound of c)lorine *it) anot)er element or radical. for Com+ania. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. 1 &8'.al Dict. de1ts. 3e+. and is eit)er in action or in +ossession. $1. [6aras. fre7uently 1ilateral. t)e +rinci+les and rules a++lied 1y courts in order to determine t)e +ro+er 2urisdiction for institutin.i1le t)in. &hoice of (urisdiction. (ll +laces suited to re. (n. =ar. -1 ". Conflict of La*s. &hose in action. Com+ilation of @otes.)t of +ro+erty in intan.0am+les may include salaries. &hronic. ( ri.. (. &hurch. 45. 4%%% . 1 4. &t) . +. citin. 6)il. [<etley. if un+aid. #une 1!.. De 3e. 85'. 4%%5'.

Re7uirements> -a..in.. [Mueru1in v. <)ere are more t)an one circumstance. <)e act of surroundin. 18.. 1$8-(. Li*a. &igars. or *)ic) surround or accom+any. 85'. $4 -1 1$. suc) evidence must 1e more t)an one. 54. 4%%% . t)em in 1locks or s7uares. #uly 4!. (lconcel.'. a +lace. to encircle. 1 $. or *)ic) de+end u+on or su++ort or 7ualify a +rinci+al act or event. (u. It is a term t)at a derived from t)e *ord Hcircuir. citin. (ny diffuse fi1rosis t)at destroys t)e normal arc)itecture of t)e liver. &ircumbalacion.d. ( met)od of secret *ritin. [6eo+le v. derived from facts duly +roven. &ircumstantial evidence sufficient to convict. 3alan.'.uilt. +. [6eo+le v. to encom+ass. [=orenoEs La* Dict. <o *arrant conviction in criminal cases u+on circumstantial evidence. @ot only t)e +rior and coetaneous actuations of t)e accused in relation to t)e crime 1ut also )is acts or conduct su1se7uent t)ereto can 1e considered as circumstantial evidence of . *ra++ed in leaf to1acco. 1. GR & 114. 1 & 3CR( -1 1. 45 6)il. R( ! 41'. [3ec.d. 3+. &ircumstantial evidence. R( 411'. <)e evidence of collateral facts or circumstances from *)ic) an inference may 1e dra*n as to t)e +ro1a1ility or im+ro1a1ility of t)e facts in dis+ute. 5. -1. GR 1%% 1%. $. &irrhosis of the liver.s *)ic) stand around or closely +recede or follo*. 1 5'.H *)ic) means to surround. 1 8!'.a. *)ic) contains to1acco or its derivatives and is intended to 1e 1urned or )eated under ordinary conditions of use. &ircumstances. Com+are *it) Direct evidence. t)e com1ination of all t)e circumstances is suc) as to +roduce a conviction 1eyond reasona1le dou1t. [G3 v. $.14! &igarette. [3ec. t)e facts from *)ic) t)e inferences are derived are +roven. and t)e com1ination of all of t)em must 1e suc) as to +roduce conviction 1eyond reasona1le dou1t [6eo+le v. <iozon. 1&.t) of 1%%1 1razas. and -c. De Los 3antos. =inor facts of related or accessory facts. occurrences or t)in. ! =oran. (ll rolls of to1acco or any su1stitutes t)ereof. 4.'. 1 &% . &ipher. GR L-4$%!%. 3e+. [3ec.. <)e most common ty+e is Laennec:s or alco)olic cirr)osis *)ic) is t)e conse7uence of a s+ecific ty+e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. (ny roll or tu1ular construction. t)at su1stitutes ot)er letters or c)aracters for t)e letter intended or trans+oses t)e letter after arran. <)e +)rase H1%%1 1razas de circum1alacionH can mean no ot)er t)an t)at t)e +erimeter or circumference of t)e +ro+erty )as a total len. 6D " '. +.

Rules on Crim. Di. one 1ein. &iti ens by election.14" of malnutrition usually related to c)ronic alco)olism and/or faulty dietary )a1its.al <erms -6ro-3e.es t)an t)e rest of t)e +eo+le *)o o*e it alle. 4%%4.e of t*enty one -41. ( *rit or order issued 1y a court commandin.rams or activities contri1utory to t)e . entre+reneurs)i+. [6aras. Ae1. 1 8$. +. "'. . &iti ens of the #hilippines. 1%!'. called a state. and -d.. [3uarez. is a mem1er of an inde+endent +olitical society. ID. re+orted cases. 4%%5'.ations. t)e a.. Citizens *)o 1y virtue of certain le. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . and as suc) is su12ect to its la*s and entitled to its +rotection in all )is ri. 1ecome suc) 1y c)oosin. t)ose *)o are naturalized in accordance *it) la*. La* Revie*er. &iti en. @ov. &ivic welfare training service 2&B<)3. also t)e *ritten reference to le. <)e follo*in. t)e +erson named t)erein to a++ear at t)e time and +lace named. [6eo+le v.CC.)ts incident to t)at relation. GR %"4&. &itation. #an. Com+are *it) &iti enship.. -1.al aut)orities. 1st . 6ro. +. Fne *)o. or em+ire. 6roc.e of ma2ority. Its si. 4!1'. 4. Constitution'. citin. &t) . 1 &8 6)il. Conflict of La*s. t)ose 1orn 1efore #an. [Garol v. $%.. <)ose *)o are citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines at t)e time of t)e ado+tion of t)is Constitution. Rayray. are citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines> -a. *)o elect 6)ili++ine citizens)i+ u+on reac)in. safety. &iti en's arrest. +recedents. Rule 11$.d. [Cruz. etc. 1. 1 " . or *it)in a reasona1le time t)ereafter.al +rovisions. [(rt.d. a com+ensation for t)e ot)er. 1%4'. =em1ers)i+ in a +olitical society and im+lies a duty of alle. in 1riefs or ot)er le.al documents.iance on t)e +art of t)e mem1er and a duty of +rotection on t)e +art of t)e society. +. 18. 1 54 . naturalization or ot)er*ise.est of Intl. GR L-5% . environment. La* Revie*er. es+ecially t)ose devoted to im+rovin. )ealt). 1 !'. 1. La*.nificance is munici+al and not international. GR L-!!4$$.eneral *elfare and t)e 1etterment of life for t)e mem1ers of t)e community or t)e en)ancement of its facilities..iance. kin. 6ol. [Glossary of Le. It a++lies only to certain mem1ers of t)e state accorded more +rivile. 1 &&'. =isa. 1y 1irt). +.H [Laurel v. of Aili+ino mot)ers. -1 ".dom. 6)il. 4 . -c.. !.. $ Lack*ort).d. <)ese are reci+rocal o1li. &iti enship. 1 58. 6)ili++ine citizens)i+ at t)e a. t)ose *)ose fat)ers or mot)ers are citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines. -electin.d. education. ( *arrantless arrest aut)orized under 3ec. of t)e Rev. Intl.

44$..anize t)e Civil (eronautics 9oard and t)e Civil (eronautics (dministration. (n action 1rou. and franc)ise.s..eneral su+ervision and re. 4. t)e a++ro+riation of funds t)ereforJ enacted on #une 4%. Civil Code. $%. [Glossary of Le.al <erms -6ro-3e. an offense a. 4%%5'. ( civil action may eit)er 1e ordinary or s+ecial.ency *)ic) )as t)e +o*er to re..ulation of civil aeronautics in t)e 6)ili++ines and aut)orizin. t)in. e7ui+ment.. &ivil. +. Rule 1.ations.)ts. [#urado. &ivil &ode of the #hilippines. <)e a. (n action 1y *)ic) a +arty sues anot)er for t)e enforcement or +rotection of a ri. as amended'. &ivil contempt. or t)e +revention or redress of a *ron.)t 1y civil actions as contrasted *it) criminal +roceedin.ulation of.)ts and o1li. GR 11! %&-% . &ivil Aeronautics :oard 2&A:3. citin. GR 4! 5. R( 1"$'. Civil La* Revie*er. +. and 2urisdiction and control over.)ts and remedies sou. <)e failure to do somet)in.ulate t)e economic as+ect of air trans+ortation.al <erms -6ro-3e. &ivil conspiracy. *it) reference to +ersons. 9ot) are . -1 . R( $&" entitled I(n (ct to ordain and institute t)e Civil Code of t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on #une 1&. 1 5 and took effect on (u. [Glossary of Le. 1 !'. RoC'.an1ayan. t)erefore. &ivil Aeronautics Act of the #hilippines$ <he. &ivil aircraft. determinin. &ivil action. Relatin.ainst t)e +arty in *)ose 1e)alf t)e violated order is made.ulates t)e +rivate relations of t)e mem1ers civil society. 1%'. =ar. ( collection of la*s *)ic) re. R( 88" entitled I(n (ct to reor. <)e com1ination of t*o or more +ersons for +ur+oses of accom+lis)in. to +rivate ri.s and civil acts. +arty t)erein and is. 5. 1. &ivil &ode. !t) . $. su12ect to t)e s+ecific rules +rescri1ed for a s+ecial civil action. $-a. Godoy. t)eir res+ective ri. 1 5. 4 . 4%%5'. 1 !4.. 1 t) . [3ec. air carriers as *ell as t)eir +ro+erty. to +rovide for t)e re. R( 88"'. 9lack:s La* Dict. [Re+.d. v. [3ec. [6eo+le v.. +ro+erty ri. 1.)ts. 3andi. [3ec. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . R( 88".d. $. [3ec. 1 !%. =ar.'. facilities. ordered to 1e done 1y a court in a civil action for t)e 1enefit of t)e o++osin.)t to enforce or +rotect +rivate ri.. citin. (ny aircraft ot)er t)an a +u1lic aircraft..)t. and )as t)e .15# recreation and morals of t)e citizenry. 1y concerted action eit)er la*ful +ur+ose 1y unla*ful means or unla*ful +ur+ose 1y la*ful means. 1%. 1 <olentino.overned 1y t)e rules for ordinary civil actions.

4. etc.s. R( !55'. desi. <)at *)ic) a. any ot)er *ork re7uirin. erection. =arc). La* Revie*er. 1rid.)ts of +arental aut)ority. R6C'. La*. 4%%4. [3ec.n Aili+ino +eo+le in line *it) t)e +rinci+le t)at Isoverei. &ivilian supremacy principle. CC'.d. <)ey are com+osed of &ivil corporation. 4. 1uildin. [De Leon. (lso )olar month. s+ecifications.151 Com+are contempt. ( cor+oration esta1lis)ed for 1usiness or +rofit. <)e +ractice s)all em1race services in t)e form of consultation. t)e +rimary feature of *)ic) *as t)at la*s *ere *ritten into a collection.overnment aut)ority emanates from t)em.al Dict. +re+aration of +lans. <)e de+rivation of t)e offender durin.es. air-+orts and )an. su+reme over t)e military. and not determined.ineerin. 1y 2ud.e )is +ro+erty and of t)e ri. [Glossary of Le. +. codified. installation and su+ervision of t)e construction of streets. <)e enumeration of any *ork s)all not 1e construed as e0cludin. flood +rotection. *ater su++ly and se*era. canals. of t)e ri. t)e time of )is sentence of t)e ri. <)e +rinci+le of civil la* is to +rovide all citizens *it) an accessi1le and *ritten collection of t)e la*s *)ic) a++ly to t)em and *)ic) 2ud.e.uardians)i+. i.)t to mana.J [3uarez. $ '. (nnotated. demolition of +ermanent structures..rees *it) t)e Gre.s.e. river and s)ore im+rovements. $5. as is common la*.. La* 1ased on a series of *ritten codes or la*s. &ivil engineering$ practice of.e *orks. and tunnels.)t)ouses. Cor+. kno*led. &ivil fruits. 6ol. [Du)aime:s Le. and dry docks. 1 & . Ae1ruary.. 1st . &ivil interdiction. 1. Code of t)e 6)il. *it) &riminal teac)es t)e su+remacy of t)e soverei.)t to dis+ose of suc) +ro+erty 1y any act or any conveyance inter vivos. &ivil law. of marital aut)ority.es. .ation.)*ays. +ort *orks.ains to 1e distri1uted amon. La* ins+ired 1y old Roman La*. *it) a vie* to*ard realizin. [(rt. t)e +rice of leases of lands and ot)er +ro+erty and t)e amount of +er+etual or life annuities or ot)er similar income. +.. 554. its mem1ers. railroads.. 4%%5'.ars. and t)ese mont)s are kno*n 1y t)e names of #anuary. fi0ed structures for irri. civil en.d. [(rt.J and t)is su+remacy is Iat all times. estimates.es must follo*.nty resides in t)e +eo+le and all .n.orian calendar.e and a++lication. li. &ivil month.al <erms -6ro-3e. 4%%5'. eit)er as to t)e +erson or +ro+erty of any *ard. <)e doctrine t)at Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e rents of 1uildin. 6ol. "%'. draina. or . Com+are *it) "leemosynary corporation. )i.

istry 1ooks and related certificates and documents ke+t in t)e arc)ives of t)e local civil re. Intro. CC'. in a *ider sense. &ivil registry.d. 4%%5'. 4. [3ec.overnment. <)e various re. events and 2udicial decrees concernin. 6rocedure t)at treats of t)e enforcement and +rotection of ri. Car+io.istry offices. t)e civil status of +ersons. Constitution'. 1 5. to every citizen of t)e state or country. GR $1%4!.istry office of t)e city or munici+ality. 1$45'..e. to ri. *)o is a++ointed as suc) 1y t)e city or munici+al mayor in accordance *it) t)e +rovisions of e0istin. &ivil registrar 2of city or municipality3. as t)e case may 1e.)ts ca+a1le of 1ein. marria. includin. 1. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . freedom of contract.ency of t)e [6)ili++ine' Government. in its .istration. <)e +u1lic record *)ere acts. 4. t)at 1elon.anization or administration of . 4%5'.istrar General. 4. !.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1.ive a ri. 6)ili++ine Consulates and of t)e Fffice of t)e Civil Re. <)e rules and +rocess 1y *)ic) a civil case is tried and a++ealed. #an. or. <)e )ead of t)e local civil re. <)ey include t)e ri. $. [3ec. citin. to La*. etc. &ivil )ervice &ommission.)ts in civil cases. [3imon v. 4.. &ivil procedure. [Gutierrez v. "t) . 4.)ts. &ivil register. CC'.)ts a++ertainin.d. Com+are *it) Natural obligations. 154$. &ivil rights. (rt IX -1. F1li. [3ec. t)e rules of evidence and trial conduct.)ts are ri. <)e central +ersonnel a. GR 1%%1!%.)t of action to com+el t)eir +erformance. a++eals.. citin. t)e +re+arations for trial.)ts of +ro+erty.ency mandated to carry out and administer t)e +rovision of la*s on civil re. as ot)er*ise defined. and are not connected *it) t)e or. civil ri. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. &ivil obligations. <)e official record of acts. +. enforced or redressed in a civil action.152 une7ual +ortions of time. 1 ! $rd . events and 2udicial decrees concernin. <)ose -ri. [Glossary of Le. and t)e +rocedure for +ursuin. 3uc) term may also refer. *)ic) is t)e a. 9ouvier:s La* Dictionary'. 1 &8 6)il. [(rt.. to a +erson 1y virtue of )is citizens)i+ in a state or community. 5%8. to all its in)a1itants. la*s. 1 4 . e7ual +rotection of t)e la*s. [3ec.. 1!.ations *)ic) . [3uarez. R( %5&'. (u. 9lack:s La* Dict. $-5'.. +. [(rt.eneral sense.es. R( %!$'. Fr. <)e (dministrator of t)e @ational 3tatistics Fffice -@3F. &ivil registrar general. t)e civil status of +ersons are entered. R( %!$'. CLR.

[9lack:s La* Le. &landestine laboratory. t)e term used for de1ts of t)e decedent and a +rocedure t)at must 1e follo*ed 1y a creditor to o1tain +ayment from )is estate. [3ec 5. dated (u.al manufacture of any dan.. unmatured. ( clandestine marria. .uous and difficult to com+ly *it). 4%%5'. <)e documents servin. unli7uidated.)t to an e7uita1le remedy is reduced to 2ud. *)et)er or not suc) ri.)t to an e7uita1le remedy for 1reac) of +erformance if suc) 1reac) .state <a0 Recei+t.'.erous dru. 445. R( 48!'. ( de1t o*in. &larificatory (udgment. unmatured.anization of t)e Civil 3ervice Commission in accordance *it) +rovisions of t)e Constitution. [Du)aime:s Le. le.. Com+ilation of @otes. e7uita1le.e *ould 1e one *)ic) does not com+ly *it) la*s related to +u1licity. (. R( 1"!'.. matured.al +ur+ose. 4%%14%%"'.al. ".153 &ivil )ervice Decree of the #hilippines.)t to +ayment.. ( 2ud. or unsecured. *)et)er or not suc) ri. &ivil society. +. [3ec. secured. [Claridades. 4%.. secured. 1. contin. 6D &%8 entitled I6rovidin. 4. and/or controlled +recursor and essential c)emical. [Intl. u+on motion. &ivil war. 3ec. Ri. for t)e or. ( *ar 1et*een o++osin. from t)e . 1. La* Dict.)t is reduced to 2ud. ( )older of an e0istin.)t to +ayment. <ransfer Certificate <itle.ent.al Dict. unsecured. and +eo+le:s or.ment. 4%%5'. 3omet)in. fi0ed..d.ment rendered 1y t)e court. #reclusion of claims.e of ot)ers eit)er in violation of t)e la* or to conduct or conceal some ille.. +rescri1in. matured. !t) .rou+s *it)in t)e same state. t)at is +ur+osely ke+t from t)e vie* or kno*led. [3ec. 3ee &laim to ownership. fi0ed. In +ro1ate +arlance. R( 8%8"'. &laim preclusion. &landestine. minin. contin. <orrens <itle.al Dict.overnment or. 14. li7uidated. as 1ases of a*ardin.ment +reviously rendered is am1i. &laim. undis+uted. undis+uted. [Glossary of Le. [=emo. 1y a de1tor to anot)er +erson or 1usiness. 1 &'. C Direct. ri. ( )older of valid and su1sistin. minin.ives rise to a ri. *)en a 2ud. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . &laim owner. dis+uted. Co+y of <a0 Declaration or Co+y of Real . [3ec $.0ec. $. @on-.ned into la* on Fct.. 6D 11!%'.anizations -@GFs.ment. or ri. (ny facility used for t)e ille. its +o*ers and functions and for ot)er +ur+osesJ si.anizations -6Fs. claim-s.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1 8!.ent.)t. 4%%5'. dis+uted.

it must 1e . s)all result in a student-classroom ratio of 5!>1.rou+in.iven t)e same title and salary and for all administrative and com+ensation +ur+oses. #uly 15. of (. one or more may sue or defend for t)e 1enefit of all.rarian Reform. Containers o*ned 1y t)e s)i++in. [(ssoc. Frder %&-8 '. and -c. La*. $. &lass I:I containers. ( class consists of all t)ose +ositions in t)e system *)ic) are sufficiently similar as to -a.. of (. num1er of classrooms. 1.s similar to eac) ot)er in certain +articulars and different from eac) ot)er in t)ese same +articulars. 6D &!'. B)en t)e su12ect matter of t)e controversy is one of common or . <)e . 6D &%8'. and t)e +arties are so numerous t)at it is im+ractica1le to 1rin. #uly 15. Civil 3ervice La*. it must a++ly e7ually to all t)e mem1ers of t)e class. kind or su12ect matter of *ork. 66( (dmin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . to 1road occu+ational .overnment service t)at are sufficiently similar as to duties and res+onsi1ilities and re7uire similar 7ualifications t)at can 1e . GR 8&854. 14. 4. GR 8&854. &lassification. &lass or representative suit.s and determinin. [(ssoc. RoC'.anization -I3F. t)e num1er of students divided 1y t)e e0istin. 5% footer-containers as +er International 3)i++in. [3ec. (ny +arty in interest s)all )ave a ri. <)e 1asic unit of t)e 6osition Classification 3ystem. it must not 1e limited to e0istin. t)em all 1efore t)e court. (ll +ositions in t)e . +ositions accordin. of 3mall Lando*ners v. Re7uirements for validity> -a. 1.ermane to t)e +ur+oses of t)e la*. t)e 7ualification re7uirements of t)e *ork. &lassroom shortage.eneral interest to many +ersons. <)e num1er of classrooms *)ose construction. level of difficulty and res+onsi1ility. 3ec. Rule $. 9ut in suc) case t)e court s)all make sure t)at t)e +arties actually 1efore it are sufficiently numerous and re+resentative so t)at all interests concerned are fully +rotected. (dmin. 4%. &lass IAI containers. 1 & '.154 &lass. &lass of position. of 3mall Lando*ners v. and -d. $. [3ec. -1. It must 1e 1ased on su1stantial distinctions. Fr. -c. [3ec.)t to intervene in +rotection of )is individual interest.rarian Reform. 1 & '. 3ec. of +ersons or t)in. 6D &!'.rou+in. -1. differences of classes *it)in eac) . conditions only. $!. t)e measurement/sizes of *)ic) do not fall under t)e I3F standard.rou+. lines. &lassification. 66( (dmin. $.in. 1. [3ec. [3ec. Frder %&8 '. 1e treated alike. <)e act of arran. in considerin. to *arrant similar treatment in +ersonnel and +ay administration. [3ec.

La* Dict. Re7uisites> -a.ed or s+illed into a *ater 1ody and its surroundin. $. la1oratories.oods listed on t)e 1ill. C Direct. R( 48!'.J [3ila. and t)e restoration of t)e affected areas to t)eir former +)ysical. La*. GR "&85$. ( *ritten descri+tion of a class of +osition-s. 9us. C Direct. t)at some discre+ancy e0ists 1et*een t)e . F+osa v.) decolonization is under no o1li.. +. ( 1ill of ladin. I(C. must 1e in a +osition free of fraud or ot)er unfair conduct.an v.. R( 8&&%'. res+onsi1ilities and 7ualification re7uirements of +ositions in a .'. &lean slate doctrine. 4%%5'. (ctivities involvin.o. t)e +arties are so numerous t)at it is im+ractica1le to 1rin. La* Dict. [Du)aime:s Le.oods )ave 1een +ro+erly loaded on 1oard t)e carrier:s s)i+. into e0istence t)rou. 1 1'. &%4 -1 $.al Dict. 445 3CR( 8 4. [Intl. =ay &.. t)at *is)es to ask or +etition a court for 2udicial action.eneral interest to many +ersons. 4%%5'.. Doctrine t)at a ne* state comin. [3ec. t)e removal of +ollutants disc)ar. 1. &lean bill of e%change. $. &lean bill of lading. !8% -1 85.. It distin.d.ation to succeed to t)e treaties of its former colonial +o*er. ( ma0im of t)e la* to t)e effect t)at any +erson.y to +rocesses. @e. C Direct. areas. individual or cor+orate.oods loaded and t)e . +reventive environmental strate. 1. services to increase efficiency and reduce risk to )umans and t)e environment. Fne to *)ic) are not attac)ed documents of tile to 1e delivered to t)e +erson a. !& 3CR( !! . La* Dict.. 6D &!'.155 classrooms s)all mean t)ose e0clusively used for instructional +ur+oses and s)all e0clude offices. Consolidated 9ank. $"!'. Aactoran. *orks)o+s and t)e like.ainst *)om t)e 1ill is dra*n *)en )e eit)er acce+ts or +ays t)e 1ill. <)e su12ect matter of t)e controversy is one of common or . Inst. <)e a++lication of an inte. t)em all 1efore t)e court. [=at)ay v.uis)es t)e duties. (n esta1lis)ed and familiar +rinci+le t)at I)e *)o comes to t)e courts must come *it) clean )ands. &lean-up operations. c)emical Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . &leaner production.. La* Rev. [Diaz. Intl.rated. [Intl.iven class from t)ose of ot)er classes in t)e 6osition Classification 3ystem. li1raries. [Intl. &lass suit. [3ec. indicatin. &laused bill of lading. 4. t)at t)e . +roducts. &lass specification or standards. &lean hands. 1 1 . [3ec 5. and -1. 4%%5'. ( 1ill of ladin.. 4%%5'. indicatin.

or *ritin. [=analo v. (lso "%ecutive clemency.ical state or conditions. 9lack:s La* Dict. and t)e creditin.ulatory a.. [Glossary of Le. Com+are *it) Dangerous tendency doctrine and :alancing test. (= $-4-%$8 3C. commonly used in civil la*suits and in re.J [9lack v.d. &lemency. R( &8 '. 4%%% . GR 1%4$!&. deliveries u+on +ayment effect settlement in securities transactions. 4. (ny +erson *)o acts as intermediary in makin. entries in t)e +u1lic records contrary to e0istin. of *ron. &lear and convincing proof or evidence.er t)at t)ey *ill 1rin. "4.. said c)eck for clearin. citin.. G3 *)ere )e ruled t)at Ht)e 7uestion in every case is *)et)er t)e *ords used are used in suc) circumstances and are of suc) nature as to create and +resent dan. ( 1ankin. $. facts. (ctivities conducted in removin. or *ritin. a1out t)e su1stantive evils t)at t)e 3tate )as a ri. 4. t)e makin. [3ec 5. It . +rocess to determine t)e e0istence of sufficiency of funds a. 1%5"'. of t)e account of t)e 1ank sendin. 1 4. <)ose mistakes t)at are clerical in nature or c)an. 4%%5'. 6D 11!4'. 4%%5'. +. 3tandard of +roof -or evidence. Roldan-Confesor. 1. 1 . Re+. or conviction.es t)at are )armless and innocuous.156 and 1iolo.)t to +revent. 4. =istakes 1y t)e clerk in co+yin. &lerical errors..inally es+oused 1y #ustice Lolmes in 3c)enck v.ainst *)ic) a c)eck is dra*n. [3ec.ed or s+illed in *ater to restore it to +re-s+ill condition. [Glossary of Le.. 1ut not to e0tent of suc) certainty as is re7uired 1eyond reasona1le dou1t as in criminal cases. GR L-& $4. [Lim v. R( 48!'. Re+. &lear and present danger rule. [=orenoEs La* Dict. or Ierrors made 1y a clerk or transcri1er. <)e li1ertarian test *)ic) *as ori. t)e +ollutants disc)ar.al <erms -6ro3e. 1%4 6)il.ency cases.. @ov. 1 $8'.d. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . =ay 1$. (ct of . $. 1 !'.. accusation.. (+r. [3ec. 6roof -or evidence. a mistake in co+yin.al <erms -6ro3e. &learing agency. suc) as t)e correction of a miss+elled name or occu+ation of t)e +arents. ". t)e verification of t)e ot)er defects t)at *ill render t)e c)eck stale or not +aya1le. includin. 1. 88'.. &learing check.. +. 1%5 6)il.. <)ose t)at are visi1le to t)e eyes or o1vious to t)e understandin. [(nsaldo v. Re+.overns t)e amount of +roof t)at must 1e offered in order for t)e +laintiff to *in t)e case. t)at is more t)an mere +re+onderance. [In re> #urado. !t) .. &5&'. 448'.race or mercy 1y t)e 6resident to ease t)e conse7uences of a criminal act..

and can 1e corrected or c)an.$&18.al advice or for +ur+oses of +rosecutin. Lis office is t)e )u1 of activities. -1. [Lloveras v. t*enty -4%. <)e clerk of court kee+s t)e records and seal. 1.'. and . issues +rocesses. ( +lace in *)ic) +atients avail of medical consultations or treatments on an out-+atient 1asis. (n error made in co+yin. certified co+ies form t)e records. @ov. and -c. Le. an entry in t)e civil re. of t)e Cor+oration Code. stock or votin... 4%%5'. s)all 1e )eld of record 1y not more t)an a s+ecified num1er of +ersons. or defendin. ri. ( cor+oration *)ose articles of incor+oration +rovide t)at> -a.a. +. not e0ceedin. [3ec. t)e cor+oration s)all not list in any stock e0c)an. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .oin. ( mistake committed in t)e +erformance of clerical *ork in *ritin.al <erms -6ro-3e. 3anc)ez. GR L-4%8!4..)ts is o*ned or controlled 1y anot)er cor+oration *)ic) is not a close cor+oration *it)in t)e meanin. co+yin. ". or *ritin. t)e fore. 4!.ister t)at is )armless and innocuous.. all t)e issued stock of all classes s)all 1e su12ect to one or more s+ecified restrictions on transfer +ermitted 1y <itle XII of t)e Cor+oration Code.es t)e services of a la*yer for le. 1. (n essential officer in any 2udicial system. citin. 4. &losed-end company. R( %!$'. [?u v. (= 6. Cor+.15 Com+are errors. -1 .al and #udicial . 4. 1 "8. Com+are *it) 0pen corporation... of any of its stock of any class. u+on re7uest. Lo*ever. all t)e cor+oration:s issued stock of all classes.ments and orders. 1&. 9lack:s La* Dict.ives. or ty+in. 4. 1 5'. (ny investment com+any ot)er t)an &lerical or typographical error. Re+. @ot*it)standin. a suit in )is 1e)alf and usually for a fee.e or make any +u1lic offerin. e0clusive of treasury s)ares. transcri1in. Fne *)o en.d. *it) )ubstantial &linic. [6ineda. record or records. [3ec. &lient. enters 2ud.t)ics. (dministrator or c)ief clerical officer of t)e court.. 4.ed only 1y reference to ot)er e0istin. &lerk of court. #an. a cor+oration s)all not 1e deemed a close cor+oration *)en at least t*o-t)irds -4/$. R( 544"'. !'. *)ic) is visi1le to t)e eyes or o1vious to t)e understandin. Code'. &lose corporation. [3ec. suc) as miss+elled name or miss+elled +lace of 1irt) or t)e like.... 1ot) ad2udicative and administrative. [Glossary of Le. of its votin. any clinic or dis+ensary *)ere t)ere is at least si0 1eds or cri1s or 1assinets installed for t*entyfour-)our use 1y +atients s)all 1e construed to fall *it)in t)e definition of a )os+ital as descri1ed in R( 544".

&losely held corporation. *)ic) fis)in. *)ic) t)e takin. is +ro)i1ited in a s+ecified area or areas in 6)ili++ine *aters. 1y counsel. &losing argument. $ and 5 of t)e Im+lementin. 3e+. and for t)e duration of t)e a. Land-(ir-3ea La1or Gnion. of s+ecified s+ecies of fis) or fis)ery/a7uatic +roducts or t)e use of s+ecified fis)in.. 148. [Las)im v. of t)e total com1ined votin. encum1rance or +roceedin. R( &!!%'. Fne *)o makes or sells clot)s or clot)in. 1. Rules of t)e La1or Code.eta1le Ind.e discounts or merc)andise in order to reduce.at)er fis) or fis)ery/a7uatic +roduct is +ro)i1ited. es+ecially. and ta1ulation of t)e votes. 1ecomes. . [3ec. GR L-1&418 C L-1&444. v.reement. 4%%5'.ive lar. &losed shop. 3ee 0pen-end company. 5. 6osadas. claim. of t)e +olls to t)e countin. <)e +eriod durin. (n enter+rise in *)ic). &lothier. remains a mem1er in . [3ec. of s+ecified fis)ery s+ecies 1y a s+ecified fis)in. Aruits and De. *)ic) t)e catc)in. 6D 8%5'. [3ec. ca+ital stock or at least fifty +ercent -!%V. &losing out sale.. @IRC as amended'..ear is +ro)i1ited in a s+ecified area or areas in 6)ili+-+ine *aters. R( 4"4 '. $. *)ic) is actually invalid or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . or to t)e +eriod durin. [6)il. Ae1. [Glossary of Le. La1or. no +erson may 1e em+loyed in any or certain a.. (s used in 3ecs. statement.ood standin. instrument. record. Com+are *it) <ailor. one *)o sells ready-made clot)in. 1 4"'. or . #uly $. ( consumer sale *)erein t)e seller uses t)e announcement to create t)e im+ression t)at )e is *illin. in value of t)e outstandin. R( 8$ 5'. [3ec. !. (n outstandin. to t)e trier of facts after all +arties )ave concluded t)eir +resentation of evidence. to . [Aindlay =illar <im1er Co. (ny cor+oration at least fifty +ercent -!%V. t)e +)rase refers to t)at +eriod from t)e closin. GR 455%4. 1y a.at)erin. GR 4$ 1.15! an o+en-end com+any. 5. 1 "4'. +o*er of all classes of stock entitled to vote is o*ned directly or indirectly 1y or for not more t)an t*enty -4%. of a union entirely com+rised of or of *)ic) t)e em+loyee in interest are a +art. <orres. <)e closin.reed de+artments of t)e enter+rise unless )e or s)e is. v. 1 4'. <)e +eriod durin. 6)il. individuals. [(rt. &loud on title.reement 1et*een t)e em+loyer and )is em+loyees or t)eir re+resentatives.ears to catc) or .al <erms -6ro-3e. 4 . . &losed season. 4. &lose of election proceedings. dis+ose or close out )is inventory and 1usiness. 1 . Inc.

$. ( 1lack or 1ro*nis)-1lack solid com1usti1le rock formed 1y t)e accumulation. 1 %&'. &luster of schools. 4%%1. e0+loitation. 1 8". 6D 84 entitled I6romul.rass 1eds and ot)er soft-1ottom areas. *)o is en.rou+ of sc)ools *)ic) are . a++ro+riatin. $%. re. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. t)ree or more se+arate livin.F $!5 dated ! #uly 1 "'.eo.ional. &oal-fired power plant. &oalition. 1%1 G3 $8%'. .ra+)ically conti. &oal Development Act of +. &oastal area or one. . 5. 1ut *)ic) may nevert)eless im+air or affect in2uriously t)e title to +ro+erty. .eneratin.)t to. a 6)ili++ine Coast Guard.istered national.uous and 1rou. &0A.eolo. and vice versa. $. =ena. al.ed land.F $!5 dated ! #uly 1 "'. in *)ic) terrestrial +rocesses and uses directly affect oceanic +rocesses and uses. 96 44%'.) tide to include man. 6)el+s v. Gnla*ful coercion. IRR. citin.rove s*am+s. &oaccion. 5. [<olentino. 1!%. decom+osition and com+action of +lant materials under a lon. 3+. (ny +erson or instrumentality -*)et)er natural or 2uridical. ni+a s*am+s. actin. [3ec.4. [3ec. &oal mine operator. sectoral +arties or or. (n a. [3ec. &oast 5uard 6aw.ned into la* on #uly 4&. Larris. units .4. . +roduction and utilization of coalJ si. sandy 1eac)es and ot)er areas *it)in a sea*ard limit of 4%% meters iso1at) to include coral reefs. as fuel. R( &!!%'. 1. its .. +rescri1in. GR 5&14. R( 8 51'. outcomes. [3ec.le-family attac)ed d*ellin. +. R( 1!!'. [G3 v. R( !18$ entitled I(n (ct creatin. develo+ment. ( 1and of dry land and ad2acent ocean s+ace -*ater and su1mer.F $!5 dated ! #uly 1 "'.4. facility. [3ec. 1rackis) *ater +onds. [3ec. [3ec.al flats.8J$ <he. II. estuarine rivers.anizations for +olitical and/or election +ur+oses. containin. IRR. t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Re+r. IRR. &luster housing. sea .ical +rocess. 1. Dol. kilometer from t)e s)oreline at )i.rou+ed closely to.a. 1. (n electricity-. +lant *)ic) utilizes coal -*)et)er locally +roduced or im+orted. &oal.eo.ed in coal +roduction and/or o+eration of coal-minin. ( .15" ino+erative.et)er to form relatively com+act structures.et)er to im+rove t)e learnin. ( sin. Fct..ru+ation of duly re.ra+)ic e0tent may include areas *it)in a landmark limit of one -1.atin. an (ct to +romote an accelerated e0+loration. 3ee &ommission on Audit. its +o*ers and functions.

". 8 '.)tin. &ockfighting. . for cockfi. localities.ulates t)e +olice su+ervision and uses of t)is zone. 4%%% . <)e commonly kno*n . Inc.. 1. ( *ater trans+ort service *)ic) is not considered as a continuation of t)e )i. 1 85.nalls. R( "81$ entitled I(n (ct esta1lis)in. &ode. to u+)old t)e time)onored +rinci+le of +u1lic office 1ein. or its e7uivalent terms in different 6)ili++ine [3ec. [=artin. in t)e o1li. t)e coasts. [=orenoEs La* Dict. and t)e 4%t) Century Dict. &ode of &ommerce.sta+ia. 1 18. 3ee #rotector. Dol.ame or term> cockfi. on Comml... as amended 1y 6D "%1 si. Dir. & to 1% of t)e 3+anis) La* of Baters of 1&&". 6D 55 '. der1y. [3an 6a1lo v. [3ec.J e0tended to t)e 6)ili++ines 1y t)e Royal Decree dated (u. 6D 55 si. 1 85. and 1ecame effective on Dec. GR L-"15"1 C "1!%1. +. Be1sters.ation of leavin.)t of refu.. 1 "8. R( ! 41'. Com+are *it) 4erryboat service.. +. 1&&&..'. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on (u.nized 1y international la*. 6antranco 3out) . &oastwise or interisland shipping service. 1. 5.d. <)e maritime zone encirclin. a code of conduct and et)ical standards for +u1lic officials and em+loyees. <)e 3tates +rovides for and re. a clear *ay not to e0ceed si0 meters in 1readt) and marked off 1y t)e . 3ee &ash on delivery. 1 14'. 41. 1&&&.0+ress.16# necessary funds t)erefor. . (n easement im+osed.. &0D.overnment *it)in t)e terrestrial coast zone. .8A. &ode of &onduct and "thical )tandards for #ublic 0fficials and "mployees. 1 && Rev. to t)e full *idt) reco.rantin. citin.. GR L-14& 1.ned into la* on Dec.ned into la* on =ay .)*ay *)en t)e t*o terminals are se+arated 1y an o+en sea. under (rts. &oddler. ( system of *ords or ot)er sym1ols ar1itrarily used to re+resent *ords. (u.d. as *ell as t)e ri. 1 . in accordance *it) la* and international treaties. Fct. a +u1lic trust. +intakasi or tu+ada. 5. &ockfighting 6aw of +. (u.. [G3 v. [(mada v. La*s.e and immunity t)erein. GR "&"". u+on estates ad2acent to t)e sea or its s)ores consistin.)tin. &ockpit. &oast sea. incentives and re*ards for Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Aunk C Ba. Commentaries and #uris+. $1. 1 &8'. 54. ( +it or rin. <)e 3+anis) Code of Commerce of 1&&! *it) some ada+tations made 1y t)e IComision de Codificacion de las 6rovincias de Gltramar. . 1'. of Lands. &oast police.

. 6D 1%&$ entitled I( Decree to ordain and +romul. &ode on )anitation of the #hilippines. [(rt. 1 &!'. @o man deserves +unis)ment for )is t)ou. &oercion.d. to +urc)ase merc)andise or commodities of any kind. [3alon. 6aKo. 1y *)ic) dis+osition made in t)e ori. 4. 4%%14%%"'..) t)e se7uential use of ener. added to. "&8'. Ae1. 4$. or s)all kno*in. &oercions 2compulsory purchase of merchandise3. Crim. and +rovidin. ++. made after t)e e0ecution of a *ill and anne0ed to 1e taken as a +art t)ereof. 1. of Crim. R6C'.. 2ust to t)e e0tent of t)e codicil. &ode of #rofessional *esponsibility.ned into la* on Ae1. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson. 4%%5'.overn t)e le. La*. R6C'.al +rofession. &ogitationis poenam nemo meretur. 1 88. Aund. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all +ay t)e *a. . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . enumeratin.es due a la1orer or em+loyee em+loyed 1y )im. 4&&.ent or officer. or coolin.y and forms of useful t)ermal ener. 1 & .y suc) as )eat or steam *)ic) are used for industrial commercial )eatin. +enalties for violations t)ereof and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. ( facility *)ic) +roduces electrical and/or mec)anical ener. codifyin. or altered. of any association or cor+oration *)o s)all force or com+el.y.al Dict. [Du)aime:s Le. directly or indirectly. It does not mean t)at t)e *ill is totally c)an. R( 1$"'.ed. <)e rules of conduct t)at .inal *ill is e0+lained. &4!.0ertion of +)ysical violence or moral +ressure u+on a +erson in a manner t)at is determined and constant until t)e la*ful +ur+ose is realized. &oercions 2payment of wages by means of tokens3. +ur+oses t)rou. 1y means of tokens or o12ects ot)er t)an t)e le. *ill.orio. 5. &o-generation facility. CC'. La* Rev.uslim #ersonal 6aws of the #hilippines. La*. t)e system of Aili+ino =uslim la*s. 1&.al tender currency of t)e la1orer or em+loyee.nizin.a v. 1 8 t) . Crim. =uslim +ersonal la*s. 6D &!" enacted on Dec. +ro)i1ited acts and transactions and +rovidin. Lat. ( su++lement or addition to a *ill. 1 8!.. 4&&. [(rt.ly +ermit any la1orer or em+loyee em+loyed 1y )im or 1y suc) firm or cor+oration to 1e forced or com+elled. [3ec. Com+ilation of @otes.)ts. for its administration and for ot)er +ur+osesJ si.161 e0em+lary service. (n amendment to an e0istin. &ode of . GR L-! !45.ate a code reco. 5. (. [Claridades. a. 4%. [Gre. [(rt. &odicil.

e value. <an. 1 &4'.y. *)ic) may sometimes 1e s7uare or any s)a+e eit)er of . desi. 3ee &arriage of 5oods by )ea Act.. Crim. [6eo+le v. act.ment a. &ohabit. [9itan. !t) . t)e note *)ic) cuts off every defense *)ic) t)e maker of t)e note may ot)er*ise )ave and it like*ise cuts of all ri. !t) . &ognovit (udgment. to live to. nickel or co++er re+resentin. [Gre. <o d*ell or live to..et)er as )us1and and *ife.. and usually 1earin. silver. &ognovit note.et)er at 1ed and 1oard. 11.ainst t)e de1tor. 555'. citin. -1 &$.ally married. to 1e married. 554. !!'. Aund. La* Rev.. t)e -criminal. +. to live to. Confession of 2ud. &ognition theory.. +.ment may 1e taken 1y any +erson )oldin. <)e term im+lies livin.nin.end includin.162 &ognition test.orio'. &oin. Case !4&-39C. La* Com+lete de+rivation of intelli. -1 &$.) not le.old. G6LC. Cor+us #uris. 3e+. &05)A.ation set fort) in t)e note is not +aid *)en due. [9lackEs La* Dict. 3uc) +rovision in a de1t instrument or a. GR 1&!1$.ment 1y t)e de1tor. citin. [3u..ainst )im in t)e event )e s)all default in +ayment. containin. commonly called t)e o1verse.et)er as )us1and and *ife alt)ou. on one side. 1 44. 5$ 6)il.reement +ermits t)e creditor or )is attorney on default to a++ear in court and confers 2ud. &o-insurance.ment a.anifestation theory. etc.ment a. 4!. 1&. !%'. Ae1.e in t)e value of t)e insured +ro+erty Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students ...ainst )im if t)e o1li. effi. acce+tance is considered to effectively 1ind t)e offeror only from t)e time it came to )is kno*led. (1r.d.e.n. definite intrinsic or e0c)an. an alle. ( +iece of round metal. [9lackEs La* Dict. si.et)er and )avin. re+eated se0. (1r.et)er in t)e same )ouse. 3uc) 2ud. II Aeria and Gre.ainst t)e +erson or +ersons si. it. 6itoc. 1 8 t) .n. (n e0traordinary note *)ic) aut)orizes an attorney to confess 2ud. It is a *ritten aut)ority of a de1tor and a direction 1y )im for t)e entry of 2ud. +. 1$!.ence in committin. to live to. s)ield.ested (ns*er for t)e 1 8 9ar. vol.ment a. Com+are *it) . all letters and numerals of t)e coin.ment taken on it. issued 1y t)e . 5$ 6)il.)ts of a++eal from any 2ud. Com+are *it) ?olition.orio.cor v. of Crim. Gnder t)is t)eory. to. claimin. 555'. (dm.d. &ohabitation..overnment aut)ority to 1e used as money. -4%%4. <)e +ercenta. 1$!. t)e inscri+tion or le.ory. Britten aut)ority of t)e de1tor and )is direction for t)e entry of 2ud. +. +.d.

&ollate. <an.e as t)e amount of insurance 1ears to t)e desi.ested (ns*er for t)e 1 5 9ar.ona. <)e acts of *orkin. +. not +rovided 1y la* for t)e e0+ress +ur+ose of attackin.. or fastenin. &ollateral agreement. &ollaboration. t)e cor+orate e0istence. [=aca1in. 4%%5'.. to. GR & $1". Fne *)ere1y cor+orate e0istence is 7uestioned in some incidental +roceedin. 6adan.ment is made as an incident in said action.. +ut to. 3e0ual intercourse. =ay !. as indicated in are are t)e in t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ement of +a. &ollateral attack of corporate e%istence. 1 !8'.reement. Com+ilation of @otes. 4. [6eo+le v. ( descendant t)at is not direct.163 *)ic) t)e insured )imself assumes or undertakes to act as insurer to t)e e0tent of t)e deficiency in t)e insurance of t)e insured +ro+erty. (nnotated. Fne t)at is made *)en...ment. Com+are *it) Direct attack against a (udgment. 4%%14%%"'. 1. 3ee &onclusiveness of 9udgment.e. 84 3CR( $4" -1 8". &ollateral descendant. Com+are *it) *einsurance. t)e insurer *ill 1e lia1le only for suc) +ro+ortion of t)e loss or dama. G6LC.et)er. [3u. &o-lessee. 1!4'..al Dict.. [Claridades. 6ro+erty *)ic) )as 1een committed to . 6LLC.al <erms -6ro-3e. or not directly connected *it) +rinci+al matter or issue dis+ute. [Du)aime:s Le. as *)ere it is +atent t)at t)e court *)ic) rendered said 2ud. on its face. [De Leon.. 1 5'.uarantee a loan.nated +ercenta. GR 11$$8!. [Qilos1ayan v. Aacts t)at outside t)e controversy. suc) as a niece or a cousin. [6eo+le v. 1%8'. [Du)aime:s Le. 4%%5'. ( contract made +rior to or contem+oraneous *it) anot)er a. &oitus.e of t)e full value of t)e +ro+erty insured.et)er in a 2oint +ro2ect. [Glossary of Le. 1 %'. Code of t)e 6)il.. Cor+. &ollateral facts.al Dict. #une 4&. GR L-84 !. is null and void.ment )as no 2urisdiction.ations of suc) lessee. 8&'. <o arran. 1 & . [=orenoEs La* Dict.'. (. 4%%5'. Fne *)o 2ointly *it) anot)er enters into a contract of lease *it) t)e lessor and *)o 1inds )imself to +erform t)e o1li. &ollateral attack. <)is is +ro+er only *)en t)e 2ud. +.e in order.d. +. verify arran. In case of loss or dama. Guin.es 1efore 1indin. -4%%4.vid. #uly 14. &ollateral estoppel.. . 4%%% . &ollateral.kil v.d. in anot)er action to o1tain a different relief. an attack on t)e 2ud. Co+ulation.

9us.d. Dol. &ollateral-free arrangement. or any ot)er . [(rt.e in favor of t)e creditor. 4%%1-4%%"'. La*. 1 8 .y. [(rt.a.al terminolo.. 1 1 . &ollecting agency. Cor+.in. in order t)at it may 1e com+uted in t)e determination of t)e le. t)e lifetime of t)e latter.rees amon. &ollective bargaining agreement 2&:A3. [6am+an. durin. La1or. !51'. for said collection or suit. its 1y-+roducts or derivatives. 3ee .itimate Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .otiated contract 1et*een a le. Com+are *it) Direct line. It is in t)e nature of actual dama. (ny +erson ot)er t)an a +racticin. <)e fictitious mat)ematical +rocess of addin.d.d. collateral. [3ec. &ollateral fraud.m+loyees: Gnion. (ttorneyat-La* en.ation. R( &54!'. [Claridades.ed in t)e 1usiness of collectin. [3ec.ercantile agency. "5. 1. La1or.reement. It denotes. 4" '. v. Com+ilation of @otes. In lieu of t)ese conventional securities. +.ratuitous title.itime of eac) )eir.otiations lookin. [3ec. <)at constituted 1y t)e series of de. 1. donated to t)e net value of t)e )ereditary estate. &ollateral trust bond. 1ut *)o come from a common ancestor. &ollateral line. t)e value of t)e t)in. 6am1usco .. ( financial arran. !. "1'. *)o succeeds *it) ot)er com+ulsory )eirs. 3ucc. and in t)e account of t)e +artition. CC'. +ersons *)o are not ascendants and descendants. in common usa. &ollection e%pense.)t *)ic) a com+ulsory )eir. "& 6)il. R( 158'. +. may )ave received from t)e decedent.a..es and t)erefore must 1e duly +roved. *ildlife. 1. (. &ollection or collecting.. to*ard a collective a. 9ond secured 1y a lien on securities de+osited *it) a trustee constitutin. alternative arran. +. <)e act of .e as *ell as in le. [Diaz. 4%%% . $. (n e0+ense incurred to collect an o1li. &ollation.ements to secure t)e loans and ensure re+ayment are offered and acce+ted.. or )arvestin. CC'..vidence.s of t)e +arties. t)erefor. &%'. La* Rev. 6art 1. <)e act of 1rin. 4.164 +leadin.at)erin. &ollective bargaining. <)e ne. 1y su1scri1ers or customers a++lyin.a 9us Co. into t)e mass of t)e estate any +ro+erty or ri. 6D 54"'. DII. . [=orenoEs La* Dict. de1ts or lia1ilities +laced in )is )ands. and +ayin.ement *)erein a loan is contracted 1y t)e de1tor *it)out t)e conventional loan security of a real estate or c)attel mort. 1y *ay of donation. [Arancisco. or suin. 3ee "%trinsic fraud. ne. 1%"1.

&ollective work. 4%%5'.165 la1or or. R( &4 $'. ( mark or sym1ol used 1y a . [Davao Inte. &ollective bargaining agreement$ gross violations of. or more natural +ersons at t)e initiative and under t)e direction of anot)er *it) t)e understandin. [3ec. citin.in or any ot)er common c)aracteristic.es. $. Ala.es. solicits or +roduces 1ets Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +ro+osals for ad2ustin. (ny +erson *)o collects. any . (ny visi1le si.otiations *it) res+ect to *a. &ollector or agent 2cabo$ cobrador$ coriador or variants thereof3.reement -C9(. )ours of *ork and all ot)er terms and conditions of em+loyment. re+resentative incor+oratin. 1.. *)ic) act is considered as an unfair la1or +ractice co.)ts and duties of t)e +arties under t)e collective 1ar. +.niza1le 1y t)e la1or ar1iter. [Intl. (1ar7uez. 4. La* Dict. IRR of LC'. [3ec. (. 181. GR L-88$ !. t)e a. mandatory +rovisions for . t)at it *ill 1e disclosed 1y t)e latter under )is o*n name and t)at contri1utin. t)e ori. includin. @ov. v.rievances and ar1itration mac)ineries. 1 .n under t)e control of t)e re. [(rt. ( *ork *)ic) )as 1een created 1y t*o -4.iven em+loyer. =ar. natural +ersons *ill not 1e identified.n desi. in La1or Rel. 9ook !.ainin. *)ic) t)e collective interests of all t)e em+loyees.rated 6ort 3tevedorin. [9elyca Cor+. La1or Rel. GR 1%41$4. com+rised of all or less t)an all of t)e entire 1ody of em+loyees. &ollective bargaining unit. Rot)en1er.reement reac)ed after ne.istration and ca+a1le of distin. 1.ainin. +.rant and/or malicious refusal to com+ly *it) t)e economic +rovisions of t)e Collective 9ar. ( contract e0ecuted u+on re7uest of eit)er t)e em+loyer or t)e e0clusive 1ar. includin. 1 &&.rou+ of em+loyees of a .ainin. 1 . )ours of *ork and all ot)er terms and conditions of em+loyment in a 1ar. [6o7uiz.. Rule 1. La*.rou+ to identify itself to its mem1ers.ainin.oods or services of different enter+rises *)ic) use t)e si. [3ec. C Direct. Aerrer-Calle2a. R( 1""'. &ollector. *a.nated as suc) in t)e a++lication for re. R( 5&5"'. 3ervices v.. unit.d. (ny +erson or institution *)o ac7uires cultural +ro+erties and @ational cultural treasures for +ur+oses ot)er t)an sale. 4. indicate to 1e 1est suited to serve reci+rocal ri.uis)in. La1or.istered o*ner of t)e collective mark. t)e 7uality of .reement. consistent *it) e7uity to t)e em+loyer. 5&4'. ( . under suc) a. includin. 44'. 1 $'. &ollective mark. 4 . 5%.rievances or 7uestions arisin.anization and t)e em+loyer concernin. La1or. +rovisions of t)e la*.

1 %. &ombustible$ inflammable. of .merald Garment v. to a1use t)e la* or t)e le.am1lin. +.al num1ers . (n a. 3ec. distri1ution and +rice. 4""'.a. ( suit *)ere t)e +arties are not at odds 1ut *)ere t)ey coo+erate to o1tain a 2ud. <)ose *)o en. La* Revie*er.. t)e . strike violently a.. [Du)aime:s Le. com+any. <)at title *)ic) a +erson )as *)en )e ac7uired t)e t)in. citin. ( secret a. Ru1en (. su1stantive and distinctive +arts as *ould likely mislead or confuse +ersons in t)e ordinary course of +urc)asin. Intl. 4%%% . 1 "". &ombination in restraint of trade. 1$!'. [Intl. 9lack:s La* Dict. Dec. 4%%5'. GR 1%%% &.ives. it to 1e t)e ot)er.reement or understandin.enious imitation as to 1e calculated to deceive ordinary +ersons. +. <rademark La* C 6ractice in t)e 6)il. C(. &1'. [Cruz. controllin. meanin. 51'. &ollusive action. interests. *)o seem to )ave conflictin.eneral a++earance of t)e trademark or trade-name *it) t)at of t)e ot)er mark or trade name in t)eir overall +resentation or in t)eir essential. and to cause )im to +urc)ase t)e one su++osin.. +. or ot)er form of association. com+etition. of 6atents. GR L-4%"$!. &olorable imitation. trust.ame *)o is usually in +ossession of .166 in 1e)alf of )is/)er +rinci+al for any ille. mono+olizin. +. +. [3ec.enuine article. 4%%5'.d.ment. 1. 4.. 4 .reement 1et*een t*o or more +ersons. Dir.. for t)e +ur+ose of unduly restrictin. 1 8.. *it) freedom of trade *it)out statutory aut)ority.d. or ot)er*ise interferin. 1et*een t*o or more +ersons. *ords. suc) attention as a +urc)aser usually .ainst eac) ot)er.ner. &ollusion. Com+are *it) . [=orenoEs La* Dict. +. +ool.te+)a v. citin.ood fait) from *)om )e 1elieves to 1e t)e o*ner. C Direct. trade and commerce in a certain commodity.ement. deceive a court or to defraud a t)ird +arty.y.e directly or indirectly in t)e )ostilities. +ara+)ernalia. or suc) a resem1lance to t)e ori. [=orenoEs La* Dict.onopoly. its +roduction..al system. &8 C#3. [..+alo. 1 " . !.al Dict. $1. flammable Descri+tive or of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . =ar. 4. La* Dict. in .d.inal as to deceive an ordinary +urc)aser . content. citin. &ombatants. cullosio> a secret understandin. 3uc) similarity in form. R( 4&8'. s+ecial arran. &ollide. GR 145$"%. 4%%% . &1'. 4&8'. or . Arom Lat... @ov. "t) . [<atad v. Close or in. sound... &olorable title. <o come into violent contact. )oldin.d.ivin. 1 !. in t)e form of a contract. [.

@ov. Die*ed *it) re. o1li. ka+ok. of t)e ori.ation and comity is not. lease. 6D 11&!'. t)e +ur+ose of *)ic) is to 1rin. 14t) . GR $4"4.ments of t)e first state. 4%%% . *aste +a+er. (ny readily i. !. -4%%4.oods.i1le.. If an additional defendant is im+leaded in a later +leadin. citin. 4 . 4%%5'. +roductions. 1et*een countries *)ere1y t)e la*s and institutions of eac) are reco. of t)e com+laint and t)e +ayment of all re7uisite docket and ot)er fees. Rule 1. [Intl. [3ec. Comity is to 1e distin.entium> t)e courteousness of nations. 1 9lanco $"'. traffic or distri1ution of . tan. Glossary Conflict of La*s.uis)ed from international la*. $. 4. &1'..&Uc -1%%Uf. &oming to court with unclean hands. +. 1. 3ee &ommission on "lections. <)e sale. 1. $. 1ecause international la* is a 1indin. La*. of suc) later +leadin. 1 1'.inal com+laint in court. commodities. [(rt. <)e doctrine re7uirin. &ombustible liquid.nita1le and free 1urnin.es or o+erations *)ic) tend to su++ly and e0tend to )im.. $. 6D 11&!'. a flas) +oint at or a1ove $8. Arom Lat. e0celsior and ot)er similar materials commonly used in commerce.ood 7uality and 7uantity [=iravite.nized and res+ected. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ra. 3ee 'nclean or dirty hands. C Direct. +. +roducts to t)e consumer 1y means of e0c)an. <)e +ractice or courtesy e0istin. 4. &ommerce. fi1er suc) as cotton. Desi. 5. 4.d. ( civil action is commenced 1y t)e filin. s+anis) moss.. if necessary. [3ec. C(. t)e action is commenced *it) re.nize t)e la*s and 2ud. &omelec. (ny li7uid )avin. 1. is denied 1y t)e court. <)at 1ranc) of )uman activity. *it) intent to . [Davao Li. &ommercial..n state of t)e la*s and t)e 2ud.nition 1y t)at forei.16 materials t)at are easily set on fire. services or +ro+erty.ned for +rofit. R( 8$ 5'. in order to secure t)e reci+rocal reco. &ombustible fiber. oakum. or comitas . 1. [3ec.ard for +rofit.s..ard to )im on t)e date of t)e filin. Rem. e0c)an. of &ommencement of action.e.d. )a1itually.ments of com+etent courts of anot)er state. La* Dict.i1le or intan. 4%%5'. )ay... 9ar Revie* =aterials in Comm. 6D 11&!'. comitas> courteousness. &omity. RoC'. *aste clot).)t C 6o*er Co.. stra*. [3ec. courts of one state to reco. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ain at t)e +ro+er time and +lace and in . Inc. irres+ective of *)et)er t)e motion for its admission. (n action +ro+erly commenced R 1y t)e filin. La*. [<etley. v.

. Dol.16! &ommercial arbitration. La*s. 1 && Rev.reement 1et*een t*o or more merc)ants.)ts or o1li. utilizin. fis)in. [3ec. *)o. [Gre. <)e term includes commission merc)ant. of Crim. 3ec. $ -c.nors or consi. 1 81.ad. 1 8 t) .ears and vessels of more t)an one )undred fifty Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . &ommercial broker. or ne. Ltd. restaurant and t)e like.s. =edium scale commercial fis)in.ross tons -G<. dis+osition of commercial ri. or ot)er means of trans+ortation. u+ to t*enty -4%. +ro+osed 1uyers and sellers to. and $. t)eaters. R( 4&!'. Lin. Lar. (+r. &ommercial contract. 1usiness C +rofit 1eyond su1sistence or s+orts fis)in. <)e takin.ive or to do somet)in. [3ec. 3mall scale commercial fis)in. and at times 1et*een t)ose *)o are not. R fis)in. La* Rev. 1 5 -t. *)et)er contractual or not. or 1rin.. Aund. It earns its +rofits 1y investin. &ommercial blood bank.et)er. su+ermarkets.. R fis)in. &ommercial bank.nees of frei. &ommercial establishments. used for 1usiness or +rofit. +. s)o++in. active . sell or 1rin. &ommercial fishing. 1. <)e term includes all +ersons ot)er t)an im+orters. [Qer C Co.ations.)t or ot)er 1usiness for o*ners of vessels. 4%%5'. [=artin. condominiums.1 G< u+ to one )undred fifty -1!%.ear for trade. manufacturers. malls. 5!'.e commercial fis)in. $. t)e money it )as on de+osit. G<. office 1uildin.orio..)t carried 1y vessels or ot)er means of trans+ortation. 5!%'. *it) +assive or active . [3ec. 1. R( 8 4%'. v. (ny instrument e0ecuted in accordance *it) t)e Code of Commerce or any mercantile la* containin..ears and vessels of 4%. De+artment stores. stadiums. GR L-4%&81. or for t)e s)i++ers. (n ar1itration t)at covers matter arisin. of fis)ery s+ecies 1y +assive or active . R( 881 '. on Comml. ( 1lood 1ank t)at e0ists for +rofit. utilizin. -1. to 1e furt)er classified as> -a. Commentaries and #uris+.d. active .1 . @IRC'. G<. vessels of $. [Intl. +roducers or 1ona fide em+loyees. citin.. R fis)in. <)e a. in commercial transactions.. far com+ensation or +rofit. a1out sales or +urc)ases of merc)andise for ot)er +ersons. 4. +. C Direct. *)ere1y t)ey 1ind t)emselves to . )otels. . or consi. ( 1usiness firm t)at maintains custody of money de+osited 1y its customers and +ays on drafts *ritten 1y its customers.ear utilizin.otiate frei. from all relations)i+s of a commercial nature. &ommercial document. convention centers.d. La* Dict. $%.

16"
-1!%. G<. [3ec. 5, R( &!!%'. 4. Ais)in, for commercial +ur+oses in *aters more t)an seven fat)oms dee+ *it) t)e use of fis)in, 1oats more t)an t)ree ,ross tons. [3ec. $, 6D 8%5; 3ec. $, 6D 5$'. &ommercial land. Land devoted +rinci+ally to commercial +ur+oses, and ,enerally for t)e o12ect of +rofit. [3ec. $, 6D 5"5'. &ommercial law. 1. <)at 1ranc) of +rivate la* *)ic) re,ulates t)e 2uridical relations arisin, from commercial acts. [=iravite, 9ar Revie* =aterials in Comm. La*, 14t) ;d., -4%%4., +. 1'. 4. <)e *)ole 1ody of su1stantive 2uris+rudence a++lica1le to t)e ri,)ts, intercourse and relations of +ersons en,a,ed in commerce, trade, or mercantile +ursuits. &ommercial letter of credit. (n instrument 1y *)ic) a 1ank, for t)e account of a 1uyer of merc)andise, ,ives formal evidence to a seller, of its *illin,ness to +ermit t)e seller, to dra* 1ills a,ainst it, and sti+ulates in le,al form t)at all suc) 1ills *ill 1e )onored. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. &ommercial logging. <)e cuttin,, fellin, or destruction of trees from old ,ro*t) and residual forests for t)e +ur+ose of sellin, or ot)er*ise dis+osin, of t)e cut or felled lo,s for +rofit. [3ec. $, R( 8"11'. &ommercial papers. 1. Instruments evidencin, inde1tedness of any +erson or entity *)ic) are issued, endorsed, sold or transferred or in any manner conveyed to anot)er +erson or entity, *it) or *it)out recourse. [6erez v. C(, GR L-!"1%1. Ae1. 4%, 1 &5, citin, <)e =oney =arket Industry <oday> ( Muestion of 3urvival R 1y Loracio <. Lava, #r., 6@9 Muarterly, ( 3u++lement of t)e 6)ilna1ank @e*s, 4nd Mtr. 1 8&'. 4. (n alternative name for a ne,otia1le instrument. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. &ommercial registry. 1. ( 1ook *)ere entries are made of merc)ants and of documents affectin, t)eir commercial transactions. 4. (n office esta1lis)ed for t)e +ur+ose of co+yin, and recordin, ver1atim certain classes of documents of commercial nature. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. &ommercial sand and gravel permit. <)e +ermit ,ranted 1y t)e +rovincial ,overnor to any 7ualified +erson to e0tract and remove sand and ,ravel or ot)er loose or unconsolidated materials *)ic) are used in t)eir natural state, *it)out under,oin, +rocess-sin, from an area of not more t)an five )ectares -! )as.. and in suc) 7uantities as may 1e s+ecified in t)e +ermit. [3ec. 5", R( 8 54'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

1 #
&ommercial scale. ( sc)eme of +roducin, a minimum )arvest +er )ectare +er year of milkfis) or ot)er s+ecies includin, t)ose raised in +ens, ca,es, and tanks. [3ec. 5, R( &!!%'. &ommercial scale fishpond production. 6roduction of fis) in fully develo+ed fis)+ond of not less t)an !%% kilo,rams of +roduction +er )ectare +er year. [3ec. $, 6D 5$'. &ommission. Crim. La*. Doin, or +re+aration; t)e +erformance of an act. [<orres v. Gonzales, GR 8"&84. #uly 4$, 1 &8, citin, Groves v. 3tate, 11" Ga. !1"'. &ommission. 1. Rem. La*. (n instrument issued 1y a court of 2ustice, or ot)er com+etent tri1unal, to aut)orize a +erson to take de+ositions, or do any ot)er act 1y aut)ority of suc) court or tri1unal. [DasmariKas Garments v. Reyes, GR 1%&44 . (u,. 45, 1 $, citin, Aeria, #., Civil 6roc., 1 " ed., +. 51!'. 4. (dmin. La*. ( 1ody com+osed of several +ersons actin, under la*ful aut)ority to +erform some +u1lic service. [Louisville =un. Lousin, Commission v. 6u1lic Lousin, (dmin., 4"1 3out)*estern Re+orter, 4nd, +. 4&"'. $. ( 1oard or committee of officials a++ointed and em+o*ered to +erform certain acts or e0ercise certain 2urisdiction of a +u1lic nature or service. [G=CR v. 9ell <elecom, GR 14"5 ". (+r. $%, 1 8, citin, 9lackEs La* Dict., +. 45".. 5. ( +ercenta,e or allo*ance made to a factor or a,ent for transactin, 1usiness for anot)er [=oreno:s 6)il. La* Dict., $rd ;d., +. &!4, citin, 6eo+le v. 3ua 9ok, 1 FG "& '. &ommission agent. (n a,ent *)o is aut)orized to 1uy or sell for t)e +rinci+al +ersonal +ro+erty and for *)ic) +ur+ose said +ersonal +ro+erty is +laced in )is +ossession. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 1"!'. 3ee 4actor. &ommissioner. ( +erson to *)om a case +endin, in court is referred, for )im to take testimony, )ear t)e +arties and re+ort t)ereon to t)e court, and u+on *)ose re+ort, if confirmed, 2ud,ment is rendered. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. (lso called *eferee. &ommission of another crime during service of penalty imposed for another offense. <)e commission 1y any +erson of a felony after )avin, 1een convicted 1y final 2ud,ment, 1efore 1e,innin, to serve suc) sentence, or *)ile servin, t)e same. [(rt. 1"%, R6C'. &ommission on Appointments. <)e 1ody created under 3ec. 1&, (rt. DI of t)e 1 &8 Constitution *)ic) acts on all a++ointments su1mitted to it -1y t)e ;0ecutive De+artment. *it)in t)irty session days of t)e Con,ress from t)eir su1mission. It consists of t)e

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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6resident of t)e 3enate, as e0 officio C)airman, t*elve 3enators, and t*elve =em1ers of t)e Louse of Re+resentatives, elected 1y eac) Louse on t)e 1asis of +ro+ortional re+resentation from t)e +olitical +arties or or,anizations re,istered under t)e +arty-list system re+resented t)erein. &ommission on Audit 2&0A3. It is not an e0ecutive a,ency -1ut. is one of t)e t)ree -$. inde+endent constitutional commissions. It is vested *it) t)e +o*er and aut)ority, and c)ar,ed *it) t)e duty, to e0amine, audit and settle all accounts +ertainin, to t)e e0+enditures or uses of funds o*ned 1y or +ertainin, to, t)e Government or any of its su1divisions, a,encies, or instrumentalities. [Comm. of Int. Rev. v. CF(, GR 1%1 8". #an. 4 , 1 $, citin, (rt. IX [D', 3ec. 4 [1', 1 &8 Const.'. &ommission on "lections. (n inde+endent constitutional 1ody created 1y a 1 5% amendment to t)e 1 $! Constitution. 3ince t)en, its mem1ers)i+ *as enlar,ed and its +o*ers e0+anded 1y t)e 1 8$ and 1 &8 Constitutions. <)e Commission e0ercises not only administrative and 7uasi-2udicial +o*ers, 1ut 2udicial +o*er as *ell. [Comelec *e1site'. &ommission on the 4ilipino 6anguage Act. R( 81%5 entitled I(n (ct creatin, t)e Commission on t)e Aili+ino Lan,ua,e, +rescri1in, its +o*ers, duties and functions, and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on (u,. 15, 1 1. &ommit. <o send a +erson to +rison, asylum, or reformatory 1y a court order. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. &ommitment or surrender of a child. <)e le,al act of entrustin, a c)ild to t)e care of t)e D3BD or any duly licensed c)ild +lacement a,ency or individual. [(rt. 151, 6D "%$'. &ommi%tion. <)e mi0ture of t)in,s, solid or li7uid, 1elon,in, to different o*ners, t)e mi0ture of li7uids 1ein, more s+ecifically called Confusion. [<olentino, Civil Code of t)e 6)il., Dol. II, Re+r. 4%%1, +. '. &ommodatum. ( contract of loan *)ere1y one of t)e +arties delivers to anot)er, eit)er somet)in, not consuma1le so t)at t)e latter may use t)e same for a certain time and return it. [(rt. 1 $$, CC'. Com+are *it) )imple loan. &ommodity futures contract. (n a,reement to 1uy or sell a s+ecified 7uantity and ,rade of a commodity at a future date at a +rice esta1lis)ed at t)e floor of t)e e0c)an,e. [Fna+al 6)ils. Commodities, Inc. v. C(, GR %8%8. Ae1. 1, 1 $.'

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&ommodity treatment. (ny form of treatment a++lied to +lants, +lant +roducts, and ot)er materials ca+a1le of )ar1orin, +lant +ests, for t)e +ur+ose of destroyin, or eliminatin, any infection/infestation caused 1y +lant +ests. [3ec. 4, 6D 15$$'. &ommodum e% in(uria sua nemo habere debet. Lat. @o one ou,)t to 1e a ,ainer 1y )is o*n *ron,. [Ramos v. Central 9ank, GR L-4 $!4. #an. 41, 1 &"'. &ommon areas and facilities. 6ortions of t)e condominium +ro+erty not included in t)e units. [GF(L, Inc. v. C(, GR 11&&44. #uly 4&, 1 8'. Com+are *it) 'nit. &ommon carriers. (lso #ublic carriers. 1. 6ersons, cor+orations, firms or associations en,a,ed in t)e 1usiness of carryin, or trans+ortin, +assen,ers or ,oods or 1ot), 1y land, *ater, or air, for com+ensation, offerin, t)eir services to t)e +u1lic. [(rt. 18$4, CC'. 4. (ny trans+ortation facility *)ic) +u1licly undertakes to trans+ort +ersons or +ro+erty for a stated +rice and *it)out restriction. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $5&'. Com+are *it) #rivate carrier. &ommon knowledge. <)in,s of *)ic) courts take 2udicial notice, -*)ic). may 1e matters comin, to t)e kno*led,e of men ,enerally in t)e course of t)e ordinary e0+eriences of life, or may 1e matters *)ic) are ,enerally acce+ted 1y mankind as true and are ca+a1le of ready and un7uestioned demonstration. [3tate 6rosecutors v. =uro, (= R<#4-&8". 3e+. 1 , 1 5'. &ommon law. 1. #ud,e-made la*. La* *)ic) e0ists and a++lies to a ,rou+ on t)e 1asis of )istorical le,al +recedents develo+ed over )undreds of years. 9ecause it is not *ritten 1y elected +oliticians 1ut, rat)er, 1y 2ud,es, it is also referred to as un*ritten la*. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 4. La* esta1lis)ed 1y su12ect matter )eard in earlier cases. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. (lso Case la*. &ommon open markets. (lso #alengke. -=arkets. *it) dry and *et sections, foodstalls, fruit and ve,eta1le sections, etc., *)ere t)e retailers or market stall o+erators are lessees *)o +ay fi0ed rents for t)e use of market s+ace. [Cruz v. C(, GR L-5518&. (u,. 41, 1 &8'. &ommon reputation. Re+utation e0istin, +revious to t)e controversy, res+ectin, facts of +u1lic or ,eneral interest more t)an t)irty years old, or res+ectin, marria,e or moral c)aracter, *)ic) may 1e ,iven in evidence. =onuments and inscri+tions in +u1lic +laces may 1e received as evidence of common re+utation. [3ec. 51, Rule 1$%, RoC'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&ommon share. 1. ( s)are *)ic) entitles t)e )older t)ereof to an e7ual +ro rata division of t)e +rofits, if t)ere are any, and in its assets u+on dissolution, *it)out any +reference or advanta,e in t)at res+ect over ot)er stock)older or class of stock)olders 1ut e7ually *it) all stock)olders e0ce+t +referred stock)olders. [De Leon, Cor+. Code of t)e 6)il. (nnotated, 1 & ;d., +. "1'. 4. <)e 1asic s)are in a com+any. <y+ically, common s)ares )ave votin, ri,)ts and a +ro rata ri,)t to any dividends declared. <)ey differ from +referred *)ic), 1y definition, carry some kind of ri,)t or +rivile,e a1ove t)e common s)ares -e.,., first to receive any dividends.. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) #referred share. &ommonwealth Acts. 3tatutes enacted durin, t)e Common*ealt) +eriod from 1 $" to 1 5". [3uarez, 3tat. Con., -1 $., +. 54'. &ommunal claims. Claims on land, resources and ri,)ts t)ereon, 1elon,in, to t)e *)ole community *it)in a defined territory. [3ec. 5, R( &$81'. &ommunal irrigation system 2&1)3. (n irri,ation system t)at is mana,ed 1y a 1ona fide Irri,ators (ssociation. [3ec. 5, R( &5$!'. &ommunicate. In contracts of ad)esion, like an insurance contract, to serve notice in *ritin, or to corres+ond and effectively communicate *it) t)e assured. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &5'. &ommunication. <)e act of s)arin, or im+artin,, as in a conversation. <)e +rocess 1y *)ic) meanin,s or t)ou,)ts are s)ared 1et*een individuals t)rou,) a common system of sym1ols -as lan,ua,e si,ns or ,estures.. [Ramirez v. C(. GR $&$$. 3e+. 4&, 1 !, citin, Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. Dict., +. 5"% -1 8".'. &ommunication to the public. <)e makin, of a *ork availa1le to t)e +u1lic 1y *ire or *ireless means in suc) a *ay t)at mem1ers of t)e +u1lic may access t)ese *orks from a +lace and time individually c)osen 1y t)em. [(rt. 181, R( &4 $'. &ommunication to the public of a performance or a sound recording. <)e transmission to t)e +u1lic, 1y any medium, ot)er*ise t)an 1y 1roadcastin,, of sounds of a +erformance or t)e re+resentations of sounds fi0ed in a sound recordin,. [3ec. 4%4, R( &4 $'. &ommunity facilities. Aacilities or structures intended to serve common needs and for t)e 1enefit of t)e community, suc) as> nei,)1or)ood, multi-+ur+ose center, )ealt) center, dru,store, sc)ool, liveli)ood center, etc. [3ec. $, 96 44%'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&ommunity property. It s)all consist of all t)e +ro+erty o*ned 1y t)e s+ouses at t)e time of t)e cele1ration of t)e marria,e or ac7uired t)ereafter. [(rt. 1, AC'. &ommunity property. ;0ce+tions> -a. 6ro+erty ac7uired durin, t)e marria,e 1y ,ratuitous title 1y eit)er s+ouse, and t)e fruits as *ell as t)e income t)ereof, if any, unless it is e0+ressly +rovided 1y t)e donor, testator or ,rantor t)at t)ey s)all form +art of t)e community +ro+erty; -1. +ro+erty for +ersonal and e0clusive use of eit)er s+ouse. Lo*ever, 2e*elry s)all form +art of t)e community +ro+erty; -c. +ro+erty ac7uired 1efore t)e marria,e 1y eit)er s+ouse *)o )as le,itimate descendants 1y a former marria,e, and t)e fruits as *ell as t)e income, if any, of suc) +ro+erty. [(rt. 4, AC'. &ommutation of leave credits$ =ore commonly kno*n as <erminal leave. Commutation a++lied for 1y an officer or em+loyee *)o retires, resi,ns or is se+arated from t)e service t)rou,) no fault of )is o*n. [9orromeo v. C3C, GR "%$4. #uly $1, 1 1, citin, =anual on Leave (dmin. Course for ;ffectiveness, C3C, ++. 1"-18.. &ommutation of salary. Commutation a++lied for 1y an em+loyee durin, em+loyment *)en )e ,oes on ordinary leave. [9orromeo v. C3C, GR #uly $1, 1 1'. "%$4.

&ommutation of sentence. 1. <)e c)an,e in t)e sentence of t)e court made 1y t)e 6resident *)ic) consists in reducin, t)e +enalty im+osed u+on t)e offender. 3uc) su1stitutes t)e ori,inal +enalty. [Gre,orio, Aund. of Crim. La* Rev., 1 8 t) ;d., +. $4$'. 4. <)e reduction of +enalty im+osed. Its o12ect is t)e re)a1ilitation of t)e criminal offender. [Llamas v. Fr1os, GR %$1. Fct. 1!, 1 1'. $. <)e reduction of a sentence, as from deat) to life im+risonment. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro3e., 4%%5'. &ompany. 1. ( cor+oration, a re,istered +artners)i+, or an association la*fully transactin, 1usiness in t)e 6)ili++ines. [3ec. $, R( 4"4 '. 4. ( le,al entity, allo*ed 1y le,islation, *)ic) +ermits a ,rou+ of +eo+le, as s)are)olders, to create an or,anization, *)ic) can t)en focus on +ursuin, set o12ectives, and em+o*ered *it) le,al ri,)ts *)ic) are usually only reserved for individuals, suc) as to sue and 1e sued, o*n +ro+erty, )ire em+loyees or loan and 1orro* money. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. (lso kno*n as a &orporation. &ompany goodwill. <)e +roduct of a cor+orate entityEs re+utation in t)e 1usiness community 1rou,)t a1out 1y t)e investment and efforts of its stock)olders

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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and officers. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., ++. &!-&!'. 3ee also :usiness goodwill and 5oodwill. &ompany union. (ny la1or or,anization *)ose formation, function or administration )as 1een assisted 1y any act defined as unfair la1or +ractice 1y t)e La1or Code. [(rt. 414, LC'. &omparative fault. ( rule in maritime la* *)ere eac) vessel involved in a collision is re7uired to +ay a s)are of t)e total dama,es in +ro+ortion to its +ercenta,e of fault. 3ee also #roportionate fault. &omparative negligence. 1. ( +rinci+le of tort la* *)ic) looks at t)e ne,li,ence of t)e victim and *)ic) may lead to eit)er a reduction of t)e a*ard a,ainst t)e defendant, +ro+ortionate to t)e contri1ution of t)e victim:s ne,li,ence, or *)ic) may even +revent an a*ard alto,et)er if t)e victim:s ne,li,ence, *)en com+ared *it) t)e defendant, is e7ual to or ,reater in terms or contri1utin, to t)e situation *)ic) caused t)e in2ury or dama,e. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 4. <)e rule under *)ic) ne,li,ence is measured 1y +ercenta,e, and dama,es are diminis)ed in +ro+ortion to t)e amount of ne,li,ence attri1uta1le to t)e +erson seekin, recovery. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. &ompendious substitution. <)e su1stitution of one +erson for t*o or more )eirs. [(rt. &"%, CC'. &ompensable disease. (ny illness acce+ted and listed 1y t)e ;m+loyees: Com+ensation Commission -;CC. or any illness caused 1y t)e em+loyment su12ect to +roof 1y t)e em+loyee t)at t)e risk of contractin, t)e same *as increased 1y t)e *orkin, conditions. [Rodri,uez v. ;CC, GR 5"5!5. 3e+. 4&, 1 & '. &ompensable illness. It may 1e> a. any illness definitely acce+ted as an occu+ational disease listed 1y t)e ;m+loyeesE Com+ensation Commission, or 1. any illness caused 1y em+loyment, su12ect to +roof t)at t)e risk of contractin, t)e same is increased 1y *orkin, conditions. [3ierra v. G3I3, GR !% !5. Ae1. &, 1 & , citin, 6D "4"'. &ompensable in(ury. (ny )armful c)an,e in t)e )uman or,anism from any accident arisin, out of and in t)e course of t)e em+loyment. [Lono,uin v. ;CC, GR &5$%8. (+r. 18, 1 & , citin, (rt. 1"8 -k., LC'. &ompensable sickness. (ny illness definitely acce+ted as an occu+ational disease. (ny illness caused 1y em+loyment su12ect to +roof 1y t)e em+loyee t)at t)e risk of contractin, t)e same is increased 1y *orkin, conditions. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &!'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&ompensable taking. <)ere is com+ensa1le takin, *)en t)e follo*in, conditions concur> -a. t)e e0+ro+riator must enter a +rivate +ro+erty; -1. t)e entry must 1e for more t)an a momentary +eriod; -c. t)e entry must 1e under *arrant or color of le,al aut)ority; -d. t)e +ro+erty must 1e devoted to +u1lic use or ot)er*ise informally a++ro+riated or in2uriously affected; and -e. t)e utilization of t)e +ro+erty for +u1lic use must 1e in suc) a *ay as to oust t)e o*ner and de+rive )im of 1eneficial en2oyment of t)e +ro+erty. [(ssoc. of 3mall Lando*ners in t)e 6)il. v. 3ec. of (,rarian Reform, GR 8&854. #uly 15, 1 & '. &ompensatio morae. Lat. Delay committed 1y 1ot) +arties in reci+rocal o1li,ations. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. "'. &ompensation. 1. La1or. <)e 1asic +ay or salary received 1y an em+loyee, +ursuant to )is em+loyment or a++ointment, e0cludin, +er diems, 1onuses, overtime +ay, and allo*ances. [3ec. 4, 6D 115"'. 4. Civ. La*. It takes +lace *)en t*o +ersons, in t)eir o*n ri,)t, are creditors and de1tors of eac) ot)er. [(rt. 148&, CC'. &ompensation. Civ. La*. It takes +lace *)en t*o +ersons, in t)eir o*n ri,)t, are creditors and de1tors of eac) ot)er. [(rt. 148&, CC'. &ompensation. Civ. La*. Qinds> -a. <otal *)en 1ot) o1li,ations are of t)e same amount and are entirely e0tin,uis)ed; -1. +artial *)en t)e t*o o1li,ations are of different amounts and t)e t*o o1li,ations *ill 1e e0tin,uis)ed only as to t)e concurrent amounts; -c. le,al *)en it takes +lace 1y o+eration of la* even *it)out t)e kno*led,e of t)e +arties; -d. voluntary *)en it takes +lace 1y a,reement of t)e +arties; and -e. 2udicial *)en it takes +lace 1y order of court in a liti,ation. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. !4'. &ompensation. Civ. La*. Re7uisites> In order t)at com+ensation may 1e +ro+er, it is necessary -a. t)at eac) one of t)e o1li,ors 1e 1ound +rinci+ally, and t)at )e 1e at t)e same time a +rinci+al creditor of t)e ot)er; -1. t)at 1ot) de1ts consist in a sum of money, or if t)e t)in,s due are consuma1le, t)ey 1e of t)e same kind, and also of t)e same 7uality if t)e latter )as 1een stated; -c. t)at t)e t*o de1ts 1e due; -d. t)at t)ey 1e li7uidated and demanda1le; -e. t)at over neit)er of t)em t)ere 1e any retention or controversy, commenced 1y t)ird +ersons and communicated in due time to t)e de1tor. [(rt. 148 , CC'. &ompensation and #osition &lassification Act of +,-,. R( "8!& entitled I(n (ct +rescri1in, a revised com+ensation and +osition classification system in

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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t)e ,overnment and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on (u,. 41, 1 & . (lso kno*n as )alary )tandardi ation Act. &ompensation or pay system. ( system for determinin, rates of +ay for +ositions and em+loyees 1ased on e7uita1le +rinci+les to 1e a++lied uniformly to similar cases. It consists, amon, ot)ers, of t)e 3alary and Ba,e 3c)edules for all +ositions, and t)e rules and re,ulations for its administration. [3ec. $, 6D &!'. &ompensatory damages. ( definite sum of money a*arded to t)e +laintiff 1y a court as fair and 2ust recom+ense for in2ury sustained to a +erson, +ro+erty or even re+utation. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $58'. 4. =oney to 1e +aid for t)e cost of t)e in2ury suffered. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. 3ee Actual damages. &ompensatory interest. Interest as dama,es for delay in +ayment -from date of demand to date of +ayment.. [Reins. Co. of t)e Frient, Inc. v. C(, GR L"14!%. #une $, 1 1'. Com+are *it) ;onetary interest. &ompetency. ( *itness:s a1ility to o1serve, recall and recount under ot)er *)at )a++ened. Criminal defendants must also 1e com+etent to stand trial; t)ey must understand t)e nature of t)e +roceedin,s and )ave t)e a1ility to assist t)eir la*yers. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. &ompetent evidence. ;vidence not e0cluded 1y la* in a +articular case. [Arancisco, ;vidence, Dol. DII, 6art 1, 1 8 ;d., +. "'. &ompetition. ( stru,,le for advanta,e 1et*een t*o or more forces, eac) +ossessin,, in su1stantially similar if not identical de,ree, certain c)aracteristics essential to t)e 1usiness sou,)t. It means an inde+endent endeavor of t*o or more +ersons to o1tain t)e 1usiness +atrona,e of a t)ird 1y offerin, more advanta,eous terms as an inducement to secure trade. <)e test must 1e *)et)er t)e 1usiness does in fact com+ete, not *)et)er it is ca+a1le of an indirect and )i,)ly unsu1stantial du+lication of an isolated or non c)aracteristic activity. [Gokon,*ei v. 3;C, GR L-5! 11. (+r. 11, 1 8 '. &ompetitive advantage. Com+etitive ed,e in terms of +roduct 7uality and/or +rice. It like*ise refers to t)e a1ility to +roduce a +roduct *it) t)e ,reatest relative efficiency in t)e use of resources. [3ec. 5, R( &5$!'. &ompetitive bidding. ( met)od of +rocurement *)ic) is o+en to +artici+ation 1y any interested +arty and *)ic) consist of t)e follo*in, +rocesses> advertisement, +re-1id conference, eli,i1ility screenin, of 1ids, evaluations of 1ids, +ost-

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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7ualification, and a*ard of contract, t)e s+ecific re7uirements and mec)anics of *)ic) s)all 1e defined in t)e IRR to 1e +romul,ated under R( 1&5. [3ec. !, R( 1&5'. &omplainant. <)e +arty *)o com+lains or sues; one *)o a++lies to t)e court for le,al redress. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. &omplaint. Rem. La*. 1. ( concise statement of t)e ultimate facts constitutin, t)e +laintiff:s cause or causes of action. It s)all s+ecify t)e relief sou,)t, 1ut it may add a ,eneral +rayer for suc) furt)er or ot)er relief as may 1e deemed 2ust or e7uita1le. <)e names and residences of t)e +arties +laintiff and defendant must 1e stated in t)e com+laint. [3ec. $, Rule ", RoC'. Crim 6roc. 4. ( s*orn *ritten statement c)ar,in, a +erson *it) an offense, su1scri1ed 1y t)e offended +arty, any +eace officer or ot)er +u1lic officer c)ar,ed *it) t)e enforcement of t)e la* violated. [3ec. $, Rule 11%, RoC'. &omplementary food. (ny food, *)et)er manufactured or locally +re+ared, suita1le as a com+lement to 1reastmilk or to infant formula, *)en eit)er 1ecomes insufficient to satisfy t)e nutritional re7uirements of t)e infant. 3uc) food is also commonly called *eanin, food or 1reastmilk su++lement. [3ec.5, ;F !1, Fct. 4%, 1 &"'. &omplete. Lavin, all needed +arts, elements or details. <)orou,)ly *rou,)t out or finis)ed. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &"'. &omplete appointment. (dmin. La*. (++ointment -*)ic). 1ecomes com+lete *)en t)e last act re7uired of t)e a++ointin, +o*er is +erformed. [Lira v. C3C, GR L-"41$$. 3e+. $%, 1 &"'. &ompleteness of service. 6ersonal service is com+lete u+on actual delivery. 3ervice 1y ordinary mail is com+lete u+on t)e e0+iration of ten -1%. days after mailin,, unless t)e court ot)er*ise +rovides. 3ervice 1y re,istered mail is com+lete u+on actual recei+t 1y t)e addressee, or after five -!. days from t)e date )e received t)e first notice of t)e +ostmaster, *)ic)ever date is earlier. [3ec. 1%, Rule 1$, RoC'. &ompleteness test. <)e test to determine *)et)er or not t)ere is a valid dele,ation of le,islative +o*er under *)ic) t)e la* must 1e com+lete in all its terms and conditions *)en it leaves t)e le,islature suc) t)at *)en it reac)es t)e dele,ate t)e only t)in, )e *ill )ave to do is enforce it. [;astern 3)i++in, Lines, Inc. v. 6F;(, GR L8""$$. Fct. 1&, 1 &&'. Com+are *it) )ufficient standard test.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&omple% crime. <)e crime t)at results -a. *)en a sin,le act constitutes t*o or more ,rave or less ,rave felonies, or -1. *)en an offense is a necessary means for committin, t)e ot)er. [6eo+le v. Carandan,, GR L-$1%14. (u,. 1!, 1 8$, citin, (rt. 5&, R6C'. &omple% crime proper. (lso Delito comple(o. (n offense *)ic) is a necessary means for committin, t)e ot)er. [Gre,orio, Aund. of Crim. La* Rev., 1 8 t) ;d., +. 4$!, citin, 6eo+le v. 6ineda, GR L-4"444. #uly 41, 1 "8'. Com+are *it) &ompound crime. &omple% penalty. ( +enalty +rescri1ed 1y la* com+osed of t)ree distinct +enalties eac) formin, a +eriod, t)e li,)test of *)ic) s)all 1e t)e minimum, t)e ne0t s)all 1e t)e medium, and t)e most severe, t)e ma0imum. [Gre,orio, Aund. of Crim. La* Rev., 1 8 t) ;d., +. 4&5'. &omple% subdivision plan. ( su1division +lan of a re,istered land *)erein a street, +assa,e*ay or o+en s+ace is delineated on t)e +lan. [3ec. 4, 6D !8'. &omplicated cataract. ( cataract caused 1y disease of t)e uveal tract, +i,mentary retinal de,eneration, a1solute ,laucoma, retinal detac)ment and old in2uries. [#arillo v. ;CC, GR L-!4%!&. Ae1. 4!, 1 &4'. &omplimentary list. ( list of alternative dru,s used *)en t)ere is no res+onse to t)e core essential dru, or *)en t)ere is a )y+ersensitivity reaction to t)e core essential dru, or *)en, for one reason or anot)er, t)e core essential dru, cannot 1e ,iven. [3ec. $, R( ""8!'. &omposicion con el estado. 3+. <itle or ad2ustment title. [Dir. of Aorestry v. =uKoz, GR L-4!5! . #une 4&, 1 "&'. &omposite state. It consists of t*o or more states, eac) *it) its o*n se+arate ,overnment 1ut 1ound under one central aut)ority e0ercisin, to a ,reater or less e0tent control over t)eir e0ternal relations and t)us formin, a se+arate international +erson. [Cruz, Intl. La* Revie*er, 1 " ;d., +. 14'. Com+are *it) )imple state. &ompos mentis. Lat. Lat. 3ound mind. Lavin, use and control of oneEs mental faculties. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 1!%'. &ompound crime. (lso Delito compuesto. ( sin,le act *)ic) constitutes t*o or more ,rave or less ,rave felonies. [Gre,orio, Aund. of Crim. La* Rev., 1 8 t) ;d., +. 4$!'. Com+are *it) &omple% crime proper. &ompounder. ;very +erson *)o, *it)out rectifyin,, +urifyin, or refinin, distilled s+irits s)all, 1y mi0in, suc) s+irits, *ine, or

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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ot)er li7uor *it) any materials e0ce+t *ater, manufacture any into0icatin, 1evera,e *)atever. [3ec. 1, 6D 54"'. &ompound interest. Interest u+on interest, *)ere accrued interest is added to t)e +rinci+al sum, and t)e *)ole treated as a ne* +rinci+al, for t)e calculation of t)e interest for t)e ne0t +eriod. [=artin, Commentaries and #uris+. on Comml. La*s, Dol. 1, 1 && Rev. ;d., +. 51!'. Com+are *it) )imple interest. &ompound penalty. (n act +unis)a1le 1y t*o or more +enalties, as *)ere t)e la* +rovides t)at 1ot) fine and im+risonment must 1e im+osed. <)us, t)e la* ,ives no discretion to im+ose an alternative or only one +enalty. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &"'. &omprehensive Agrarian *eform 6aw 2&A*63. R( ""!8 entitled I(n (ct institutin, a Com+re)ensive (,rarian Reform 6ro,ram to +romote social 2ustice and industrialization, +rovidin, t)e mec)anism for its im+lementation, and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #une 1%, 1 &&. &omprehensive newborn screening system. ( ne*1orn screenin, system t)at includes, 1ut is not limited to, education of relevant stake)olders; collection and 1ioc)emical screenin, of 1lood sam+les taken from ne*1orns; trackin, and confirmatory testin, to ensure t)e accuracy of screenin, results; clinical evaluation and 1ioc)emical/medical confirmation of test results; dru,s and medical or sur,ical mana,ement and dietary su++lementation to address t)e )erita1le conditions; and evaluation activities to assess lon, term outcome, +atient com+liance and 7uality assurance. [3ec. 5, R( 4&&'. &ompromis dD arbitrage. Intl. La*. (n a,reement to su1mit a dis+ute to an ar1itration or 2udicial settlement. [Co7uia and 3antia,o, Intl. La*, $rd ;d. -1 &., +. 5 4'. &ompromise. 1. ( contract *)ere1y t)e +arties, 1y makin, reci+rocal concessions, avoid a liti,ation or +ut an end to one already commenced. [(rt. 4%4&, CC'. 4. (n a,reement 1et*een t*o or more +ersons, *)o, for +reventin, or +uttin, an end to a la*suit, ad2ust t)eir difficulties 1y mutual consent in t)e manner *)ic) t)ey a,ree on, and *)ic) everyone of t)em +refers to t)e )o+e of ,ainin,, 1alanced 1y t)e dan,er of losin,. [David v. C(, 415 3CR( "55, "!% -1 4. citin, Rovero v. (m+aro, 1 6)il. 44&, 4$!-1 !4.; (rcenas v. Cinco, 85 3CR( 11&, 14$ -1 8".'. &ompulsion of irresistible force. 3uc) force e0erted t)at reduced a +erson to a mere instrument *)o acted not only *it)out *ill 1ut a,ainst )is *ill. <)e

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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com+ulsion must 1e of suc) c)aracter as to leave t)e accused no o++ortunity for selfdefense in e7ual com1at or for esca+e. [6eo+le v. De Los Reyes, GR 55114. Fct. 44, 1 4'. &ompulsory. F1li,atory. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &8'. &ompulsory arbitration. ( system *)ere1y t)e +arties to a dis+ute are com+elled 1y t)e ,overnment to fore,o t)eir ri,)t to strike and are com+elled to acce+t t)e resolution of t)eir dis+ute t)rou,) ar1itration 1y a t)ird +arty. [Luzon Devt. 9ank v. (ssoc. of Luzon Devt. 9ank ;m+loyees, GR 14%$1 . Fct. ", 1 !, citin, 3eide, ( Dict. of (r1it. -1 8%.'. Com+are *it) ?oluntary arbitration. &ompulsory counterclaim. 1. ( counterclaim *)ic), 1ein, co,niza1le 1y t)e re,ular courts of 2ustice, arises out of or is connected *it) t)e transaction or occurrence constitutin, t)e su12ect matter of t)e o++osin, +arty:s claim and does not re7uire for its ad2udication t)e +resence of t)ird +arties of *)om t)e court cannot ac7uire 2urisdiction. 3uc) a counterclaim must 1e *it)in t)e 2urisdiction of t)e court 1ot) as to t)e amount and t)e nature t)ereof, e0ce+t t)at in an ori,inal action 1efore t)e R<C, t)e counterclaim may 1e considered com+ulsory re,ardless of t)e amount. [3ec. 8, Rule ", RoC'. 4. ( counterclaim *)ic) arises out of or is necessarily connected *it) t)e transaction or occurrence t)at is t)e su12ect matter of t)e o++osin, +arty:s claim, does not re7uire for its ad2udication t)e +resence of t)ird +arties over *)om t)e court cannot ac7uire 2urisdiction, and t)e court )as 2urisdiction to entertain t)e claim. [Co v. C(, GR $"&8. =ay ", 1 1'. Com+are *it) #ermissive counterclaim. &ompulsory counterclaim. Re7uisites> -a. It arises out of, or is necessarily connected *it), t)e transaction or occurrence *)ic) is t)e su12ect matter of t)e o++osin, +arty:s claim; -1. it does not re7uire for its ad2udication t)e +resence of t)ird +arties over *)om t)e court cannot ac7uire 2urisdiction; and -c. t)e court )as 2urisdiction to entertain t)e claim. [#avier v. I(C, 181 3CR( "%! -1 & .'. Com+are *it) #ermissive counterclaim. &ompulsory heirs. (lso 4orced heirs. <)e follo*in, are com+ulsory )eirs> -a. Le,itimate c)ildren and descendants, *it) res+ect to t)eir le,itimate +arents and ascendants; -1. in default of t)e fore,oin,, le,itimate +arents and ascendants, *it) res+ect to t)eir le,itimate c)ildren and descendants; -$. t)e *ido* or *ido*er; -d. ille,itimate c)ildren. [(rt. &&8, CC, as amended 1y AC'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&ompulsory =1? testing. LID testin, im+osed u+on a +erson attended or c)aracterized 1y t)e lack of or vitiated consent, use of +)ysical force, intimidation or any form of com+ulsion. [3ec. 5, R( &!%5'. &ompulsory (oinder of indispensable parties. <)e 2oinder, eit)er as +laintiffs or defendants, of +arties in interest *it)out *)om no final determination can 1e )ad of an action. [3ec. 8, Rule $, RoC'. &ompulsory motor vehicle liability insurance. 1. ( s+ecies of com+ulsory insurance *)ic) +rovides for +rotection covera,e t)at *ill ans*er for le,al lia1ility for losses and dama,es t)at may 1e sustained 1y anot)er arisin, from t)e use and o+eration of motor ve)icle 1y its o*ner. [3ec. $8$, IC, as amended 1y 6D 15!! and 1&15'. 4. It is +rimarily intended to +rovide com+ensation for t)e deat) or 1odily in2uries suffered 1y innocent t)ird +arties or +assen,ers as a result of a ne,li,ent o+eration and use of motor ve)icles. <)e victims and/or t)eir defendants are assured of immediate financial assistance, re,ardless of t)e financial ca+acity of motor ve)icle o*ners. [3)afer v. R<C of Flon,a+o City, GR 8&&5&. @ov. 15, 1 &&'. (lso <hird party liability or <#6. &ompulsory pilotage. =ar. La*. ( marine rule t)at no s)i+ or vessel can come in or ,o out of a +ier unless it is commanded 1y a +ilot. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. &&'. &ompulsory recognition of natural children. 3ometimes also called 9udicial recognition. Reco,nition decreed 1y final 2ud,ment of a com+etent court. It is ,overned 1y (rt. 4&$ and 4&5 -of t)e Civil Code., settin, fort) t)e cases in *)ic) t)e fat)er or mot)er, res+ectively, is o1li,ed to reco,nize a natural c)ild, and (rt. 4&!, +rovidin, t)at ,enerally, t)e action for reco,nition of natural c)ildren may 1e 1rou,)t only durin, t)e lifetime of t)e +resumed +arents. [Ga+usanC)ua v. C(, GR 5"85". =ar. 1!, 1 %'. Com+are *it) ?oluntary recognition. of natural children. &omputer. (ny device or a++aratus sin,ly or interconnected *)ic), 1y electronic, electro-mec)anical, o+tical and/or ma,netic im+ulse, or ot)er means *it) t)e same function, can receive, record, transmit, store, +rocess, correlate, analyze, +ro2ects, retrieve, and/or +roduce information, data, te0t, ,ra+)ics, fi,ures, voice, video, sym1ols or ot)er modes of e0+ression or +erform any one or more of t)ese functions. [3ec. !, R( &8 4'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&omputeri ed election system. ( system usin, electronic devices to count and canvass votes. [3ec. 4, R( &%5"'. &omputer set. ( set of e7ui+ment containin, re,ular com+onents, i.e., monitor, C6G, key1oard and +rinter. [3ec. 4, R( &5$"; 3ec. 4, R( &%5"'. &on animo de lucro. 3+. Bit) intent to ,ain. [G3 v. (la1ot, GR 1$%!4. Fct. 5, 1 1&'. &onation or disorders of volition. Le,al =ed. (n uncontrolla1le and irresisti1le command to do or not to do somet)in,. [Flarte, Le,al =ed., 1st ;d. -4%%5., +. 1!%'. &oncealment. Ins. ( ne,lect to communicate t)at *)ic) a +arty kno*s and ou,)t to communicate. [3ec. 4", IC'. &oncealment. Ins. Re7uisites> -a. ( +arty kno*s a fact *)ic) )e ne,lects to communicate or disclose to t)e ot)er; -1. suc) +arty concealin, is duty 1ound to disclose suc) fact to t)e ot)er; -c. suc) +arty concealin, makes no *arranty as to t)e fact concealed; and -d. t)e ot)er +arty )as not t)e means of ascertainin, t)e fact concealed. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. &oncerted activity. La1or. ( 2oint undertakin, of *orkers desi,ned to secure 1etter terms and conditions of em+loyment t)rou,) t)e mac)inery of collective 1ar,ainin, and ne,otiations for t)eir mutual 1enefit and +rotection. [6o7uiz, La1or Rel. La*, 1 ;d. +. 4$8'. &oncession. 3ynonymous *it) Alienation and Disposition. (ny of t)e met)ods aut)orized 1y t)is (ct for t)e ac7uisition, lease, use, or 1enefit of t)e lands of t)e +u1lic domain ot)er t)an tim1er or mineral lands. [3ec. 1%, C( 151, as amended'. &oncessionaire. <)e *)om a concession ,ranted or a*arded +rovision of 6D 141 6D 141 '. +erson to )as 1een under t)e . [3ec. $,

&oncession contract. <)e a*ard 1y t)e ,overnment to a 7ualified +rivate entity of t)e res+onsi1ility for financin,, o+eratin,, e0+andin,, maintainin, and mana,in, s+ecific ,overnmento*ned assets. [3ec. 5, R( 1$"'. &oncession especial. 3+. 3+ecial ,rant. [Dir. of Aorestry v. =uKoz, GR L-4!5! . #une 4&, 1 "&'. &oncession theory. <)e t)eory es+ousin, t)at a cor+oration, as kno*n to 6)ili++ine 2uris+rudence, is a creature *it)out any e0istence until it )as received t)e im+rimatur of t)e state actin, accordin, to la*, t)rou,) t)e 3;C. [<aya, v. 9en,uet Consolidated, GR L4$15!. @ov. 4 , 1 "&'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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&onciliation. Arom Lat. conciliare> to call or 1rin, to,et)er. 1. ( form of alternative dis+ute resolution in *)ic) t)e +arties 1rin, t)eir dis+ute to a neutral t)ird +arty, *)o )el+s lo*er tensions, im+rove communications, and e0+lore +ossi1le solutions. Conciliation is similar to mediation, 1ut is may 1e less formal. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. 4. <)e +rocess 1y *)ic) an im+artial t)ird +arty makes an inde+endent investi,ation and su,,ests a solution to a dis+ute. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. &onclusion of law. ( +ro+osition not arrived at 1y any +rocess of natural reasonin, from a fact or com1ination of facts stated 1ut 1y t)e a++lication of t)e artificial rules of la* to t)e facts +leaded [3i7uian v. 6eo+le, GR &41 8. =ar. 1$, 1 & , citin, Levins v. Rove,no, 81 Cal. 48$, 14 +. 1"1; 9lack:s La* Dict., +. $"4'. &onclusive evidence. ;vidence *)ic) is incontroverti1le or one *)ic) t)e la* does not allo* to 1e contradicted. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Com+are *it) #rima facie evidence. &onclusiveness of (udgment. Rem. La*. 1. ( fact or 7uestion *)ic) *as in issue in a former suit and *as t)ere 2udicially +assed u+on and determined 1y a court of com+etent 2urisdiction, is conclusively settled 1y t)e 2ud,ment t)erein as far as t)e +arties to t)at action and +ersons in +rivity *it) t)em are concerned and cannot 1e a,ain liti,ated in any future action 1et*een suc) +arties or t)eir +rivies, in t)e same court or any ot)er court of concurrent 2urisdiction on eit)er t)e same or different cause of action, *)ile t)e 2ud,ment remains unreversed 1y +ro+er aut)ority. [Calalan, v. Re,ister of Deeds of Muezon City, 4$1 3CR( &&, 1%%'. 4. It is ,overned 1y Rule $ , 3ec. 58-c. of t)e Rules of Court. [Qilos1ayan v. =orato, GR 11& 1%. #uly 18, 1 !'. (lso &ollateral estoppel or #reclusion of issues. &onclusive presumption. ;vid. ( +resum+tion *)ere no contrary evidence is admitted. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. '. (lso #resumption (uris et de (ure. Com+are *it) Disputable presumption. &onclusive testimony. ;vid. Generally, testimony *)ic) stands uncontradicted. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. & '. &oncordat. Intl. La*. (n a,reement 1y t)e 6o+e *it) )eads of 3tates on ecclesiastical affairs. [Co7uia and 3antia,o, Intl. La*, $rd ;d. -1 &., +. 5 4'. &oncubinage. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any )us1and *)o s)all kee+ a mistress in t)e con2u,al d*ellin,,

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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or s)all )ave se0ual intercourse, under scandalous circumstances, *it) a *oman *)o is not )is *ife, or s)all co)a1it *it) )er in any ot)er +lace. [(rt. $$5, R6C'. &oncubine. ( mistress or *omen *)o lives or co)a1its *it) a man as t)ou,) )e *ere )er )us1and. [De Leon v. Dillanueva, GR 488$&. =ar. 1$, 1 4&, citin, Dict. of t)e Royal 3+anis) (cademy, 1! ;d., 1 4!'. &oncurrent (urisdiction. <)e 2urisdiction of t*o or more courts, eac) aut)orized to deal *it) t)e same su12ect matter. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. &oncurrent pro%imate cause theory. Ins. B)ere t*o -4. +ro0imate causes concurred in causin, an in2ury, one of *)ic) is insured a,ainst, t)e insurer is lia1le under t)e +olicy irres+ective of t)e eventuality t)at t)ere is anot)er concurrent or +ro0imate cause *)ic) constitutes an uncovered risk. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. &oncurrent *esolution. ( Resolution +assed 1y 1ot) c)am1ers of t)e le,islature. [3uarez, 3tat. Con., -1 $., +. ! '. &oncurring opinion. (n o+inion t)at a,rees *it) t)e result of t)e ma2ority o+inion, 1ut disa,rees *it) some as+ect of t)e reasonin, used to reac) t)at result. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) Dissenting opinion. &oncurso de delitos. #lurality of crimes. &oncurso plurality. &oncurso plurality. ideal. real. 3ee 3ee 3ee 1deal *eal

&ondemnation. 1. <)e act of destroyin, valueless su++lies or +ro+erty 1y 1urnin,, +oundin,, t)ro*in, 1eyond recovery, or t)e like. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. =,t., +er 3ec. $&$, LGC'. 4. <)e le,al +rocess 1y *)ic) t)e ,overnment takes +rivate land for +u1lic use, +ayin, t)e o*ners a fair +rice. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. 3ee "minent domain. &ondition. 1. ( future and uncertain event, or a +ast event unkno*n to t)e +arties, u+on t)e )a++enin, of *)ic) de+ends t)e fulfillment or e0tin,uis)ments of t)e o1li,ation. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 11'. 4. ( future and uncertain fact or event u+on t)e fulfillment of *)ic) a 2uridical act is made to de+end. [#urado, Comments C #uris+. on 3uccession, 1 1 &t) ;d., +. 4% , citin, =anresa, 8t) ;d., +. 44"'. &onditional indorsement. @e,o. Inst. (n indorsement t)at is conditional and *)ic) allo*s t)e +arty re7uired to +ay t)e instrument to disre,ard t)e

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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condition and make +ayment to t)e indorsee or )is transferee *)et)er t)e condition )as 1een fulfilled or not. 9ut any +erson to *)om an instrument so indorsed is ne,otiated *ill )old t)e same, or t)e +roceeds t)ereof, su12ect to t)e ri,)ts of t)e +erson indorsin, conditionally. [3ec. $ , @IL'. &onditional (udgment. Rem. La*. ( 2ud,ment *)ic) contains no dis+osition at all and is a mere antici+ated statement of *)at t)e court s)all do in t)e future *)en a +articular event s)ould )a++en. [Co Gn2ien, ; Li2os, v. =a1alacat 3u,ar Co., GR 5!$!1. #une 4 , 1 5%'. &onditionally or qualifiedly privileged communication. Fne *)ere circumstances e0ist, or are reasona1ly 1elieved 1y t)e defendant to e0ist, *)ic) cast on )im t)e duty of makin, a communication to a certain ot)er +erson to *)om )e makes suc) communication in t)e +erformance of suc) duty, or *)ere t)e +erson is so situated t)at it 1ecomes ri,)t in t)e interest of society t)at )e s)ould tell t)ird +ersons certain facts, *)ic) )e in ,ood fait) +roceeds to do. [3ison v. David, GR L114"&. #an. 4&, 1 "1, citin, $$ (m. #ur. ++. 14$- 14!'. Com+are *it) Absolutely privileged communication. &onditional obligation. (n o1li,ation t)e +erformance or e0tin,uis)ment of *)ic) de+ends u+on a future or uncertain event, or u+on a +ast event unkno*n to t)e +arties. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 11'. Com+are *it) #ure obligation. &onditional pardon. ( +ardon t)at is in t)e nature of a contract 1et*een t)e soverei,n +o*er or t)e C)ief ;0ecutive and t)e convicted criminal to t)e effect t)at t)e former *ill release t)e latter su12ect to t)e condition t)at if )e does not com+ly *it) t)e terms of t)e +ardon, )e *ill 1e recommitted to +rison to serve t)e une0+ired +ortion of t)e sentence or an additional one. [(lvarez v. Director of 6risons, &% 6)il. !%'. Com+are *it) Absolute pardon. &onditional release. ( release from custody *)ic) im+oses re,ulations on t)e activities and associations of t)e defendant. If a defendant fails to meet t)e conditions, t)e release is revoked. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. &onditional sales. (n a,reement relatin, to t)e sale of ,oods or t)in,s t)e ac7uisition of *)ic) de+ends u+on an uncertain event. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. & '. &ondition captatoria. 3ucc. <)e condition u+on *)ic) any dis+osition is made to t)e effect t)at t)e )eir s)all make some +rovision in )is *ill in favor of t)e testator or of any ot)er +erson.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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3uc) dis+osition s)all 1e void. [(rt. &8!, CC'. &ondition precedent. ( contractual condition t)at sus+ends t)e comin, into effect of a contract unless or until a certain event takes +lace. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) &ondition subsequent. &ondition subsequent. ( condition in a contract t)at causes t)e contract to 1ecome invalid if a certain event occurs. <)e )a++enin, of a condition su1se7uent may invalidate a contract *)ic) is, until t)at moment, fully valid and 1indin,. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) &ondition precedent. &onditions. Qinds> -a. sus+ensive condition -condition +recedent. or one *)ic) sus+ends t)e demanda1ility of t)e o1li,ation until t)e )a++enin, of t)e event; -1. resolutely condition -condition su1se7uent. or one t)e )a++enin, of *)ic) *ill e0tin,uis) t)e o1li,ation; -c. +otestative condition or one *)ic) de+ends u+on t)e *ill of t)e de1tor; -d. casual or a condition *)ic) de+ends u+on c)ance; -e. mi0ed condition *)ic) de+ends +artly u+on c)ance and +artly u+on t)e *ill of a t)ird +erson; and -f. im+ossi1le condition *)ic) is not ca+a1le of fulfillment, le,ally or +)ysically. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 1%-11'. &ondominium. 1. ( 1uildin, *it) one or more storeys com+osed of multi-unit residential suites under 2oint o*ners)i+ of occu+ants, eac) unit +rovided *it) com+lete sanitary facilities, utilities and ot)er amenities. [3ec. "$, 6D &!"'. 4. (n interest in real +ro+erty consistin, of se+arate interest in a unit in a residential, industrial or commercial 1uildin, and an undivided interest in common, directly or indirectly, in t)e land on *)ic) it is located and in ot)er common areas of t)e 1uildin,. [3ec. 4, R( 584"'. &ondominium Act$ <he. R( 584" entitled I(n (ct to define Condominium, esta1lis) re7uirements for its creation, and ,overn its incidentsJ enacted on #une 1&, 1 "". &ondominium corporation. ( cor+oration, stock or non-stock, or,anized 1y o*ners of definite +ortions of a 1uildin, for t)e effective maintenance t)ereof. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 45&'. &ondominium pro(ect. <)e entire +arcel of real +ro+erty divided or to 1e divided +rimarily for residential +ur+oses into condominium units, includin, all structures t)ereon. [3ec. 4, 6D !8'. &ondominium unit. ( +art of t)e condominium +ro2ect intended for any ty+e of inde+endent use

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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or o*ners)i+, includin, one or more rooms or s+aces located in one or more floors -or +art of +arts of floors. in a 1uildin, or 1uildin,s and suc) accessories as may 1e a++ended t)ereto. [3ec. 4, 6D !8'. &ondonation. (lso *emission. (n act of li1erality 1y *)ic) t)e creditor *it)out receivin, anyt)in, renounces t)e fulfillment of t)e o1li,ation *)ic), in conse7uences t)ereof, is e0tin,uis)ed eit)er totally or +artially. It is a form of donation. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 5&'. &ondonation. (lso *emission. Qinds> -a. Com+lete or total *)en t)e entire o1li,ation is e0tin,uis)ed; -1. +artial *)en only +art of t)e o1li,ation is e0tin,uis)ed; -c. e0+ress *)en it is made eit)er ver1ally or in *ritin,; -d. im+lied *)en it can only 1e inferred form t)e conduct; -e. inter vivos *)en it takes effect durin, t)e lifetime of t)e donor; or -f. mortis causa *)en it takes effect u+on t)e deat) of t)e donor and com+lies *it) t)e formalities of a *ill and testament. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 5 -!%'. &ondonation. (lso *emission. Re7uisites> -a. It must 1e ,ratuitous; -1. it must 1e acce+ted 1y t)e o1li,or; -c. it must not 1e an inofficious donation; -d. t)e o1li,ation must 1e demanda1le at t)e time of t)e remission; and -e. if e0+ressly made, it must com+ly *it) t)e forms of donation. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 5&, citin, (rt. 148%, CC'. &ondone. <o remit or for,ive a de1t *it)out e0+ectin, any e7uivalent or com+ensation t)erefor. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. %'. &onduct. 1. Le,al ;t)ics. (s used in -Rule 1.%1 of t)e Code of 6rofessional Res+onsi1ility., -t)e term. is not limited to conduct e0)i1ited in connection *it) t)e +erformance of +rofessional duties. [Lizaso v. (mante, (dm. Case 4%1 . #une $, 1 1'. 4. Civ. La*. B)en a++lied to e7uita1le esto++el, t)e term em1races not only ideas conveyed 1y *ords *ritten or s+oken and t)in,s actually done 1ut also t)e silence of suc) +erson and )is omission. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. %'. &onduct unbecoming a police officer. (ny 1e)avior or action of a 6)ili++ine @ational 6olice -6@6. mem1er, irres+ective of rank, done in )is official ca+acity, *)ic), in dis)onorin, or ot)er*ise dis,racin, )imself as a 6@6 mem1er, seriously com+romises )is c)aracter and standin, as a ,entleman in suc) a manner as to indicate )is vitiated or corru+t state of moral c)aracter. It may also refer to acts or 1e)avior of any 6@6 mem1er in an official or +rivate ca+acity *)ic), in dis)onorin, or

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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dis,racin, )imself +ersonally as a ,entleman, seriously com+romises )is +osition as a 6@6 mem1er and e0)i1its )imself as morally un*ort)y to remain as a mem1er of t)e or,anization. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. %'. &onfederation. Intl. La*. (n or,anization of states *)ic) retain t)eir internal soverei,nty and, to some e0tent, t)eir e0ternal soverei,nty, *)ile dele,atin, to t)e collective 1ody t)e +o*er to re+resent t)em as a *)ole for certain limited and s+ecified +ur+oses, suc) as common defense. [Cruz, Intl. La* Revie*er, 1 " ;d., +. 1$'. &onference committee. (lso :icameral conference committee. <*o committees, one a++ointed 1y eac) )ouse. It is normally a++ointed for a s+ecific 1ill and its function is to ,ain accord 1et*een t)e t*o )ouses eit)er 1y t)e recession of one )ouse from its 1ill or its amendments or 1y t)e furt)er amendment of t)e e0istin, le,islation or 1y t)e su1stitution of an entirely ne* 1ill. F1viously, t)e conference committee is al*ays a s+ecial committee *)ic) considered it to,et)er *it) suc) ot)er re+resentatives of t)e )ouse as seem e0+edient. [<olentino v. 3ec. of Ainance, GR 11!5!!. (u,. 4!, 1 5, citin, 3ut)erland, 3tatutes and 3tat. Con., Dol. 1, 5t) ;d., +.+. 4 $-4 5'. &onference rules. =ar. La*. Rules a,reed 1y and amon, s)i+ o*ners and s)i+ o+erators and are, t)erefore, not 1indin, on t)ird +ersons unless a,reed u+on in a 1ill of ladin, or c)arter +arty. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. %'. &onfession. 1. <)e declaration of an accused ackno*led,in, )is ,uilt of t)e offense c)ar,ed, or of any offense necessarily included t)erein, *)ic) may 1e ,iven in evidence a,ainst )im. [3ec. $$, Rule 1$%, RoC'. 4. (n ackno*led,ment of ,uilt of t)e crime c)ar,ed or of t)e facts *)ic) constitute t)e crime; 1ut it is an admission and not a confession if t)e facts ackno*led,ed raise an inference of ,uilt only *)en considered *it) ot)er facts. [6eo+le v. Lorenzo, GR 11%1%8. #an. 4", 1 !, citin, 4 Gnder)ill:s Crim. ;vidence Y $&! -!t) ;d. 1 !".'. Com+are *it) Admission. &onfession. Re7uisites for admissi1ility> -a. It must 1e voluntary; -1. it must 1e made *it) t)e assistance of com+etent and inde+endent counsel; -c. it ust 1e e0+ress, and -d. it must 1e in *ritin,. [Dean <u+az, 45 Lours 9efore t)e 9ar -1st ;d. 4%%!., +. 54, citin, 6eo+le v. #anson, GR 14! $&, (+r. 5, 4%%$'. &onfession of (udgment. #ud,ment *)ere t)e defendant, instead of enterin, a +lea, confesses action or *it)dra*s

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

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)is +lea and confesses action. #ud,ment *)ere a defendant ,ives t)e +laintiff a co,novit or *ritten confession of t)e action 1y virtue of *)ic) t)e +laintiff enters 2ud,ment. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 5$"'. &onfidential employee. (dmin. and La1or La*s. Fne entrusted *it) confidence on delicate matters, or *it) t)e custody, )andlin,, or care and +rotection of t)e em+loyer:s +ro+erty. [6anday v. @LRC, GR "8""5, 4% =ay 1 4, 4% 3CR( 144'. &onfidential information. (ny information, relative to t)e su12ect of mediation or ar1itration, e0+ressly intended 1y t)e source not to 1e disclosed, or o1tained under circumstances t)at *ould create a reasona1le e0+ectation on 1e)alf of t)e source t)at t)e information s)all not 1e disclosed. It s)all include> -a. communication, oral or *ritten, made in a dis+ute resolution +roceedin,s, includin, any memoranda, notes or *ork +roduct of t)e neutral +arty or non-+arty +artici+ant, as defined in R( 4&!; -1. an oral or *ritten statement made or *)ic) occurs durin, mediation or for +ur+oses of considerin,, conductin,, +artici+atin,, initiatin,, continuin, of reconvenin, mediation or retainin, a mediator; and -c. +leadin,s, motions manifestations, *itness statements, re+orts filed or su1mitted in an ar1itration or for e0+ert evaluation. [3ec. $, R( 4&!'. &onfidential relation. <)e relation *)ic) e0ists, under (rt. 1$$ of t)e Civil Code, 1et*een ,uardian and *ard, insurer and insured, and a,ent and +rinci+al. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 1'. &onfinement. ( state of 1ein, admitted in a )os+ital or medical clinic for medical o1servation, dia,nosis, testin,, and treatment consistent *it) t)e ca+a1ility and availa1le facilities of t)e )os+ital or clinic. [3ec. 4, R( &$55'. &onfirmatory test. (n analytical test usin, a device, tool or e7ui+ment *it) a different c)emical or +)ysical +rinci+le t)at is more s+ecific *)ic) *ill validate and confirm t)e result of t)e screenin, test. [3ec $, R( 1"!'. &onfirmed letter of credit. <)e kind of o1li,ation assumed 1y t)e corres+ondent 1ank. In t)is case, t)e corres+ondent 1ank ,ives an a1solute assurance of t)e 1eneficiary t)at it *ill undertake t)e issuin, 1ank:s o1li,ation as its o*n accordin, to t)e terms and conditions of t)e credit. [Aeati 9ank C <rust Co. v. C(, GR 54% . (+r. $%, 1 1, citin, (,1ayani, Comml. La*s of t)e 6)il., Dol. 1, ++. &1&$'. 1rrevocable credit. &onfirming corres+ondent bank. ( 1ank -*)ic).

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

La*.1ayani. 4.d. 9us. ( kind of cataract t)e most common cause of *)ic) is )eredity.ments. GR 54% .d. Glossary of Conflict of La*s.CC.. +. &onflict of laws.erger.a..nition and enforcement of forei. Re7uisites> -a. c)oice of la*.ation. or )is ri. &ongenital cataract. ( situation -*)ic). (dmin. 1. or t)e inter+retation and effect of a conveyance.ories of conflicts> -a. (+r. citin.ed in t)e same +erson *it) res+ect to t)e same o1li. 1 %. to different o*ners. an officer.in.d.. 9us. R( "81$'. C Cont.)ts or duties t)erein. [#arillo v. C(. 1 &4'. reco. &onfusion.erger. !1'.. Lence. Dol. arises only *)en> -a. [<etley. citin. 1 &1 .d. (lso . (lso kno*n as #rivate international law. 4. GR L-!4%!&. a forei. <)e mi0ture of li7uids. . 4%%% . [Laurel v. +. Dol. II.. 1 1 . Comml. [<olentino. GR 4%1$. La* Rev. t)ere is a dis+ute over t)e title or o*ners)i+ of an immova1le. it must 1e com+lete. $%.or *it) res+ect to t)e same o1li. &onfusion. may 1e o++osed to or affected 1y t)e fait)ful +erformance of official duty. [3ec. La*. [Diaz.. 541'. [Aeati 9ank C <rust Co. 1elon. [Diaz. 1 1 . +. suc) t)at t)e ca+acity to take and transfer immova1les. (.ee and o1li. 6rivate Intl. 1&$5 of t)at name.. in one +erson of t)e 7ualities of o1li.. (lso . It takes +lace *)en t)e c)aracters of creditor and de1tor are mer. c)oice of 2urisdiction. &ongestive heart failure.1"1 assumes a direct o1li. !%-!1'. 4%%5'. +. t)e need to determine *)ic) la* s)ould a++ly. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. [<orres. and -c. La* Rev.ation. v. 4!. $. Garcia. and -1. <)ere are t)ree classic cate.n 2ud. 1. &onflict of interest. t)e formalities of conveyance. La*s of t)e 6)ils. 5 3anc)ez Roman. -1. '.. &onfusion. 1. #uly 4!. +. Ae1. ( term first coined 1y #ose+) 3tory in )is 1st . and -1.. 1$ . or a su1stantial stock)older of a +rivate cor+oration or o*ner or )as a su1stantial interest in a 1usiness. Re+r. 1 1.. <)e meetin. <)e conflict t)at arises *)en a +u1lic official or em+loyee is a mem1er of a 1oard. 88'. citin.n la* on land o*ners)i+ and its conveyance is asserted to conflict *it) a domestic la* on t)e same matters. ( clinical syndrome *)ic) develo+s eventually in !%-"%V of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . F1li. and t)e interest of suc) cor+oration or 1usiness. +. t)e essential validity and effect of t)e transfer. ++.ation to t)e seller and its lia1ility is a +rimary one as if t)e corres+ondent 1ank itself )ad issued t)e letter of credit. It must 1e 1et*een t)e +rinci+al de1tor and creditor. 3alon. are to 1e determined. 4%%1.d. $88-$&$'.

[=orenoEs La* Dict.nri7uez. from ina1ility of t)e )eart to e0+el sufficient 1lood for t)e meta1olic demands of t)e 1ody.d. -e. <)e follo*in. citin.e or of t)e +artners)i+. AC'. <)e form may 1e eit)er ne.. losses t)erefrom s)all 1e 1orne e0clusively 1y t)e loser-s+ouse. &on(ugal partnership of gains. -d.e 1y eit)er s+ouse. as *ell as t)e net fruits from t)e e0clusive +ro+erty of eac) s+ouse. natural.islative control in t)e im+lementation of +articular e0ecutive actions. industrial. &on(ugal. t)at is re7uirin. &ongressional veto. or civil. a++roval of t)e e0ecutive action... t)ose *)ic) are ac7uired 1y c)ance. t)e s)are of eit)er s+ouse in t)e )idden treasure *)ic) t)e la* a*ards to t)e finder or o*ner of t)e +ro+erty *)ere t)e treasure is found.. livestock e0istin.ains or 1enefits o1tained 1y eit)er or 1ot) s+ouses s)all 1e divided e7ually 1et*een t)em.ress to move from oversi. !" @ort) Carolina La* Revie*. fruits and income from t)eir se+arate +ro+erties and t)ose ac7uired 1y eit)er or 1ot) s+ouses t)rou.ime under *)ic) t)e )us1and and *ife +lace in a common fund t)e +roceeds.islature can 1lock or modify administrative action taken under a statute. *ork or +rofession of eit)er or 1ot) of t)e s+ouses. It is defined as t)e clinical state resultin. <)is device re+resents a si. 1&. t)e marria. GR L!"4! . 118. industry. suc) as *innin. +. .. [6anan.0ecutive on a Leas).)t to t)e marria. and -. (ssoc. t)e net . 1 &$'. t)e fruits.nificant attem+t 1y Con.'. =ar.al +artners)i+ +ro+erties> -a. u+on dissolution of t)e marria. -1. u+on t)e dissolution of t)e +artners)i+ in e0cess of t)e num1er of eac) kind 1rou. <)ose ac7uired 1y onerous title durin. -f. and. <o a++ertain to t)e marria. unless ot)er*ise a. <)e re. Lo*ever.) t)eir efforts or 1y c)ance. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%% .ressional Deto and 3e+aration of 6o*ers> <)e .CC. &on(ugal partnership property. re7uirin. Di0on.am1lin.reed in t)e marria.) occu+ation suc) as fis)in. or for only one of t)e s+ouses. 4'.e at t)e e0+ense of t)e common fund. t)ose o1tained from t)e la1or. v. -c. .)t of t)e e0ecutive to s)ared administration. Const. ( means *)ere1y t)e le.ative. 54$ -1 8&. or affirmative. It is a form of le.anic cardiovascular disease. t)ose ac7uired t)rou. or 1ettin. or )untin.1"2 all +atients *it) or. t)e marria. [(rt. due or received durin.e state.ui v. 1%". [(rt. [6)il.s from . +roducts. <)e Con. disa++roval of t)e e0ecutive action.e from t)e common +ro+erty. AC'. *)et)er t)e ac7uisition 1e for t)e +artners)i+.e settlements. are con2u.

&onnivance 2with the prisoner3.ainst t)e territorial inte. to different o*ners. t)ere1y formin. are facts *)ic) tend to connect a transaction or occurrence *it) a +articular la* or 2urisdiction -e. &t) .e and assum+tion of t)e risks of eviction.reement 1et*een t)e +risoner and t)e +u1lic officer in )is custody or c)ar. [=orenoEs La* Dict. or country of re. 6)il. [(rt. &onsanguinity.d. [3andoval. Qins)i+. etc. [Diaz. t)e fla. R6C'. <)e ac7uisition of territory 1y force.. factors are taken into consideration and *ei. <)e union of t*o t)in.. factors. &onsciente waiver. to t)eir nature. 1$!'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%1.er reco. La* Rev. [Intl.in. La* Dict. and from t)at moment t)e +arties are 1ound not only to t)e fulfillment of *)at )as 1een e0+ressly sti+ulated 1ut also to all t)e conse7uences *)ic). In t)e conflict of la*. t)e +ro+er la* to a++ly to decide t)e case or dis+ute. II. &onniving with or consenting to evasion. t)e domicile.. <)e voluntary *aiver 1y t)e vendee of )is ri. 9us.s 1elon. 4. in determinin. *)ere t)e tort or delict *as committed or *)ere its )arm *as felt. t)e s)i+ o*nerEs 1ase of o+erations. Crim. 1$1!. La*. may 1e in kee+in. in suc) a manner t)at t)ey cannot 1e se+arated *it)out in2ury. 6ol.. Dol. nationality or +lace of incor+oration of t)e +arties.)ed 1y courts and ar1itrators. &onsensual contracts. usa.. 1lood relations)i+. $'.. 1 1 . inasmuc) as t)e G@ C)arter +ro)i1its resort to t)reat or use of force a. +.ood fait).1"3 &on(unction or ad(unction..e and la*. Contracts t)at are +erfected 1y mere consent. &onnecting factors or contacts. <)e mode of ac7uisition of land territory *)ic) is no lon. [(rt. 44$ of t)e Rev.. -1 ".rity or +olitical inde+endence of any state.. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. [<etley.nized. $%!'. t)e +lace-s. Conflict of La*s. Intl. Gnder (rt. &'. residence. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. La*.le o12ect. +.e to )is esca+e. t)e +lace-s. C Direct. Com+are *it) Affinity. Connectin. +.)t to *arranty in case of eviction *it)out t)e kno*led. Re+r. +. t)e connection or relation of +ersons descended from t)e same stock or common ancestor. 4%%% . 4%%5'. [6aras. a sin. 44$. CC'.istry of t)e s)i+. Civil Code of t)e 6)il.. 4%%5'. *it) . connectin..d. Com+are *it) *eal contracts. 6enal Code. accordin.e. 1. &onquest. [<olentino. of conclusion or +erformance of t)e contract. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer *)o s)all consent to t)e esca+e of a +risoner in )is custody or c)ar. or contacts.d. an a.

a*ay of t)e offended +arty must 1e *it) )er consent.e. 6D 141 '. ( result ac)ieved t)rou. unit. and under ei. &onsented abduction.. <)e makin. R( 158'.reed election. and t)e cause *)ic) are to constitute t)e contract.) ne.lements> -a. GR L&%&$&. 4%%5'. 4. [3ec. [6erez v.1"4 &onsensus.ainin. 1.in.reement. after solicitation or ca2olery from t)e offender. 4.eneral a. -1. 4.reement and *)ic) may only 1e rendered *)en t)e +arties on 1ot) sides ask for it. restoration and en)ancement of t)e )a1itat.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1 &&'. and/or maintenance. =ar. +. <)is is manifested 1y t)e meetin. 4. [3ec.reement. !.reed u+on 1y t)e +arties to determine t)e issue of ma2ority re+resentation of all t)e *orkers in t)e a++ro+riate collective 1ar. <)e *ise use and o+timum utilization of mineral resources. IRR of LC'. $. -c. [3ec. 4%%% . 1.. .al Dict.ainin. of t)e offer and t)e acce+tance u+on t)e t)in.)teen -1&. $. 9LR. 1. and. years of a. com+risin. ( 2ud. @ov. C Direct. Borkers Gnion v. &onsent (udgment. [(rt. s)e must 1e over t*elve -14. 1. Com+are *it) 4orcible abduction. ( 7ualified acce+tance constitutes a counter-offer.ns. 6reservation and sustaina1le utilization of *ildlife.d. $5$. $%. [(rt. (. &onsented abduction. 1. t)e takin. Rule 1.)teen years of a. carried out *it) )er consent and *it) le*d desi. &onservation.. of coral resources in suc) a *ay as not to adversely affect t)e sustained +roductivity of marine eco systems. and to *)ic) all +arties t)en su1scri1e unanimously as an acce+ta1le resolution to t)e issue or disa.reement and in t)e a1sence of any voiced o12ection. R6C'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4 . Com+are *it) 7ualified seduction. 1$1 . dis+ute or disa. La1or.in over t*elve years and under ei. t)e takin. <)e com+lete +reservation or limited )arvestin. <)e a1duction of a vir. &onsent. [Barren =anufacturin. GR L-8"1&!. -d. 4%%5'. C(. 1 &&'. (n a. merely to determine t)e issue of ma2ority re+resentation of all t)e *orkers in t)e a++ro+riate collective 1ar. voluntary acce+tance of t)e *is) of anot)er.ment 1ased on an a. a*ay of t)e offended +arty must 1e *it) le*d desi.e. [Du)aime:s Le. <)e election voluntarily a. t)e offended +arty is a vir. [Intl.. of a decisions 1y . [=orenoEs La* Dict..ns. unit. 9ook !.reement. La* Dict. CC'. 4%%5'. [Glossary of Le. its +ur+ose 1ein. &onsent election. <)e offer must 1e certain and t)e acce+tance a1solute. $'.otiation *)ere1y a )y1rid solution is arrived at 1et*een +arties to an issue. Com+are *it) &ertification election. ty+ically of concessions made 1y all +arties.

4%%5'. &onsideration.o 3y2uco. 1188. t)at +revious notice of t)e consi.al ri. t)at for )imself or )erself. "8 6)il. &onsign. to *)ic) )e is ot)er*ise not la*fully entitled. 5.nation of t)e o1li. or disadvanta. <)e act of de+ositin.oods are sent 1y one to anot)er to 1e sold and dis+osed 1y t)e latter for and on account of t)e former. 81 6)il. [Gonzales v.round to render a consi. +. CC'. C(.al Dict. D. 85 6)il. 3ome ri.enerally re7uires a +rior tender of +ayment. t)e t)in. [Limkako v. t)e essential reason *)ic) moves t)e contractin. 1enefit.. [Ga1riel v.kiko v. Le. <eodoro. &onsigned abroad. +arties to enter into t)e contract. &onsignation. "&4'...ement *)ere1y t)e . 45.1"5 [3ec. 1.nation )ad 1een made t)e +erson interested *as notified t)ereof -(rt. &onsignacion.'. 3ee also 5uardianship. &onservatorship. (ct 4811'. 3antia. <rinidad..iven to a +erson to mana. or 1ecause )e *as a1sent or inca+acitated. CC'.e suffered or undertaken 1y t)e +romisee ot)er t)an to suc) as )e is at t)e time of consent 1ound to suffer.e conferred u+on t)e +romissor. &onsignation. and -e. t)at t)e consi. t)at t)e amount due *as +laced at t)e dis+osal of t)e court -(rt.e t)e +ro+erty and financial affairs of a +erson deemed inca+a1le of doin. 118&. -d.@R (dmin.. due *it) t)e court or 2udicial aut)orities *)enever t)e creditor cannot acce+t or refuses to acce+t +ayment and it . or 1ecause several +ersons claimed to 1e entitled to receive t)e amount due [(rt. or advanta. -c. 3+. Re7uisites> -a. 5'.nation )ad 1een . Aailure in any of t)ese re7uirements is enou.)t . =onte de 6iedad. [Fn.nation ineffective [6once de Leon v. -1.nifies Hsent or s)i++ed a1road. (n arran. &onsignment. [Glossary of Le. <)at t)ere *as a de1t due.iven to t)e +erson interested in t)e +erformance of t)e o1li. CC'.d. % 6)il. $1$'. +re2udice. [=orenoEs La* Dict. <)e I*)yJ of t)e contracts. 4.H [3ec. CC'. 118". 118&. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . loss. 5 8 -1 51. 3e+. t)at after t)e consi. <o leave an item of +ro+erty in t)e custody of anot)er. or any detriment.) .ation )ad 1een made 1ecause t)e creditor to *)om tender of +ayment *as made refused to acce+t it. interest.al <erms -6ro3e. ( fis) 1roker. $11'. GR L-5&888. 15! . 3ynonymous *it) t)e term Henviado al e0tran2eroH found in t)e 3+anis) version and si. [Du)aime:s Le.)t.ation [(rt. 4%%% . Frder !4$'. 4%%5'.

Commentaries C #uris+. for )is +art.)t to demand t)e return of t)e merc)andise at any time 1efore it is sold. t)e commission of a felony and decide to commit it.. C Direct. La*. [<io+ianco.an1ayan. Ae1. 4%8'. R6C'. It is not +artici+ation in all t)e details of t)e e0ecution of t)e crime. It e0ists *)en t*o or more +ersons come to an a. =ere kno*led. $rd . 4%%5'.reement concernin. 6ol.ent to sell t)e merc)andise for )im and to effectively transfer title t)ereto in favor of t)e +urc)aser. [(rt. (ll t)ose *)o in one *ay or anot)er )el+ed and coo+erated in t)e consummation of t)e crime are considered as co-+rinci+als. Dol.inistrant function. Com+are *it) #roprietary or . Crim. Code of t)e 6)il. t)e +rinci+al fi0es t)e +rice at *)ic) t)e . ac7uiescence or a++roval of t)e act.. <)e com1ination or union of t*o or more com+anies t)at results in t)e termination and dissolution of t)e cor+orate e0istence of all constituent com+anies and t)e formation of a ne* com+any. =ay . (ut)entic notice. 1 . <)e common desi. Gsually. GR !! "$ C "1%5!. 4%%% . 3+.overnment *)ic) involves t)e e0ercise of soverei. !'.. Com+ilation of @otes. is enou. . La*.oods are to 1e sold 1y t)e a. &onspiracy.lements> <o constitute cons+iracy.1"6 1 &8. ( function of .reement to coo+erate.n and +ur+ose. GR L-!8%"1. +. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1 &&'. t)ere must 1e intentional +artici+ation in t)e transaction *it) a vie* to t)e furt)erance of t)e common desi. 4. ( contract *)ic) creates t)e relations)i+ of +rinci+al and a. #an. Crim. <)ere must 1e unity of +ur+ose and unity in t)e e0ecution of t)e unla*ful o12ective.. 1 1'. Cor+.erger. 1.ent *)ere1y title to t)e merc)andise is retained 1y t)e +rinci+al *)o.nty and considered as com+ulsory.. 6ol. aut)orizes t)e a. 1 1'. GR 8&%$&. citin. &. 9ouvier:s La* Dict.d. (. [6eo+le v. 48. [Aontanilla v. 1&.)t to return t)e merc)andise if )e cannot sell it at t)e desired +rice. )as t)e ri. on t)e Ins. 1'.. =aliaman. &onsolidation.d. Com+are *it) . [Claridades..ent *)o. La*. +. La* Dict. &onstituent function. <)e term constitutes t)e very 1onds of society and are com+ulsory in Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . =acatana. &onstancia autentica. La*. (lso 5overnmental function. Like*ise t)e +rinci+al )as t)e ri. *it)out coo+eration or a. &onspiracy.d. B)en t*o com+anies 2oin to 1ecome +arts of a ne* com+any.n to commit a felony. )o*ever. 3andi. [Denturina v.). La*.e. 4. 4%%14%%"'.. 1. &onstituent governmental functions. [Intl. &onsignment for sale.

=ar1ury v. [Cruz. &onstitution. 3tat. Cooley. im+erious.er or encroac)ment and t)e advancement of its international interests. 4&5'.es. of order and +rovidin. 1 8. La*. 1$& -1&%$. &onstitutional law. +.nty are )a1itually e0ercised. +rivile.overnment. La* Dict. +. t)e definition and +unis)ment of crimes. Constl.. GR 1441!". -d. t)e determination of t)e +olitical duties. (+r.3. La* Revie*er. 4. citin. t)e administration of 2ustice in civil cases.)ts 1et*een individuals. to t)e constitutional +rovisions of t)e ratifyin. Com+are *it) . &onstitutional supremacy doctrine. Ae1. [=anila 6rince Lotel v. Ae1. since t)e Constitution is t)e fundamental +aramount and su+reme la* of t)e nation.overnance and administration of a nation. a1solute and unaltera1le e0ce+t 1y t)e aut)ority from *)ic) it emanates. -1. $&'. -. -f. 1 "$'. [=anila 6rince Lotel v.islative or 1y t)e e0ecutive 1ranc) or entered into 1y +rivate +ersons for +rivate +ur+oses is null and void and *it)out any force and effect.. It is su+reme. GR 1441!". <)e fundamental la* of t)e land *)ic) defines t)e +o*ers of t)e . for t)e +rotection of +ersons and +ro+erty from violence and ro11ery. [3uarez.ated 1y t)e le. ( treaty ado+ted accordin. t)e fi0in. and relations of citizens.. ( system of fundamental la*s for t)e .inistrant governmental functions. -c. =adison.e of +ro+erty.d. 6resident Bilson enumerated t)e constituent functions as follo*s> -a. $. dealin. transmission. and t)e determination of its lia1ilities for de1t or crime. t)e re. G3I3. of t)e le.m+loyees (ssoc. $. G3I3.. -e. +.. Ae1. GR 1441!". t)e determination of contract ri. t)e +reservation of t)e state from e0ternal dan.d. 1st . $. G3I3. Limitations. <)e doctrine t)at if a la* or contract violates any norm of t)e constitution t)at la* or contract *)et)er +romul. [Intl.ulation of t)e )oldin.. citin. <)e fundamental and +aramount la* of t)e nation. ! G. 1 8'. $. Constl. <)e +o*er to amend or revise t)e Constitution. $%.s of t)e state *it) forei. 1.1" nature. -). state. C Direct.. 1 & . Con. [3uarez. 4%%5'. 5'. $. v. <)us. +. La*. 3oriano. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [333 . it is deemed *ritten in every statute and contract.al relations 1et*een man and *ife and 1et*een +arents and c)ildren. &onstitutional treaty. GR L-1&%&1. -1 $. 6ol. &onstituent legislative power. 6ol.'. 4%%4. <)at 1ody of rules and ma0ims in accordance *it) *)ic) t)e +o*ers of soverei. and interc)an. t)e kee+in. [=anila 6rince Lotel v. 1 8'.n +o*ers.

t)e case of (lia v. from ot)er +arts of t)e document or..s.al e0istence of a state or . &onstitutum possessorium$ traditio. ( natural or 2uridical +erson or. 9lack. 1 81'. eit)er la*yers or 2ud. 4. GR "" 5. <)e term contractor includes . 6D 11"8'. as an offer involvin. of t)e 6)ils. construct.. referrin. ( 7uittin. #an. a demotion in rank and a diminution in +ay.)ts. =ar. 4%%5'. 3ee <raditio constitutum possessorium. [Intl. [@arcida v. t)e meanin. <)e le.. unreasona1le or unlikely.d. <)e le. Inc.. +. 9o*en. refusal to o1ey su1+oenas. and e0+oundin. 14 . &onstruction. en. La* Dict. contractor and s+ecialty contractor. of tryin. 1 "&'.. 4nd . B)et)er it 1e a contract or a statute. *reck or demolis) any structure.ineerin. [3ec.ineerin. *)o undertakes or offers to undertake. 1y e0tra+olatin. $ !48-R. <)en. to a inter+retation la* *)ic) . $%. citin. [=oreno:s 6)il.. 9oard of t)e City of =anila. citin.nition 1y ot)er states. &onstruction contractor. <)e art or +rocess of discoverin. re+air.ement. contractor. v.es must attem+t to inter+ret or construct t)e +ro1a1le aim and +ur+ose of t)e +)rase. 6alomar. 4 . amon. =un. or to do any +art t)ereof. +ro2ect develo+ment or im+rovement.iven case is not e0+licitly +rovided for in t)e la* [Calte0 v.) ot)ers.eneral en.overnment is de+endent on reco.al Dict.al construction . *)ere t)at intention is rendered dou1tful.al +rocess of inter+retin.. &onstructive contempt.rou+. GR L-1 "!%. remove. and s+ecialized consultancy . Com+are *it) Direct contempt. $. [Du)aime:s Le. &onstitutive doctrine. 1 14'. 1 "". 1ecause continued em+loyment is rendered im+ossi1le.uidelines. 1. 3e+. t)ere are times *)en a +)rase may 1e unclear or of several meanin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Inter+retation of La*s. 4". Contem+t committed out of t)e +resence of t)e court.ives le. ot)ers.eneral 1uildin. . 1'. &onstructive discharge. alter. and intention of t)e aut)ors of t)e la* *it) res+ect to its a++lication to a . <)e *illful diso1edience of t)e la*ful +rocess of t)e court. add to. 1y reason of t)e fact t)at t)e . or does )imself or 1y or t)rou. C Direct. construction mana. to find it:s meanin.. su1tract from. 4 . GR L4$ 8 .iven case. (u. 4%%5'..anized and licensed under 6)ili++ine la*s. [Lomeo*ners: (ssoc. <)e 9ill of Ri. move. 3alani Gna <rans+ortation Co. in t)e case of statutes. La* Dict. +. etc. facility.1"! &onstitution of 6iberty. a +)rase or document. or su1mits a 1id to.

<)e e0ecution of a sale made t)rou. 4.s and Loan 9ank v. 4%! 3CR( 5 4 -1 4. Com+are *it) Actual total loss.d. [Fna+al 6)ils. or to in2ure +u1lic interests. 4%%% . 1. &onstructive removal 2from the service3. 9lack:s La* Dict.nment t)at is indefinite and results in a reduction in rank. 1y leave of court. ( loss *)ic) . unreasona1le or unlikely. t)e la* declares fraudulent 1ecause of its tendency to deceive ot)ers. [Lemery 3avin. Com+are *it) Actual possession. if from t)e deed t)e contrary does not a++ear or cannot clearly 1e inferred. (u.'. Code. 1./*are)ouse recei+t is delivered. &onstructive or legal delivery. +. 3ervice of summons effected. 15 &. (dmin. <)e delivery of mova1le and immova1le t)in. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. under 3ec.uilt of t)e fraud feasor. [(rt. Ae1. status and salary. 1y +u1lication in a ne*s+a+er of .d. 1ut includes sym1olic delivery or su1stituted delivery as *)en t)e evidence of title to t)e . Ins.. @LRC. or t)e like.)t to a1andon. CC'. 4%. 15. &onstructive possession. !1!-!1" -5t) . Rule 15. &onstructive tradition. 1 4'.) a +u1lic instrument *)ic) s)all 1e deemed e7uivalent to t)e delivery of t)e t)in. citin. [3ec. Com+are *it) Actual fraud. C(. &onstructive service of summons by publication.ns or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [9erico v. <)is usually +roceeds from a 1reac) of duty arisin.oods. 1 $.'. t)e key to t)e *are)ouse or 1ill of ladin. [3ec. 1$4.. or u+on a defendant *)ose address is unkno*n and cannot 1e ascertained 1y dili.al or e7uita1le duty *)ic). to oneEs control.eneral circulation and in suc) +laces and for suc) time as t)e court may order. [9entain v. #une . La*. as. *)ic) is t)e o12ect of t)e contract. GR & 5!4. 8'.oods.s *)ic) is not actual or material and is re+resented 1y ot)er si. &onstructive total loss. Loldin. to violate +u1lic or +rivate confidence.ives to a +erson insured a ri. RoC'.nated in any action as an unkno*n o*ner. u+on t)e defendant *)o is desi. 1 $'. out of a fiduciary or confidential relations)i+. irres+ective of t)e moral . GR "$%". Com+are *it) Actual or real delivery. C(. &onstructive fraud. GR %8%8. a demotion in rank and a diminution in +ay. 1ecause continued em+loyment is rendered im+ossi1le.. ( reassi. ( 1reac) of le. <)e su12ection of t)e t)in. Delivery *)ic) takes +lace *it)out actual transfer of .1"" &onstructive dismissal. a valid title to +ro+erty. an offer involvin. 1$ of t)e Ins. IC'. v. ( 7uittin.ent in7uiry. =ar. C(.

1 &"'. state and are re7uired to devote t)eir full time to t)e disc)ar. state and +erform t)eir consular functions only in addition to t)eir re.d. in a forei. La*. *it)in )is 2urisdiction. 1""'. +. &onsulta. 1""'.n country res+onsi1le for develo+in. a matter to t)e Land Re. [=a. -1 &$. eit)er )as o1tained or )olds t)e le.. &onsules electi. v.)t to +ro+erty *)ic) )e ou. actual or constructive. [9lackEs La* Dict. concealment. Re+r. GR 8$8$$. La*.e. a.s.ular callin. (lso <rust e% maleficio$ <rust e% delicto$ <rust de son tort$ 1nvoluntary trust$ or 1mplied trust.ood conscience is entitled to t)e 1eneficial interest. <)e act of t)e Re. (n officer of a commercial c)aracter. 1.ainst one *)o. & '.. or 1y any form of unconsciona1le conduct. <rust 1y o+eration of la* *)ic) arises contrary to intention and in invitum.istration Commissioner -no* (dministrator. =onte2o. 4. La*.a. 1y duress or a1use of confidence 1y commission of *ron. <)e 1rin. II.. 1. [Cruz.istration Commissioner -no* Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +. Intl.overnment and lookin.ood con-science. 4. [9lackEs La* Dict. 1 " . +. sim1olica.overnmentEs citizens *)o may 1e travelin. La* Revie*er. GR L-484 5. & '. 3ee *eal tradition.ainst e7uity and .a manu. (1r. !t) . *)en t)e former is in dou1t as to t)e +ro+er ste+ to 1e taken or memorandum to 1e made in +ursuance of any deed. Intl. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. ( remedial device 1y *)ic) t)e )older of le. <radition lon. and +rotectin. &onsules missi. after t)e *elfare of )is .istration 1y t)e +arty interested in it.allon.n countries.)t not. &onsul..in. to t)e attention of t)e Land Re. Intl. 1y fraud. <radition 1revi manu. a++ointed 1y t)e different nations to *atc) over t)e mercantile and tourist interests of t)e a++ointin.rade. ( consular officer of t)e )i.ister of Deeds in 1rin. &onsul general.ood conscience. Dol. [Cruz.. 4%%1. 1". Dec. 1 &$'. [Roa v.d. )old and en2oy. nation and of its su12ects in forei. 6rofessional or career consuls *)o are nationals of t)e sendin. [<olentino. La*.. Intl. #une 4&. Intl. +. or *)o in any *ay a. La* Revie*er. and <raditio constitutum +ossessorium. !t) .)est .2## acts indicative t)ereof.d. t)e economic interests of )is . or 7uestiona1le means. -1 &$..in. Its various kinds are> <raditio -or tradicion. or residin.al title is )eld to 1e a trustee for t)e 1enefit of anot)er *)o in . artifice.al ri. C(.. or ot)er instrument +resented to )im for re. mort.e of t)eir duties. (1r. Consuls *)o may or may not 1e nationals of t)e sendin.d. 5! -5"%'. 1 " . ( +u1lic official residin. Intl. in e7uity and . &onstructive trust. +.

anizations. -iv. 1 4. ade7uate e0ternal tec)nical and +rofessional e0+erts t)at are 1eyond t)e ca+a1ility and/or ca+acity of t)e . *)o is +rofessionally and academically 7ualified and *it) e0ce+tional or reco. [<olentino. ot)er tec)nical services or s+ecial studies.s *)ose use accordin. 48. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .1%4.estion in *ritin. R( 1&5'. reci+ient. Frder $. &onsultation. Aood is an e0am+le of a consuma1le t)in. ". 4%%1. =ay 44. Re+r. -iii.ement and related services. R( 8$ 5 entitled I<)e Consumer (ct of t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on (+r. or +ros+ective +urc)asers. @atural +erson or or. GR L.istered and licensed or +ermitted to +ractice under R( 4"".nized e0+ertise or s+ecialization in any 1ranc) of arc)itecture. lessees. [3ec. or causes t)eir loss to t)e o*ner. reci+ients of consumer +roducts. 3ervices for infrastructure +ro2ects and ot)er ty+es of +ro2ects or activities of t)e . mana. &onsulting services.itimate collective interest. *)ic) s)all include a++ro+riate documentation and feed1ack mec)anisms.overnment to under-take suc) as. $.n. advisory and revie* services.. -v. on t)eir o*n or t)rou. +re investment or feasi1ility studies. R( 4""'. R( 848 '. [3ec.rou+s *)o are +urc)aser. 1. and -vi.. =a. t)e 7uestion u+on *)ic) )e is in dou1t. 4. +. $. desi. 1 ! '. for satisfyin.ister of Deeds of =anila v. a +ersonal need rat)er t)an for +roducin. &onsulting architect. Items for consum+tion -i. &onsumer. Dol.e.. 1y t)e +arty in interest..anized consumer . eit)er u+on )is certification statin. <)ose t)in. . 1ut not limited to> -I. 5. 1 Ru. II.. Dec.state.) +eo+le:s or. 1. [Re.!. !. a ste+ or act still undone 1y t)e re. (ny credit e0tended 1y a creditor to a consumer for t)e sale or lease of any consumer +roduct or service under *)ic) +art or all of t)e +rice or +ayment t)erefor is +aya1le at some future time. [3ec. construction su+ervision. &onsumables.. Civil Code of t)e 6)il.iero 5& '. -ii. &onsumer Act of the #hilippines. <)e arc)itect re. +rocess on matters involvin. services or credit. 1 !'. 1$. t)e +rotection and +romotion of its le. to t)eir nature destroys t)e su1stance of t)e t)in. <)e constitutionally mandated +rocess *)ere1y t)e +u1lic. R( &&%%'. citin.overnment re7uirin.oods or services.ister of deeds 1y reason of )is dou1t. is +rovided an o++ortunity to 1e )eard and to +artici+ate in t)e decision-makin.dalena . [Customs (dmin.2#1 (dministrator. or u+on t)e su. [3ec. lessees. &onsumer credit.

. R( " $&'. family. [(n. 5. [(rt. c)attels t)at are intended to 1e affi0ed to land. [(rt. <)e +)rase im+lies t)at t)e muzzle of t)e firearm Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . &onsumer loan.uis)ment t)ereof. GR L-$ &51. C(. Airst Coconut Central Co. [=orenoEs La* Dict. <)e sta. ?u v. e0ce+t securities as defined in t)e 3ecurities (ct and contracts of insurance under t)e Ins. &onsummated felony. lease. &'. [=arsman C Co. a solicitation or +romotion 1y a su++lier *it) res+ect to a transaction referred to in clause -a. cosmetics. 4$. de1ts or o1li. or interest t)erein. or ot)er dis+osition of consumer +roducts. ( sale.ricultural.e is or may 1e im+osed. ".2#2 *)et)er in full or in installments. +. citin.. 1 &&. family. 5. -i. 3uc) . 5. v. R( 8$ 5'. 1 5'. <)is term includes credit transactions +ursuant to an o+en-end-credit +lan ot)er t)an a seller credit card. )ouse)old or a. or -ii. services and credits. [(rt.ations *)ic) are +rimarily for +ersonal. &onsumer goods. in t)e e0tin.e *)en t)e +arties +erform t)eir res+ective undertakin.nment. title. 5. and devices.d. Goods. a consumer +roduct 1anned )azardous +roduct.. Goods *)ic) are used or 1ou. R( 8$ 5'.. -Goods *)ic) 1y t)eir very nature are ready for consum+tion. [(rt.s. )ouse-)old or a. 5.oods are not intended for resale or furt)er use in t)e +roduction of ot)er +roducts. -a. assi. or of services.. &onsummation. &onsumer product safety rule. &ontact fire. [(rt.d. a*ard 1y c)ance. R6C'.)t for use +rimarily for +ersonal. ( loan made 1y t)e lender to a +erson *)ic) is +aya1le in installments for *)ic) a finance c)ar. ( contract t)at is +artially or com+letely e0ecuted. !t) . [(rt. Dec. ( consumer +roduct safety standard declarin. or of any ri. dru. 9lack:s La* Dict. a . [(rt. #une 4%. family or )ouse)old +ur+oses. GR 1% 14!. Code. R( 8$ 5'. &onsumer transaction. &onsumer products and services.rant of +rovision of credit to a consumer for +ur+oses t)at are +rimarily +ersonal.)t. *)ic) s)all include 1ut not limited to food. ( felony *)ere all t)e elements necessary for its e0ecution and accom+lis)ment are +resent. Fne t)e +rimary +ur+ose of *)ic) is to +rocure and distri1ute commodities to mem1ers and nonmem1ers. &onsummated contract. R( 8$ 5'. 4%%% . 4.'. &onsumers cooperative.ricultural +ur+oses.s under t)e contract culminatin. or -1. R( 8$ 5'.. includin. Com+are *it) Negotiation and #erfection.

Inc. etc. an internal volume or ca+acity of not less t)an one -1. and counselin. +latform. . 4%. [3ec.. carria. or trans+ortin. and trans+ort.ned container.2#3 )ad touc)ed a +art of t)e victim:s 1ody. &ontact tracing. 9lack:s La* Dict.o. of t)e container. suc) as a custom or statute. 6eo+le. includin. GR 8$5 %. of Customs. 1ased on t)e declaration of t)e s)i++er. Lavin. Com+are *it) Near contact fire. &ontamination. and t)e circumstances under *)ic). li7uid 1ulk. t)e su12ect matter to 1e construed. [Gnited 3tates Lines.ular or unit )andlin. 3ee &onnecting in t)e countin. t)e carrier issues t)e corres+ondin. t)e s)i++er loads )is car. of a +erson *)o )as 1een dia. descri+tion and conditions of t)e car. for sin. <)e +roduction of su1stances not found in t)e natural com+osition of *ater t)at make t)e *ater less desira1le or unfit desira1le or unfit for intended use. of +roducts for sale as a normal retail unit. 7uantity or condition of t)e contents of t)e container. of t)e merc)andise for loadin. Dec. of car. &ontainer. R( 48!'. [6eo+le v. factors. materials and +roducts to. 66( (dmin..e of t)e kind. Containers are furt)er defined accordin. GR &$!$%. ori. Gnder t)is system. <)en.e and unloadin. 1. of t)e same as a unit. Lat. [3ec. 1. t)e actual loadin. carry and kee+ articles. t)e se0ual +artner-s. 5t) .d. <)e carrier does not +artici+ate Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .enerally )avin. $ %'. .ned to contain. 1ill of ladin.o is t)e sole res+onsi1ility of t)e s)i++er. Contem+oraneous e0+osition. Car. 1 %'. 1 5.in. 1 &8'. 1&. into t)e container. R( &5 "'. &ontemporanea e%positio. ventilated. #une 1&. or construction. Frder %&-8 '. 5. &ontacts.5. Frder %&-8 '. and t)e like. seals t)e container and delivers it to t)e carrier for trans+ortation. to t)eir uses as dry car. &ontaineri ed or container cargo. refri. [3ec 5. citin. 1. cu1ic meter. [3ec. [(ustria v. solid 1ulk.oes +acked inside a container for easy )andlin. 66( (dmin.erated.inated.et)er inside a )old in t)e form of 1o0es. v. tanks.nosed as )avin. no actual kno*led.. Fct. 3imon. <)e met)od of findin. *ra++ers.F !1. (ny form of +acka. t)ereof nor t)e sealin. o+en to+.oes in a s+ecially desi. Comm. 4.oes. 1 &"'. t)e matter of 7uantity. ( construction dra*n from t)e time *)en. se0ually transmitted disease. &ontaineri ation system. [3ec. (ny structure desi. ( system devised to facilitate t)e e0+editious and economical loadin. GR $%4&. #uly 4 .

4%%5'. includin. $%8'. &ontestable market. &ontested case. [Glossary of Le. near. 1. Billful diso1edience of a 2ud. [6eo+le v. licensin. 4. 1 $. in *)ic) t)e le. ( defiance of t)e aut)ority.ard or diso1edience. [Claridades.nity of t)e court. (. liti. 44 6)il. in +)ysical contact. &ontemporaneous circumstances. 1. [3ec. It means -a.2#4 &ontemporanea e%positio est optima et fortissima in lege. or ad2acent.. Fct. &ontempt. sea*ard from t)e 1ase line of t)e 6)ili++ine arc)i+ela. Com+ilation of @otes. te0t. 1$" 3CR( !8 -1 &!. Intro. Construction +laced u+on a statute 1y t)e e0ecutive officers *)ose duty it is to enforce it.est in t)e la*. <)e conditions e0istin. &ontiguous one. duties or +rivile. [3ec.o. 4 . 5t) .e:s command or of an official court order. <)e electricity end-users *)o )ave a c)oice of a su++lier of electricity.. ( maritime zone sea*ard of a coastal state:s territorial sea t)at may e0tend out to a distance of 45 miles from t)e 1aselines from Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1. citin. 1 6)il. 1 %$'. alon. -c. $ %'... &ontentious action or proceedings. [Lalili v. 1 84 . 9o*en. [3ec. Rivera.ation.es asserted 1y s+ecific +arties as re7uired 1y t)e Constitution or 1y la* are to 1e determined after )earin. -1. 4. ( *illful disre. $.ant or t)eir *itnesses durin.)ts. [Be1ster:s @e* Borld Dict. Bater.ulatory Commission -. 6eo+le v. &ontiguous. at t)e time t)e la* *as enacted. (ny +roceedin. 3ome act or conduct *)ic) tends to 1rin. 3ee Adversarial action or proceedings. in accordance *it) R( 1$". GR 8581.'.. 6uno. as may 1e determined 1y t)e . $. 4%%1-4%%"'.y Re. 9lack:s La* Dict. C)a+. Lat. m.d. 5. 9ook DII. R( 1$"'. &ontempt of court.. Contem+oraneous e0+osition or construction is t)e 1est and stron. $"!. [In Re> (llen..al <erms -6ro-3e. Ae1. *ill ordinarily 1e controlled t)ere1y.. and unless suc) inter+retation is clearly erroneous.F 4 4'. 2ustice or di. [@arcida v. 18.ner. 4$'.al ri. [3uarez. t)e aut)ority and administration of t)e la* into disres+ect or to interfere *it) or +re2udice +arties liti.d. 11.RC. R( 8 54'. +. &ontemporaneous construction by e%ecutive officers.. sea 1ottom and su1stratum measured t*enty-four nautical miles -45 n. t)e aut)ority of t)e court in disre+ute or to interfere *it) t)e administration of 2ustice. Com+are *it) #rospective construction.d. $!5'. . all or most of one side. 4 Inst. +... GR 15!!. suc) conduct as tends to 1rin. 1 ! $rd . CIR. to La*. touc)in. 4.

causin. Commentaries C #uris+. t)e lifetime of t)e deceased is not a contin. or to a distance of 4%% miles from t)e 1aselines from *)ic) t)e territorial sea is measured *)ere t)e outer ed. 3ee Accession &ontinuance.d.2#5 *)ic) t)e territorial sea is measured. +. $. 1ut its ma0imum claim can 1e no more t)an $!% miles.d.)out t)e natural +rolon. Code of t)e 6)il. u+on some event after t)e deat) of t)e testator or intestate *)ic) may or may not )a++en.. [=orenoEs 4%%% . 4. [Intl. it is one de+endin. &ontinua. ( su1sistin..)out t)e natural +rolon. u+on somet)in. La* Dict. (u.ainst an estate *)ic) are not contin.. [Intl. Rosenstock. [Reyes v. C Direct.ent are 1arred if not +resented *it)in a certain time. t)ereafter to )a++en. continua.. of some future event. 1. 4&'.ation of its land territory to t)e outer ed. its territorial *aters t)at )as violated local la*. ( claim a. 1ut de+endin.ation of t)e land territory to t)e outer ed. [<io+ianco.in does not e0tend u+ to t)at distance. 1%%'. 4. 4%%5'..ainst a decedent. [Glossary of Le. 6ost+onement of a le. It com+rises t)e sea1ed and t)e su1soil of t)e su1marine areas t)at e0tend 1eyond t)e territorial sea t)rou. (n u+*ard movement of a knife or 1lade instrument.ainst t)e estate of a deceased +erson *)ic) )ad matured and *as ca+a1le of 1ein. [3andoval. In t)is zone.in is not t)at far sea*ard..e of t)e continental mar. C Direct. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . a sta1 *ound. to a later date. &ontingent beneficiary. Bit)in t)e rule t)at claims a. +. t)e coastal state may turn 1ack a s)i+ +lannin. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. &ontinental shelf. &ontingent claim.al <erms -6ro3e. 4%%5'. not a1solute or certain. 1. enforced durin.in. 1 4!'. of t)e event.al acts inside its territorial *aters or arrest a s)i+ leavin. to commit ille.ent after t)e )a++enin.ent claim.e of t)e continental mar.. Fne *)ic) )as not accrued. and *)ic) is de+endent on t)e )a++enin. 1 .in. on t)e Ins. ( coastal state may claim a continental s)elf of u+ to 4%% miles from t)e 1aselines from *)ic) t)e territorial sea is measured even if t)e continental mar. demand a. 3uc) a claim is not contin.e of t)e continental mar. La* Dict. 4&. 4%%5'.. La* Dict. GR 4$81&.al +roceedin. <)e sea1ed and su1soil of t)e su1marine areas t)at e0tend 1eyond a coastal state:s territorial sea t)rou. <)e +erson named in a +olicy to receive t)e +roceeds at t)e deat) of t)e insured in t)e event t)e 6rimary 1eneficiary dies. &ontinental stroke. 6ol.

8. or for t)e ac7uisition of real +ro+erty or e7ui+ment. 4".ated 1y contract. 15. from one criminal resolution. GR L-!&&&". unla*ful act or series of acts set on foot 1y a sin.!-1%8%. (++ro+riations for s+ecific +ro2ects.le im+ulse and o+erated 1y an unintermittent force. 1ut *)ic) contem+lates a future course of dealin. 9ull. Cantero. Dec.le transaction. [G3 v. It is a continuous. [=allari v.2#6 &ontinued crime. Rule 1$4. only one +enalty s)all 1e im+osed. [3ec.enerally intended to +rovide security *it) res+ect to future transactions *it)in certain limits.uaranty is one *)ic) covers all transactions.'. )o*ever lon. &ontinuing guaranty.n territory and continued *)en it entered into 6)ili++ine *aters.. @ov. RoC'. 48 -1 1%. &ontinuing appropriations. ( crime *)ic) occurred on 1oard a forei. [3ec. [DiKo v. (++ro+riations not o1li. ( sin. 6D 588'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (n unla*ful act +erformed continuously or over and over a.) t)ere are series of acts. *)et)er suc) o12ection *as sustained or overruled. (= =<#. it s)all not 1e necessary to re+eat t)e o12ection. a series of transactions. it 1ein. . Lence. . t)ose arisin. includin. &ontinuing offense. B)en it 1ecomes reasona1ly a++arent in t)e course of t)e e0amination of a *itness t)at t)e 7uestions 1ein. 1 &&'.ain. t)ere is only one crime committed. &ontinuing ob(ections. &ontinuing crime. Reversions s)all not 1e made or a++ro+riations o1li. ca GR & 88!.n vessel. for *)ic).uaranty.enerally for an indefinite time or until revoked. Fne *)ic) is not limited to a sin. o12ection to suc) class of 7uestions. and contem+lates a succession of lia1ilities. suc) as t)ose for construction of +)ysical structures. 1$. 1 4'. in t)e future. until t)e e0+iration or termination t)ereof. +ro+ounded are of t)e same class as t)ose to *)ic) o12ection )as 1een made. Lence. t)e crime is *it)in t)e 2urisdiction of t)e local courts. 1! 6)il.ated 1y contract may not 1e continued if t)e same *ould result in a ne. *)ic) 1e. *)ic) s)all continue to 1e availa1le until t)e +ro2ect is com+leted or a1andoned. a time it may occu+y.le crime consistin.ative 1alance in t)e una++ro+riated account of t)e fund concerned. coverin. of a series of acts 1ut all arisin. $8.an *)en t)e s)i+ *as in a forei. *)ic) are *it)in t)e descri+tion or contem+lation of t)e contract of . It s +ros+ective in its o+eration and is . v. Ae1. (lt)ou. sufficient for t)e adverse +arty to record )is continuin. as t)ey accrue. Ft)er*ise stated. a continuin. [(+ia.uarantor 1ecomes lia1le. t)e . 6eo+le.

under any of t)ese t)ree -$. [(l1enson . 8! 6)il. [(rt. GR "& 5". and t)e cause *)ic) are to constitute t)e contract. v. #an. accidental elements or t)e +articular sti+ulations esta1lis)ed 1y t)e +arties -e. or +u1lic +olicy. $1.. un1roken and not intermittent or occasional. *it) res+ect to t)e ot)er. [Co C)am v. La* Dict. +rovisions of la*. #an. *)ic) is manifested 1y t)e meetin. GR 1114$&. [6eo+le v. <)ere is an act *)ic) is le. 4 1'. &ontinuous crime. Contracts. 11.al ma0im t)at. La*. of Customs v. "1!. 1 !'.2# 14. 1 8.. C<(. of Lands v. natural elements or t)ose +resumed to e0ist 1y t)e fact t)at t)e contract *as entered into -e.'... la* once esta1lis)ed continues until c)an. .ood custom. &ontinuous possession. <)us. an act *)ic) causes in2ury to anot)er may 1e made t)e 1asis for an a*ard of dama. t)at of a +olitical nature.al.ed 1y some com+etent le. -1. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 5!. Rot)en1er. citin. and it is done *it) intent to in2ure. Classes of elements> -a. -1.nty. 1ut *)ic) is contrary to morals. =ay 44. of t)e offer and t)e acce+tance u+on t)e t)in. or to render some service. are +erfected 1y mere consent. &ontra bonos mores. [(rt. &ontinuity of law principle. of a series of acts arisin. +u1lic order. 1$%!. &ontract. <an Qe).ood morals. 8$ 3CR( 88 -1 8".eneral. [Comm. .. in . <)e le. GR &&" 5.. 1 84. 9lack.lements. of minds 1et*een t*o +ersons *)ere1y one 1inds )imself. (ny article t)e im+ortation or e0+ortation of *)ic) is +ro)i1ited 1y la*.'. [(delfa 6ro+erties v. #an. ( sin. <)ose easements t)e use of *)ic) is or may 1e incessant. I(C.. -a. &ontract. citin. Civ. CC'. 3e+.le criminal resolution or intent not susce+ti1le of division. 9eale. (lso &ontra bonus mores.. and -c. Contrary to . CC'. III. '. Lat. 1 4. &ontinuous easements. It is not c)an. 11$. is uninterru+ted. <)e offer must 1e certain and t)e acce+tance a1solute.ed merely 1y c)ance of soverei.es.. im+lied *arranties in a contract of sale..ive somet)in.le crime consistin. 3ummary 3ec. 6ossession -t)at. 4!. !t) . La* Ro1ert . GR L-$$581. Ledesma. C(. [Dir. La*. e0ce+tin. 1 $'. *it)out t)e intervention of any act of man. from a sin. 9lack:s La* Dict.. &ontraband. Civ.d. -c. citin.islative +o*er. to .. Cases on Conflict of La*s..nter+rises Cor+. Dict.. ( meetin. citin. interests in a contract of loan. .ssential elements *it)out *)ic) t)ere is no valid contract. 18. C(.

Determinate su12ect matter. a transfer arran. Com+ilation of @otes. .lements> a. $. -1. a 1ar to certification elections.reement franc)ise +eriod.. [Claridades. Fct. (n a. develo+ment. cause of t)e o1li.ement in re. GR L-$& !!!". 1 85'. 1$1&. [(rt. [6CI9ank v.. 6re+aration. &ontract of agency. 1ut *)ic) t)e latter cannot modify. Com+are *it) &ontract to sell. @LRC. 8. Dol. or may not 1e. or &ontract. Consent or meetin. Consent of t)e contractin. &ontract-add-and-operate.es> -a. C('. 3ee #iece of work contract. in t)e interest of t)e sta1ility of industrial relations. &ontract for a piece of work. 1 ".d. ( contractual arran. 3ee Affreightment contract. . 4%%1-4%%"'.ainin. 4%%1-4%%"'. and c.. *)ic) t)e ot)er +arty may acce+t or re2ect. &ontract of pure beneficence.overnment. +. <)ere may. [3ec. ( +rinci+le in la1or la* t)at a collective 1ar.e for t)e +rice. 1 ". It o+erates t)e e0+anded +ro2ect over an a. Fct. [Claridades. &ontract of affreightment. from t)e . Land or 1ody of *ater delineated for +ur+oses of e0+loration. (. +arties. &ontract of sale. or utilization of t)e minerals found t)ere-in. Com+ilation of @otes. 4 . 3ee Agency and Agency contract. o12ect certain *)ic) is t)e su12ect matter of t)e contract. 3ta. &ontract area. conce+tion. La* Rev. (.. R( 881&'.2#! [Diaz. 4.ement *)ere1y t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent adds to an e0istin. &ontract of adhesion. [GR 1%$!88.d. &ontract implied in fact. of t)e minds. a.reement arrived at 1y a consideration of t)e acts and conducts of t)e +arties involved. Coronel v. consent to transfer o*ners)i+ in e0c)an. !%"'. 1 +.. ID -1 &" . <olentino. C(.. 6rice certain in money or its e7uivalent. La*. R( 8 54'. CC'. $1. [CCLG v. Fne in *)ic) one of t)e +arties im+oses a ready-made form of contract. 1. [3ec.ard to t)e facility. infrastructure facility *)ic) it is rentin. 9us. 1 . &ontract of sale. =ar. ( contract *)erein title +asses to t)e vendee u+on t)e delivery of t)e t)in. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Civil Code of t)e 6)il.ation *)ic) is esta1lis)ed.reement of reasona1le duration is. Civ. GR 88&!. t)at is.. "5'. &ontract-bar rule. -c. 3ee 5ratuitous contract. sold and t)e vendor )as lost and cannot recover o*ners)i+ until and unless t)e contract is resolved or rescinded. citin. &ontract of sale.ssential re7uisites> -a.

. and -c. 5 %'.d. &ontractor's :ond Act. [3ec. 1 "'. ( 1ilateral contract *)ere1y t)e +ros+ective seller. endin. move.)*ay. +rescri1in. on t)e Civil Code of t)e 6)il. <)e term is deemed synonymous *it) t)e term 1uilder and. R( 8 54'. includin.. *)ile e0+ressly reservin.reed u+on in t)e contract. [. consummation or deat). 5. natural or 2uridical. 1. +erfection of 1irt) of t)e contract. R( 81"%'. construct. 1inds )imself to sell t)e said +ro+erty e0clusively to t)e +ros+ective 1uyer u+on fulfillment of t)e condition a. 5.ardless of *)et)er or not t)e +erformance of t)e service calls for t)e e0ercise or use of t)e +)ysical or mental faculties of suc) contractor or )is em+loyees. +ro2ect. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. )ence. ( +erson. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #une 1 . or does )imself or 1y or t)rou. its +o*ers. or ot)er structures or *orks in connection t)ere*it). 511. t)e erection of scaffoldin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. alter. $. GR 1%$!88. *reck or demolis) any 1uildin.ree on t)e terms of t)e contract.reed u+on. *)ic) is t)e +eriod of ne. [3ec.reement of t)e +arties. *)ic) is t)e fulfillment or +erformance of t)e terms a. 5. (ny entity accredited under t)e la*s *)ic) may or may not 1e t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent and *)ic) s)all undertake t)e actual construction and/or su++ly of e7ui+ment for t)e +ro2ect. *)ose activity consists essentially of t)e sale of all kinds of services for a fee.eneration. t)e o*ners)i+ of t)e su12ect +ro+erty des+ite delivery t)ereof to t)e +ros+ective 1uyer. Com+are *it) &ontract of sale. +rovidin. R( 5!""'. &ontractor.reement. or to do any +art t)ereof. )i.. $ ! . railroad. full +ayment of t)e +urc)ase +rice. 9oard for Contractors. $. at t)e moment of a.d. vol. -1. (nnotated. develo+ment or im+rovement. [3ec. 4. [Coronel v. im+rove. funds t)erefor. Commentaries and #uris+. <)e term contractor includes su1contractor and s+ecialty contractor. add to. 4.. 1 &! . e0cavation or ot)er structure. 6aras.) ot)ers. Dol. 1 "!. t)at is. duties and functions. road.ainin. not su12ect to +rofessional ta0. &ontract to sell.. re+air. 8. &ontractors' 6icense 6aw. any +erson *)o undertakes or offers to undertake or +ur+orts to )ave t)e ca+acity to undertake or su1mits a 1id to. [3ec. ( 7ualified +erson actin. su1tract from.reement or to a financial or tec)nical assistance a. C(. alone or in consortium *)o is a +arty to a mineral a. (ct @o. R( 881&'.2#" . t)e 6)ili++ine Licensin. re. Fct.otiation and 1ar. [<olentino. 1$1. R( 5!"" entitled I(n (ct creatin.0+ressly re+ealed 1y t)e La1or Code'. 1 & . *)ic) is t)e moment *)en t)e +arties come to a.

[<etley. Com+are *it) 4ingir. 6araiso. . Lat. Cor+. ( rule +remised on t)e 1elief t)at if a +arty is a1le to sti+ulate terms. 4%%5'. Com+ilation of @otes. <)e act amountin. +. as amended. 3ee #actum reservati dominii. <)e amount +aid 1y or in 1e)alf of a mem1er to t)e @ational Lealt) Insurance 6ro. 3e+. 4%%% .(. <estimony or evidence. <o redress t)e im1alance 1et*een t)e +arties. forei. Lines v..astern 3)i++in. +. 1%5'. 1 &1' &ontrahaciendo. or *)o )as *orked overseas under a valid em+loyment contract and s)all include seamen or any +erson *orkin. 1 &! Rules and Re.21# &ontractual reservation of title. [3ec.. 1 &&. [=orenoEs La* Dict.d.d.ulations on Fverseas . &ontribution.s and assets.d. 1%5'.uis)ed only *it) difficulty. t)en im+licitly )e occu+ies t)e stron.e. or on ot)er criteria as may 1e defined 1y t)e 6)il. @ov. [Aed. <o make a t)in. &ontradictory evidence.n em+loyer. or is t)e +arty *)o *rites t)e contract. to *ant care on t)e +art of negligence or omission of ordinary t)e +erson Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (. of suc) close resem1lance to anot)er t)at it is distin. 1%. 1$.ram for covera.. overseas or *)o )as 1een em+loyed 1y anot)er *)ic) may 1e a local em+loyer. in t)e case of self-em+loyed..ainst t)e +arty +rofferin.. of Aree Aarmers v. +. (. GR L-8""$$. citin.an. Lat. of +rior inconsistent statements. 6F. Lacer una cosa tan +arecida a otra 7ue con dificultad se distin.ument can +revail. 3+. &ontra factum non valet argumentum. In 3+anis) la*. [=orenoEs La* Dict. t)e evidence. Lealt) Ins.er +osition. &ontra proferentem. contra +roferentem )olds t)at t)e inter+retation t)at favors t)e ot)er +arty *ill 1e c)osen. (. a voida1le contract. 1%5'. [=orenoEs La* Dict.n. +rinci+les set fort) in (rt. 1 of R( 8&8!.ainst t)is fact no ar. GR 1. 4. &ontrato nulo. +resented 1y t)e same *itness in t)e same case. 1ased on salaries or *a. C(.uidin. and on )ouse)old earnin. consistin. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. In 3+anis) la*. &ontract worker.m+loyment'. in accordance *it) t)e . R( 451'. GR L-511"1. 1 %1'. 1&. [. &ontributory doctrine. +rinci+al or +artner under a valid em+loyment contract and s)all include seamen..es in t)e case of formal sector em+loyees. 1. -6LIC. (ny +erson *orkin. 4%%% . 4%%14%%"'. 4%%% . Fct. [G3 v.. [Claridades. a contract void a1 initio. 1. &ontrato ine%istente. 1..

at)erin. [=ondano v. &ontrol. 4. <)is doctrine may 1e stated as follo*s> If t)e ne. R( 4"4 '. as amended'.li. &ontrolled precursors and essential chemicals.s related offense. Com+are *it) )upervision. %%. or +ro+erty 1elieved to 1e derived directly or indirectly from any offense. <)e +o*er to e0ercise a controllin. 4. &ontrol. =anila Railroad Co.) one or more controlled com+anies. influence over t)e mana. suc) ne. e7ui+ment or +ara+)ernalia. &ontrolled delivery. <)ose listed in <a1les I and II of t)e 1 && G@ Convention (. [=a-ao 3u.ar Central v..li. (dmin. 1 %'.erous dru.nment of any dan. or to facilitate +rosecution of t)at offense. GR L88%&.li. [Rakes v. 1ut t)e amount recovera1le s)all 1e miti. (ny +erson *)o o*ns 1eneficially. 48. CC'. C(. 3ilvosa.. 9ut if t)e ne. 1. [3ec $.li. <)e investi. Cor+ La*. suc) ne. =ay $%. 1 !!'.. (G C 6. securities of any com+any s)all 1e +resumed not to control suc) com+any.ence of t)e +laintiff is merely contri1utory to )is ne. Del 6rado v. [3ec. (ny +erson *)o does not so more t)an t)irty +er centum of t)e votin.li. (u. *)ic) is an inte.ence of t)e +laintiff *ould 1e an a1solute 1ar to recovery.ence of t)e defendant in 1rin. in2ury com+lained of.li. @IRC. unless suc) +o*er is solely t)e result of an official +osition *it) suc) com+any. eit)er directly or t)rou.) or out of t)e country under t)e su+ervision of an aut)orized officer.ement or +olicies of a com+any. to +ass into.ated 1y t)e courts. concurrin. of t)e total votin.211 in2ured *)ic). F*ners)i+ of stocks in a cor+oration +ossessin.erous dru.ence. more t)an t)irty +er centum of t)e votin.ment of t)e former for t)at of t)e latter. !4 6)il. 418 . $5.lectric Co. [3ec $.ence of t)e +laintiff coo+erated *it) t)e ne. [3ec. +o*er of all classes of stocks entitled to vote. *it) t)e defendant:s ne.ence *ould not 1e a 1ar to recovery.ative tec)ni7ue of allo*in.ainst Illicit <raffic in @arcotic Dru. R( 1"!'. La*. securities of a com+any s)all 1e +resumed to control suc) com+any. =anila .s and 6syc)otro+ic 3u1stances as enumerated in t)e attac)ed anne0. and/or controlled +recursor and essential c)emical. Can.co v. is t)e +ro0imate cause of t)e in2ury.li.in. a1out t)e accident causin. <)e +o*er of an officer to alter or modify or nullify or set aside *)at a su1ordinate officer )ad done in t)e +erformance of )is duties and to su1stitute t)e 2ud. 8 6)il $! . at least fifty-one +ercent -!1V. $.ral +art of R( 1"!. $" 6)il 8"". t)rou. *it) a vie* to . evidence to identify any +erson involved in any dan. GR &$5 1. an unla*ful or sus+ect consi. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ence. R( 1"!'. (rt.

reement.ement of t)e em+loyee. Arom Lat. =ar. 4%%% .es. t)e +o*er of dismissal. [Car+io v.overnmental 1ody. La* Rev. Cor+. a 2usticia1le dis+ute. <an. stock)older. in a court of la*. involvin. t)e selection and en.lements -*)ic). &onvene. ( liti. La* Revie*er. 1%!'.reements. usually restricted to some tec)nical matters. -1 &... citin. GR L-&1$11.kod sa 6ama)alaan n. <)e term is no* used 1y t)e Gnited nations for a. +. Ae1. [Qa+atiran n. 4%.lilin. 1ureaus. Le.ally 1indin.> -a. 4%%4.d. [Intl. '. 3ec. 6ol. 4. Intl. 4%%5'. Const. 1 &. 6ili+inas. eit)er at la* or in e7uity. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. <o call to.d. GR 1158$$. 3e+. &onvention. 15. #une $%.ated 7uestion. La* Dict. 5 4'. <)e rule t)at t)e nationality of t)e +rivate cor+oration is determined 1y t)e citizens)i+ of its controllin. 1 4'. GR "5% . 4. Inc. $ . &ontrol powers of the #resident. GR 8!%4!. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1st . -1. [Diaz. m. [6(L v.anization..a @a..et)er. La* Dict. =oreno. 1 8' &ontroversy.d. [3uarez. GR 14%!"8.. 1$"'. 15. +. &ontrol test. 1 &&'. -c. &ontrol test. v. +. 6)il. 1 $'. #an. and -d. adversary +roceedin. &onventional constitution. 1. @LRC. CF(. +.et)er. &ontrol$ power of.d. t)e +ayment of *a. La*. and offices... +. La*. constitute t)e relia1le yardstick -*)enever t)e e0istence of an em+loyment relations)i+ is in dis+ute. t)e em+loyer:s +o*er to control t)e em+loyee:s conduct. <)e +o*er of an officer to alter or modify or nullify or set aside *)at a su1ordinate officer )ad done in t)e +erformance of )is duties and to su1stitute t)e 2ud. (n officer *)o audits accounts and su+ervises t)e financial affairs of a cor+oration or of a .0ec. ( fundamentally acce+ted +rinci+le in Constitutional La* t)at t)e 6resident )as control of all e0ecutive de+artments. 1 &4 ed. all or almost all mem1ers of t)e Gnited @ations on a +articular su12ect. La1or. v.o. 45!'. La*.reement 1et*een states s+onsored 1y an international or. [Co7uia and rd 3antia. or convoke. . ( multilateral treaty or a. 3ee &oordinator..212 &ontroller. suc) as t)e Dienna Convention on <reaties. a civil action or suit. 9us. .ment of t)e former for t)e latter. 1 1 .. ( constitution enacted deli1erately and consciously 1y a constituent 1ody or ruler at a certain time and +lace. a. cause to assem1le.a. [(urora Land 6ro2ects Cor+. [Garcia v. C Direct. convenire> to come to. @LRC.

1 1 . *it) t)e o1li. &onvertible bond. &onversion. 1"'.itimate +ayments made 1y reason of t)e sale as *ell as t)e necessary and useful e0+enses made on t)e t)in. <)e +eriod a.. 84 '. Com+are *it) 6egal redemption.ea1le 1y t)e stock)older from one class to anot)er class -suc) as from +referred to &onventional period. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. . [3ec.)ts of a creditor 1y e0+ress a. 3u1ro. on Comml. Com+are *it) . citin. " '. &onvertible share.isappropriate. (n unaut)orized assum+tion and e0ercise of t)e ri. limited to a stated +eriod of time or conversion +eriod and made at a +rescri1ed rate of e0c)an. is usually at t)e o+tion of t)e 1ond-)older.inal creditor and t)e t)ird +erson -ne* creditor. Redem+tion t)at takes +lace *)en t)e vendor reserves t)e ri. Fne *)ic) may 1e e0c)an. R( 4&!'.e. Crim. &onventional redemption. C(. ! '. Commentaries and #uris+.d. t)e e0+enses of t)e contract and any ot)er le.e or conversion ratio. R( 4&!'. La*. 9us.reed u+on..ation to return to t)e vendee t)e +rice of t)e sale. &onvert. [Diaz. ( forei. 1"%1 and 1"1". &onvention award. [(rts.reed u+on 1y t)e +arties.reement of t)e de1tor. 9us.. (lso ?oluntary period. 1 & .ed for anot)er security. [Diaz. <)e conversion +rivile.d. 14t) . 9ouvier:s La* Dict.n ar1itral a*ard made in a Convention 3tate. Dol.)ts. 6eo+le. &onventional subrogation. II Reyes. a matter of contract. Cor+. sold. CC'. 1 1 .213 Com+are *it) constitution. and en2oyment [<rinidad v. use. to anot)er.ation *)ic) takes +lace *)en a t)ird +erson ac7uires all t)e ri.)t to re+urc)ase t)e t)in. and *it) ot)er sti+ulations *)ic) may )ave 1een a. +. +. in t)e alteration of t)eir condition or t)e e0clusion of t)e o*ner:s ri. sold. [3y v. in addition. resultin. $.d. and. La* Rev. [=artin. Cor+. GR &!8&!. usually stock.)t of o*ners)i+ over .. [3ec. 1 && Rev. citin. La*. +.. (+r. t)e ori. ( s)are *)ic) is converti1le or c)an. (lso referred to as t)e Doctrine of substitution..in.'. It takes +lace *)en a +erson actually a++ro+riates t)e +ro+erty of anot)er to )is o*n 1enefit.oods or +ersonal c)attels 1elon. La*s. +. 45. <o use or dis+ose of anot)er:s +ro+erty as if it *ere one:s o*n.d. La* Rev. !$ FG 8$1. &umulative &onvention state. 1. La*. ( 3tate t)at is a mem1er of t)e @e* ?ork Convention. $.

2ud.ela .. &onveyance.ainst a criminal defendant. $.a. Fften denotes t)e 4inal (udgment of the court. Ins. 1 "&'.. suc) as a mort.ed. 4'. 1et*een +ersons livin. 9roadly. <)at assistance *)ic) (rt.ros Fcc.. +.ly and intentionally . an accused may t)en 1e sentenced. alienated.a. [<orres v. -i. 4%%5'. t)e conveyance usually refers to t)e actual document *)ic) transfers o*ner-s)i+.ation. ( 2ud.214 common. 1 81. 18 of t)e Rev. CAI @e. $1. 4.al Dict. It is t)e ultimate .e.ment of .ed . to transfer +ro+erty or title to +ro+erty from one +erson to anot)er. 1. R( 4"4 '. "$'.uilty of a crime or misdemeanor.ed. title t)ereof. [Du)aime:s Le.. 1 &8'.d. of a court t)at a +erson )as. 5. +. ( verdict 2ud. $. Fne *)o )as 1een finally condemned 1y a court. &onviction. if suc) verdict. 1 &8'. 9allesteros. 1eyond reasona1le dou1t..uilt a. It si. n. set aside.. )o*ever. mort. <)e formal decision of a criminal trial *)ic) finds t)e accused .oal of t)e +rosecution and t)e result resisted 1y t)e defense. one *)o )as 1een ad2ud. 1$ C#.state v. #uly $1.uilty as c)ar. GR L-4!541.uilty.d. 4. 4%%% . [6atalin. or *)ic) c)ar. It may. committed t)e crime for *)ic) )e )as 1een accused. 1%"'. GR 8"&84. 4%%5'.ment or sentence t)at t)e +risoner is .e or any ot)er transaction.uilty. Cor+. Gonzales. citin. is kno*in. GR 8"&84.nifies every instrument 1y *)ic) any estate or interest in real estate is created. It may refer not only to an a1solute sale 1ut also to mort. 1. In real-estate la*. at a certain +rice and *it)in a certain +eriod. 1& C#3. [<orres v. ( clause *)ic) +rovides in essence t)at t)e insured s)all Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 & . &onvey. Gonzales. [(n.. (nnotated. 4.ment.ned.ment or +lea )as not 1een reversed. <)e result of a criminal trial *)ic) ends in a 2ud.e. &ooperation. Code of t)e 6)il.. =ar. GR L-48%&5. *)et)er or not sentence )as 1een im+osed. &onvict.e of t)e criminal +ur+ose. [De Leon. [3ec. [=orenoEs La* Dict. ( *ritten document *)ic) transfers +ro+erty from one +erson to anot)er.al Dict. &ooperation clause. 1. <o condemn after a 2udicial investi. %%.a. include any ot)er transaction 1y *)ic) any interest in real estate is created s)ort of transferrin. [Du)aime:s Le. or *it)dra*n. 6enal Code +rescri1es of an accom+lice -t)at. Fnce convicted. 4%%5'.al <erms -6ro-3e. [Glossary of Le.. or +lea of . #uly 4$. It is t)e findin. or assi.)ud v. ot)er t)an 1y *ill. #uly 4$.iven and is not +ossi1le *it)out +rior kno*led. v.es t)e land *it) anot)er:s interest.

R( " $& entitled I(n (ct to Frdain a Coo+erative Code of t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on =arc) 1%. usually re7uirin.et)er to ac)ieve a la*ful common social and economic end.anize t)emselves for t)e +ur+ose of +oolin. [3ec. *it) a common 1ond of interest.e of t)e re.istered association of +ersons. &ooperative banks. ! -&. one vote. farm*orkers.ive all suc) information and assistance as t)e insurer may re7uire. and o+erated on t)e +rinci+le of one mem1er. *it) t)e same ri. R( &54!'.ency in c)ar. and su1se7uently to or. [3ec. 4.istered association of at least fifteen -1!. It is or.anized 1y t)e mem1ers *)o e7uita1ly contri1ute t)e re7uired s)are ca+ital and acce+t a fair s)are of t)e risks and 1enefits of t)eir undertakin. +eo+le or farmer families in modern met)ods in a. <)e trainin.anize and Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( duly re.. land. +ersons. attendance at trials or )earin. a common 1ond of interest. 5.215 . ( duly re.istered association of +ersons *it) a common 1ond of interest *)o )ave voluntarily 2oined to. )avin. R( &5$!'. e7uita1le contri1utions to t)e ca+ital re7uired and acce+tin. ma2ority of *)ic) are +oor. makin.rarian reform 1eneficiaries *)o voluntarily or. tec)nolo. &ooperative..et)er to ac)ieve a la*ful common social economic end. Com+ilation of @otes.ulation of coo+eratives. (. a fair s)are of t)e risks and 1enefits of t)e undertakin.riculture and coo+erative livin. )uman. 1 %.ricultural +roducers. $.)ts and duties as a natural +erson. e7uita1le contri1utions to t)e ca+ital re7uired and acce+tin. in accordance *it) universally acce+ted coo+erative +rinci+les. R( ""!8'. ( 2uridical +erson may 1e a mem1er of a coo+erative. in accordance *it) t)e universally acce+ted cor+orate +rinci+les and +ractices. 5. a fair s)are of t)e risks and 1enefits of t)e undertakin. 9anks *)ose o*ners are farmer:s associations or coo+eratives. *)o voluntarily 2oin to. or ot)er a.J &ooperative Development Authority 2&DA3. &ooperative settlement training.overnment a.s. financial or ot)er economic resources.rou+ of youn. <)e . 1. $. in accordance *it) universally acce+ted coo+erative +rinci+les.anizations com+osed +rimarily of small a. *)o )ave voluntarily 2oined to. of a . makin.istration and re. R( 8"%8'. [3ec. [(rt. [3ec. &ooperative &ode of the #hilippines.et)er to ac)ieve a la*ful common social and economic end. R( " $&'. farmers. [3ec. $. 5. &ooperatives. 4%%1-4%%"'. ( duly re. [Claridades. R( 8"%8'.ical. Fr.

inal literary or artistic *ork..al Dict. Larmonious com1ination. 4"-1. R( 5% !'.. multi+ly. a su1stantial +art of t)e ori. co+y. s)eets.inal Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .d. (ny +erson *)o e0ercises control and su+ervision over t)e collector or a. 4%%% .oods. IRR of LC'. In t)e la* of trademark.ots. B)et)er esta1lis)ed 1y la* or 1y a. +. stri+s. Fct.216 locate t)em in coo+erative settlement. distri1ute.ly similar mark and uses it in t)e same or related . [3ec. <eves. &opper smelting and refining. 1%8'..ravin. to e0)i1it.reement entered into 1et*een t)e Government and one or more contractors in accordance *it) 3ec. ( form of trust and every co-o*ner is a trustee for t)e ot)er. [3ec. 4. +u1lis). to com+lete or e0ecute if it 1e a model or desi. [Du)aime:s Le. [3otto v. CC'. to dramatize it if it 1e a non-dramatic *ork. [3ec. rods castin. 5&5.)t to +roduce or re+roduce -co+y. of R( 8 54. $1. suc) as in. 1. re+resent. to sell any manuscri+t or any record *)atsoever t)ereof. +)otoen.)t> -a.ent. it not re+roduced in co+ies for sale. 1 8&'. 4. 1. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [=orenoEs La* Dict. +erform..)t 1elon. sell.d. <)e e0clusive ri. +.ra+)s. t)e +ro+erty or t)in. [(rt. 4. [3ec. &oordination. <)e manufacture of co++er into 1asic forms. to different +ersons. GR L-$&%1&.in.ements or ada+tations t)ereof. to +rint. )eld +ro-indiviso is im+ressed *it) a fiducial nature t)at eac) co-o*ner 1ecomes a trustee for t)e 1enefit of )is co-o*ners and may not do any act +re2udicial to t)e interest of )is co o*ners.. 1. R( 4&8'. <)e o*ners)i+ of an undivided t)in. In co-o*ners)i+. 4. and make +)oto. or re+roduce.ly ado+ts a confusin. 4%%% . and +ictorial illustrations of t)e *orks. <)e e0clusive ri.n. t)e *ork in any manner or 1y any met)od *)atever for +rofit or ot)er*ise.s and e0trusion. to make any ot)er use or dis+osition of t)e *ork consistent *it) t)e la*s of t)e land. !. +roduce. Co+yin. -1. &opyright infringement. &opyright. 9ook 4. 1ars. to +erform in +u1lic or to +u1lis) an ori. circles. t)e relations)i+ of eac) coo*ner to t)e ot)er co-o*ners is fiduciary in c)aracter and attri1ute. -c. &oordinator. &o-production agreement 2&A3. 6D 5 '. to convert it into a non-dramatic *ork if it 1e a drama.s. or ri. (lso &ontroller$ )upervisor$ "ncargado or variants t)ereof.reement of t)e coo*ners.. -d. (n a. sections. 1%8'. &opy. 4%%5'. Rule 1. to make any translation or ot)er version or e0tracts or arran. one *)o kno*s of anot)er trademark and kno*in. re+rint. 1illets. &o-ownership.

6D 141 '. . DFL (dmin.ation of coral skeleton. ( +unis)ment for some violation of conduct *)ic) involves t)e infliction of +ain on. 4%%% . 5.. 5. ( natural a. &oronary occlusion. GR L-$!&%%. [3ec. 1 &8'. 4. [3ec. 3c)midt:s (tty. Le. soft. of a coronary artery. [6a-ac v.al =ed. @ov. li. &oral reef. 1 &8'.. 4$. 5. ( condition c)aracterized 1y a )ardenin. 1.. [3ec. a term a++lied to vessels.in.on-3uyoc =ines. $. off. [6a-ac v. GR L-$!&%%. Ito.. GR L$!&%%.anisms 1elon.5 to %.in. Ito.s t)at meets t)e )ealt) care needs of t)e ma2ority of t)e +o+ulation. [3ec. +. [9autista v.. Ito. it refers to t)e entire trans+arent structure formin.on-3uyoc =ines. &orneal e%cision. <)e sur. to 6)ylum coelenterata *)ic) secrete t)eir o*n skeletons of various forms t)at may 1e )ard. s)elves and atolls or any of t)e marine coelenterate animals livin. Commonly referred to as =eart attack. in intertidal and su1tidal marine *aters.. +.ncirclin. BCC. 1 "! 3u+.d. 1%8'. etc. &oronary thrombosis.re.ical removal of corneal tissue from cadaver eyes for t)e +ur+ose[ of eye 1ankin. (s suc). *it) or *it)out livin. 1 &8'. DFL (dmin. citin. Frder 11!'. <)e )ard calcareous su1stance made u+ of t)e skeleton of marine coelenterate +oly+s *)ic) include reefs. #uly 4$. 3mall anemone-like or. &orporal punishment.. and trans+lant.)ly 1! millimeters diameter and %. t)e tissue *ould 1e rou.in. in colonies *)ere t)eir skeletons form a stony mass. [3ec. 5. &orneal tissue. <)e sudden +lu. Commonly referred to as =eart attack.aments. or )arm to t)e 1ody. or closin. R( &!!%'. R( ""8!'. ( fine or im+risonment is not considered to 1e cor+oral +unis)ment -in t)e latter case. coral +oly+s. [=orenoEs La* Dict. of t)e arteries *)ic) su++ly 1lood to t)e )eart muscle. &oronary. in t)e manner of a cro*n. [6a-ac v.Es Dict. R( &!!%'. Le. $. &ore list. "'. and t)ickenin. to anot)er.al =ed. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . of t)e artery 1y a 1lood clot develo+in. GR L-54&&!. &oral. [3ec. &oronary arteriosclerosis.on3uyoc =ines. <)e occlusion. stony or )orny. of =ed.21 *ork 1elon. Aor +ur+oses of tissue retrieval and eye 1ankin. Le. Le. 1 88. occurrin.al =ed. #uly 4$. *it)in t)e vessel.al =ed. #uly 4$.! millimeters in t)ickness. t)e anterior +art of t)e fi1rous tunic of t)e eye +lus 4 to $ millimeters of scleral tissue. Frder 11!'. ( list of dru.

&orporate books and records. t)e 1usiness for *)ic) it *as esta1lis)ed.. or of t)e 1oard of directors or trustees. #rimary franchise. &orporate franchise. for t)e +ur+ose of +rosecutin.. [3ec. )o* aut)orized. 4%%14%%"'. and defendin. <)e deat) +enalty is t)e most drastic form of cor+oral +unis)ment and is also called Ca+ital +unis)ment. &orporate enterprise theory. in *)ic) is set fort) in detail t)e time and +lace of )oldin. Code'. and t)ere-u+on t)e incor+orators.21! alt)ou. 3ee #iercing the veil of corporate entity 2or fiction3 doctrine.ation of +ersons doin. <)e date *)en a +rivate cor+oration formed or or. for t)ree -$. *as re. t)at t)e cor+oration is not merely an artificial 1ein. (. Cor+.C issues a certificate of incor+oration under its official seal. 1usiness or an underlyin.al Dict. or *)ose cor+orate e0istence for ot)er +ur+oses is terminated in any ot)er manner. Code'.. Cor+. years after t)e time *)en it *ould )ave 1een so dissolved.iven. [Du)aime:s Le. Records of all 1usiness transactions of a cor+oration ke+t and carefully +reserved at its +rinci+al office includin.ular or s+ecial.) t)e 1ody is confined. 1usiness unit. Com+ilation of @otes. Code'. &orporate alter ego doctrine. 1 . 1ut not for t)e +ur+ose of continuin. stock)olders or mem1ers and t)eir successors s)all constitute a 1ody +olitic and cor+orate under t)e name stated in t)e articles of incor+oration for t)e +eriod of time mentioned t)erein. 85.anized under t)e Cor+oration Code commences to )ave cor+orate e0istence and 2uridical +ersonality and is deemed incor+orated *)ic) is reckoned from t)e date t)e 3. 3ee &orporate liquidation.. and every act done or ordered done at t)e meetin.. <)e t)eory es+ousin. 1ut more of an a. Cor+. unless said +eriod is e0tended or t)e cor+oration is sooner dissolved in accordance *it) la*. [3ec. to dis+ose of and convey its +ro+erty and to distri1ute its assets. [3ec. t)e notice . <)e continuation as a 1ody cor+orate of a cor+oration *)ose c)arter e0+ires 1y its o*n limitation or is annulled 1y forfeiture or ot)er*ise. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . no +unis)ment is inflicted u+on t)e 1ody.re.. 4%%5'.s of stock)olders or mem1ers. t)e minutes of all meetin. suits 1y or a. [Claridades.. if s+ecial its o12ect. t)e meetin.ainst it and ena1lin. it to settle and close its affairs. t)ose +resent and a1sent. 144. &orporate e%istence$ commencement of. *)et)er t)e meetin.

) it *ere a +erson 1y +rocess of fiction or 1y re. 3. attri1utes and +ro+er-ties e0+ressly aut)orized 1y la* or incident to its e0istence. Ffficer of a cor+oration res+onsi1le for t)e official documents of t)e cor+oration suc) as t)e official seal.)t of succession and t)e +o*ers. &orporate term. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 458'. of an officer or director takin.iven t)at c)aracter eit)er 1y t)e Cor+. 1. <)e cor+orate term as ori. 1 41 $'. it to 1e &orporate opportunity doctrine.C.d. La* Rev. Cor+. B)ile not in fact and in reality a +erson. 4. &orporation aggregate.21" &orporate officers. <)is doctrine rests fundamentally of t)e unfairness. <)e doctrine under *)ic) cor+orate officers are not +ermitted to t)e use t)eir +osition of trust and confidence to furt)er t)eir interests.d. advanta. 1 8 '. Cor+.le instance 1y an amendment of t)e articles of in-cor+oration. years in any sin. years from t)e date of incor+oration unless sooner dissolved or unless said +eriod is e0tended.al Dict. Code or t)e 1y-la*s.ardin.e of an o++ortunity for )is o*n +ersonal +rofit *)en t)e interest of t)e cor+oration 2ustly calls for +rotection. (n entity se+arate and distinct from its stock)olders... it as an artificial +erson distinct and se+arate from its individual stock)olders. Code'. 4%%5'. <)e +lace stated in t)e la* creatin. [Du)aime:s Le. and minutes of all 1oard or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (n artificial 1ein. &orporation.d. 9us. [Gokon. &orporation by estoppel. t)e cor+oration or in its (rticles of Incor+oration.. 1 & '. Code of t)e 6)il.s. +. It is +recisely a reco. 1&.nition 1y t)e courts t)at t)e fiduciary standards could not 1e u+)eld *)ere t)e fiduciary *as actin. [De Leon. ( cor+oration com+osed of several natural +ersons. t)e ri.. (+r. [Diaz. &orporate residence. <)e +eriod *it)in *)ic) a cor+oration s)all e0ist *)ic) s)all not e0ceed fifty -!%. created 1y o+eration of la*. Fnly t)ose officers *)o are . [3ec. fifty -!%. )avin. in accordance *it) t)e Cor+oration Code. &orporate secretary. subsidiaries.. (nnotated. (+r. 4%%% . interests. in +articular circumstances. 3ee committee meetin. [Remo v.*ei v. 1 1 . for t*o entities *it) com+etin. ++.inally stated in t)e articles of incor+oration may 1e e0tended for +eriods not e0ceedin. GR L-5! 11. 11. t)e la* treats a cor+oration as t)ou. &orporate offsprings. +. records of s)ares issued. Cor+. 6ersons *)o assume to act as a cor+oration kno*in. Code'. GR "8"4".. I(C. 4. 1%&'. [3ec. 1 & . 11.

GR 11%1%8.. [6eo+le v. lia1ilities and dama. Roman Cat)olic C)urc). GR 11%1%8.. 1is)o+. and -1. e. minister. &orporation by prescription. 4 . t)is le. <)e 1ody -material su1stance. +ro+erty and tem+oralities of any reli.. elder of suc) reli. t)at some +erson is criminally res+onsi1le for t)e act.. as a defense its lack of cor+orate +ersonality.al creation *as desi. 4. 6enal Code> 6rision correccional. t)e cor+se of a murdered man or t)e c)arred remains of a )ouse 1urned 1y an arsonist. Code'. [3ec. 1 9ouvier:s La* Dict.ious denomination. <)ose *)o com+ose a cor+oration. [6eo+le v..eneral +artners for all de1ts. ( s+ecial form of cor+oration usually associated *it) t)e cler.. B)en sued on any transaction entered 1y it as a cor+oration or on any tort committed 1y it as suc). &orporators. . GR L-8!%54. v. 4%%5'. &orpus delicti. Com+ilation of @otes.. ( cor+oration formed 1y t)e c)ief arc)1is)o+. &orrectional penalties. 1 !'. sect or c)urc) for t)e +ur+ose of administerin. [#uristEs Le. In a derivative sense.in.. "&4-"&$'. )as 1een 1urned. e.. as a result t)ereof. @ov.. 4". <)ey are lia1le as . 1 &&.y. u+on *)ic) a crime )as 1een committee. u+on *)ic) a crime )as 1een committed. +. $. *)et)er as stock)olders or as mem1ers. !. Conceived and introduced into t)e common la* 1y s)eer necessity. &orporation sole. for e0am+le a man )as died or a 1uildin..al Dict. &orpus delicti. ra11i or ot)er +residin. #an. Lorenzo.ned to facilitate t)e e0ercise of t)e functions of o*ners)i+ carried on 1y t)e clerics for and on 1e)alf of t)e c)urc) *)ic) *as re. 1. 4". Code'. are correctional +enalties under t)e Rev. Cor+.al Dict. <)at a certain result )as 1een +roved. 4. 41. Cor+. &orporation &ode.es incurred or arisin. 1 &%.ious denomination. as trustee. Cor+. it means t)e su1stantial fact t)at a crime *as committed.n +o*er.22# *it)out aut)ority to do so. [3ec. 4%%5'.. (.arded as t)e +ro+erty o*ner [Re+. +riest.. 1. [#uristEs Le. ( cor+oration *)ic) )as e0ercised cor+orate +o*ers for an indefinite +eriod *it)out interference on t)e +art of t)e soverei. [Claridades. . 4%%14%%"'.. 96 "& entitled I<)e Cor+oration Code of t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on =ay 1. [3ec.. and mana. citin.lements> -a. <)e 1ody -material su1stance. it is esto++ed from usin. Code'. Lorenzo. t)e affairs. <)e follo*in. 1 !'. t)e cor+se of a murdered man or t)e c)arred remains of a )ouse 1urned do*n. #an. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . sect or c)urc). 11%. I(C.

[Intl. [3ec. 41% and 411 of t)e Rev. 3ee &orrosive. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o in time of *ar. R( "4$!'.e 1attery. 14%. 4!-4". [Glossary of Le. &orrespondence with hostile country. [Intl. R6C'. La* Dict. ( reci+rocal or com+lementary relations)i+. &orrosive liquid. 3u++lementary evidence t)at tends to stren. Crim. 4%%5'. [3ec.iven t)e .aseous. $5%. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all )ave made t)e offers or +romises or . destierro. solid or . &orroborative evidence. 4%%1-4%%"'. [Claridades.vidence *)ic) is of a different kind and c)aracter as t)at already . ( 1ank *)ic) acts as an a.anic matter or *it) certain c)emicals. 4. C Direct. La* Dict. and fine. 4%%5'. *)ic) t)rou.iven and tends to +rove t)e same +ro+osition. Com+are *it) &umulative evidence.221 arresto mayor. It s)all include 1ut not limited to alkaline 1attery fluid +acked *it) em+ty stora. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Crim. eit)er li7uid.. Com+ilation of @otes.e to satisfy t)e lust of anot)er. [(rt. [(rt. *)ic) does not e0ceed ". 5. sus+ension. . GR "4 !. (. &orruption of public officials. alkyl c)loroformate. tissue *ill cause destruction of tissue 1y c)emical action.) c)emical reaction *ears a*ay. &orrespondent bank. im+airs or consumes any o12ect. ammonium dinitro-ort)ocresolate and ot)er similar materials and su1stances. =ova1le c)attels. "%emplary damages. [G3 v. La*. 3e+. (ny li7uid *)ic) causes fire *)en in contact *it) or. 4.. La*. a de+osit 1alance for t)e latter. 1 11'. &orrective damages. R6C'. !. &orruption of minors. &osas muebles.al <erms -6ro-3e.%%% +esos 1ut is not less t)an 4%% +esos. [(rts.ifts or +resents as descri1ed in (rt. R( 8$ 5'. 4%%5'.. 1.le of as an alternative +enalty. R6C'. &orrelative. (ny su1stance *)ic) on contact *it) livin. C Direct. s)all )ave corres+ondence *it) an enemy country or territory occu+ied 1y enemy troo+s.. [(rt. (ny su1stance or material. R6C'.ent of anot)er 1ank. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all +romote or facilitate t)e +rostitution or corru+tion of +ersons undera. $. 6D 11&!'. Carlos. 1. Crim. 1. 3+.t)en or confirm t)e initial evidence. alkytric)lorosilane. *)et)er im+osed as a sin. 414. 6enal Code. [(rt. La*. es+ecially in carryin.

)t to t)e named destination. <)e e0+enses Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . C Direct. 3)i+ment contracts.. <)e indication of t)e amount of outlay t)at t)e . and must also +rocure marine insurance a.ulations in force. [=emo. (ll direct costs and e0+enses necessarily incurred to +rovide t)e services re7uired 1y t)e customers and clients includin.ainst t)e 1uyer:s risk of loss to t)e . Co. consultants and s+ecialists directly renderin.oods to a named +ort of destination. &ost of living inde% ad(ustment clauses. 5. R6C'.e. and -1. 1 &8'.. t)e a++earance. [(rt.)t necessary to 1rin. introduced into or ot)er*ise a++lied to t)e )uman 1ody or any +art t)ereof for clean-sin. t)e . t)e carria. -a. 4%%5'. article intended for use as a com+onent of any suc) article e0ce+t t)at suc) term s)all not include soa+. &osts. Costs s)all include fees and indemnities in t)e course of t)e 2udicial +roceedin. Clauses *idely used in commercial contracts -t)e +ur+ose of *)ic) is. 1 & '. [Intl. <)e terms in a contract of sale of .overnment s+ent or +aid for ac7uirin. #uly 4&. GR &!151. to maintain fiscal sta1ility and to retain -Oreal +esoE. t)e service suc) as de+reciation or rental of e7ui+ment used and cost of su++lies. 1 &'. GR L-5"! 1.oods to t)e named destination 1ut t)e risk of loss or dama. I@C. @IRC..)t necessary to 1rin. @avarro.e 9ank v. s+rinkled or s+rayed on. cost of facilities directly utilized in +rovidin. *)et)er t)ey 1e fi0ed or unaltera1le amounts +reviously determined 1y la* or re. R( 8$ 5'. [Intl.)t necessary to 1rin..s and =ort. &ost of acquisition.e to t)e . [(rt. C Direct. +oured. La* Dict. 48. 1.oods to t)e named +ort of destination.a. <)e term means t)at t)e +rice fi0ed includes in a lum+ sum t)e cost of t)e .oods *)ere1y t)e seller must +ay t)e cost and frei. (rticles intended to 1e ru11ed. dated (u. 4. 4.oods durin. @ov. C(.222 &osmetics. t)e . &ost of services. t)e . salaries and em+loyee 1enefits of +ersonnel. t)e service and -1. 4&. or amounts not su12ect to sc)edule. 1eautifyin.oods +ass t)e s)i+:s rail in t)e +ort of s)i+ment. La* Dict. as amended'.oods and frei. or alterin. It sim+ly means t)at t)e seller must +ay t)e costs and frei. term contracts. value to t)e +rice terms of lon. &ost$ insurance and freight 2&143. t)e +ro+erty.s. -a. [Aili+ino =erc)ants Ins.. 3ec. +romotin. from t)e .0ec.oods *)ere1y t)e seller must +ay t)e costs and frei. 1.oods is transferred from t)e seller to t)e 1uyer *)en t)e . $8.. [3ec. attractiveness. v. [9anco Aili+ino 3avin. <)e terms in a contract of sale of . 4%. 4%%5'. &ost and freight 2& F 43.

1 &.d. +. [6ineda. 1% '. [=orenoEs La* Dict. Rule 8. &ounsel de oficio. one or more attorneys re+resentin.-. 4%%% . +rimarily indi. a la*yer a++ointed or en. 9ook $. it *it) re. Fct.a. Fne en. ( fee o1li. $rd . &ounselor. rd [Be1ster:s $ @e* Intl.d. 4%%5'.ed to advise and re+resent in le. usually an indi..e in ans*er to anot)er c)ar. 4%%% .al adviser.al advocate mana.. 1. (n attorney at la*.. +. [Glossary of Le.223 of +rosecutin. &ounsel. +. &otton 1ndustry Development 6aw of +. ( c)ar. ( la*yer or attorney a++ointed 1y t)e court to re+resent a +arty.%%%.ement of a cause in court. a le. Le..ed in an economic endeavor in *)ic) t)e +roducts are +rimarily done in t)e )ome or suc) ot)er +laces for +rofit *)ic) re7uires manual de0terity and craftsmans)i+ and *)ose ca+italization does not e0ceed 6!%%. &ounsel fee.e or a.a. +arty. ( modest economic activity for +rofit usin..al Dict. 3ee also &ourt-appointed attorney.ed in t)e trial or mana. 1 "". (n amount of money may 1e a*arded to t)e successful +arty -and may 1e recovera1le from t)e losin. 11.F 18. +. or defendin. [3ec.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 &$'. t)e 6)ili++ine Cotton Cor+oration and t)e Cotton Researc) and Develo+ment Institute into a Cotton Develo+ment (dministration.ulatory +o*ers and a++ro+riatin. !1&'.t)ics.. 1.. 4%%% .d. a case at la*. [.. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. &ountercharge. R( &5&" entitled I(n (ct mer. +u1lic officer. +. [9allantine:s La* Dict. +.enerally involve craftsmans)i+.ainst t)e accuser. a term used to refer to la*yers in a case.ardless of +revious re.d.enous ra* materials in t)e +roduction of various articles t)at . as reim1ursement for court costs. [=orenoEs La* Dict.a.al <erms -6ro-3e.d. vestin. funds for t)e +ur+oseJ enacted on Ae1.al and #udicial . [#uristEs Le. ( le.. Dict. 4. re. 1 " . 1!. &ottage industry.. &ottage or handicraft establishment.ated to 1e +aid 1y a client in favor of )is la*yer. a +erson +rofessionally en. 48&'.istration *it) t)e defunct @(CID(. <)e assurance of t)e assistance of counsel. ot)er t)an t)e attorney fees. -1 . 1% '.ent defendant.al matters a +articular client. IRR of LC'.. a la*suit. artistic skills and t)e tradition of t)e country.. 1% '. &ounsel guarantee. in a criminal case.in. (n adviser. &'. 4%%5'. or +u1lic 1ody. +arties in an action.in.

*it)out aut)orization. +rocessor. 1"1.ranted 1y t)e forei. im+ort or utter. (ny consumer +roduct *)ic). 1y +assin.ainst an o++osin. ot)er t)an t)e +erson or +ersons *)o in fact manufactured.d. or for. [Glossary of Le. t)e co+y or t)in. [3ec..nature or stam+ of t)e C)ief . R6C'. 1"8. 1ears t)e trade-mark. RoC'. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all for. Crim. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all for.)t 1y t)e o++osin. (ny access device t)at is counterfeit. or ot)er identifyin. altered. +acker.224 &ounterclaim. [9lackEs La* Dict. 1ut may claim relief e0ceedin.n country on t)e +roduction. and *it) a vie* to deceive or defraud. 4.ers or im+orters. +arty may )ave a. of a consumer +roduct manufacturer. -1 &$. ( claim made 1y t)e defendant in a civil la*suit a. (1r. in connivance *it) t)e for. Crim. &ounterfeit access device. any instrument +aya1le to order or ot)er document of credit not +aya1le to 1earer.)t 1y t)e o++osin. <o for. La*. [(rt. 1. ".e. or any likeness t)ereof.e.. +arty. La*. R( &5&5'. &ounterfeiting$ importing and uttering instruments not payable to bearer. mark. $. or to )ave 1een +acked or distri1uted 1y suc) consumer +roduct manufacturer. +arty:s claim.ed. *it)out aut)ority or ri. 4%%5'. ( duty levied in an amount e7ual to t)e ascertained or estimated amount of t)e 1ounty. +rocessor. or t)e container or la1elin.ed for t)at *)ic) is ori.e t)e Great 3eal of t)e Government of t)e 6)ili++ines or t)e si. for. +. or an identifia1le com+onent of an access device or counterfeit access device. R6C'. fictitious. [(rt. +rocessed.0ecutive. in amount or different in kind from t)at sou. manufacture or e0+ortation into t)e 6)ili++ines of any article likely to in2ure an industry in t)e 6)ili++ines or retard or considera1ly retard t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (ny claim for money or ot)er relief *)ic) a defendin. 5. trade name. [(rt. or device. &ountervailing duty. Rule ".al <erms -6ro3e. +arty. or distri1utor. &ounterfeiting the great seal of the 5overnment of the #hilippines$ forging the signature or stamp of the &hief "%ecutive. !t) .enuine. R( 8$ 5'. of *)ic). im+rint. In essence. 1&5'. to co+y or imitate.)t. &ounterfeit product.ainst t)e +laintiff. +acker.. su1sidy or su1vention . +acked or distri1uted suc) +roduct and *)ic) t)ere1y falsely +ur+orts or is re+resented to 1e t)e +roduct of. distri1utor.inal or . ( counterclaim need not diminis) or defeat t)e recovery sou. a counter la*suit *it)in a la*suit. &ounterfeit. [3ec.

( mac)ine t)at uses o+tical scannin. 8 '.)t Lundred and Aifteen. Commentaries and #uris+. Dol. &oupon bond. [3ec. (ny 1usiness entity. $%4. 1elon. 4%%5'. citin. 3ec. strate.lection *)ere countin./consolidation of results s)all 1e conducted. ( +u1lic +lace desi.otiated cease to 1e mere incidents of t)e 1ond and 1ecome inde+endent claims. [3ec.ainst duly constituted aut)orities of t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines. t)e crime of cou+ d:etat 1y amendin. R( 81"%'. sin. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Fct. C# 3ec. territory. [=artin. &ountervailing measures. 1.n nation.in.ay 9usiness . t)reat.d. 1$5-(. La*. on Comml. device or any similar advanced tec)nolo.H [3ec. <)e cou+ons are sim+le +romissory notes t)at entitle t)e )older to interest *)en due. Cor+. +. or coo+erative re. R6C. of votes and canvassin.nter+rises -Qalakalan 4%. [Intl. <itle <)ree of (ct @um1ered <)irty-ei./mark sense readin. C Direct. [3ec. R( " "& entitled I(n (ct +unis)in.225 esta1lis)ment of suc) industry. 1 && Rev.. R( &5$"'.y or stealt). +u1lic utilities or ot)er facilities needed for t)e e0ercise and continued +ossession of +o*er.. La*s.y to count 1allots. R( &%5"'. 6ol. 4. to t)e military or +olice or )oldin. 4. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 45. &ountryside and barangay business enterprise. 1$1. R( &5$". any +u1lic office of em+loyment *it) or *it)out civilian su++ort or +artici+ation for t)e +ur+ose of seizin. &ounting center. <CC'. .. or diminis)in. or any military cam+ or installation. 4. 1 %. directed a. ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e Rev. Ar. suc) cou+ons may 1e detac)ed and ne. 1$! and 1$" of C)a+ter Fne. communications net*ork. on t)e 1ond to maturity. &ounting machine.na Carta Aor Countryside (nd 9aran. state +o*er.otiated se+arately and once detac)ed and ne. ot)er*ise kno*n as H=a.ly or simultaneously carried out any*)ere in t)e 6)ili++ines 1y any +erson or +ersons.istered under t)e +rovisions of R( "&1%. intimidation. " . La*. (ny inde+endent +olitical unit or soverei. association. &oup d'etat law. colony and +olitical or territorial su1division. 4. [3ec. as amended 1y R( " "&'. Fne to *)ic) are attac)ed cou+ons for t)e several successive installments of interest accruin.nated 1y t)e Commission on . 1$5. &ountry. 6enal Code. 6D 15$$'. ( s*ift attack accom+anied 1y violence. (rts. [(rt. &oup d'etat. La* Dict. ( duty s+ecifically levied to offset a su1sidy.

( +erson *)o transcri1es 1y s)ort)and or steno.s are recorded. ( court *)ic) is 1ound to kee+ a record of its +roceedin. [Du)aime:s Le. a trial court.s. [Glossary of Le.. as reim1ursement for court costs. 4. and maintained as +ermanent records. [Glossary of Le.reement of t)e 6arties *)en as action is +rematurely commenced in violation of suc) a. GR $%& 4. R( 4&!'. &ourt-anne%ed mediation.reement. 4%%5'. [3ec. transcri1ed. ( rat)er arc)aic term used to denote t)e court *)ic) )as t)e ri. 3ee "quity$ courts of..al Dict. 4%%5'. <)e e0+enses of +rosecutin. [Glossary of Le. 1%$. [3ec.al <erms -6ro-3e. 4%%5'. 1..es and *it)out t)e defendant )avin. 4. after suc) court )as ac7uired 2urisdiction of t)e dis+ute.al <erms -6ro3e. Common*ealt) (ct @o. &ourt martial. [=el. ot)er t)an t)e attorney fees. 3ee also &ounsel de oficio.226 &ourt.ar v. ( court *)ere a matter is initiated and )eard in t)e first instance. =ediation ordered 1y a court to 1e conducted in accordance *it) t)e (.al cases.. (n amount of money may 1e a*arded to t)e successful +arty -and may 1e recovera1le from t)e losin.al Dict. a la*suit. 4%%5'.)t to )ear s)i++in. &ourt costs. 4 Cyc. &ourt of origin or original (urisdiction. (ny mediation +rocess conducted under t)e aus+ices of t)e court. usually *it) res+ect to criminal c)ar. 1 4 .0+ressly re+ealed 1y t)e La1or Code'. R( 4&!'. as amended.al <erms -6ro-3e. &ourts of equity.overnment to *)ic) t)e administration of 2ustice is dele. (lso kno*n as =aritime la*. $. &ourt-referred mediation. ( 1ody in . (s referred to in (rt. &ourt of record. " of t)e =odel La*..al Dict.ra+)ically takes do*n testimony durin. 1. $. t)e term s)all mean a R<C.. &ourt of admiralty. 4%%5'. &ourt-appointed attorney. or defendin. ocean and sea le. or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al Dict. citin. [Du)aime:s Le. navy or air force.ado. Del. #uly 44.. 4%%5'. &ourt of 1ndustrial *elations Act. ( court in *)ic) t)e +roceedin. to +ay for t)e re+resentation. court +roceedin. [#uristEs Le. [.s for a +er+etual memorial and testimony t)ereof.. &ourt stenographer. [#uristEs Le. (ttorney a++ointed 1y t)e court to re+resent a defendant. ( military court set u+ to try and +unis) offenses taken 1y mem1ers of t)e army. +arty. 4%%5'. [3ec.ated.. R( 4&!'. "!8"!&'. a de+osition. $.

6ursuant to t)e (nti-=oney Launderin. and -c. series. 1rokers. effect. days e0ce+t t)ose 1et*een a covered institution and a +erson *)o. money c)an.. trade o1li.. 1anks. (n international com+act *)ic) )as 1indin.22 ot)er trial-related +roceedin.e and com+le0 transactions in e0cess of 65.e cor+orations. [3ec.%%%.ko 3entral n. and all ot)er institutions and t)eir su1sidiaries and affiliates su+ervised or re. forei. sales-men. &ovenant. in currency.n e0c)an.le. usually on many 3tates. 7uasi-1anks.ulated 1y t)e 9an. or com1ination of transactions involvin.C. securities dealers.4.ent. R( 1"%'.al Dict. mutual funds. and -iv. money +ayment. 6ursuant to t)e (nti-=oney Launderin.in. &overed transaction. t)e issuance of t)e +olicy. &over note. +ur+ose. or consultant. It like*ise refers to a sin.al or trade o1li. remittance. ( *ritten document in *)ic) si. 4%%5'. 6ili+inas -936..%%%. (ct of 4%%1 -R( 1"%. -iii. La*.al Dict. -ii. 1.n currency 1ased on t)e +revailin.. -1. +re-need com+anies and ot)er similar entities. e0c)an. insurance com+anies and all ot)er institutions su+ervised or re. -1 &. commodities or financial derivatives 1ased t)ereon. or ot)er*ise dealin.. series or com1ination or +attern of unusually lar.d. [3ec. valua1le o12ects. &overed institution.ulated 1y t)e Insurance Commission. no credi1le +ur+ose or ori. 4%%5'. cas) su1stitutes and ot)er similar monetary instruments or +ro+erty su+ervised or re. Intl.ation or contract. services as investment a. a total amount in e0cess of 65. Bit)in si0ty days Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . =ay also 1e called Court re+orter. [#uristEs Le.natories eit)er commit t)emselves to do a certain t)in. R( 1"%'. close and investment com+anies.%%%.%%%.%% es+ecially cas) de+osits and in-vestments )avin.o.ree on a certain set of facts.in. underlyin.le. ori.in or economic 2ustification. [Du)aime:s Le. 1. ot)er entities administerin. securities or renderin. $. (ct of 4%%1 -R( 1"%.ulated 1y 3. le.. [Co7uia and 3antia. investment )ouses and ot)er similar entities mana. and transfer com+anies and ot)er similar entities.. or t)ose *it) an underlyin.%% or an e7uivalent amount in forei. to not do a certain t)in. $. t)e term refers to> -a. trust entities.e rate *it)in five -!. $rd . or in *)ic) t)ey a. common trust funds. +. t)e term refers to a sin. -i..ers. non-1anks. consecutive 1ankin. 5 4'.ation. ( note *)ic) may 1e issued to 1ind insurance tem+orarily +endin. at t)e time of t)e transaction *as a +ro+erly identified client and t)e amount is commensurate *it) t)e 1usiness or financial ca+acity of t)e client. advisor.

orical. [Claridades. t)e trut) or not [6eo+le v. C(. Guidin. [In Re> Ga* C)in. GR L-5 %" . a *itness *)o testifies in a cate.vidence *)ic) is not only admissi1le evidence 1ut also 1elieva1le and used 1y t)e court in decidin. t)e findin. *)o is not a +olice c)aracter and )as no +olice record. [6eo+le v. $1 Fct.)t. [3ec.)t and su1stance t)at *ould )ave affected t)e result of t)e case [6eo+le v. $% 3CR( 18$'. &redible evidence. -1. <)e term. 1 . $%.. and t)at )is *ord may 1e taken on its face value. IC'.reat res+ect since it )ad t)e o++ortunity to e0amine )is demeanor as )e testified on t)e *itness stand. . GR L-4$1% .)tfor*ard. strai. 3e+. t)at )e is kno*n to 1e )onest and u+ri. and. 4!. 1ut t)e +erson makin. (1laza. 4. [6eo+le v. v. 1 " .rated to t)e re. 1 "'. a +olicy s)all 1e issued in lieu t)ereof. <)is im+lies t)at suc) +erson must )ave a . s+ontaneous and frank manner and remains consistent on crosse0amination is a credi1le *itness [6eo+le v.ular +olicies su1se7uently issued. s+ontaneous and frank manner and remains consistent. Ae1. ( *itness *)o testifies in a cate. #une 4 .orical. includin. !4. t)at it )ad overlooked. $ =ay 1 &$. 1 &4'. GR L-1 51 . &raft. means not only an individual *)o )as not 1een +reviously convicted of a crime. 4. as used in t)e Revised @aturalization La*. @ov. 144 3CR( "&"'. Wea. (. 4%%14%%"'. Rosare. 9arros.n. a case. *)o )as not +er2ured in t)e +ast. (moncio. Com+ilation of @otes. GR L-$545 . 1. GR 11&&4$.. it. t)at )e is re+uted to 1e trust*ort)y and relia1le. [6acific <im1er v. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Re+. Fne *)o. It is em+loyed as a sc)eme in t)e e0ecution of t)e crime. GR L$&"1$. unless t)ere is a s)o*in. and -c. 144 3CR( $5'. GR L48$!4. is *ort)y of 1elief. or *)ose affidavit or testimony is not incredi1le. &redible witness. in t)e community. C)icanery resorted to 1y t)e accused to aid in t)e e0ecution of )is criminal desi. rules> -a.s of t)e trial court +ertainin.s of t)e lo*er Court. B)at must 1e credi1le is not t)e declaration made. 1 "5'. &redible persons. com+etent to . can discern if suc) *itness is tellin. 1 &5'. *it)in its terms t)e identical insurance 1ound under t)e cover note and t)e +remium t)erefor. 1ein. misunderstood or misa++lied some fact or circumstance of *ei. 1. t)erefore.ood standin. ( contract and not a mere a++lication for insurance and is deemed inte.ive evidence. 44 #une 1 &$. t)e a++ellate court *ill not distur1 t)e factual findin.22! after t)e issue of t)e cover note. strai. &redibility of a witness.)t-for*ard. to t)e credi1ility of a *itness is entitled to .

$%. of value on credit. cou+on 1ook or ot)er credit device e0istin. R( &!!". ( sum credited on t)e 1ooks of a com+any to a +erson *)o a++ears to 1e entitled to it. F1li. +ro+erty.22" [<orres. la1or or services or any t)in..ood to 1rin. +art of all or t)e +rice is +aya1le su1se7uent to t)e makin. GR L-45!41. $. and increase t)e +ro1a1ility t)at t)e )olders of t)e (93 receive +ayment of amounts due t)em under t)e (93 in accordance *it) t)e +lan for securitization as a++roved 1y t)e 3. t)at *)ic) is due 1y )im. citin. 1. under *)ic). <)at *)ic) is sufficiently . [3ec. contract to sell.ally enforcea1le sc)eme intended to im+rove t)e marketa1ility of t)e asset-1acked securities -(93. and any transaction or series of transactions )avin. lien or +led. R( &5&5'.. deed of trust.uis)ed from de1it. or ot)er credit device e0istin. In Re Aord. +late. +. or ot)er ac7uisition of or any credit u+on t)e security of. demand. (ny card. $. R( ! &%'. Fne *)ic) +romotes t)rift amon. any contract. Dec. R( " $&'. similar +ur+ose or effect. [3ec. <)at *)ic) is due to a +erson. (ny card. 1y reason of +ro+erty or estates to make a +romised +ayment [Re+. eit)er for +resent or future delivery. &redit enhancement. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . la1or or services on credit. 6@9. [Ramos v. 11. out of t)e fore. &5 '. its mem1ers and creates funds in order to .)t-)and side of an account. . or sale or contract of sale of +ro+erty or service. &redit card. Com+are *it) Debit. and may 1e said to im+ly a1ility. C Cont.oods. any o1li. or to t)e ot)er claims a. R( 8$ 5'. &redit. deservin. +. +late.. of suc) sale or contract. !t) .d. Claim or cause of action for s+ecific sum of money. 1. 4nd &5&. 1 "8'. any o+tion. 5. advance or discount. $. 4. $. 4%%% . &redit line. +ro+erty or money. (ny loan. for t)e +ur+ose of o1tainin. &reditable service. money. for t)e +ur+ose of o1tainin. &redit cooperative. any +urc)ase. mort. <)e ma0imum amount *)ic) a 1ank a.ainst. $!%'. cou+on 1ook. financial lease.. [9lackEs La* Dict. esteem. money. or for t)e delivery of. -1 &$.a. GR L-1"1%". [Go1onsen. +ro+erty. R( 4"8'.. 1 "1. (n entry on t)e ri. Dec. v. v.e. 3ec.C. Diaz. [(rt.rees to Lend in a Lum+ sum or 1y several +ayments to t)e customer. as distin. (ny le. 4$. of +raise. 15 A. 41%'. (1r. 4.oin.ation or claim arisin.e.d.. any conditional sales contract. [(rt. It +resu++oses a creditor-de1tor relations)i+. $.rant loans for +roductive and +rovident +ur+oses. and *)ic) may 1e overdra*n 1y +romissory notes. [3ec.

e is im+osed and includes any a..re. eit)er as +rinci+al or as a. casualty. or for no ot)er or a nominal consideration )as t)e o+tion to 1ecome. Insolvency or +rotracted default of t)e forei. 6ossi1le non+ayment of credit . ( transaction 1et*een a natural +erson and a creditor in *)ic) real or +ersonal +ro+erty.ainst risks of devaluation or c)an. 1 !..reement in t)e form of a 1ailment of +roducts or lease of +roducts or real +ro+erty if t)e 1ailee or lessee +ays or a. (ny +erson en.ent *)o re7uires as an incident to t)e e0tension of credit.ular 1usiness +ractice makes loans or sells or rents +ro+erty or services on a time. 5.e. .ate value of t)e +roducts or real +ro+erty involved and it is a. [#uristEs Le.a. &redit sale. and +)ysical dama. )a++enin. moratoria. -d. [(rt.reed t)at t)e 1ailee or lessee *ill 1ecome. &reditor. &redit transaction. 1. accident. restrictions in t)e country of t)e forei. -c. civil distur1ances.ainst risks t)at are normally insured *it) commercial insurers licensed to do 1usiness in t)e 6)ili++ines suc) as fire.oods and or services. ( +erson to *)om a de1t is o*ed 1y anot)er.n customer or of t)e insured. #uly 18. 1 ! -1 &" . e0ce+t a. 6)il. services or an interest in land to a +erson on credit *)ere a de1t is +aya1le in installments or a finance c)ar. ( sale of +roducts. from or occasioned 1y circumstances. or money in t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ation is +aya1le in installment.al Dict.rees to +ay com+ensation for use a sum su1stantially e7uivalent to or in e0cess of t)e a.ranted to a forei. services or money ac7uired on credit and t)e +erson:s o1li. t)e +urc)ase or loan of .. credit and s)all include any +erson *)o as a re. 5.n customer.al .aton 3i1al. GR 1118 8.e rate and a. (. 1.n customer 1y t)e insured in connection *it) an e0+ort transaction resultin.'.overnmental action under circumstances not due to t)e fault of t)e 1uyer *)ic) +revents t)e transfer of +ayment to e0+orters. 4%%5'. 5. surety. services. citin. [3ec. t)e o*ner of t)e +roducts or real +ro+erty u+on full com+liance *it) t)e terms of t)e a. [(rt.d. suc) ot)er risks connected *it) e0+ort transactions on deferred +ayment. R( 8$ 5'. fidelity.23# C(.e. R( "545'.es in t)e e0c)an. or similar circumstances *)ic) +revent t)e +ayment of acce+ted . [(rt. *ar. and -e. Le. -1. t)e +ayment of a finance c)ar.reement. credit or installment 1asis. 4.oods.ncyc. R( 8$ 5'. (ll transactions involvin. marine. revolution. $. 4. &redit risks. R( 8$ 5'. ne* im+ort or e0+ort licensin.ed in t)e 1usiness of e0tendin.s or events *)ic) are outside or 1eyond t)e control of t)e insured as follo*s> -a.

231 +resent *it) a +romise to +ay or deliver in t)e future. 1. $%8 -1 $!. 1&&1. 1 6)il.aldan v. [Die.istered under t)e <orrens 3ystem in t)e name of any individual.ainst )umanity. to t)e +u1lic domain *)ic) is not susce+ti1le to +rivate a++ro+riation and ac7uisitive +rescri+tion.ainst a civilian +o+ulation 1efore or durin.. and *ar crimes.overnment *)ose la* )as 1een violated. (n act or omission *)ic) is +ro)i1ited 1y criminal la*. ( recess or arm e0tendin. crimes a. G3 v. La*. 45. it cannot 1e re. &rew. <)at t)e crime is committed in t)e +resence of a +u1lic aut)ority.. <)e commission or omission 1y a +erson )avin. *)ic) is eit)er +ro)i1ited or com+elled 1y la* and t)e commission or omission of *)ic) is +unis)a1le 1y a +roceedin.in. t)at t)e +u1lic aut)ority is en. C Direct. and as a +u1lic *ater.enocide. La* Rev. citin. Comments and Cases on Credit <rans.. 1 . of any act... and ot)er acts a. =an. .. 6enal Code. 1 8 t) .)t in t)e name of t)e .ainst +eace. essential elements> -a.d.ravatin. RoC'. 3io2o.ed in t)e e0ercise of )is functions and is not t)e +erson a. not a mere a. 4%%% . de+ortation. 4. 8 6)il.ainst *)om t)e crime is committed [6eo+le v. 3ec. +. 1rou.ent of t)e aut)orities [6eo+le v.. of t)e Rev. &rimes against international law. 11'. crimes a. (rcilla. it is called an offense. &reek. La* Dict. of Crim. C(.d. 4%%5'. C Direct. Decision of t)e 3u+reme Court of 3+ain dated #an. Dol.'. 1 ". &rimes against humanity. =anaoa. GR 11"4$8. 1%4 6)il. 3io2o. (n offense a. 1'. $& 6)il. nor t)e one in2ured 1y t)e commission of t)e offense. Rule 11%. in t)e e11 and flo* of t)e sea. =urder. =ay 1!. 1!% -1 11. <)e a.'.a. from a river and +artici+atin. and -1. if 1y a s+ecial la*. 4.re. &rime committed in contempt of$ or with insult to public authorities.. citin. [Intl.ainst t)e 3tate. La* Dict. 1 !8. 5!!'. 41 3CR( 15%$ -1 "8. +. [De Leon. and if 1y an ordinance.ate of seamen *)o man a s)i+ or vessel..d. it is called a felony. [Intl. [6eo+le v. 1 Diada $1%.. [Gre. 4%%5'. a *ar.'. !"& -1 58. [=orenoEs La* Dict. B)artonEs Crim. Derzo. [6eo+le v. "1 6)il. 15 -4. (n a. &rime. +. it is called an infraction of an ordinance. circumstance under (rt. 6eo+le v. 114'. If t)e crime is +unis)ed 1y t)e Rev. Rodri7uez. 3erious violations of international la* includin.orio.. ca+acity.. 5 5. and )ence is +rosecuted in t)e name of t)e 6eo+le of t)e 6)ili++ines. a +ro+erty 1elon. 6enal Code t)at re7uires t)e follo*in. Aund.o v. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 6ardo. citin. enslavement..

ation to serve t)e +ersonal or im+risonment +enalties -and. t)at t)e *ron. 1 1 3CR( "5$. Rule 1. GR L-5%!48.overnment. &riminal liability. 6artici+atin. [6eo+le v.ainst )umanity and crimes a. $-1. <)ese include crimes a. &rimes involving 3ee Destruction.lements> -a. &rimina (uris gentium. &riminal (urisdiction. it is an act o1structin. -1.al <erms -6ro-3e. 4%%5'. [3ec. C Direct. natural and lo.nity and aut)ority of t)e court or a 2ud. 1 8"'.d.ression in violation of international la*. Re7uisites> -a. +rosecuted and +unis)ed 1y t)e . <)at 1ody of t)e la* t)at deals *it) conduct considered so )armful to society as a *)ole t)at it is +ro)i1ited 1y statute. (u. 2urisdiction over t)e su12ect matter. La* Dict. "!1 -1 %... La* Dict. 1 1'.rieved +arty 1e t)e direct. <)e +lannin. destruction. and -1. 1$4 3CR( 1 ".. La* Revie*er.. citin. &riminal liability. RoC'. 6eo+le v... Lat. =ariano. 4%%5'.in. &riminal (urisdiction. t)e administration of 2ustice *)ic) tends to 1rin. Rem.ainst t)e di. =anan7uil. Conduct t)at is directed a. <)e o1li. [Intl. initiatin. 2urisdiction over t)e +erson of t)e accused. &riminal contempt.. 1 !'. t)e court into disre+ute or disres+ect. [6eo+le v.232 &rimes against peace. [(l1ano. done to t)e a. +re+arin. 3andi.ainst )umanity or *ar crimes. <erritorial 2urisdiction. <)e net*ork of courts and tri1unals *)ic) deal *it) criminal la* and its enforcement. and/or *a. . C Direct. [6eo+le v. [Intl.. (n action one 1y *)ic) t)e 3tate +rosecutes a +erson for an act or omission +unis)a1le 1y la*.. 11-14'.an.an1ayan. Godoy.. 4%%5'. 4 .ainst +eace. t)e lia1ility to +ay t)e fines or +ecuniary +enalties.'.e actin. <)e aut)ority to )ear and try a +articular offense and im+ose t)e +unis)ment for it. [Du)aime:s Le. Ili. GR &1$$8.. 4%8 -1 &5. 1". &riminal action..al Dict. [6etral1a v. <)at an international felony )as 1een committed. in a cons+iracy to commit crimes a.ainst t)e la* of nations. [Glossary of Le. #une $%. +. &riminal (ustice system. 4%%5'.. &riminal law.ical conse7uence of t)e felony committed 1y t)e offender. =ar. Crimes a. 2udicially. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . GR 11! %&-% . and -c. Com+are *it) &ivil contempt. Crimes for *)ic) international customary la* im+oses criminal res+onsi1ility on individuals and for *)ic) all states may +unis) an offender. a *ar of a. 1st .

conviction or ac7uittal.. <)e 7uasi offense under (rt. 6art of remedial la* *)ic) +rovides for t)e a++re)ension. a1solute +ardon. (rt. =ar. Fne *)o is em+loyed to cultivate land. *ould 1e +unis)a1le as a felony. @ov. [3ec.) risk of e0tinction in t)e *ild in t)e immediate future. &riminal 6roceedin. as t)e case may 1e. service of t)e sentence. and +ro+osed )ydroelectric +o*er and irri. <)e la* +enalizes t)e ne. until it is fully re)a1ilitated. &riminal procedure. 5. Intro. +rescri+tion of t)e crime.uis)ed only *)en t)e deat) of t)e offender occurs 1efore final 2ud. 1 "&'. GR L-4&4$4. 4 . ( draina.ent or careless act. accelerated erosion and destructive floods. and as to +ecuniary +enalties. lia1ility t)erefore is e0tin. #ose. 4$$'. 3ee *eckless imprudence. R( &&%%'. as +rovided in (rt. action under R( &&%% *ould cause dama.ment. Circumstances *)ere t)ere is +rima facie evidence t)at increased im+orts. -c. if intentionally done. Constantino. to La*. ".an v.e area of a river system su++ortin. [6eo+le v. are a su1stantial cause of serious in2ury or t)reat t)ereof to t)e domestic industry and t)at delay in takin. +rescri+tion of t)e +enalty.uis) criminal lia1ility as follo*s> -a. 1 &8'. -1. receivin. 1 "1'. ( s+ecies or su1s+ecies t)at is facin. su12ected to a fast denudation causin.233 &riminal liability$ modes of e%tinguishing. $55 of t)e Code. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 6enal Code enumerates t)e causes t)at totally e0tin. [3ec. $"! of t)e Rev.nment to rendition of t)e 2ud. -d. as to t)e +ersonal +enalties. *)ic) com+letely e0tin. R( 158'.uis)es t)e +enalty and all its effects. -e. $. e0istin. 6eo+le GR L-8$ "$. of a +erson *)o is accused of )avin. &ropper. GR L-145"%. GR L-4!$"". from. 1 ! $rd . t)e marria. 6D 8%!'.ation *orks needin.in. committed a crime. -f. [3uarez. 9uan. 1efore t)e trial court from arrai. v. 1 81'. [6eo+le v. !.ment. immediate re)a1ilitation as it is 1ein.ent act t)at. &ritically endangered species. =ay $1. & of t)e Rev. [<an. t)e e0ecution of an im+rudent or ne. &riminal negligence.li. +rosecution. It is closed from lo. -. t)e deat) of t)e convict. Ae1. not t)e result t)ereof.. 6enal Code -resultin.s prosecutions. as )is com+ensation a s)are of t)e cro+s.e to t)e industry t)at *ould 1e difficult to re+air. &ritical watershed. [(1i. !.d.. *)ere t)ere a1solute or relative to domestic +roduction. &ritical circumstances. e0tremely )i. +.e of t)e offended *oman. amnesty.li. [3ec.

( c)eck crossed *it) t*o -4. $. 1et*een *)ic) are eit)er t)e name of a 1ank or t)e *ords Iand com+any. [3ec. i. 5. t)e 1anker on *)om it is dra*n must not +ay t)e money for t)e c)eck to any ot)er t)an t)e 1anker named. 1. [Gem+esa* v. and to elicit all im+ortant facts 1earin. .) destructive distillation of coal. 4%%5'.n su1stances t)erefrom. R( &58 '. Fil in its natural state 1efore t)e same )as 1een refined or ot)er*ise treated. 1. as to any matter stated in t)e direct e0amination. Fil in its natural state 1efore t)e same )as 1een refined or ot)er*ise treated. 4.inal com+laint a. one co-defendant cross claims a. It does not include oil +roduced t)rou. Rule ".ra+)ical delineation of suita1le area for t)e +roduction of s+ecific cro+s 1ased on t)e follo*in.ainst a co+arty.ainst *)om it is asserted is or may 1e lia1le to t)e crossclaimant for all or +art of a claim asserted in t)e action a. 4%%5'. 1ituminous s)ales or ot)er stratified de+osits.ainst )im. in t)e latter case. [3ec. &rude oil.ainst anot)er codefendant for contri1ution for any dama. 1ut e0cludin. 4.es assessed a. &rude oil e%ported. *it) sufficient fullness and freedom to test )is accuracy and trut)fulness and freedom from interest or 1ias. Geo.. out of t)e same su12ect action as t)e ori.enous crude Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. 4. In t)e former case. out of t)e transaction or occurrence t)at is t)e su12ect matter eit)er of t)e ori. &rossed check. lines. infrastructure and su++ort services. eit)er in its national state or after t)e e0traction of *ater. [3ec.d.. *)ic) asserts a claim arisin..al <erms -6ro3e. 8. &ross-claim. C(. GR 4455.al <erms -6ro3e. 4. u+on t)e termination of t)e direct e0amination. ". [3ec.inal action or of a counter-claim t)erein. [Glossary of Le. 9lack:s La* Dict.ainst a co-+arty arisin. (lso &rude. 1ottoms. and local and e0ternal demands *it)in s+ecific +eriods of time. (ny claim 1y one +arty a. [Glossary of Le. and sand or ot)er forei. criteria> soil and climate conditions. RoC'.J in full or a11reviated.e. u+on t)e issue. ( +leadin. . )e must not +ay it to any ot)er t)an a 1anker.ainst t)e cross-claimant.n su1stances. Ae1. 6D &8'. 6D 4%$4'. 1 $. <)is includes not only crude oil e0+orted as suc) 1ut also indi. 3uc) cross-claim may include a claim t)at t)e +arty a. sediments and forei.234 &rop onification. <)e 7uestionin. &ross-e%amination. Rule 1$4.'.vid. or t)e reverse. RoC'. $%1 -5t) . of a *itness +roduced 1y t)e ot)er side. <)e cross-e0amination of t)e *itness 1y t)e adverse +arty. Com+are *it) Direct e%amination. [3ec. *ater. or connected t)ere*it). 1. citin.

&ryogenic. 4. (+du)an. (rt. [Romualdez-=arcos. <)e intentional and malicious infliction of +)ysical or mental sufferin. &)&. (tencio. and unnecessary infliction of +ain u+on t)e 1ody.stoista. est t)e risk. +articularly )uman 1ein. &uadrilla. GR L-44!1&. to anot)er +ositive act of relocatin.. . Court of <a0 (++eals. &uius est solum$ e(us est usque ad caelum et ad inferos. 3+. !t) .. 6unis)ment *)ic) is fla. [6eo+le v. ( 1and. $. or t)e feelin. [La*Info Le. u+on livin. t)e family to anot)er )ome or +lace of actual residence. 1 "&'. at least four malefactor and -1.H ( +)rase referrin.. 48. [3ec. &uadrilla. to. creatures.. 4%%% +. (u. or. #an.rantly and +lainly o++ressive. 3ee 7uasi-delict. 6D &8'. 1. GR 11 8". [6eo+le v.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . &uasi-delitos.e. =ore t)an t)ree armed malefactors actin. Lat. 11!'. 3ee &ivil &ommission.. all of t)e four malefactors are armed. done in t)e commission of t)e crime is deli1erately au.s. citin. &uando el marido translade su residencia.. 6D 11&!'. $. anot)er *ron. [6eo+le v.". 1 '. 5.s. Descri+tive of any material *)ic) 1y its nature or as a result of its reaction *it) ot)er elements +roduces a ra+id dro+ in tem+erature of t)e immediate surroundin. -1 &$. $%. Indis+ensa1le com+onents> -a. 4. Lla1res. [6eo+le v. &<A. 1 !$'. air+lanes *ould tres+ass incessantly.al Dictionary -4%%!. o*ns do*n to t)e center of t)e eart) and u+ to t)e )eavens.s and emotions. (u. *)olly dis+ro+ortionate to t)e nature of t)e offense as to s)ock t)e moral sense of t)e community. (u. IB)en t)e )us1and s)all transfer )is residence. R6C'. #r. 1&.d.'. *)ic) is not necessary for its commission. GR 854 5. +. in)umanity.. 1 !'.d. <)is occurs *)en t)e *ron. (1r. &ruel punishment. Le *)o )as o*ners)i+ suffers t)e [=orenoEs La* Dict.et)er in t)e commission of t)e offense. )ervice &u(us est dominum e(us periculum. malicious. . 3e+. t)e *anton. Ft)er*ise. 3+. [9lackEs La* Dict. as a++lied to t)e latter.. GR L-1 5 1. 1 "&'. B)o o*ns t)e land. a1usive treatment.mented 1y causin.reatly tem+ered 1y case la* *)ic) )as limited o*ners)i+ u+*ards to t)e e0tent necessary to maintain structures. outra. GR L-!8 $. 15 -41.235 oil refined in t)e 6)ili++ines for e0+ort. <)is +rinci+le of land o*ners)i+ )as 1een . 3+. [3ec. 1. 1 $. &ruelty. 18.

(ny act of kno*in. v.li. 4&. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. Gross ne. [Intl.t).d. &ulpa e%tra-contractual..li. [9L<9 9us Co. *)ere an individual is civilly lia1le for a ne.. 7uasi-delict. +. Aault. (nd t)e civil lia1ility t)at may arise t)erefrom is not intended to 1e mer.ly +lantin. and not 1y reason of )is o++onentEs *eakness. ..)t. or +ermittin. 11!'. raisin. &ulpa in vigilando. GR 1% 51%. it is not re7uired t)at t)e in2ured +arty s)ould seek out a t)ird +erson criminally lia1le *)ose +rosecution must 1e condition +recedent to t)e enforcement of t)e civil ri. [=orenoEs La* Dict.li. 1 8!'. 11!'. La* Dict.li. GR L-$$1$&-$ .as La. #une 48. 3ee &ulpa in eligiendo.. [9atan...li. +. C Direct.ence. <)us. ne. 1 "'.ed in t)e criminal. Lat. [Claridades. C(.. (nd t)e civil lia1ility t)at may arise t)erefrom is not intended to 1e mer. 4%%% . 4%%% . (n inde+endent source of o1li..236 &ulibet e% virtute si non ad veleari debeet vincese.li. Com+ilation of @otes. F*n ne.uilty of fraud. v. It is more t)an 2ust sim+le ne. GR L-$$1$&-$ . (n inde+endent source of o1li. <)us. [Du)aime:s Le.ent act or omission. 4%%5'. (. Gross ne. or delay. [=orenoEs La* Dict.doin. [9alat1at v..ence in t)e selection of em+loyees.d.ence and includes any action or an omission in reckless disre. 3ee also 7uasi-delict. Lat. #une 48.ed in t)e criminal. 4%%% . C(. Res+onsi1ility for *ron. &ulpa lata dolo aequiparatur.ation 1et*een t*o +ersons not so formerly 1ound 1y any 2uridical tie. &ulpa aquiliana. and t)ose *)o in any manner contravene t)e tenor t)ereof..li.d.ation 1et*een t*o +ersons not so formerly 1ound 1y any 2uridical tie. +. &ulpa lata. Lat. 1.. Lat. 4%%14%%"'. Fne s)ould +revail 1y reason of )is o*n stren. &ulpa. t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ard of t)e conse7uences to t)e safety or +ro+erty of anot)er.. (u.ence. 11!'.una <aya1as 9us Co. it is not re7uired t)at t)e in2ured +arty s)ould seek out a t)ird +erson criminally lia1le *)ose +rosecution must 1e condition +recedent to t)e enforcement of t)e civil ri. Lat. *)ere an individual is civilly lia1le for a ne.)t.ent act or omission.ence is e7uivalent to intentional *ron.li.ence in t)e su+ervision over oneEs em+loyees.ations are . 4.. C(. F*n ne. 3+. <)e source of lia1ility of t)ose *)o in t)e +erformance of t)eir o1li. 1 8!'.. 4%%5'. &ultivate or culture. &ulpa contractual. (lso Negligence or &ulpa aquiliana.ro*in.al Dict.

scul+tures. 1st . &umulative.. GR 1%81! . $. to t)e e0tent sti+ulated. metals.. )istorical. 45 '. La* Rev..nificance to t)e nation. C(. (+r.d.erous dru. suc) as +)ysical. ceramics. 1 1 . &ultivation. &ulture.d. *)en and if dividends are declared. [Claridades. 4!. and ant)ro+olo. 6ol. s)rines..ical and et)no. La*. &umulative evidence. Com+are *it) Noncumulative preferred shares. or )arro*in. 1y . Cor+.radual +olitical develo+ment. and armor. (. ant)ro+olo.)t iron. citin.ro*t) and care of t)e +lants or trees and )us1andin. arms. ( constitution *)ic) is a +roduct of . F0ford Gniv. 4%%14%%"'. . so t)at it may 1rin.s. Com+are *it) &onventional constitution. ++. fla. GR 8"&!5-"%. ant)ro+olo. fort) more +roducts or fruits.ricultural im+lements. medals. R( 5&5"'. &ultural properties. relics. *rou. *ood or ot)er )eraldic items.'. )ouse and a.iven and tends to +rove t)e same +ro+osition. [3uarez. sketc)es dra*in. silver. 4". documents. 1 5'.. 1efore )olders of common s)ares are +aid. 1 & .s. *orks of art suc) as +aintin. R( 1"!'.es.s. Com+are *it) &orroborative evidence. +.vidence *)ic) is of t)e same kind and c)aracter as t)at already .ra+)ical materials. 3e+.old.. '. *orks of industrial and commercial art suc) as furniture. Constituted 1y accumulation.nias. and o12ects *)ic) may 1e classified as anti7ues. <)e conce+t is not limited to t)e +lo*in. or artifacts. C(. coins.asto v. 3ee &ultivate. or increasin. music. Fld 1uildin. 4%%4. Const. 2e*elry. &umulative constitution. 1ronze. )istorical o12ects and manuscri+ts. <)ose *)ic) entitle t)e )older to +ayment not only of current dividends 1ut also of 1ack dividends not +reviously +aid. ve)icles or s)i+s or 1oats in +art or in *)ole.ical and )istorical sites. crests. insi. landmarks.eneral industry. of any +lant *)ic) is t)e source of a dan.ical. Dict. [Le. [CuaKo v. Com+ilation of @otes. . La* Revie*er. arc)aeolo. coat of arms. 9us. in force 1y successive additions. arc)itecture. and s+ecimens of natural )istory *)ic) are of cultural. 1ad. meteorites and tektites. +ottery.s or illustrations in +art or in *)ole.ical or scientific value and si.23 +lantin. ac7uirin. [Diaz. &umulative preferred shares.ned to +romote t)e .s. decorative articles or +ersonal adornment. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . monuments. t)e eart). . of t)e soil as in rice and corn fields. or raisin.ro*in. [3ec $. La*. carvin. Cultivation includes all activities desi. [3ec.

t)e ac7uisition of furniture and e7ui+ment of nominal value usually used in t)e conduct of normal .es and universities as a++roved. 5 . 15. omitted or failed to 1e done. -1 %. t)e le. -4%%5. +. (++ro+riations for t)e +urc)ase of . (ll 6)ili++ine notes and coins issued or circulatin. Curative statutes are intended to su++ly defects. R( 8"!$'. 4nd .)t to 1e removed or made )armless. [Flarte. . La* Dict.ned and intended. 9us. or may distri1ute t)em as )e sees fit. Intl.islature mi. Cor+. C Direct.. C)a+.ed 1y +rivate sc)ools. [Intl.ratification attained 1y lickin.d. Dotin. &urative or remedial statutes. Le. 1. 1efore t)e enactment of t)e statute.. Com+are *it) 4ellatio. 9ook DI. [Diaz. )avin. Con. [3ec. 4. &urrent operating e%penditures 2&0"3.. 1 ". 1st . [3ec. may concentrate t)e *)ole num1er u+on one candidate. +. <)ey make valid t)at *)ic).. 1. citin. colle. defects and addin.. 4. Comelec. &urrent school fees. La*. <)ey are remedial 1y curin. &urrency.)t )ave dis+ensed *it) 1y a +revious statute. to t)e means of enforcin. 4!&'.d. Le.oods and services for current consum+tion *it)in t)e fiscal year. is somet)in.al =ed. 1y *)ic) a voter. [3ec. and cur1 certain evils. a num1er of votes e7ual to t)e offices to 1e filled.F 4 4'. ( system of votin. indicated and +u1lis)ed in t)eir res+ective Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . La*. 48%-481'.al =ed. rat)er t)an concurrently. <)ey are intended to ena1le a +erson to carry into effect t)at *)ic) t)ey )ave desi. 4..23! &umulative sentences.d. la*s. 1ut )as failed of e0+ected le.ard to curative statutes is t)at if t)e t)in. La* Rev. &umulative voting. #une 4&. &unnilingus. 3e0ual . 4%%5'. 1 1 . 6D 588'. <)e rule in re.+alo.al Dict. 11!'. [Arivaldo v.e su+erfluities in e0istin. o1li. a1rid. t)e female . (++ro+riations for t)e +urc)ase of . 4%%5'. 3tat. it may do so 1y a su1se7uent one. *as invalid..ularity in t)eir o*n action. in accordance *it) t)e +rovisions of R( 8"!$..overnment o+erations.al conse7uence 1y reason of some statutory disa1ility or irre. and *)ic) constitutes t)e defect sou.enitalia. (. 3entences for t*o or more crimes to run consecutively. GR 14%4 !. e0istin. entitled to vote in )is name times t)e total num1er of directors to 1e elected *)ic) s)all 1e e7ual. [#uristEs Le. <)e tuition and ot)er sc)ool fees collected or c)ar.ations. 1. 1y *)ic) a stock)older is entitled to cast suc) num1er as t)e num1er of s)ares outstandin. includin.oods and services for current consum+tion or for 1enefits e0+ected to terminate *it)in t)e fiscal year.

an1ayan.d.. and o1li. 6D 5!1'. customs and +ractices traditionally and continually reco. ( rule of conduct formed 1y re+etition of acts. [Glossary of Le. [=orenoEs La* Dict. Rule II. 1elo* t)e 1ottom c)ord of t)e roof trusses. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. 1 5'. <ime runs a. GR 8 4" . LGC'. &urtilage of dwelling... &urrit tempus contra decides et sui (uris contemptores. 4%%% .23" +ros+ectuses. . usa. 9ouviers La* Dict. It )as 1een )eld to mean not)in.atory.'.. [3ec. <)e yard. ++.. 3yGonzales. t)e 2ailin. [Claridades. or im+risonment of a +erson convicted of a crime.es. &ustody. $rd . ( vertical +anel of non-com1usti1le or fire resistive materials attac)ed to and e0tendin. to divide t)e underside of t)e roof into se+arate com+artments so t)at )eat and smoke *ill 1e directed u+*ards to a roof vent.ues. (. 4%%14%%"'. 11"'.t. GR 8415. 6D 11&!'. 11"'..lect t)eir ri.enous 6eo+les -ICCs/I6s. $. Detainin. 4%%% . or +erson. acce+ted and o1served 1y res+ective Indi. &urtain board. [?ao Qee v. =.nized. #uly 1&. (lso 1n custodia legis. $&$. R( &$81'. &ustomary laws. initiated 1y la* enforcement officers after a +erson )as 1een taken into custody or ot)er*ise de+rived of )is freedom of action in any si. on a domestic em+loyment. less t)an actual im+risonment. +er 3ec.d. [6eo+le v.nificant *ay. 4. Lat. Donato. [3ec. 1.arden or field *)ic) is near to and used in connection *it) t)e d*ellin. 1 1. 4%%5'. &ustom. as a social rule. (ny 7uestionin. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ally 1indin.. &ustodia legis. <)e actual or constructive +ossession or control of su++lies or +ro+erty. In t)e custody of t)e la*. 3andi. &ustodial investigation.. (lso 1n custody investigation. 1ulletins of information. or t)e care and +ossession of a t)in. 1. $. +. [@avallo v. of a +erson 1y la*ful +rocess or aut)ority to assure )is a++earance to any )earin. uniformly o1served -+racticed. )a1itually used for family +ur+oses and for carryin. 1"8 3CR( 8$" -1 &&. ( 1ody of *ritten and/or un*ritten rules..)ts. Com+ilation of @otes.. Dol.. 5.d.ainst t)e slot)ful and t)ose *)o ne. or catalo. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . le.al <erms -6ro3e. #une !. 851-854'. [3ec. +.enous Cultural Communities/Indi. It is also defined as t)e detainer of a +erson 1y virtue of a la*ful aut)ority. ( s+ace necessary and convenient. citin. I.

or e0+orted to.. $.. #uly $. Aundamentals of <a0ation. GR 1%148$. *it)in a rotation. 4$ '. Daily wage. 6D 8%!'.. +. $'. 4%%% . sustained as a conse7uence -DDacion en pago. <)e transmission of t)e o*ners)i+ of a t)in. Damage. . [3ec. (lso Ad(udication or Dation in payment. 4&4 -1 8$. <)e loss or )arm suffered 1y one +erson or )is +ro+erty. 1.. <)e name . Rev. <)e num1er of years 1et*een ma2or )arvests in t)e same *orkin. &utting cycle..ainst insufficient funds.n country. Crim. Damages. Cooley. recom+ense. +. 11&'.0ec. 41'. $$%. unit and/or re..d. collision or ot)er accident.. or satisfaction for an in2ury done or a *ron. 1. <a0es im+osed on .0ec. La*. 1 4'. cited in 5 <olentino Commentaries C #uris+. 4.. [(nc)eta.. [=orenoEs La* Dict.'.uis)ed from Damages.ion.e s)all result in any derailment of cars. on <a0ation. 3ec. 11&'. [Garcia v. (. (s contradistin.d. DA14. t)e tariff or ta0 assessed u+on merc)andise im+orted from. 4%%% . citin. ( duty im+osed on im+orts or e0+orts. #uly $.ations and Contracts. .24# &ustoms. <)e record of t)e time an em+loyee re+orted for t)e day. [Claridades. Daily time record.iven to ta0es on t)e im+ortation and e0+ortation of commodities. GR 1%148$. 1 4.d. 4%%% .e any rail*ay. 3ec. acce+ted e7uivalent of t)e +erformance of an o1li.oods e0+orted from or im+orted into a country. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all dama.ation [& =anresa $45. 1y t)e de1tor to t)e creditor at an Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [(rt. [De Leon. Damage and obstruction to means of communication.. tele. &ustoms duties.ra+) or tele+)one lines. +. <)e sum of money *)ic) t)e la* a*ards or im+oses as +ecuniary com+ensation. a forei. [=orenoEs La* Dict. Com+ilation of @otes. [Garcia v. *)et)er or not t)e dama. on t)e Civil Code of t)e 6)il. Dra*n a. +. <)e La* on F1li. ( la1or contract *)ere1y a *orker is +aid daily for )is la1or alone. +. R6C'. 4%%14%%"'.d. .

Dama.. C Cont.e or in2ury inflicted *it)out in2ustice. $.es are a ty+ical re7uest made of a court *)en +ersons sue for 1reac) of contract or tort. Damnum absque in(uria.es may 1e> -a. Dangerous drugs$ selling of. Comelec. [3ec $. R( "54!'. Ae1. done to a man for *)ic) t)e la* +rovides no remedy.ence of anot)er +erson. Wervoulakos. or Re.. 1 & '. 4. e0em+lary or corrective.ation or a tortuous act. Dangerous drugs$ illegal sale of. -1. 4%%5'. C(. [3ec. actual or com+ensatory. Dancing school.e *it)out in2ury. 4$ 3CR( 4 &'. and/or controlled +recursor and essential c)emical *)et)er for money or any ot)er consideration. GR 1%$ 8!. -d. and -1. moral.al <erms -6ro-3e.. Qinds> Dama. CC'. =oney a*arded 1y a court to a +erson in2ured 1y t)e unla*ful actor ne.scano v. -e.al ri. Damper.e or loss *)ic) does not constitute a violation of a le. $. Lat.li. 6D 54"'.d. 4. admission.s. 4!. 4. [<orres.e of smoke or fire. sold and t)e +ayment t)erefor.)t and +ermitted to t)e +u1lic in consideration of an enrollment. Com+are *it) 1n(ury. (tienza v.e *it)out violation of a le. is tau. Dangerous drugs. ( normally o+en device installed inside an air duct system *)ic) automatically closes to restrict t)e +assa. [Glo1e =acQay v.ivin. t)e delivery of t)e t)in.al *ron. 1. [. [Du)aime:s Le. and consideration. <)e term refers to eit)er 6ro)i1ited dru. -c.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . a*ay any dan. [3ec $. nominal. R( 1"!'. 41 8.. Identity of t)e 1uyer and t)e seller. Dance hall.)t or amount to a le. or -f.le Convention on @arcotic Dru. 4%%% . 6D 11&!'. 4$. ( cas) com+ensation ordered 1y a court to offset losses or sufferin.ulated dru. [Glossary of Le. F1li.)t. <)ose listed in t)e 3c)edules anne0ed to t)e 1 "1 3in. or any ot)er fees.le Convention on 6syc)otro+ic 3u1stances as enumerated in R( 1"!. li7uidated. 4%%5'. Loss or dama. (u. +. Dama.lements> -a. 1.al ri. GR &14"4. . Dama. as amended 1y t)e 1 84 6rotocol. mem1ers)i+. 4.ence..erous dru. caused 1y anot)er:s fault or ne.li. [3ec. Dama. (ny act of . 1%% 3CR( 1 8. t)e o12ect.. tem+erate or moderate. [3ec. and in t)e 3c)edules anne0ed to t)e 1 81 3in. (ny esta1lis)ment *)ere 1allroom dancin. R( 1"!'. 3ee &abaret.al Dict. is not actiona1le. $1!'. ( *ron. 1 !'. C(. [(rt.241 eit)er of a 1reac) of a contractual o1li. [6eo+le v. Damages. 1.

"!4'.. 3ee also 6ucro cesante. Dangerous tendency doctrine. R( &5$"'.. and canvassin. 1%4 6)il. acce+tance.e used 1e reasona1ly calculated to incite +ersons to acts of force. It is not necessary t)at some of t)e definite or immediate acts or force. relations)i+. violence.3. into t)e +)ysiolo. R( 1"!'..es. Dating relationship. [3ec. 3+. DaGo emergente. to t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .o. internet. or unla*fulness 1e advocated. Date. and of t)e dan. t)e ille. drinkin. a1out t)e su1stantive evil. [Ca1ansa. $. sniffin. as t)e case may 1e. <)e value of t)e loss suffered. R( 4"4'..)t to +revent. [3ec $.s. @IL'. ( casual ac7uaintance or ordinary socialization 1et*een t*o individuals in a 1usiness or social conte0t is not a datin.erous dru.s and/or controlled +recursors and essential c)emicals usin. 11. te0t messa. instant messen. <)e o*ners)i+ of payment. results. v. t*o*ay radios. suc) as a memory +ack or diskette. R( 1"!'. [(rt. CC'. <)e date of t)e instrument or of t)e acce+tance or any indorsement t)ereon *)ic) is deemed +rima facie to 1e t)e true date of t)e makin. intravenously or intramuscularly. or indorsement. as a 1roker in any of suc) transactions *)et)er for money or any ot)er consideration in violation of R( 1"!. [3ec. 4. electronic devices suc) as. (ny act of in2ectin. eatin.eneral terms. 1ut not limited to. <ransactions involvin.. (lso or Dacion en conveyance of a t)in.erous tendency *)ic) t)e state )as a ri. <)e doctrine t)at states t)at if t)e *ords uttered create a dan. It is sufficient if t)e natural tendency and +ro1a1le effect of t)e utterance 1e to 1rin. Data storage device.ical system of t)e 1ody. eit)er 1y c)e*in. @e. ( situation *)erein t)e +arties live as )us1and and *ife *it)out t)e 1enefit of marria.ua.242 Dangerous drugs$ trading of.. or unla*fulness. 4%%%. 1!4. ( device used to electronically store countin. mo1ile or landlines. *)ic) t)e le. 1asis durin. smokin. [3ec. Dangerous drugs$ use of.e or are romantically involved over time and on a continuin. Aernandez. of dan. [3ec $. @e* ?ork 4"& G. violence.. Com+are *it) &lear and present danger rule and :alancing test. t)e course of t)e relations)i+. Dation in Ad(udication pago.islative 1ody seeks to +revent. or ot)er*ise introducin. Inst. email.erous dru. t)en suc) *ords are +unis)a1le. It is sufficient t)at suc) acts 1e advocated in . dra*in.. @or is it necessary t)at t)e lan. of consumin.al traffickin. citin..ers and c)at rooms or actin. Gitlo* v. s*allo*in.

La* Dict.. 1 &" .d.ainin. or a real ri. citin. 4%%5'.. does not conclude in a. [Intl. t)ere must 1e some difference 1et*een t)e +restation due and t)at *)ic) is . Day certain.d. of an o++ortunity to 1e )eard. t)ere must 1e an a.islature.. *)ic) may consist in t)e delivery of a cor+oreal t)in. *)ic). +. 1. t)e deadlock of a 2ury or le. La* Rev.. alt)ou. 1 1 ..d. sim+ly +rovides t)at a +etition for certification election can only 1e entertained if t)ere is no +endin. Day in court. 11 $. +. Dation in payment. *it)in t)e meanin..al <)esaurus.reement 1et*een t)e +arties. Re7uisites for validity> -a. <)e +rinci+al +ur+ose is to ensure sta1ility in t)e relations)i+ of t)e *orkers and t)e mana. -1. $ '. [(rt. La1or. Dol. +. C Direct. <ra2ano. Retania . 11 Bords C 6)rases #udicially Defined. &t) . I. <)e *ord is synonymous *it) t)e *ord im+asse. [6eo+le v. !&%'. =ar.ainin. 4. Dict. +. Dead freight. $.uis)ed 1y reason of t)e +erformance of a +restation different from t)at due. des+ite no1le intentions. -c. 1ody.. GR "85&!. 4d 5 4 -1 &1..e resultin. 1$$' *)ic).. ( com+lete 1lockin.e im+osed on a c)arterer *)en a c)artered s)i+ )as less t)an a full load. +ar.ement.! 3CR( 4%1.ood fait) 1ar. 4nd . +. of t)e (merican federal la1or la*s. [Diaz.)t or a credit a. or sto++a. 1 4'. Deadlock bar rule. [9urton:s Le. +resu++oses reasona1le effort at .uioa Comments and Cases in Civil La*. +. [Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. (ny *ea+on or instrument made and desi. <)e rule -*)ic).ation in money. 5"!'. deadlock su1mitted to conciliation or ar1itration or )ad 1ecome t)e su12ect of a valid notice of strike or lockout. [Be1ster:s @e* 4%t) Century Dict. 11 and 14%'. 9ancroft.ned Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e affordin. 4&$. standstill.s +roducin.d.overnment or a votin.ainst t)e t)ird +erson..243 creditor as an acce+ted e7uivalent of +erformance of an o1li. cited in ID Ca. 1ar. [$ Castan.d. entire sto++a. 1 &% . CC'. as. <)ere must 1e t)e +erformance of t)e +restation in lieu of +ayment -animo solvendi.iven in su1stitution -aliud +ro alio. ( c)ar. <)e day *)ic) must necessarily come.. La*. 1%. (+r. "$! A. Deadly weapon.'. Deadlock. [@LR9 v. $4!'.reement 1et*een t)e creditor and de1tor t)at t)e o1li. <)e counteraction of t)in.) it may not 1e kno*n *)en. La1or. 9us.e> a state of inaction or of neutralization caused 1y t)e o++osition of +ersons or of factions -as in . [@(CG3I6 v. from t)e action of e7ual and o++osed forces.ation is immediately e0tin..

4%%% .244 for offensive or defensive +ur+oses.ed in t)e sale of stock. ( maritime maneuver e7uivalent to t)ree to four miles +er )our. RoC'. re. of +etroleum +roducts to motorists. as amended'. 1uys securities and re-sells t)em to customers *it) a vie* to t)e .ularly en. a. $. Fne *)ose 1usiness is to 1uy and sell merc)andise. Inc. 1 &. .. Be1ster:s @e* Colle. <)e rule t)at +arties or assi. <o do a distri1utin. [3ec. R( 81"%'.ainst suc) +erson of unsound mind. cannot testify as to any matter of fact occurrin. 1efore t)e deat) of suc) deceased +erson or 1efore suc) +erson 1ecame of unsound mind.ains and +rofits t)at may 1e derived t)erefrom. GR L-5!!1!. 1onds.d. 5. 4 . (u.d. 6eralta. GR 14541$. or one *)ic). Dead man statute. and c)attels as a merc)ant. citin. e0c)an. [(s1estos Inte. +. (ny +erson. 1ut one *)o 1uys to sell a. Deal. *)o is en.'. (ny +erson *)o 1uys sells securities for )is o*n account in t)e ordinary course of 1usiness.. 4. 9lack:s La* Dict. or +ersons in *)ose 1e)alf a case is +rosecuted. 14%'. Fct. *)et)er natural or 2uridical. or retailin.oods. !t) . Le stands immediately 1et*een t)e +roducer or manufacturer and t)e consumer and de+ends for )is +rofit not u+on t)e la1or )e 1esto*s u+on )is commodities 1ut u+on t)e skill and foresi. 5. citin. Dealer.. 1 &8.. @IRC. 1% 6)il. from t)e manner used.nors of +arties to a case. as a merc)ant. end users. (lfec)e. [3ec. is calculated or likely to +roduce deat) or serious 1odily )arm.iate Dict. 1.ed in t)e +urc)ase of securities and t)e resale t)ereof to customers. Le is not one *)o 1uys to kee+ or makes to sell. or a.rated =anufacturin. (ll +ersons *)o for t)eir o*n account are en. R( &8 '. [3ec.ainst t)e estate of suc) deceased +erson or a. 1ullion. $! '. or for t)e destruction of life or t)e infliction of in2ury. and direct sellin. (lso )urvivorship disqualification rule.a. coined money.)t *it) *)ic) )e *atc)es t)e market.e. 44. 1$1. [3ec. [() @am v.vid.a. Dead slow ahead. 4$. $. [=orenoEs La* Dict..ed in t)e marketin. v.a. and ot)er consumers. *it) an esta1lis)ed +lace of 1usiness.. 18. 1usiness or to )ave intercourse on 1usiness relations. 1ank Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . t)at is.ainst an e0ecutor or administrator or ot)er re+resentative of a deceased +erson.ain. [6eo+le v. +artners)i+ or cor+oration. Rule 1$%. R( &58 '. [3ec. 1. Dealer in securities. &%&'. *)et)er an individual. 4. one *)o.ainst a +erson of unsound mind. City of =anila. . ( merc)ant of stocks or securities. u+on a claim or demand a.

Crim. R6C'. Death caused in a tumultuous affray. and in t)e course of t)e affray someone is killed. <)e irreversi1le cessation of circulatory and res+iratory functions or t)e irreversi1le cessation of all functions of t)e entire 1rain. 4!1. to 1e)ave or act in any affair or to*ard anyone. LC'. +. 1. <o )ave to do.'. 1"8. [Claridades. La*. II Reyes. or s)all inflict u+on t)em any serious +)ysical in2ury. citin. t)ere 1e several +ersons. 4%%% . Deal in.. Crim. GR 1%&4&%-&$. Death by accidental means. @ov.anized for t)e common +ur+ose of assaultin. Com+ilation of @otes.rou+s or. Deat) caused 1y some act of t)e deceased not desi. <)e felony committed *)en.. t)at t)e +erson or +ersons *)o inflicted serious +)ysical in2uries or *)o used violence can 1e identified. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4.ally married +erson *)o )avin. Death or physical in(uries inflicted under e%ceptional circumstances. [(rt.. se0ual intercourse *it) anot)er +erson.. sur+rised )is s+ouse in t)e act of committin. R6C'. -1. t)ese several +ersons 7uarreled and assaulted one anot)er in a confused and tumultuous manner. 1. [3ec. someone *as killed in t)e course of t)e affray. 1 !. eac) ot)er reci+rocally.. Death. and attackin.245 notes. 1". . 4%%14%%"'. s)all kill any of t)em or 1ot) of t)em in t)e act or immediately t)ereafter.lements> <)at> -a. -e. and it cannot 1e ascertained *)o actually killed t)e deceased. R( 818%'. 6eo+le.d. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 6enal Code. and -f. to take action. Loss of life resultin.. [(rt. or ot)er securities. +romissory notes. (. t)e 1rain stem. 6D 54"'. and attackin. 1e concerned.rou+s or. or occu+ied -*it) or in. not com+osin. 5$" -1 $. 4. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ned 1y )im. <)e felony committed 1y any le. [3ec. to conduct oneself. includin. . Death caused in a tumultuous affray. 141'. <)is is t)e most severe form of cor+oral +unis)ment as it is re7uires la* enforcement officers to kill t)e offender. it cannot 1e ascertained *)o actually killed t)e deceased. Death penalty. -c. and not intentionally done 1y )im.anized for t)e common +ur+ose of assaultin. La*. 7uarrel and assault eac) ot)er in a confused and tumultuous manner.d. Rev. 4%%% . t)at t)ey did not com+ose . 458. 144'. +. from in2ury or sickness. eac) ot)er reci+rocally. [3ison v. (lso kno*n as &apital punishment. *)ile several +ersons. -d. [(rt.

+. Castillo. [Diaz.al <erms -6ro3e. 4%%% . Debenture shares. [Lira. a. 1. La*. <)e . 5..uaranteed 1y any +ro+erty of t)e issuin. 1 1 .. 1 &8'. e0tin. Deceit. Debtor. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Cor+. 1 1 . [3ec. <)e deceased +erson *)ose estate is under consideration.d. <)e false re+resentation of a matter of fact *)et)er 1y *ords or conduct. Com+are *it) &redit. La*. .. If )e left a *ill. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Dec. +. )e is also called t)e testator. [Diaz.. <e0tile v. [Glossary of Le. 1y t)e de1tor of )is/)er +ersonal services or la1or or t)ose of a +erson under )is/)er control as security or +ayment for a de1t. t)e latter 1ein. 84 -1 5". 9onds not secured 1y any s+ecific +ro+erty 1ut 1y t)e . La* Rev. 4%%5'. (u. 9us. 333.al in2ury.d. *)en t)e len. [(rt. @ov..er or account. amendin. 88!. 4" '. or at a time *)ic) 1ecomes definite and fi0ed 1y acts of eit)er +arty and *)ic) t)ey e0+ressly or im+liedly. Debit.eneral term a++lied to t)e +erson *)ose +ro+erty is transmitted t)rou. Crim. Fne *)o o*es a de1t to anot)er. C(.oods or services to anot)er. *)et)er or not )e left a *ill. <)e +led. 4!%'..246 Death #enalty 6aw. (1r. 9asically. F1li.ree to +erform in t)e contract. 1$. [6eo+le v. ( sum c)ar. [9lackEs La* Dict..'. @e* de1t for old de1t. 4. 8" 6)il. +. for t)at +ur+ose t)e revised +enal la*s.. Debitum pro debito.ed as due or o*in.) succession. -1 &$. GR 14%&18.. $. (n entry made on t)e asset side of a led..d. 1. $5 '. CC'. !t) . Debenture bonds. Debt bondage. 1y false or misleadin. 1 "'.uis)in. $1. ( +erson *)o o*es money. GR L-$$4%!. Decedent.. 9us.ation for t)e ne* one.ation to +ay money at some fi0ed future time. [Reyes v. (n o1li. or 1y concealment of t)at *)ic) s)ould )ave 1een disclosed *)ic) deceives or is intended to deceive anot)er so t)at )e s)all act u+on it to )is le. Lat. cor+oration.t) and nature of services is not clearly defined or *)en t)e value of t)e services as reasona1ly assessed is not a++lied to*ard t)e li7uidation of t)e de1t.in. +.. <)ose *)ic) are more of certificates of inde1tedness not .ations. La* Rev. t)e old o1li.eneral credit of t)e issuin. 41%'. C Cont. R( 4%&'. 1 $.d. alle. Debt. R( 8"! entitled I(n (ct to im+ose t)e deat) +enalty on certain )einous crimes. Cor+. cor+oration. La*. 4. [<orres. Deceits$ other. referred to as t)e creditor.

24
*)o s)all defraud or dama,e anot)er 1y any ot)er deceit not mentioned in (rt. $18 of t)e Rev. 6enal Code; or 1y any +erson *)o, for +rofit or ,ain, s)all inter+ret dreams, make forecasts, tell fortunes, or take advanta,e of t)e credulity of t)e +u1lic in any ot)er similar manner. [(rt. $1&, R6C'. Decentrali ation. 6ol. La*. Devolution of national administration R 1ut not +o*er R to t)e local levels. [Ganzon v. C(, GR $4!4. (u,. !, 1 1'. Com+are *it) Devolution. Decentrali ation of administration. 6ol. La*. <)e dele,ation 1y t)e central ,overnment of administrative +o*ers to +olitical su1divisions in order to 1roaden t)e 1ase of ,overnment +o*er and in t)e +rocess to make local ,overnments more res+onsive and accounta1le and ensure t)eir fullest develo+ment as selfreliant communities and make t)em more effective +artners in t)e +ursuit of national develo+ment and social +ro,ress. [Lim1ona v. =an,elin, GR &%$ 1. Ae1. 4&, 1 & , citin, (rt. XI, 3ec. 1 and (rt X, sec. $, 1 &8 Const., and 3ec. 4, 96 $$8'. Decentrali ation of power. 6ol. La*. (n a1dication of +olitical +o*er in favor of local ,overnments units declared to 1e autonomous. In t)at case, t)e autonomous ,overnment is free to c)art its o*n destiny and s)a+e its future *it) minimum intervention from central aut)orities. (ccordin, to a constitutional aut)or, decentralization of +o*er amounts to self-immolation, since in t)at event, t)e autonomous ,overnment 1ecomes accounta1le not to t)e central aut)orities 1ut to its constituency. [Lim1ona v. =an,elin, GR &%$ 1. Ae1. 4&, 1 & , citin, 9ernas, H9re*in, storm over autonomy,H <)e =anila C)ronicle, ++, 5-!'. Decibel. ( measure of t)e intensity or level of sound. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14$'. Decision. 1. <)e *)ole or any +art of t)e final dis+osition, not of an interlocutory c)aracter, *)et)er affirmative, ne,ative, or in2unctive in form, of an a,ency in any matter, includin, licensin,, rate fi0in, and ,rantin, of ri,)ts and +rivile,es. [3ec. 4, C)a+. 1, 9ook DII, ;F 4 4'. 4. <)e o+inion of t)e court in concludin, a case at la*. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro3e., 4%%5'. $. <)e determination of t)e court *)ic) dis+oses of t)e case after )earin, t)e +arties. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $5 '. Declaration. Intl. La*. -a. <)e title of a 1ody of sti+ulations of a treaty, accordin, to *)ic) t)e +arties undertake to +ursue in t)e future a certain line of

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

24!
conduct; -1. ( unilateral statement *)ic) may create ri,)ts and duties for ot)er 3tates; and -c. a descri+tion of an action taken *)en a 3tate communicates *it) ot)er 3tates, or an e0+lanation and 2ustification of a line of conduct +ursued 1y t)em in t)e +ast, or an e0+lanation of vie*s and intentions concernin, certain matters. [Co7uia and 3antia,o, Intl. La*, $rd ;d. -1 &., +. 5 4'. Declaration against interest. ;vid. 1. <)e declaration made 1y a +erson deceased, or outside of t)e 6)ili++ines, or una1le to testify, a,ainst t)e interest of t)e declarant, if t)e fact asserted in t)e declaration *as at t)e time it *as made so far contrary to t)e declarant:s o*n interest, +ecuniary or moral, t)at a reasona1le man in )is +osition *ould not )ave made t)e declaration unless )e 1elieved it to 1e true, *)ic) may 1e received in evidence a,ainst )imself or )is successors-ininterest and a,ainst t)ird +ersons. [3ec. $&, Rule 1$%, RoC'. 4. ( declaration a,ainst t)e interest of t)e +erson makin, it *)ic) is admissi1le in evidence, not*it)standin, its )earsay c)aracter, if t)e declaration is relevant and t)e declarant )as died, 1ecome insane, or for some ot)er reason is not availa1le as a *itness. <)e true test in reference to t)e relia1ility of t)e declaration is not *)et)er it *as made ante litem motam, as is t)e case *it) reference to some classes of )earsay evidence, 1ut *)et)er t)e declaration *as uttered under circumstances 2ustifyin, t)e conclusion t)at t)ere *as no +ro1a1le motive to falsify. [Aitzsimmons v. (tlantic, Gulf C 6acific Co., GR L-4%1". (u,. 4$, 1 5 , citin, 4% (m. #ur., ;vid., 3ec. !!", ++. 5"8-5"&'. Com+are *it) )elf-serving declarations. Declaration against interest. ;vid. Re7uisites for admissi1ility> -a. t)e declarant must not 1e availa1le to testify; -1. t)e declaration must concern a fact co,niza1le 1y t)e declarant; and -c. t)e circumstances must render it im+ro1a1le t)at a motive to falsify e0isted. [GR 111" 4. Ae1. , 1 "'. Declaration of presumptive death. Re7uisites> 1. <)at t)e a1sent s+ouse )as 1een missin, for four consecutive years, or t*o consecutive years if t)e disa++earance occurred *)ere t)ere is dan,er of deat) under t)e circumstances laid do*n in (rt. $ 1, Civil Code; 4. <)at t)e +re-sent s+ouse *is)es to remarry; $. <)at t)e +resent s+ouse )as a *ell-founded 1elief t)at t)e a1sentee is dead; and 5. <)at t)e +resent s+ouse files a summary +roceedin, for t)e declaration of +resum+tive deat) of t)e a1sentee. [Re+. v. @olasco, GR 5%!$. =ar. 18, 1 $'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

24"
Declaration of trust. (n act 1y *)ic) a +erson ackno*led,es t)at t)e +ro+erty, title to *)ic) )e )olds, is )eld 1y )im for t)e use of anot)er [De Leon v. =olo6eckson, GR L-18&% . Dec. 4 , 1 "4, citin, Griffit) v. =a0field, !1 3.B. &$4, "" (rk. !1$, !41'. Declaratory act. (n act declaratory of *)at t)e la* *as 1efore its +assa,e, so as to ,ive it any 1indin, *ei,)t *it) t)e courts. ( le,islative definition of a *ord as used in a statute is not conclusive of its meanin, as used else*)ere; ot)er*ise, t)e le,islature *ould 1e usur+in, a 2udicial function in definin, a term. [;ndencia v. David, GR L"$!!-!". (u,. $1, 1 !$, citin, 11 (m. #ur., 15'. Declaratory doctrine. Intl. La*. Doctrine t)at )olds t)at t)e le,al e0istence of a state or ,overnment )a++ens automatically 1y o+eration of la*. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Declaratory (udgment. Rem. La*. ( statutory remedy for 2udicial determination of a controversy *)ere +laintiff is in dou1t a1out )is le,al ri,)ts. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro3e., 4%%5'. Declaratory relief. Rem. La*. 1. (n action *)ic) any +erson interested under a deed, *ill, contract, or ot)er *ritten instrument, or *)ose ri,)ts are affected 1y a statute, e0ecutive order or re,ulation, or ordinance, may, 1efore 1reac) or violation t)ereof, 1rin, to determine any 7uestion of construction or validity arisin, under t)e instrument or statute and for a declaration of t)eir ri,)ts or duties t)ereunder. [=irando v. Bellin,ton <y C 9ros., GR L55%"4. Ae1. 1", 1 8&'. 4. 6reventive and antici+atory remedy *)ere1y a +erson asks t)e court to declare )is ri,)ts or duties under a contract or la*. <)ere is no 1reac) of contract or violation of la* 1ut t)ere is a ,enuine controversy t)ereunder. B)at makes t)is s+ecial civil action distinct is t)at t)e court only makes a declaration a1out t)e ri,)ts or duties of t)e +arties, 1ut no e0ecutory +rocess follo*s. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. Declaratory relief. Rem. La*. Re7uisites> -a. t)e e0istence of a 2usticia1le controversy; -1. t)e controversy is 1et*een +ersons *)ose interests are adverse; -c. t)at t)e +arty seekin, t)e relief )as a le,al interest in t)e controversy; and -d. t)at t)e issue invoked is ri+e for 2udicial determination. [Intl. Lard*ood v. G6, 4%% 3CR( !!5, !" -1 1.; Galarosa v. Dalencia, 448 3CR( 84&, 8$8 -1 $.'. Declared absence. <)e 2udicial declaration of a1sence of a +erson after t)e la+se of t*o years *it)out any ne*s a1out t)e a1sentee or since t)e recei+t

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of t)e last ne*s, and five years in case t)e a1sentee )as left a +erson in c)ar,e of t)e administration of )is +ro+erty. [(rt. $&5, CC'. Com+are *it) #rovisional absence. Decline. <o take a do*n*ard direction. [<atad v. 3ec. of ;ner,y, GR 145$"%. @ov. !, 1 8, citin, Be1ster, @e* $rd Intl. Dict., 1 $ ;d., +. !&"'. Decompensated state. <)e condition resultin, from t)e failure of t)e )eart to circulate t)e 1lood ade7uately. <)e failure may 1e due to )eart disease, o1struction in t)e 1lood vessels, etc. <)e condition is marked 1y edema -s*ellin,., s)ortness of 1reat) -dys+nea., discoloration of t)e skin, etc. [=arte v. ;CC, GR L-5"$"4. =ar. $1, 1 &%, citin, 3c)midt:s (tty.Es Dict. of =ed., +. 41!'. Decree. 1. ( formal declaration of a court or ot)er com+etent aut)ority and is usually in *ritten form. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $5 '. 4. (n order of t)e court. ( final decree is one t)at fully and finally dis+oses of t)e liti,ation. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Decree of *egistration. ( decree issued and entered 1y t)e -Land Re,istration (ut)ority., +ursuant to an order of t)e court after t)e decision rendered 1y it in a re,istration case )as 1ecome final. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. It is +ro+erly called a 9udicial decree. Deductible clause. ( clause in an insurance +olicy +rovidin, t)at t)e insured *ill a1sor1 t)e first +art of t)e loss -e.,., first 6!%%. *it) t)e insurer +ayin, t)e e0cess. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 145'. Deed. 1. ( document *)ic) transfers o*ners)i+ of real +ro+erty. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $5 '. 4. ( *ritten and si,ned document *)ic) sets out t)e t)in,s t)at )ave to 1e done or reco,nitions of t)e +arties to*ards a certain o12ect. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Deed of warranty. (lso Barranty deed. ( deed *)ic) ,uarantees t)at t)e title conveyed is ,ood and its transfer ri,)tful. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Deem. <o acce+t a document or an event as conclusive of a certain status in t)e a1sence of evidence or facts *)ic) *ould normally 1e re7uired to +rove t)at status. Aor e0am+le, in matters of c)ild su++ort, a decision of a forei,n court could 1e deemed to 1e a decision of t)e court of anot)er for t)e +ur+ose of enforcement. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Deemed paid ta% credit. ( ta0 credit ,ranted to a forei,n mot)er cor+oration for t)e amount of dividend ta0 actually +aid -i.e., *it))eld. from t)e

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dividend remittances 1y t)e local cor+oration to its mot)er cor+oration. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 145'. Deep seabed. <)e sea1ed and ocean floor and its su1soil 1eyond t)e limits of national 2urisdiction -also called t)e area.. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Deep-sea fishing. Commercial fis)in, in sea and inland *aters usin, any tonna,e of fis)in, vessels of our t)ree tones ,ross ca+acity, licensed 1y t)e 9ureau of Ais)eries. [3ec. 4, R( 5% !'. Deface. <o destroy, to efface or erase. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 145'. Defacing or tampering with a serial number. <)e erasin,, scratc)in,, alterin, or c)an,in, of t)e ori,inal factory-inscri1ed serial num1er on t)e motor ve)icle en,ine, en,ine 1lock or c)assis of any motor ve)icle. B)enever any motor ve)icle is found to )ave a serial num1er on its motor en,ine, en,ine 1lock or c)assis *)ic) is different from t)at *)ic) is listed in t)e records of t)e 9ureau of Customs for motor ve)icles im+orted into t)e 6)ili++ines, t)at motor ve)icle s)all 1e considered to )ave a defaced or tam+ered *it) serial num1er. [3ec. 4, R( "!$ '. De facto. Lat. (s a matter of fact. 3omet)in, *)ic), *)ile not necessarily la*ful or le,ally sanctified, e0ists in fact. ( common la* s+ouse may 1e referred to a de facto *ife or de facto )us1and> alt)ou,) not le,ally married, t)ey live and carry on t)eir lives as if married. ( de facto ,overnment is one *)ic) )as seized +o*er 1y force or in any ot)er unconstitutional met)od and ,overns in s+ite of t)e e0istence of a de 2ure ,overnment. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. De facto corporation. ( cor+oration claimin, in ,ood fait) to 1e a cor+oration under t)e Cor+oration Code. Its due incor+oration and its ri,)t to e0ercise cor+orate +o*ers s)all not 1e in7uired into collaterally in any +rivate suit to *)ic) suc) cor+oration may 1e a +arty. 3uc) in7uiry may 1e made 1y t)e 3olicitor General in a 7uo *arranto +roceedin,. [3ec. 4%, Cor+. Code'. Com+are *it) De (ure corporation. De facto dissolution. Cor+. La*. Fne *)ic) takes +lace in su1stance and in fact *)en t)e cor+oration 1y reason of insolvency, cessation of 1usiness or ot)er*ise, sus+ends all o+eration and it ,oes into li7uidation still retainin, its +rimary franc)ise to 1e a cor+oration. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14%'. De facto government. 6ol. La*. 1. <)at ,overnment t)at ,ets +ossession and control of, or usur+s, 1y force or 1y t)e voice of t)e ma2ority, t)e ri,)tful le,al

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,overnment and maintains itself a,ainst t)e *ill of t)e latter; or, t)at *)ic) is esta1lis)ed and maintained 1y military forces *)o invade and occu+y a territory of t)e enemy in t)e course of *ar, and *)ic) is denominated a ,overnment of +aramount force -more a+tly denominated as 5overnment of paramount force.. [Co C)an v. <an Qe), 8! 6)il. 11$. 3e+. 18, 1 5!'. 4. -a. (n unreco,nized ,overnment; es+ecially one t)at )as not 1een formally reco,nized. -1. (n effective ,overnment; one t)at is in factual control of a territory and +eo+le. -c. ( ,overnment t)at maintains itself, at least tem+orarily, 1y t)e use of force a,ainst t)e *ill of a de 2ure ,overnment. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) De (ure government. De facto officer. (dmin. La*. (n officer *)o derives )is a++ointment from one )avin, colora1le aut)ority to a++oint, if t)e office is an a++ointive office, and *)ose a++ointment is valid on its face. Fne *)o is in +ossession of an office, and is disc)ar,in, its duties under color of aut)ority, 1y *)ic) is meant aut)ority derived from an a++ointment, )o*ever irre,ular or informal, so t)at t)e incum1ent 1e not a mere volunteer. [Dimaandal v. CF(, GR 1441 8. #une 4", 1 &, citin, 6)il. La* Dict., +. 1"4'. De facto separation. ( se+aration of t)e s+ouses *it)out any a,reement. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14%'. Defalcation. 1. Defaultin, on a de1t or ot)er o1li,ation suc) to account for +u1lic or trust funds. Gsually used in t)e conte0t of +u1lic officials. 4. Defalcation )as anot)er le,al meanin, referrin, to t)e settin,-off of t*o de1ts o*ed 1et*een t*o +eo+le 1y t)e a,reement to a ne* amount re+resentin, t)e 1alance. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Defamation. 1. (n attack on t)e ,ood re+utation of a +erson, 1y slander or li1el. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 4. <)at *)ic) tends to in2ure a +erson:s re+utation. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 3ee 6ibel and )lander. Default. 1. Civ. La*. <)e non+erformance of a duty, *)et)er arisin, under a contract or ot)er*ise. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $5 '. 4. Rem. La*. Aailure of t)e defendant to a++ear and ans*er t)e summons and com+laint. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro3e., 4%%5'. Default. Civ. La*. Re7uisites> -a. t)at t)e o1li,ation 1e demanda1le and already li7uidated; -1. t)at t)e de1tor delays +erformance; and -c. t)at t)e creditor re7uires t)e +erformance 2udicially and e0tra2udicially. [333 v. =oon*alk

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Devt. C Lousin, Cor+., GR 8$$5!. (+r. 8, 1 $'. Default. Rem. La*. Remedies availa1le to a defaulted +arty. Gnder t)e Rules of Court, t)ere are several remedies availa1le to a defaulted +arty, namely> -a. ( +arty declared in default may, at anytime after notice t)ereof and 1efore 2ud,ment, file a motion under oat) to set aside t)e order of default u+on +ro+er s)o*in, t)at )is failure to ans*er *as due to fraud, accident, mistake or e0cusa1le ne,li,ence, and t)at )e )as a meritorious defense [3ec. $ -1., Rule '; -1. If t)e 2ud,ment )as already 1een rendered *)en t)e defendant discovered t)e default, 1ut 1efore t)e same )as 1ecome final and e0ecutory, )e may file a motion for ne* trial under 3ec. 1 -a. of Rule $8; -c. If t)e defendant discovered t)e default after t)e 2ud,ment )as 1ecome final and e0ecutory, )e may file a +etition for relief under 3ec. 4, Rule $&; and -d. Le may also a++eal +rovided t)e decision is not yet final, from t)e 2ud,ment rendered a,ainst )im as contrary to t)e evidence or to t)e la*, even if no motion to set aside t)e order of default )ad 1een +resented 1y )im. [<i1urcio v. Castro GR L-!& 8, =ay 4&, 1 &&, as modified 1y t)e 1 8 Rules of Civil 6roc.'. Default declaration. If t)e defendin, +arty fails to ans*er *it)-in t)e time allo*ed t)erefor, t)e court s)all, u+on motion of t)e claimin, +arty *it) notice to t)e defendin, +arty, and +roof of suc) failure, declare t)e defendin, +arty in default. <)ereu+on, t)e court s)all +roceed to render 2ud,ment ,rantin, t)e claimant suc) relief as )is +leadin, may *arrant, unless t)e court in its discretion re7uires t)e claimant to su1mit evidence. [3ec. $, Rule , RoC'. Default (udgment. ( 2ud,ment entered a,ainst a +arty *)o fails to a++ear in court or res+ond to t)e c)ar,es. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Default or delinquency charge. Bit) res+ect to a consumer credit transaction, t)e +enalty c)ar,e +aya1le 1y t)e consumer-de1tor for failure to +ay an amount or installment in full on t)e date t)e same 1ecomes due and demanda1le, or on or 1efore t)e +eriod s+ecified for t)e +ur+ose in t)e consumer credit sale documents. [(rt. 5, R( 8$ 5'. Default order$ effect of. 1. ( +arty in default s)all 1e entitled to notice of su1se7uent +roceedin,s, 1ut not to take +art in t)e trial. [3ec. $-a., Rule , RoC'. 4. ( defendant *)o )as 1een declared in default loses )is standin, in court as +arty liti,ant. 9efore t)e order of default is vacated, said defendant )as no ri,)t to e0+ect t)at )is +leadin,s *ould 1e acted u+on 1y t)e court. [<an v.

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Dimayu,a, GR L-1!451. #uly $1, 1 "4'. Defeasance. ( side-contract *)ic) contains a condition *)ic), if realized, could defeat t)e main contract. <)e common ;n,lis) usa,e of t)e *ord Defeasance )as also 1ecome acce+ta1le in la*, referrin, to a contract t)at is susce+ti1le to 1ein, declared void as in Iimmoral contracts are susce+ti1le to defeasance.H [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Defective bid. ( 1id *)ic) com+lies *it) t)e advertised descri+tions and s+ecifications 1ut not *it) t)e terms and conditions in t)e invitation to 1id. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. =,t., +er 3ec. $&$, LGC'. Defendant. 1. <)e term may refer to t)e ori,inal defendin, +arty, t)e defendant in a counterclaim, t)e cross-defendant, or t)e $rd -5t), etc.. +arty defendant. [3ec. 1, Rule $, RoC'. 4. <)e +erson, com+any or or,anization *)o defends a le,al action taken 1y a +laintiff and a,ainst *)om t)e court )as 1een asked to order dama,es or s+ecific corrective action redress some ty+e of unla*ful or im+ro+er action alle,ed 1y t)e +laintiff. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. $. <)e +erson defendin, or denyin, a suit. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Defense. <)at *)ic) is offered and alle,ed 1y t)e +arty +roceeded a,ainst in an action or suit, as a reason in la* or fact *)y t)e +laintiff s)ould not recover or esta1lis) *)at )e seeks. <)at *)ic) is +ut for*ard to diminis) +laintiffEs cause of actio or defeat recovery. ;vidence offered 1y accused to defeat criminal c)ar,e. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 41&'. Defense of property. (ffirmative defense in criminal la* or tort la* *)ere force *as used to +rotect one:s +ro+erty. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Defense of relatives. ;lements> -a. Gnla*ful a,,ression; -1. reasona1le necessity of t)e means em+loyed to +revent or re+el it; and -c. t)e +erson defendin, t)e relative )ad no +art in +rovokin, t)e assailant, s)ould due +rovocation )ave 1een ,iven 1y t)e +erson attacked. [6eo+le v. (,a+inay, GR 8888". #une 48, 1 %'. Defense of stranger. ;lements> -a. unla*ful a,,ression; -1. reasona1le necessity of t)e means em+loyed to +revent or re+el it; and -c. t)e +erson defendin, 1e not induced 1y reven,e, resentment, or ot)er evil motive. [=asi+e7uiKa v. C(, GR L-!14%". (u,. 4!, 1 & '. Defensive wound. Land *ound +roduced 1y defensive ,ra++lin, to avoid more serious *ounds, suc) as one *)o *ould normally use )is )ands in +arryin, off t)e

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t)rust or sta11in, 1lo* of an assailant. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14!'. Deferred shares. Cor+. La*. <)ose *)ic) are entitled to dividends after +ayment of )olders of common s)ares. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 4!%'. Deficiency. -a. <)e amount 1y *)ic) t)e ta0 im+osed 1y t)is C)a+ter II of R( &5&45 e0ceeds t)e amount s)o*n as t)e ta0 1y t)e donor u+on )is return; 1ut t)e amount so s)o*n on t)e return s)all first 1e increased 1y t)e amount +reviously assessed -or collected *it)out assessment. as a deficiency, and decreased 1y t)e amounts +reviously a1ated, refunded or ot)er*ise re+aid in res+ect of suc) ta0, or -1. if no amount is s)o*n as t)e ta0 1y t)e donor, t)en t)e amount 1y *)ic) t)e ta0 e0ceeds t)e amounts +reviously assessed -or collected *it)out assessment. as a deficiency, 1ut suc) amount +reviously assessed, or collected *it)out assessment, s)all first 1e decreased 1y t)e amount +reviously a1ated, refunded or ot)er*ise re+aid in res+ect of suc) ta0. [3ec. 1%5, @IRC, as amended'. Deficiency (udgment. ( 2ud,ment for t)e 1alance of t)e inde1tedness after a++lyin, t)e +roceeds of t)e sale of t)e mort,a,ed +ro+erty to suc) inde1tedness and is necessarily filed after t)e fore-closure +roceedin,s. [Calte0 6)ils. v. I(C, GR 858$%. (u,. 4!, 1 & '. Deficient. Incom+lete; defective; not sufficient in 7uantity or force. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro3e., 4%%5'. Definitive (udgment. 1. ( 2ud,ment no lon,er su12ect to c)an,e, revision, amendment, or reversal [=iranda v. C(, 81 3CR( 4 ! -1 8".', and t)e court loses 2urisdiction over it, e0ce+t to order its e0ecution. [6? ;n, C)on, v. Lerrera, 8% 3CR( 1$% -1 8".'. 4. ( decision -*)ic). must +ur+ort to decide finally t)e ri,)ts of t)e +arties u+on t)e issue su1mitted, 1y s+ecifically denyin, or ,rantin, t)e remedy sou,)t 1y t)e action. [Cu Gn2ien, ;. Li2os v. <)e =a1alacat 3u,ar Co., 8% 6)il. $ -1 5%., citin, $$ C#, 11%4'. Deflation. <)e reduction in volume and circulation of t)e availa1le money or credit, resultin, in a de-cline of t)e ,eneral +rice level. It is t)e o++osite of inflation. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. 51'. Deflation of currency. "%traordinary inflation. 3ee

Defloration. Le,al =ed. <)e laceration or ru+ture of t)e )ymen as a result of se0ual intercourse. [Flarte, Le,al =ed., 1st ;d. -4%%5., +. 145'.

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Deforciant. 1. ( +arty *)o fails and refuses to turn over *)at in la* 1elon,s to anot)er. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14!'. 4. ( tenant *it))oldin, t)e +ro+erty unla*fully Hafter t)e e0+iration or termination of t)e ri,)t to )old +ossession 1y virtue of any contract, e0+ress or im+lied. [Co <iamco v. Diaz, GR L-8. #anuary 44, 1 5"'. Deformity or disfigurement. Disi1le u,liness, +ermanent and visi1le +)ysical a1normality. [6eo+le v. 9alu1ar, GR 5% 5%. Fct. , 1 $5, citin, ! Diada, Codi,o 6enal Comentado, 155'. Defunct. ( cor+oration no lon,er o+erative; )avin, ceased to e0ist. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Degree programs. Colle,e and university courses leadin, to at least a 9ac)elor:s de,ree. [3ec. 1, 6D $4' Com+are *it) Nondegree programs. Dehors. Ar. Futside. In t)e conte0t of le,al +roceedin,s, it refers to t)at *)ic) is irrelevant or outside t)e sco+e of t)e de1ate. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. De (ure. Lat. Ff t)e la*. <otal ad)erence of t)e la*. Aor e0am+le, a de 2ure ,overnment is one *)ic) )as 1een created in res+ect of constitutional la* and is in all *ays le,itimate even t)ou,) a de facto ,overnment may 1e in control. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. De (ure corporation. ( cor+oration e0itin, in fact and in la*. [De Leon, Cor+. Code of t)e 6)il. (nnotated, 1 & ;d., +. $ '. Com+are *it) De facto corporation. De (ure government. 1. ( reco,nized ,overnment. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%1-4%%"'. 4. ( ,overnment esta1lis)ed accordin, to t)e constitution of t)e state and la*fully entitled to reco,nition. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Com+are *it) De facto government. Delay. (lso ;ora. <)e failure to +erform an o1li,ation on t)e date s+ecified after a 2udicial or e0tra2udicial demand *)ic) failure amounts to a violation of t)e o1li,ation. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. "'. Delay. <o +rolon, t)e time of or 1efore; to sto+, detain or )inder for a time, or cause someone or somet)in, to 1e 1e)ind in sc)edule or usual rate of movement in +ro,ress. [Luft)ansa German (irlines v. C(, GR &$"14. @ov. 45, 1 5, citin, Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl. Dict., +. ! !'. Delay. Qinds> -a. mora solvendi or t)e delay on t)e +art of t)e de1tor to fulfill )is o1li,ation -to ,ive or to do.; mora acci+iendi or t)e delay on t)e +art of t)e creditor to acce+t t)e +erformance of t)e o1li,ation;

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and -c. com+ensatio morae or delay committed 1y 1ot) +arties in reci+rocal o1li,ations. [Diaz, 9us. La* Rev., 1 1 ;d., +. "'. Delaying release. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer or em+loyee *)o delays for t)e +eriod of time s+ecified in (rt. 145 of t)e Rev. 6enal Code t)e +erformance of any 2udicial or e0ecutive order for t)e release of a +risoner or detention +risoner, or unduly delays t)e service of t)e notice of suc) order to said +risoner or t)e +roceedin,s u+on any +etition for t)e li1eration of suc) +erson. [(rt. 14", R6C'. Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper (udicial authorities. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y a +u1lic officer or em+loyee *)o s)all detain any +erson for some le,al ,round and s)all fail to deliver suc) +erson to t)e +ro+er 2udicial aut)orities *it)in t)e +eriod of; t*elve -14. )ours, for crimes or offenses +unis)a1le 1y li,)t +enalties, or t)eir e7uivalent; ei,)teen -1&. )ours, for crimes or offenses +unis)a1le 1y correctional +enalties, or t)eir e7uivalent and t)irty-si0 -$". )ours, for crimes, or offenses +unis)a1le 1y afflictive or ca+ital +enalties, or t)eir e7uivalent. [(rt. 14!, R6C'. Delectus personae. Lat. C)oice of t)e +erson. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 441'. Delectus personae doctrine. <)e doctrine t)at allo*s t)e +artners to )ave t)e +o*er, alt)ou,) not necessarily t)e ri,)t, to dissolve t)e +artners)i+. [Frte,a v. C(, GR 1% 45&. #uly $, 1 !'. Delectus personarum principle. Gnder t)is +rinci+le, it is re7uired t)at for a +artner to associate anot)er *it) )im in )is s)are in t)e +artners)i+, t)e consent of all t)e +artners is necessary. <)is is 1ecause of t)e mutual trust amon, t)e +artners and t)at t)is is t)e case of su12ective novation *)en t)ere is a c)an,e in t)e +arties to a contract. <)eir consent t)ereto is necessary in order to 1ind t)em. [(l1ano, Civil La* Revie*er, Rev. ;d., +. 514, citin, (rt. 1&%5, CC'. Delegacion. 1. ( form of novation *)ere1y t)e de1tor offers and t)e creditor acce+ts a t)ird +erson *)o consents to t)e su1stitution and assumes t)e o1li,ation, so t)at t)e intervention and t)e consent of t)ese t)ree +ersons are necessary. [De Cortes v. Denturanza, GR L-4"%!&. Fct. 4&, 1 88, citin, & =anresa 5$"5$8, cited in ID Civil Code of t)e 6)il. 1y <olentino, 1 "4 ;d., +. $"%'. 4. ( kind of novation 1y *)ic) t)e ori,inal de1tor, in order to 1e li1erated from )is creditor, ,ives )im a t)ird +erson *)o 1ecomes o1li,ed in )is stead to t)e creditor. [<orres, F1li,. C Cont., 4%%% ;d., +. $5 '. Com+are *it) "%promision.

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Delegated (urisdiction. #urisdiction ,iven to a +erson, as distin,uis)ed from ordinary 2urisdiction *)ic) is attac)ed 1y la* to an office. [Roman Cat)olic (+ostolic (dministrator of Davao, Inc. v. Land Re,ist. Comm., GR L-&5!1. Dec. 4%, 1 !8'. Com+are *it) 0rdinary (urisdiction. Delegation of legislative power. <)e statutory ,rant of rulemakin, +o*er to administrative a,encies -*)ic) is. a valid e0ce+tion to t)e rule on nondele,ation of le,islative +o*er +rovided t*o conditions concur, namely> a. t)e statute is com+lete in itself, settin, fort) t)e +olicy to 1e e0ecuted 1y t)e a,ency, and 1. said statute fi0es a standard to *)ic) t)e latter must conform. [Ce1u Inst. Ff <ec). D. F+le, GR L-!&&8%. Dec. 1&, 1 &8'. Delegatus non potest delegare. (lso Delegati potestas non potest delegare. Lat. ( dele,ated +o*er may not 1e furt)er dele,ated. 1. Fne of t)e +ivotal +rinci+les of administrative la*> t)at a dele,ate cannot dele,ate. In ot)er *ords, a +erson to *)om an aut)ority or decision-makin, +o*er )as 1een dele,ated to from a )i,)er source, cannot, in turn, dele,ate a,ain to anot)er, unless t)e ori,inal dele,ation e0+licitly aut)orized it. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. 4. <)e +erson to *)om an office or duty is dele,ated cannot la*fully devolve t)e duty on anot)er. [City Lum1er v. Domin,o, GR L1&"11. #an. $%, 1 "5'. Delict. Arom Lat. delictum> a fault. (ny +rivate *ron, or in2ury, or a minor +u1lic *ron, or in2ury. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Delinquency. 1. Aailure or omission of duty, a fault, a misdeed, an offense, a misdemeanor, a crime. [6adilla v. City of 6asay, GR L-45%$ . #une 4 , 1 "&'. 4. <)e commission of an ille,al act 1y a 2uvenile. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Delinquency charge. 3ee Default charge. Delito comple(o. 3+. ( crime arisin, from an offense 1ein, a necessary means for committin, anot)er, *)ic) is referred to in t)e second clause of (rt. 5&, Rev. 6enal Code. [6once-;nrile v. 3alazar, GR 41"$. #une !, 1 %'. 3+. 3ee &omple% crime proper. Delito compuesto. 3+. <)e com+le0 crime defined under t)e first clause of (rt. 5&. of t)e Rev. 6enal Code. It arises from a sin,le +)ysical act resultin, in simultaneous -or almost simultaneous. in2ury to t*o -4. or more victims. [6eo+le v. =ision, GR "$5&%. Ae1. 4", 1 1'. 3ee &ompound crime. Delito continuado. 3+. Continued or continuous crime. In

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a++earance, a delito continuado consists of several crimes 1ut in reality t)ere is only one crime in t)e mind of t)e +er+etrator. [Defensor-3antia,o v. Garc)itorena, GR 1% 4"". Dec. 4, 1 $, citin, Guevarra, Commentaries on t)e Rev. 6enal Code, 1 !8 ;d., +. 1%4'. Delito continuado. 3+. Re7uisites> <)ere s)ould 1e a -a. +lurality of acts +erformed durin, a +eriod of time; -1. unity of +enal +rovision violated; and -c. unity of criminal intent or +ur+ose, *)ic) means t)at t*o or more violations of t)e same +enal +rovisions are united in one and t)e same intent or resolution leadin, to t)e +er+etration of t)e same criminal +ur+ose or aim. [Defensor3antia,o v. Garc)itorena, GR 1% 4"". Dec. 4, 1 $, citin, II Derec)o 6enal, +. !4%; I (7uino, Rev. 6enal Code, "$%, 1 &8 ;d.'. Delito de habito. 3+. La1itual delin7uency. [6eo+le v. 9lanco, GR L-48%%. #an. 1$, 1 !%'. Deliver 2a dangerous drug3. 1. (ny act of kno*in,ly +assin, a dan,erous dru, to anot)er, +ersonally or ot)er*ise, and 1y any means, *it) or *it)out consideration. [3ec $, R( 1"!'. 4. ( +erson:s act of kno*in,ly +assin, a dan,erous dru, to anot)er, +ersonally or ot)er*ise, and 1y any means, *it) or *it)out consideration. [3ec. 4, R( "54!'. Delivered price. 3ee &ash price. Delivery. (lso <radition. 1. Doluntary transfer of +ossession from one +erson to anot)er. [3ec. !&, (ct 41$8'. 4. <ransfer of +ossession, actual or constructive, from one +erson to anot)er. [3ec. 1 1, @IL'. $. <)e act 1y *)ic) t)e res or su12ect is +laced in t)e actual or constructive +ossession or control of anot)er. [Fna+al 6)ils. v. C(, GR %8%8. Ae1. 1, 1 $'. Delivery now$ pay later. (n arran,ement 1et*een 1uyer and seller *)ic) is in essence sales on account. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 148'. Delivery of personal property. 3ee *eplevin. Delivery of prisoners from (ails. Crim. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all remove from any 2ail or +enal esta1lis)ment any +erson confined t)erein or s)all )el+ t)e esca+e of suc) +erson, 1y means of violence, intimidation, or 1ri1ery. [(rt. 1!", R6C'. Del tiempo de su condena. 3+. Arom t)e +eriod of )is sentence. [9akin, v. Dir. of 6risons, GR L$%$"5. #uly 4&, 1 " '. Delusions. Le,al =ed. 1. Aalse ideas t)at cannot 1e corrected 1y reasonin,, and t)at are idiosyncratic for t)e +atient - t)at is, not +art of )is cultural

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environment. <)ey are amon, t)e common sym+toms of sc)izo+)renia. [6eo+le v. Rafanan, GR !51$!. @ov. 41, 1 1'. 4. ( false or erroneous 1elief in somet)in, *)ic) is not a fact. [Flarte, Le,al =ed., 1st ;d. -4%%5., +. 15&'. Delusion test. Le,al =ed. <)e test under *)ic) an insane +erson 1elieves in a state of t)in,s, t)e e0istence of *)ic) no rational +erson *ould 1elieve. [6eo+le v. Dun,o, GR & 54%. #uly $1, 1 1'. Com+are *it) 1rresistible impulse test and *ight and wrong test. Demand. 1. <)e assertion of a le,al ri,)t; a le,al o1li,ation asserted in court. (n im+erative re7uest +referred 1y one +erson to anot)er, under a claim of ri,)t, re7uirin, t)e latter to do or yield somet)in, or to a1stain from some act. 4. <o re7uest +ayment of a de1t or amount due. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., ++. 44$-445'. $. In t)e rescission of a sale of immova1le +ro+erty, -t)e term. refers to an aut)entic notice t)at t)e vendor takes t)e o+tion of resolvin, t)e contract, or if it +leases )im, to )armonize t)eir s+irit *it) t)e letter of t)e Civil Code, to a demand t)at t)e vendor makes u+on t)e vendee for t)e latter to a,ree to t)e resolution of t)e o1li,ation and to create no o1stacle to t)is contractual mode of e0tin,uis)in, o1li,ations. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 148'. Demand deposits. (ll t)ose lia1ilities of t)e 9an,ko 3entral and of ot)er 1anks *)ic) are denominated in 6)ili++ine currency and are su12ect to +ayment in le,al tender u+on demand 1y t)e +resentation of c)ecks. [3ec. !&, R( 8"!$'. Demand draft. ( 1ill of e0c)an,e +aya1le on demand. [Re+. v. 6@9, GR L-1"1%". Dec. $%, 1 "1, citin, (rnd v. (yles*ort), 15! Io*a 1&!'. Demand letter. ( letter from a la*yer, on 1e)alf of a client, t)at demands +ayment or some ot)er action, *)ic) is in default. Demand letters are not al*ays +rere7uisites for a le,al suit 1ut t)ere are e0ce+tions suc) as le,al action on +romissory notes or if t)e contract re7uires it. 9asically, a demand letter sets out *)y t)e +ayment or action is claimed, )o* it s)ould 1e carried out -e.,., +ayment in full., directions for t)e re+ly and a deadline for t)e re+ly. Demand letters are often used in 1usiness conte0ts 1ecause t)ey are a courtesy attem+t to maintain some ,ood*ill 1et*een 1usiness +arties and t)ey often +rom+t +ayment, avoidin, e0+ensive liti,ation. ( demand letter often contains t)e t)reat t)at if it is not ad)ered to, t)e ne0t communication 1et*een t)e +arties *ill 1e t)rou,) a court of la* in t)e form of formal le,al action. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'.

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Demarcated areas. Ais)eries La*. 9oundaries defined 1y markers and assi,ned e0clusively to s+ecific individuals or or,anizations for certain s+ecified and limited uses suc) as a7uaculture, sea ranc)in, and sea farmin,; fis) a,,re,atin, devices; fi0ed and +assive fis)in, ,ears; and fry and fin,erlin,s ,at)erin,. [3ec. 5, R( &!!%'. Demarche. Intl. La* . ( *ord coined 1y t)e di+lomatic community and referrin, to a stron,ly *orded *arnin, 1y one country to anot)er and often, eit)er e0+licitly or im+licitly, *it) t)e t)reat of military conse7uence. Demarc)es are often +recursors to )ostilities or *ar. In 3e+. 1 ", for e0am+le, G3 6resident Clinton issued a demarc)e to Ira7i 6resident 3addam Lussein *)en intelli,ence re+orts s)o*ed troo+s massin, alon, t)e 1order of Qurd communities. [La*Info Le,al Dictionary -4%%!.'. Demeanor. (s res+ects a *itness or ot)er +erson, relates to +)ysical a++earance; out*ard 1earin, or 1e)avior. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 445'. Dementia. Le,al =ed. ( form of insanity resultin, from de,eneration or disorder of t)e 1rain c)aracterized 1y ,eneral mental *eakness, for,etfulness, loss of co)erence and total ina1ility to reason 1ut not accom+anied 1y delusion or uncontrolla1le im+ulse. [Flarte, Le,al =ed., 1st ;d. -4%%5., +. 158'. Dementia senilis. Le,al =ed. <)e +)rase si,nifies only a ,eneral *eakenin, of a mind +reviously normal. [Claridades, (., Com+ilation of @otes, 4%%14%%"'. De minimis non curat le%. Lat. <)e la* takes no account of trifles. ( common la* +rinci+le *)ere1y 2ud,es *ill not sit in 2ud,ment of e0tremely minor trans,ressions of t)e la*. [=atute v. C)eon, 9oo, GR L111% . #an. 8, 1 1&'. Demise. ( conveyance of an estate to anot)er for life, for years, or at *ill. ( lease or conveyance for a term of years. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 445'. Demise charter. (lso :areboat. =ar. La*. 1. ( c)arter involvin, t)e transfer of full +ossession and control of t)e vessel for t)e +eriod covered 1y t)e contract, t)e c)arterer o1tainin, t)e ri,)t to use t)e vessel and carry *)atever car,o it c)ooses, *)ile mannin, and su++lyin, t)e s)i+ as *ell. [=aritime (,encies C 3ervices, Inc. v. C(, GR 88"$&. #uly 14, 1 %'. 4. In modern maritime la* and usa,e, a c)arter +arty *)ere t)e s)i+o*ner turns over +ossession of )is vessel to t)e c)arterer,

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*)o t)en undertakes to +rovide a cre* and victuals and su++lies and fuel for )er durin, t)e term of t)e c)arter. <)e s)i+o*ner is not normally re7uired 1y t)e terms of a demise c)arter to +rovide a cre*, and so t)e c)arterer ,ets t)e H1are 1oatH, i.e., *it)out a cre*. [Liton2ua 3)i++in, Inc. v. @39, GR !1 1%. (u,. 1%, 1 & , citin, 3crutton on C)arter 6arties, 3ec. 5, +. 5! -1&t) ;d., 1 85.'. Demise of real property. Lease of an unfurnis)ed )ouse. [Liton2ua 3)i++in, Inc. v. @39, GR !1 1%. (u,. 1%, 1 & '. Democracy. <)at form of ,overnment in *)ic) t)e soverei,n +o*er resides in and is e0ercised 1y t)e *)ole 1ody of free citizens directly or indirectly t)rou,) a system of re+resentation, as distin,uis)ed from monarc)y, aristocracy, or oli,arc)y. [9lackEs La* Dict., (1r. !t) ;d. -1 &$., +. 445'. Democratic form of government. 6ol. La*. ( form of ,overnment *)ic) re7uires t)at +olitical ri,)ts 1e en2oyed 1y t)e citizens re,ardless of social or economic distinctions. [=a7uera v. 9orra, GR L-458"1. 3e+. 8, 1 "!, 9en,zon, Concurrin, F+.'. Demolish. <o raze, level, ruin, *reck, destroy, *i+e out. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 14&'. Demotion. <)e movement from one +osition to anot)er involvin, t)e issuance of an a++ointment *it) diminution in duties, res+onsi1ilities, status or rank *)ic) may or may not involve reduction in salary. [3ec. 11, Rule DII of t)e Fmni1us Rules Im+lementin, 9ook D of ;F 4 4'. Demurrage. 1. In its strict sense, it is t)e com+ensation +rovided for in t)e contract of affrei,)tment for t)e detention of t)e vessel 1eyond t)e time a,reed on for loadin, and unloadin,. ;ssentially, demurra,e is t)e claim for dama,es for failure to acce+t delivery. In a 1road sense, every im+ro+er detention of a vessel may 1e considered a demurra,e. [=a,ellan =f,. v. C(, GR !4 , (u,. 44, 1 1, 4%1 3CR( 1%4'. 4. ( c)ar,e made 1y a s)i+ o*ner *)en a c)arterer kee+s a s)i+ idle for more t)an t)e a,reed-u+on lay days. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Demurrer. Rem. La*. 1. (n alle,ation t)at, admittin, t)e facts of t)e +recedin, +leadin, to 1e true, as stated 1y t)e +arty makin, it, )e )as yet s)o*n no cause *)y t)e +arty demurrin, s)ould 1e com+elled 1y t)e court to +roceed furt)er. [Li7uete v. Dario, GR 1$51. @ov. &, 1 %!'. 4. ( motion +ut to a trial 2ud,e after t)e +laintiff )as com+leted )is case, in *)ic) t)e defendant, *)ile not o12ectin, to t)e facts +resented, and rat)er t)an

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res+ondin, 1y a full defense, asks t)e court to re2ect t)e +etition ri,)t t)en and t)ere 1ecause of a lack of 1asis in la* or insufficiency of t)e evidence. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. $. ( +leadin, filed 1y t)e defendant t)at t)e com+laint as filed is not sufficient to re7uire an ans*er. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Demurrer to evidence. Rem. La*. ( motion to dismiss filed 1y t)e accused on t)e ,round of insufficiency of evidence after t)e +rosecution )as rested its case, t)us *aivin, )is ri,)t to +resent evidence and su1mittin, t)e case for 2ud,ment on t)e 1asis of t)e evidence for t)e +rosecution. [Godoy v. C(, GR L-&%&15. (u,. $%, 1 &&'. Den$ dive or resort. ( +lace *)ere any dan,erous dru, and/or con-trolled +recursor and essential c)emical is administered, delivered, stored for ille,al +ur+oses, distri1uted, sold or used in any form. [3ec $, R( 1"!'. Denial of (ustice. ( ,ross deficiency in t)e administration of 2ustice. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. Denomination. ( reli,ious sect )avin, a +articular name. [(don, v. C)eon, 3ee Gee, GR L1&%&1. =ar. $, 1 44'. De novo. Lat. @e*. <)is term is used to refer to a trial *)ic) starts over, *)ic) *i+es t)e slate clean and 1e,ins all over a,ain, as if any +revious +artial or com+lete )earin, )ad not occurred. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. De novo hearing. 3ee =earing de novo. Dentistry$ practice of. ( +erson s)all 1e re,arded as en,a,ed in t)e +ractice of dentistry or renderin, dental service, *it)in t)e meanin, and intent of t)is (ct, *)o s)all, for a fee, salary, com+ensation, or any form of re*ard, +aid to )im or t)rou,) anot)er, or even *it)out suc) com+ensation or re*ard, +erform any o+eration or +art of an o+eration, u+on t)e )uman mout), 2a*s, teet), and surroundin, tissues; +rescri1e dru,s or medicines for t)e treatment of oral diseases and lesions; or correct mal+ositions of t)e teet)> 6rovided, )o*ever, <)at t)is +rovision s)all not a++ly to artisans or tec)nicians en,a,ed in t)e mec)anical construction of artificial dentures or fi0tures and ot)er oral devices, as lon, as none of suc) +rocedure is done inside t)e mout) of t)e +atient; nor s)all t)is +rovision a++ly to students of dentistry under,oin, +ractical trainin, in a le,ally constituted dental sc)ool or colle,e under t)e direction or su+ervision of a mem1er of t)e faculty *)o is duly licensed to +ractice dentistry in t)e 6)ili++ines> or to re,istered dental )y,ienists servin, as dentists: assistants

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*)o may 1e allo*ed to +erform oral +ro+)yla0is and suc) ot)er +rocedures *)ic) t)e la* re,ulatin, t)e +ractice of dental )y,ienists may +ermit. [3ec. 15, R( 551 '. Denuncia falsa. 1. Aalse accusation. [La,man v. I(C, GR L-844&1. Fct. 4&, 1 &&'. 4. =alicious +rosecution; ,enerally refers to unfounded criminal actions. [=adera v. Lo+ez, L$81%!, Ae1. 1%, 1 &1, 1%4 3CR( 8%%'. Deo%yribonucleic DNA. Acid. 3ee demands for service currently e0istin, and reasona1ly antici+ated *it)in t)e foreseea1le future, and t)at is accessi1le on a constant and continuous 1asis e0ce+t for outa,es occasioned 1y t)e need for normal re+air, maintenance, construction or renovation *ork or 1y acts 1eyond t)e reasona1le a1ility of t)e +u1lic service entity to +revent or control. [3ec. $, 6D 4" '. Dependent. 1. ( le,itimate, ille,itimate or le,ally ado+ted c)ild c)iefly de+endent u+on and livin, *it) t)e ta0+ayer if suc) de+endent is not more t)an t*enty-one -41. years of a,e, unmarried and not ,ainfully em+loyed or if suc) de+endent, re,ardless of a,e, is inca+a1le of self-su++ort 1ecause of mental or +)ysical defect. [3ec. $!, @IRC, as amended'. 4. Fne *)o derives e0istence and su++ort from anot)er. [Glossary of Le,al <erms -6ro-3e., 4%%5'. Dependent child. 1. (ny c)ild under si0teen years of a,e *)o is de+endent u+on t)e +u1lic for su++ort or *)o is destitute, )omeless or a1andoned; or *)o )as no +ro+er +arental care or ,uardians)i+, or *)o )a1itually 1e,s or receives alms, or *)o is found livin, in any )ouse of illfame or *it) any vicious or disre+uta1le +erson, or *)ose )ome or ot)er +lace of residence, 1y reason of ne,lect, cruelty or de+ravity on t)e +art of its +arents, ,uardian or ot)er

Department. (ny of t)e e0ecutive de+artments or entities )avin, t)e cate,ory of a de+artment includin, t)e 2udiciary, Commission on ;lections and Commission on (udit. [3ec. $, 6D &%8'. Department of the 1nterior and 6ocal 5overnment 2D1653 Act of +,,C. R( " 8! entitled I(n (ct esta1lis)in, t)e 6)ili++ine @ational 6olice under a reor,anized De+artment of t)e Interior and Local Government, and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Dec. 1$, 1 %. (lso kno*n as t)e #N# 6aw. Dependable and adequate service. 3ervice t)at, consistent *it) normal standards and levels of service 1ased u+on ,ood utility mana,ement and o+eratin, +ractices, is sufficient in 7uantity, )avin, re,ard for t)e

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+erson in *)ose care t)e c)ild may 1e, is an unfit +lace for suc) c)ild. [3ec. $&-9, R( 15%1'. 4. Fne *)o is *it)out a +arent, ,uardian or custodian; or one *)ose +arents, ,uardian or ot)er custodian for ,ood cause desires to 1e relieved of )is care and custody; and is de+endent u+on t)e +u1lic for su++ort. [(rt. 151, 6D "%$'. Com+are *it) Abandoned child and Neglected child. Dependent parent. Gnder t)e 3ocial 3ecurity La*, one *)o is fully de+endent u+on t)e considered em+loyee for re,ular su++ort. [9ayer v. Dillanueva, &$ FG 5$!&'. Dependent relative revocation doctrine. <)e esta1lis)ed rule t)at if a testator revokes a *ill *it) a +resent intention of makin, a ne* one immediately and as a su1stitute, and t)e ne* *ill is not made, or, if made, fails of effect for any reason, it *ill 1e +resumed t)at t)e testator +referred t)e old *ill to intestacy, and t)e old one *ill 1e admitted to +ro1ate in t)e a1sence of evidence overcomin, t)e +resum+tion, +rovided its contents can 1e ascertained. [#urado, Comments C #uris+. on 3uccession, 1 1 &t) ;d., +. 14&'. Dependents. 1. La1or. <)e le,itimate, le,itimated, le,ally ado+ted or ackno*led,ed natural c)ild *)o is unmarried, not ,ainfully em+loyed, and not over t*enty-one years of a,e or over t*enty-one years of a,e +rovided )e is inca+a1le of selfsu++ort due to a +)ysical or mental defect *)ic) is con,enital or ac7uired durin, minority; t)e le,itimate s+ouse livin, *it) t)e em+loyee and t)e +arents of said em+loyee *)olly de+endent u+on )im for re,ular su++ort. [(rt. 1"8, LC'. 4. Lealt) Ins. <)e le,al de+endents of a mem1er of t)e 6ro,ram are> -a. t)e le,itimate s+ouse *)o is not a mem1er; -1. t)e unmarried and unem+loyed le,itimate, le,itimated, ille,itimate, ackno*led,ed c)ildren as a++earin, in t)e 1irt) certificate; le,ally ado+ted or ste+-c)ildren 1elo* t*enty-one -41. years of a,e; -c. c)ildren *)o are t*entyone -41. years old and a1ove 1ut sufferin, from con,enital disa1ility, eit)er +)ysical or mental, or any disa1ility ac7uired t)at renders t)em totally de+endent on t)e mem1er of our su++ort; -d. t)e +arents *)o are si0ty -"%. years old or a1ove *)ose mont)ly income is 1elo* an amount to 1e determined 1y t)e 6)il. Lealt) Ins. Cor+. -6LIC. in accordance *it) t)e ,uidin, +rinci+les set fort) in (rt. 1 of R( 8&8!, as amended. [3ec. 1, R( 451'. Dependent state. Intl. La*. 1. ( state t)at )as surrendered its ri,)ts to conduct international affairs to anot)er state. [Intl. La* Dict. C Direct., 4%%5'. 4. (n entity *)ic), alt)ou,) t)eoretically considered a state,

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does not )ave full freedom in t)e direction of its e0ternal affairs. It may 1e eit)er a +rotectorate or suzerainty. [Cruz, Intl. La* Revie*er, 1 " ;d., +. 15'. Com+are *it) 1ndependent state. Depletion. <)e e0)austion of natural resources like mines and oil or ,as *ells as a result of +roduction or severance from suc) mines or *ells. [<eodoro C De Leon, La* on Income <a0ation, 11t) ;d. -4%%1., +. 18 , citin, 1 "! CCL Aed. <a0 Course, +ar. 14%1'. Deportation. <)e removal of a forei,n national under immi,ration la*s for reasons suc) as ille,al entry or conduct dan,erous to t)e +u1lic *elfare. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Deposit. 1. ( contract constituted from t)e moment a +erson receives a t)in, 1elon,in, to anot)er, *it) t)e o1li,ation of safely kee+in, it and of returnin, t)e same. If t)e safekee+in, of t)e t)in, delivered is not t)e +rinci+al +ur+ose of t)e contract, t)ere is no de+osit 1ut some ot)er contract. [(rt. 1 "4, CC'. 4. Aunds in forei,n currencies *)ic) are acce+ted and )eld 1y an offs)ore 1ankin, unit in t)e re,ular course of 1usiness, *it) t)e o1li,ation to return an e7uivalent amount to t)e o*ner t)ereof, *it) or *it)out interest. [3ec. 1, 6D 1%$5'. Depositing stockholder. 3ee <ransferring stockholder. Deposition. 1. It is intended as a means to com+el disclosure of facts restin, in t)e kno*led,e of a +arty or ot)er +erson *)ic) are relevant in some suit or +roceedin, in court. It is meant to ena1le a +arty to learn all t)e material and relevant facts, not only kno*n to )im and )is *itnesses 1ut also t)ose kno*n to t)e adverse +arty and t)e latter:s o*n *itnesses. [DasmariKas Garments v. Reyes, GR 1%&44 . (u,. 45, 1 $'. 4. <)e official statement 1y a *itness taken in *ritin, -as o++osed to testimony *)ic) *)ere a *itnesses ,ive t)eir +erce+tion of t)e facts ver1ally.. (ffidavits are t)e most common kind of de+ositions. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. $. <estimony of a *itness or a +arty taken under oat) outside t)e courtroom, t)e transcri+t of *)ic) 1ecomes a +art of t)e court:s file. [#uristEs Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Depositions de bene esse. <)ose de+ositions taken for +ur+oses of a +endin, action. [Rule 4$, RoC'. Depositions in perpetuam rei memoriam. <)ose de+ositions taken to +er+etuate evidence for +ur+oses of antici+ated action, or in t)e event of furt)er +roceedin,s in a case on a++eal, and to +reserve it a,ainst t)e dan,er of loss. [Rule 45, RoC'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

26
Depository. (ny financial institution la*fully aut)orized to receive ,overnment moneys u+on de+osit. [3ec. 4, C)a+. 1 3u1title 9, ;F 4 4'. Depository funds. Aunds over *)ic) t)e officer accounta1le t)erefor may retain control for t)e la*ful +ur+oses for *)ic) t)ey came into )is +ossession. It em1races moneys in any and all de+ositories. [3ec. 4, C)a+. 1 3u1title 9, ;F 4 4'. Deposit substitutes. (n alternative form of o1tainin, funds from t)e +u1lic -t)e term :+u1lic: means 1orro*in, from t*enty -4%. or more individual or cor+orate lenders at any one time., ot)er t)an de+osits, t)rou,) t)e issuance, endorsement, or acce+tance of de1t instruments for t)e 1orro*er:s o*n account, for t)e +ur+ose of relendin, or +urc)asin, of receiva1les and ot)er o1li,ations, or financin, t)eir o*n needs or t)e needs of t)eir a,ent or dealer. [3ec. 44, @IRC, as amended'. Depositum. ( true de+osit *)ere t)e +rinci+al +ur+ose of t)e contract is t)e safekee+in, of t)e t)in, de+osited. [=orenoEs La* Dict., 4%%% ;d., +. 1$%'. Depreciated value. <)e value remainin, after deductin, de+reciation from eit)er t)e re+lacement cost or t)e re+roduction cost. [3ec. $, 6D 5"5'. Depreciation. 1. <)e fall of a currencyEs value falls in relation to forei,n currencies. [Del Rosario v. 3)ell Co., GR L4&88". (u,. 1 , 1 &&, citin, 3icat, ;conomics, 1 &$, +. "$"'. 4. <)e ,radual diminution in t)e useful value of tan,i1le +ro+erty resultin, from *ear and tear and normal o1solescence. <)e term is also a++lied to amortization of t)e value of intan,i1le assets, t)e use of *)ic) in t)e trade or 1usiness is definitely limited in duration. [9asilan ;states v. Comm. on Int. Rev., GR L445 4. 3e+. !, 1 "8, citin, (ranas, (nnotation and #uris+. on t)e @IRC, as (mended, 4nd ;d., Dol. 1, +. 4"$'. Depression. Le,al =ed. ( feelin, of intense sadness. It may follo* a recent loss or ot)er sad event 1ut is out of +ro+ortion to t)at event and +ersists 1eyond an a++ro+riate len,t) of time. [Flarte, Le,al =ed., 1st ;d. -4%%5., +. 1$&'. Com+are *it) ;ania. Derelict. ( s)i+ or )er car,o *)ic) is a1andoned and deserted at sea 1y t)ose *)o *ere in c)ar,e of it, *it)out any )o+e of recoverin, it -sine s+e recu+erandi., or *it)out any intention of returnin, to it -sine animo revertendi.. [;rlan,er C Galin,er v. 3*edis) ;ast (siatic Co., GR 1%%!1. =ar. , 1 1"'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

26!
Dereliction. Intl. La*. <)e +)ysical *it)dra*al 1y a state from territory *it) t)e intention of relin7uis)in, or a1andonin, all le,al claims over it. Its effect is to make t)e territory terra nullius and, t)erefore, su12ect a,ain to occu+ation 1y ot)er states. [Cruz, Intl. La* Revie*er, 1 " ;d., +. 8%'. Dereliction of duty. <)e failure of a +u1lic officer to +rosecute a violation of t)e la*. [Gre,orio, Aund. of Crim. La* Rev., 1 8 t) ;d., +. "4 '. Derivative legislative power. 6o*er *)ic) )as 1een dele,ated 1y t)e soverei,n +eo+le to le,islative 1odies and is su1ordinate to t)e ori,inal +o*er of t)e +eo+le. [Garcia v. Comelec, GR 1114$%. 3e+. $%, 1 5'. Com+are *it) 0riginal legislative power. Derivative suit. <)e +rinci+al defense of t)e minority s)are)older a,ainst a1uses 1y t)e ma2ority. It is a remedy desi,ned 1y e7uity for t)ose situations *)ere t)e mana,ement, t)rou,) fraud, ne,lect of duty, or ot)er cause, declines to take t)e +ro+er and necessary ste+s to assert t)e cor+oration:s ri,)ts. [Commart -6)ils.., Inc. v. 3;C, GR &!$1&. #une $, 1 1'. Derivative ta% credit. Deemed paid ta% credit. 3ee Derived unit. ( unit t)at is formed 1y com1inin, 1ase units and/or su++lementary units accordin, to t)e al,e1raic relations linkin, t)e ot)er corres+ondin, 7uantities. [3ec. 5, 96 &'. Desahucio. 3+. Gnla*ful detainer. [3erin, v. 6lazo, GR L-5 8$1. 3e+. 4 , 1 &&'. Descendant-propositus. #ropositus. 3ee

Descendants. <)ose +ersons *)o are 1orn of, or from c)ildren of, anot)er are called t)at +erson:s descendants. Grandc)ildren are descendants of t)eir ,randfat)er as c)ildren are descendants of t)eir natural +arents. [Du)aime:s Le,al Dict., 4%%5'. Descending direct line. In succession, le,itimate c)ildren and t)eir descendants succeed t)e +arents and ot)er ascendants, *it)out distinction as to se0 or a,e, and even if t)ey s)ould come from different marria,es. (n ado+ted c)ild succeeds to t)e +ro+erty of t)e ado+tin, +arents in t)e same manner as a le,itimate c)ild. [(rt. 8 , CC'. Descriptio personae. Lat. 3uc) descri+tion of a +erson as *ill ena1le t)e officer to identify t)e accused. <)e descri+tion must 1e sufficient to indicate clearly t)e +ro+er +erson u+on *)om t)e *arrant is to 1e served. [6eo+le v. Deloso, GR 4$%!1. Fct. 4%, 1 4!'.

Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students

[De1ul. or *ould leave )er destitute 1ut for t)e c)arity of ot)ers. <o vest -a +u1lic officer. 3ee 'ninhabited Destierro. CF(.d. to t)e s)i+:s duty. or as it is often e0+ressed. 4%%4'.. *it)out leave. 9lack:s La* Dict.. La*' Desertion of a wife by a husband. Dela Cruz. 4%%% .estions.. =a1alot. of DF<C v.. 1ut an unaut)orized a1sence from t)e s)i+ *it) an intention not to return to )er service.)ts. <o violate t)e sacredness of or to +rofane. Com+are *it) Appointment. 48. Desertion. select. #uly 45. <)e ardent *is) to en. citin. $%.. (lt)ou. GR 111581.ado v. 4". GR 14%48". [3in. "18.ado v. 1efore termination of en. 9lack:s La* Dict. citin. *it) an intention to desert. =ar. <o indicate. never to return to )er.ered 1y t)ou. )is *ife *it) intention to forsake )er entirely. 1 8. Desire.al =ed.lasan. +. 5%4'.. (n a++ointment or assi.)ts or ver1al and visual su. Designation. 1.d.nment to a +articular office. citin. 1.. 9lack:s La* Dict. (dmin. 1. D. GR 111581. La*... ( seaman:s a1andonment of duty 1y 7uittin. 4. place. La*. GR 14%48". ++.t) of time. [3ec. 4. 1ut *it)out 2ustifia1le cause. and never to resume )is marital duties to*ards )er. *it)in t)e radius of 4! kilometers from t)e actual residence of t)e accused for a s+ecified len. 4. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [Flarte. #an. 1 5. "1 '. <)e act of a )us1and in voluntarily leavin.) destierro does not constitute Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +. s)i+.d. 4". +. @LRC.. &" 6)il. 4. Bords C 6)rases HDesertion R In =ar. [Gy C)in Lua v.ement. 6olitical La* Revie* 1y Gonzales. a++oint or set a+art for a +ur+ose of duty. Rev.lect as eit)er leaves t)e *ife destitute of t)e common necessaries of life. animo non revertendi.a 3)i+ =.26" Desecrate. not only *it)out leave or +ermission. GR 1$&4%%.a. suc) ne.a. Ae1. 3e+. GR L-1 !"!. -4%%5. <)e term connotes merely t)e im+osition of additional duties. #uly 45.ement 6)ils. and *it) t)e intent of not returnin. citin. u+on a +erson already in t)e +u1lic service 1y virtue of an earlier a++ointment or election [3antia. C3C. [De1ul. Din. !t) . 1. Designate. @ot a mere unaut)orized a1sence from t)e s)i+.t. 9anis)ment or only a +ro)i1ition from residin. !t) .. !t) .. 1 8. *it) additional duties *)ile )e +erforms t)e functions of )is +ermanent office. 5%4'. [Dela Cruz v. C3C. 1&5-1&!'.d. Le.d. 1$1'. Despoblado. 5%4'. 111'.e in se0ual activity *)ic) may 1e tri.al =ed. v. [3in. or to claim )is marital ri. 1 3CR( 14!. Le.a 3)i+ =ana. 1st . t)at is. 1 "&'.o v. 3e+. 1 5. @LRC.

Destruction of the instrument. R6C'. R6C'. sinkin. $45.in. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all 1urn> -a. tele. Destruction. store)ouse.nri7uez. GR @o. in an in)a1ited +lace. [Re+. intentional dama. Lold or kee+ in custody. La*. of a +erson in an enclosure *)ic) )e cannot leave. 184. inundation. =ic)ael C Co. 1 1!'. Detail.2 # im+risonment -*)ic) is a ty+ical e0am+le of de+rivation of li1erty. &4 6)il.ra+) *ires and tele. Destructive arson. by whom established and 6oss of the instrument. destroyin. Detentacion. any ot)er a. GR &"158. or strandin. in . 4 . [(rt. trains. 5. 6lazo. Rule DI. .. ++. maliciously c)an. 185'. *)et)er or not t)e commission )as endan. any +assen. <)e R6C. disc)ar. s)ort term resident care for yout)ful offenders *)o are a*aitin.ered t)e safety of any +erson.nals for t)e safety of movin. 118. 1 && . Crim. Ae1. 45. C(. store)ouse or military +o*der or fire*orks factory. Detain. ( t*enty-four )our c)ild-carin.ra+) +osts. 1 8. 1 %.. 1 &&'. 3ec.'. of t)e en.ency or means of destruction as effective as t)ose a1ove enumerated. (1ilon. rail*ay si. s)i+-yard.ency to anot)er *)ic) is tem+orary in nature. La*. [. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . u+ t)e rails from a rail*ay track.ine of said vessel. 1y usin. Detention.. and. Dec. it is nonet)eless a de+rivation of li1erty. v. 4". [6eo+le v.e of electric current.eneral museum of t)e Government. how shown. It refers not only to t)e +lacin. (7uino.d. [6eo+le v. C(.in. 6D "%$'. Destruction of t)e instrument may 1e +roved 1y any +erson kno*in. <)e offense committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all cause destruction 1y means of e0+losion. 3e+.encies or 2urisdiction. 1-4'. any store)ouse or factory of inflamma1le or e0+losive materials. III. citin. citin.eneral. Detention home. any arsenal. Com+are *it) *eassignment. 44. [6aat v. takin. -1. [3erin. (dmin. GR L-5 8$1. 3antos. Civil 3ervice Rules on 6ersonal (ctions and 6olicies'. Aorci1le entry. ordinance. v. or -c. 3+.. GR 1%&45.. v. [(rt. Dol. court dis+osition of t)eir cases or transfer to ot)er a. <)e movement from one De+artment or (. institution +rovidin. 1ut also to any ot)er de+rivation of li1erty. t)e fact -of t)e destruction. arc)ives or . of a vessel. or t)ose of any ot)er system. Dec. [(rt. 118&8$.er train or motor ve)icle in motion or vessel out of +ort. 4"" 3CR( 1&! -1 8. 3ee also "%ecution and delivery of the document. $4%. how proved.

<)e decision of a court of 2ustice. [Del Rosario v. 3)ell Co. includin. Determine. 1 . or -1. [3ec. 4%%% .)t. 15"%. (s a++lied to a monetary unit. Devaluation. GR L4&88". [=orenoEs La* Dict. ( future time. 1 !1 . CC'. 1 &&.. 5. t)ou. 1e uncertain. a reduction in its metallic content as determined 1y la* resultin. *)ic) is +articularly desi. 1 &&'. 4. of .) t)e time of )a++enin. Determinate thing. or t)e *orld. 3te+s necessarily taken to reac) an ore 1ody or mineral de+osit so t)at it can 1e mined. 1. *)ic) an instrument is e0+ressed to 1e +aya1le> -a. t)e develo+ment sta. [Intl. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ed t)e estate and allo*ed an avoida1le loss to occur. Development bank. ++.ion.2 1 Determinable future time. Development. 3loan and Wurc)er. *it)in t)e meanin. Devastavit. 4. 4%%% . [Du)aime:s Le. ( +ersonal re+resentative *)o )as mismana.re. 9ank *)ic) +rovides funds for t)e +romotion of t)e economy of an area. t)e construction of necessary infrastructure and related facilities. +. re.. R( 8 54'. $.reed fi0ed level im+osed 1y monetary aut)orities. to an end. [(rt. 4%%5'. &%&1'.. of t)e value of one nation:s currency in terms of t)e currencies of ot)er nations. Development e%penditures.0+enditures +aid or incurred durin. La* Dict. Le )as *asted. country.d. <)e *ork undertaken to e0+lore and +re+are an ore 1ody or a mineral de+osit for minin. +. [3ec. ( Dict. <)e develo+ment sta. Determination.n currencies *it)out any reference at all to t)e . 1$4'.. Lat. 3)ell Co.. 4. of t)e monetary value of t)e +eso vis-S-vis ot)er forei.e of t)e mine or ot)er natural de+osits. of (ct 4%$1. <)is action o+ens t)e +ersonal re+resentative to +ersonal lia1ility for t)e loss.conomics. citin.nated or +)ysically se. [Del Rosario v.d.. . in t)e lo*erin... (u. on or 1efore a fi0ed or determina1le future time s+ecified t)erein.. 6D 5"$'. ( t)in. on or at a fi0ed +eriod after t)e occurrence of a s+ecified event *)ic) is certain to )a++en.ated from all ot)er of t)e same class. GR L-4&88". <o come to an end.old value of t)e 6)ili++ine +eso. 1$4'. 1..e of a mine or ot)er natural de+osit s)all 1e. It can also 1e construed as a reduction in t)e value of our currency from an officially a.d. or -c.in at t)e time *)en de+osits of ore or ot)er minerals are s)o*n to e0ist in sufficient commercial 7uantity Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3ec.. (ny decrease or lo*erin. @IL'. (u.al Dict. at a fi0ed +eriod after date or si. 1 . 4%%5'.. <o 1rin. C Direct.

6ersons to *)om . Dicat testator et erit le%. 1 &8'. (ny e7ui+ment. ( contractual arran. (n o1servation 1y a 2ud. en2oy some of t)e 1enefits t)e investment creates suc) as )i. 6ol. conversion to a more +rofita1le use. [(rt. La*. increasin. Lat. or re-encodin.)t to develo+ ad2oinin.)er +ro+erty or rent values. t)e issue 1efore t)e court. [3ec. GR L-848%". I(C. Com+are *it) Decentrali ation. Develop-operate-and-transfer.e on a matter not s+ecifically 1efore t)e court or not necessary in determinin. [3ec. R( &%!%'. 48. Diagnostic pharmaceutical agents. [(rt. $5. Dicta or dictum. ( de+arture from t)e course of t)e voya. 6D 1!18'. LGC'. IC'. <)e ri. [3ec. 45 -1. 4. t)at entity t)e ri. t)e voya. [(cain v. [Du)aime:s Le.iven 1y virtue of a *ill.2 2 and 7uality and s)all end u+on commencement of actual commercial e0traction. t)em to a more intensive use. Gifts of real +ro+erty .e insured. Devolution. as amended'.rated into t)e arran. Development rights. Devise. Deviation. @IRC. density and t)e like. Devisees. [3ec. +uttin. mec)anism or im+ression desi. (ny +rocedure to identify a disease or condition t)rou.ement 1y .ifts of real +ro+erty are .. Lat.ivin. Diagnostic procedure.) analysis and e0amination. 1. +ro+erty. 1. mentioned in t)e last t*o sections. [3ec. CC'.ement *)ere1y favora1le conditions e0ternal to a ne* infrastructure +ro2ect *)ic) is to 1e 1uilt 1y a +rivate +ro2ect +ro+onent are inte.al Dict. $. (lso kno*n as New use rights. Com+are *it) 6egacy. =ar. 3ee 0biter dictum. [3ec.e or t)e commencement of an entirely different voya.iven 1y virtue of a *ill. R( 451'.)t to use and/or develo+ land and im+rovements t)ereon includin.ned or +rimarily used for makin. 8&4.e. [3ec.ment for t)e +ur+oses of 3tare decisis. a side o+inion *)ic) does not form +art of t)e 2ud. B)at t)e testator says *ill 1e t)e la*. R( &5&5'. an access de-vice or a counterfeit access device. 3+ecific to+ical dru. <)e transfer of +o*er and aut)ority from t)e @ational Government to LGGs to ena1le t)em to +erform s+ecific functions and res+onsi1ilities. Device making or altering equipment. <)e transfer or conveyance of real +ro+erty 1y *ill. 4%%5'. R( 881&'. 14$. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .s used to aid o+tometrists in t)eir e0amination of t)e )uman eye. $. $. 4.. Ins. or an unreasona1le delay in +ursuin. or alterin. and t)us. Fct.

otiation.ence re7uired 1y la* of every +erson o1li. Intl. +urc)asin. t)e )andlin. Land Re. [Glossary of Le. of +ersonnel.e to nutritional +ro1lems +resented 1y various diseases. 4%%5'. C Direct. directin. Dietetics.2 3 Dictionary. La*.ed al+)a1etically *it) t)eir meanin. and servin. Digest. citin. Be1ster:s @e* Intl. of meals to individuals or . and t)e trainin. [3ec. 1. v. ( 1ook containin. R( 4"85'. +re+arin. Diplomat. is e0amined for t)e +resence of nitrates to +rove *)et)er t)e +erson concerned )as recently fired a firearm. in any accredited )os+ital *)ic) +rovides o++ortunity to ac7uire kno*led.e arran. +ronunciations. La* Dict. Dietetic internship. (n inde0 or com+ilation of a1stracts of re+orted cases into one. Dec. +resent in anot)er state for t)e +ur+oses Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. 11"$. *ords of a +articular lan. Diplomacy..al <erms -6ro-3e. Diligence of a good father of a family. <)e +ro+er dili.ua. +re+arin.H [Roman Cat)olic (+ostolic (dministrator of Davao. <)e t)era+eutic +)ase includes e0+erience in t)e a++lication of scientific kno*led. 4%%5'. [Intl. or in7uiry. of food to +atients and +ersonnel *it)in 1ud. Dict. unless t)e la* or t)e sti+ulation of t)e +arties re7uires anot)er standard of care. Diocese. ( form of international dis+ute settlement t)at attem+ts to reconcile +arties to a disa. <)e administrative +)ase includes e0+erience in> t)e +lannin. <)e circuit or e0tent of a 1is)o+:s 2urisdiction. =ar. social and +syc)olo.ical factors.ive somet)in. CC'. and stora. etymolo. 3ee also #araffin test. [(rt. <)e com1ined science and art of re. to t)e +rinci+les of nutrition and mana. GR L-&5!1. ( +eriod of +ractical trainin.rou+s accordin. R( 4"85'. Diphenylamine test..s or titles and usually in al+)a1etical arran. La* Dict.. [3ec. 1 & '.e and skills in t)e administrative and t)era+eutic +)ases of dietetics. and so on. 4%. t)e +lannin. &. t)e maintenance of +ro+er sanitary measures *it)in t)e de+artment. ( c)emical test *)ere1y a +araffin cast of t)e )and-s. (n official re+resentative of a state. to take care of t)e same. su+ervisin. =adria.reement 1y use of ne. set fort) under +ro+er la* to+ic )eadin. 1 !8.et allo*ances. Inc.s. and servin.ed to . 4%%5'..ement.'. C Direct. 1. mediation.istration Commission. [6eo+le v.ulatin. t)e district in *)ic) a 1is)o+ )as aut)ority.e of food su++lies and e7ui+ment. GR 8$%!8. [Intl.a ID..ies.ement *it) due consideration to economic.

a+iton. to any +rofessional or commercial activity e0ercised 1y t)e di+lomatic a. Aund. [Guerrero v. Le.)est rank and t)e lon.) an e0c)an.$. Diplomatic immunity. [3ec.d. 45.d. In Cat)olic countries. In most 2urisdictions.otiations on 1e)alf of t)e di+lomat:s state-of-ori. Diplomatic negotiations.)t of a t)ird +arty *)o )as a claim in res+onsi1ility a. t)e dean is t)e 6a+al @uncio.any . and t)e yakals. Dipterocarp forest. 1 8 t) . almon. Direct action. . [3ec.ent in t)e receivin.al Dict. +.rou+. 6ol. 3er. C(. 1!1'.. state. 1 4'. 1a. La* Revie*er. suc) as red lauan.orio. 3e+. tan. Diplomatic corps. 1 & '. 1 " . +. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 &'. La* Revie*er.d. =avromamatis 6alestine Concessions Case.eneral re+resentation of t)e state-of-ori.ile.. direct dealin. 4%%4. ++. 1$. usually 1ecause t)e insured )as 1een declared 1ankru+t or )as 1ecome insolvent. [3uarez. cause or reason. ( forest dominated 1y trees of t)e di+terocar+ s+ecies. *)ite lauan. 6D 8%!'.F 5"8. &$'. La* Rev.tikan and maya+is of t)e 6)ili++ine ma)o. (lso. [Flarte. =inuc)er v.ainst an insured to +roceed directly 1y suit a. immediately from a source.2 4 of .d. *)o is usually t)e mem1er of t)e )i..encies. +..est service in t)e state.e of vie*s 1et*een di+lomatic a.ed. <)e +rocess 1y *)ic) 3tates settle t)eir differences t)rou.al =ed. Direct access. 6CI# 6u1. [Cruz. -4%%5. (n irresisti1le im+ulse to indul. 4%%5'. (ny one of a num1er of measures +ermittin.s. [Gre. 3tate. [Du)aime:s Le.ent from t)e criminal 2urisdiction of t)e receivin..s 1et*een aut)orized entities and international satellite system +roviders at s+ecified levels as defined 1y t)e @<C.. e0ce+t in t)e case of an action relatin. It consists of t)e different di+lomatic re+resentatives *)o )ave 1een accredited to t)e local or receivin. tiaon. <)e immunity en2oyed 1y a di+lomatic a. 11'. (/4. It is )eaded 1y a doyen du corps or dean. Intl. 1st .. Le. 3tate outside )is official functions. <)e ri. $. Dipsomania. 1st . citin. Direct. GR 88"!. citin. of Crim. 1rief or +rolon.in or for t)e +ur+ose of s+ecific international ne. 1%8"-1%88. Discussions may 1e oral or *ritten. Dillamor..ent from t)e civil and administrative 2urisdiction of said 3tate.in. $. +. s. @ov. t)e immunity of suc) a. GR &44$&54.al =ed.ainst t)e insurer. direct action is +ermitted only 1y statute.e in into0ication eit)er *it) alco)ol or dru. <)e term *ould relate to an act stemmin.

Fne *)ere1y t)e 3tate. t)e main o12ect of *)ic) is to annul. Cor+. 4". Direct attack of corporate e%istence. Com+ilation of @otes. Code of t)e 6)il. Com+are *it) &ollateral attack of corporate e%istence.rieved +arty may sue for recovery. Glossary of Conflict of La*s.) an action or +roceedin. 6alanca. 4%%5'. GR "" 5.ift in consideration of t)e e0ecution of an act *)ic) does not constitute a crime.s+aKolAili+ino v. t)e crimes of re1ellion and sedition. attacks t)e e0istence of an association claimin. La*. +ersonally or t)rou. 1 & .. =ar. em+loyment of force. $8 6)il. (nnotated. or en2oin t)e enforcement of suc) 2ud. [Claridades. Com+are *it) &onstructive contempt. in a +roceedin.a. Code '.d. R6C'. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer *)o s)all a. to 1e a cor+oration. [(rt. set aside. 1 14'. 1!4.e or court *)ic) o1structs or interru+ts court +roceedin.'..) t)e 3olicitor General 1y 7uo *arranto +roceedin. It can only 1e instituted 1y t)e . Direct evidence. Crim. 15&. Cor+.)t for t)at +ur+ose.ents. if t)e +ro+erty )as 1een dis+osed of... +.ment.vidence *)ic) +roves t)e fact in dis+ute *it)out t)e aid of any inference or +resum+tion. or t)e attack. or on occasion of suc) +erformance. and t)e officer e0ecuted said act or did not accom+lis) said act. 41 -1 1&. 4%%1- Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [. ..l 9anco . 1rou. t)e a. 41%. Com+are *it) Direct contempt. *)ile en. *it)out a +u1lic u+risin. [@arcida v. a crime.e as to o1struct )im in t)e administration of 2ustice. Direct assault. 3ecs. for t)e attainment of any of t)e +ur+ose enumerated in definin. +romise. [(rt. Com+are *it) &ollateral attack. citin.ed in t)e +erformance of official duties. Direct attack against a (udgment. 9o*en. 1. Com+ilation of @otes. Fne t)at is made t)rou.) t)e mediation of anot)er. Direct contem+t may 1e summarily +unis)ed 1y fine and im+risonment. 4.ree to +erform an act constitutin.ift or +resent received 1y suc) officer. or 1y t)e officer *)o s)all acce+t t)e . (. or. R6C'. Contem+t committed in t)e +resence of or so near t)e 2ud. in consideration of any offer. Direct bribery. in connection *it) t)e +erformance of t)is official duties. (. =is1e)avior in or near t)e +resence of a 2ud. 4%%14%%"'.s. or serious intimidation or resistance of any +erson in aut)ority or any of )is a. . Direct contempt. 4% and 141.2 5 [<etley. if not yet carried into effect. <)e em+loyment of force or intimidation 1y any +erson or +ersons.overnment t)rou. [Claridades. 1. [De Leon.s.

.overnment units assume res+onsi1ility for t)e re+ayment of de1t directly incurred 1y t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent in im+lementin. t)at is. Director. Rule 1$4. 1 $$. !..al Dict. Direct government guarantee. =acarai.reement *)ere1y t)e .es to administer 2ustice. [3ec. 6D 1%"&'. GR $ 48!. 4. (n e0am+le of a direct ta0 is t)e +ersonal income ta0. of Le. +. (ny director of a cor+oration or any +erson +erformin.overnment or any of its a. Direct solar energy. 4%%5'. 1 1'.y content of solar radiation )arnessed 1y collectin.. Domestically-+roduced su1stituta1le +roducts. "5.encies or local . ( ta0 *)ic) is demanded from t)e very +erson intended to 1e t)e +ayor.overn and e0ecute t)e la*s. Com+are *it) &rosse%amination. 4. Direct ta%. Com+are *it) &ircumstantial evidence. [3ec. R( 881&'. 4%. [6eo+le v. Directory statutes. [=aceda v. it or t)at its +ur+ose can 1e accom+lis)ed in a manner ot)er t)an t)at +rescri1ed and su1stantially t)e same result o1tained. R( &&%%'. (n a. Con.. 6roof of facts 1y *itnesses *)o sa* acts done or )eard *ords s+oken. <)e ener. 1.2 6 4%%"'. R( 4"4 '. Rational Dict. Direct line.al Dict. to try civil or criminal cases or 1ot). )im on t)e facts relevant to t)e issue.islation and #uris+. of *itnesses 1y t)e +arty on *)ose 1e)alf t)ey are called. =endoza. ( ta0 for *)ic) a ta0+ayer is directly lia1le on t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4. [(rt. Direct e%amination.norin.)t in man-made devices suc) as flat-+late or focusin. <)at constituted 1y t)e series of de. t)e +ro2ect in case of a loan default. 4'. <)e e0amination-in-c)ief of a *itness 1y t)e +arty +resentin. 11!5'.andatory statutes. $.vid. [3uarez. GR &&4 1. 4. CC'. 4%%5'.anization. =ay $1.rees amon. La*s *)ic) are +ermissi1le or discretionary in nature and merely outline t)e act to 1e done in suc) a *ay t)at no in2ury can result from i. Com+are *it) &ollateral line. solar collectors. Com+are *it) . . 1. similar functions *it) res+ect to any or. alt)ou. Directly competitive products.ment t)ereon in accordance *it) t)e la*. -1 $. +articularly t)e aut)ority vested in t)e 2ud. 3ee 1ndirect solar energy. and to render 2ud.) it may ultimately 1e s)ifted to anot)er. . [#uristEs Le... citin.scric)e. sunli. 5. ascendants and descendants. 3tat. RoC'. Directly vested (urisdiction. <)e +o*er or aut)ority to . Dec. <)e first 7uestionin. [3ec. [3ec. 4. [#uristEs Le. [3ec. +.

!. [(rt. Disaster operations. if t)e testator acted 1y mistake or did not intend t)at t)e instrument )e si... Inc. system *)erein television +ro. [Comm. at t)e time of its e0ecution. CC'. 1. 5. 4.'. [3ec. R( 8488'.d.. &$ . to +erform an activity in t)e manner or *it)in t)e ran. or t)e influence of fear. R( !"&%'. <)at created 1y t)e +arties in a lan. deed. [I1id. t)e rece+tion cover not only individual-s. Disallowance of wills. -d.e considered normal for a )uman 1ein. 1irt) trauma.ical. 1 &8'. Disability. <)ose +ersons sufferin. .nature t)ereto. or ot)er*ise mentally inca+a1le of makin.arded as )avin. ( +)ysical or mental im+airment t)at su1stantially limits one or more +syc)olo. Loss or reduction of a +erson:s ca+acity to effectively co+e *it) t)e demands of )is environment as a result of disease or in2ury. of Int. on t)e +art of t)e 1eneficiary or of some ot)er +erson.ua. as a result of a mental. or *ill. it [(rt. from in2ury or sickness. s)ould +ay t)em. Ae1.overnment and/or ot)er*ise.2 transaction or 1usiness en.encies. ( record of suc) an im+airment $. 1y some *ritin. LC'.nature of t)e testator *as +rocured 1y fraud. -c.ency assistance in relief to +ersons *)o are victims of a disaster or calamity. Loss or im+airment of a +)ysical or mental function resultin..ical or anatomical function of an individual or activities of suc) individual. +. [3ec. +)ysiolo. -1. v. <)ose are demanded from t)e very +erson *)o. if it *as +rocured 1y undue and im+ro+er +ressure and influence. ( trust intentionally created 1y t)e direct and +ositive act of t)e settlor.e directly and e0+ressly +ointin. 5. to +rovide emer. Com+are *it) 1ndirect ta%es.es in. Grounds> -a. a *ill. Direct trust. . out t)e +ersons. #o)n Gotamco C 3ons. -e. if it *as e0ecuted t)rou.F 5"8. 4. or oral declaration. R( 8488'. [=orenoEs La* Dict. if t)e si. in t)eir )omes 1ut ot)er +laces as *ell. (ny effort 1y one or more a. 3+ecific Direct ta%es. or t)reats. GR L-$1% 4.ned s)ould 1e )is *ill at t)e time of affi0in. +)ysical or sensory im+airment. [3ec. re. ( 1roadcastin.a.) force or under duress. s.rams are transmitted directly to )ome/user receivers via satellite. from restriction or different a1ilities. -f. +ro+erty and +ur+ose of t)e trust.. 1$5'. includin. Disabled persons. 1 &'. If t)e formalities re7uired 1y la* )ave not 1een com+lied *it). 1"8. Rev. [3ec. t)us makin. )is si. 5. it is intended or desired. Direct to home 2D<=3 <?. suc) an im+airment. 4%%% . 9ein. if t)e testator *as insane.$. 48. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .

al <erms -6ro3e. 1ut does not include disc)ar. of t)at la*yer:s ri. food.d. em+tyin.. (+r.al Dict. +ourin. La*. [(rt. In +ro1ate. [3ec. Disaster volunteer worker 2D?B3. La1or. services. (ny s+illin. . 4. 1. esta1lis)ments. *ater and s)elter. Discontinuous easements. of any material into a *ater 1ody or onto land from *)ic) it mi. [#uristEs Le. ( duly accredited mem1er of any of t)e task units of a local disaster coordinatin.)t flo* or drain into said *ater. emittin. Aorm of disci+line of a la*yer resultin. )omicide or any ot)er crime for *)ic) a )i. emittin. (s used in (rt. 14 -$. +um+in. Do7uena. ot)ers> issuance of medical su++lies and e7ui+ment and emer. <)e court:s formal disc)ar. Disbarment. <)ose easements *)ic) are used at intervals and de+end u+on t)e acts of man. Disclaim. 1 . amon. communications and restoration of facilities. Discernment. council.. [6eo+le v. to understand t)e difference 1et*een ri. or dum+in.. [Glossary of Le..F 5&. <o refuse a . of t)e Rev. 6enal Code. or dum+in. +.al <erms -6ro-3e. unless t)e facts of t)e case are suc) t)at t)e act can 1e )eld to constitute frustrated or attem+ted +arricide.e of effluents from industrial or manufacturin. 6enal Code. Discharge of firearms. La1or Rel. R( 48!'. leakin.. +revention of +anic. Discharge. +um+in. [6o7uiz.. 4$.e 1ut over nine. !&% -1 $ .'. <)e act of s+illin. 1..)t and *ron. La*. t)e mental ca+acity of a minor under fifteen years of a.F 5&. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +ourin. "& 6)il. 1. CC'. (+r. leakin.. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all s)oot at anot)er *it) any firearm.. rescue and firefi. It takes +lace *)en t)e em+loyer )as resolute intention to dis+ense *it) t)e services of t)e em+loyee.)tin. 4!5. or mill of any kind. in t)e loss -often +ermanently.. [3ec 5.e of a de1tor:s de1ts. 4$. Discharge.ency medical treatment. +olice +rotection. R6C'.. 4%%5'. 1 &5'.2 ! aid and assistance t)at may 1e +rovided in disaster o+erations include. route clearance and traffic control. t)e release of t)e estate:s re+resentative from fiduciary res+onsi1ility. [3ec.ift made in a *ill. *)o commits an act +ro)i1ited 1y la*.)t to +ractice la*. murder. [Glossary of Le. 4%%5'.. La*.. 1 &5'.)er +enalty is +rescri1ed 1y any of t)e articles of t)e Rev. [3ec... Crim. [(rt. "1!. . releasin. 6D 8 '. 4%%5'. em+tyin. 44'. Civ. $. Discharge.

@ov. GR 8&%". citin. or as t)e +roduction of deeds. &&4'. v. 1$!'. 1". uncontrolled 1y t)e 2ud.. [Lam1 v. [. @ov. B)en a++lied to +u1lic functionaries. &14'. +. Discounting line.. R6C'. [(rt. [Re+. (+r. it is a +o*er or ri. 118 3CR( &%5. 3ee 6ast clear chance doctrine. 1 14'. 1asis. discreta.)t conferred u+on t)em 1y la* of actin.. C(. officially. Discovery modes.e of t)e defendant. L-$"85&. #uly 14. GR 1%!885. <)is s)all not 1e a++lica1le to +arents. under certain circumstances. an im+olite act. com+any or 1ank *)ic) allo*s a 1usiness entity to sell. accordin. t)rou. <)e felony committed 1y any +rivate individual *)o in order to discover t)e secrets of anot)er.2 " Discount.. [Great (sian 3ales Center v.al Dict. it. 4%%4'. 4. Crim. Discretionary e%ecution e%ecution or of (udgment Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . in order to maintain t)e ri.ment or conscience of ot)ers. or t)in. 1 &4. 4%%5'. Discovered peril doctrine. &4 1. 4 %. Didit) R. rudeness of 1e)avior or lan.)t or title of t)e +arty askin. GR $$! . *it)out *illfulness or favor. Dict.'. in t)e kno*led.e. facts and information a1out t)e case. <)e name . s)all seize )is +a+ers or letters. [=orenoEs La* Dict. *)et)er or not )e reveals t)e contents t)ere-of. =eralco 3ecurities Cor+. GR 8"!5. La*. citin. 4%%4'. 15 7uotin. *ritin. 3ee Accession Discretio est scire per legem quid sit (ustum.s in )is +ossession or +o*er. C3C Res. to t)e +rinci+les of 2ustice and one:s ideas of *)at is ri. Incivility. C(. 1 5. 1 3CR( 1$5.uardians. <)e disclosure of facts restin. 4%%% . v. nor to s+ouses *it) res+ect to t)e +a+ers or letters of eit)er of t)em. GR 1%!885. . 1 1. 15.) t)e la* *)at is 2ust. its accounts receiva1le at a discount. Discourtesy. <)e sale of a receiva1le at less t)an its face value. 4!. 1. on a continuin. +. Be1sterEs $rd @e* Intl. Discretion consists in kno*in. 9ouvier:s La* Dict. [#uristEs Le. 1 &. [Great (sian 3ales Center v.. Discovering secrets through sei ure of correspondence. or +ersons en-trusted *it) t)e custody of minors *it) res+ect to t)e +a+ers or letters of t)e c)ildren or minors +laced under t)eir care or study.d. Discreta. in a suit or +roceedin. 3avellano.ua.iven +retrial devices for o1tainin. 4!. Ca+ulon. 6)i++s.. #uly 14. ( credit facility *it) a financin.s. 4$. <)e act or t)e li1erty to decide. [Insular Life v. Fct. Lat. ill manners. Discovery.. (+r. Discretion. C(.s+ina.)t and +ro+er under t)e circumstances.

It consists of an intent to violate t)e trut). <)e term denotes a norm of conduct *)ic) is contrary to )uman decency. Disinterment. 1 8'. 1$!'. +.ment or final order 1efore it attains finality. 1 !" ed. & . . for causes e0+ressly stated 1y la*. Disinheritance. 4%%% . +. Rule $ . C3C Res. CC'. (n Futline of 6)il.inisterial e%ecution. 15 of t)e Rev. 1!. 3everely im+aired trees due to 1acteria. ( testamentary dis+osition de+rivin. citin. +.. &'.. <)e concealment or distortion of trut) in a matter of fact relevant to one:s office or connected *it) t)e +erformance of )is duties. De+rivin. +. +ar.itime for a cause aut)orized 1y la*. #ulio C.. III. 4%%% . also an immoral act or +ractice. 1. Dishonesty.rounds> insufficient funds. 4-!". Dishonor. C(. 4. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4. Ae1. or virus. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . of a mask to cover )is face for t)e +ur+ose of concealin. Reyes and 6uno. Disgraceful conduct. Dol. viriod and t)e c)ances of its survival and 1ein. 1$!'.d. v. 4%%% . deceive or 1etray.)tness. 6enal Code. [(rt. 6C( (dmin.. a com+ulsory )eir of )is le. Com+are *it) . GR L-!8&5&. )is identity. 6D 81'. 15.itime. Disease infested. fun.rant an e0ecution +endin. <)e refusal of t)e 1ank a. vice. 8-114$. a crime -under (rt. of t)e motion.es. t)e c)eck is dra*n to +ay it due to any of t)ese . t)e motion s)all 1e acted u+on 1y t)e a++ellate court. economically +roductive is nil.ainst -*)ic). [3ec. immoral.d. 4. Dishonorable conduct. citin. 5.. [=aninan. [=orenoEs La* Dict.rity or a dis+osition to defraud.. Frder 1!'. account closed. [3ec. <)e e0ecution of a 2ud. 3ec. <)e removal or e0)umation of remains from +laces of interment. 1 &4. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. or no account *it) 1ank.us. +. 1. Disguise. a++eal if it still retains 2urisdiction over t)e case and is in +ossession of t)e records at t)e time of t)e filin. Disfigurement. [9a. +ayment sto++ed.d.. and 3ee immoral 1mmoral (ny act *)ic) s)o*s lack of inte. $. #une 1 . <)e court *)ic) rendered t)e decision can .oodness and u+ri. c)eat. any com+ulsory )eir of )is s)are in t)e le. [=orenoEs La* Dict. <)e use 1y a +erson committin. 1$!'. ot)er*ise. RoC'.acay. *ickedness.. Civil La*.2!# pending appeal. &. [3ec. conduct. 6D &!"'. <)e state or 7uality of 1ein. 3ee Deformity.

F1li. unit -C6G. false *)ere alle. of t)e com+uter system. constitutin.H in t)e same manner t)at t)e key1oard is an Hin+ut-out+ut deviceH and t)e monitor. Disloyalty of public officers or employees.. a+art. 4. 4%%% .d. t)e overt)ro* of t)e Government. R6C'. Dismantling. <)e termination of t)e +roceedin. or t)e com+laint or information is not valid or sufficient in form and su1stance. +iece 1y +iece or +art 1y +art. s)all diso1ey suc) su+eriors after t)e latter )ave disa++roved t)e sus+ension.os... La1or Rel. 3ee Bith pre(udice and Bithout pre(udice. 1 1'. or t)e evidence does not s)o* t)at t)e offense *as committed *it)in t)e territorial 2urisdiction of t)e court.. [<orres. GR L!"%4&. La*. Dol. 1 .e t)e duties of t)eir offices under t)e control of t)e re1els or s)all acce+t a++ointment to office under t)em. (u. [Glossary of Le. [3ec. Dismissal. Rem.. #uly $%. 4$4.F 1&8'. GR 48$ . @ot true to a soverei. [(rt. key1oard and +rinter are H+eri+)eralsH in relation to t)e memory or central +rocessin. $5 '. 1. +.iance is due. Disloyalty to the 5overnment. 6D 81'. Inte. La*. [3ec. La1or. Crim. 4. [=alanyaon v. C Cont. etc. Disobedience to summons issued by the National Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Com+are *it) Acquittal. or to t)e . It consists of a1andonment or renunciation of one:s loyalty to t)e Government of t)e 6)ili++ines. Dismissal. 1$8.. or s)all continue to disc)ar.n or la*ful su+erior. a termination of an em+loyee at t)e instance of t)e em+loyer. R6C.. for any reason sus+ended t)e e0ecution of t)e orders of )is su+eriors. )avin. <)e tearin. 44'. Disobedience to order of superior officers$ when said order was suspended by inferior officer.d. 1 &1'.2!1 Diskettes. Disloyal. or advocatin. <o t)ro* a case out of court. Crim. 14 (. 5$4'. Lisin. 4. La*. [6eo+le v. R( "!$ '. [(rt. +. as reinstated 1y . <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer *)o. one of t)e Hin+ut-out+ut devicesH or H+eri+)erals.al <erms -6ro3e. &. fait)less. 9ur. La*.ral +arts of a com+uter system. of a motor ve)icle. Dismiss. <)e felony committed 1y +u1lic officers or em+loyees *)o )ave failed to resist a re1el-lion 1y all t)e means in t)eir +o*er. ( disc)ar. 4%%5'. <)e termination of a la*suit. [Bords and 6)rases. [6o7uiz.overnment under *)ic) one lives.e of an em+loyee. +. eit)er 1ecause t)e court is not a court of com+etent 2urisdiction.

1!%. LGC'. medicine or any dan. +. after )avin.. sellin. .. .. Disposition post mortem. Disorder. La*. R6C'. *it) or *it)out t)e use of +rescri+tion.ivin. 1$"'. Disposal. its s+ecial or standin. ( distur1ance of t)e +eace. ( s+ecies of evidence t)at may 1e acce+ted and acted on *)ere t)ere is no ot)er evidence to u+)old t)e contention for *)ic) it stands. Disposicion captatoria. 3ee Dispense. [=orenoEs La* Dict. refuses to 1e s*orn or +laced under affirmation or to ans*er any le. &8!. (ny act of . 3ee Donation mortis causa. Disobeying request for disqualification. or distri1utin. 4%%% . or . 1een la*fully re7uired to refrain from so doin.al e0cuse. a*ay. )avin. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer *)o. <)e act of +artin. R6C'. Crim. t)e Constitutional Commissions and its committees. or 1efore any commission or committee c)airman or mem1er aut)orized to summon *itnesses. De Guzman. *it). as a *itness. or divisions. or 1ein. documents. committees and su1committees.. Disorders of &onation. 4%%% . [6eo+le v. citin.al in7uiry or to +roduce any 1ooks.vid. or *)o s)all induce diso1edience to a summon or refusal to 1e s*orn 1y any suc) 1ody or official. [(rt. +.t. Ae1.ivin. $1( Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o. [3ec $. (ny dis+osition made u+on t)e condition t)at t)e )eir s)all make some +rovision in )is *ill in favor of t)e testator or of any ot)er +erson. [(rt.d. R( 1"!'. 454. +er 3ec.. La*. *it)-out le. =. Disputable presumption. [(rt. 1efore t)e 7uestion of 2urisdiction is decided.. refuses. or 1y any +erson *)o s)all restrain anot)er from attendin. +a+ers. -Con. 1een duly summoned to attend as a *itness 1efore t)e @ational (ssem1ly. su1committees. to o1ey suc) summons..ress. or records in )is +ossession. GR 1%"%4!. 3uc) dis+osition s)all 1e void.d.2!2 Assembly$ its committees or subcommittees$ by the &onstitutional &ommissions$ its committees$ subcommittees or divisions.erous dru. alienation of. 1 5. 1$"'.islative or constitutional 1ody or official. volition. [=orenoEs La* Dict. CC'. *)en re7uired 1y t)em to do so in t)e e0ercise of t)eir functions. Dispose of. or one *)ic) may 1e overcome 1y ot)er evidence. Crim. s)all continue any +roceedin. u+ of su++lies or +ro+erty. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. aas dis+osition 1y *ill. +resent 1efore any suc) le. $&$. <o alienate or direct t)e o*ners)i+ of +ro+erty.

15 -$. GR 11 &84. Com+are *it) &onclusive presumption.. Dissenting opinion.al Dict. GR &&"$1. a. <)e termination.al <erms -6ro-3e.J [@avoa-Ramos v.al Dict. #resumption (uris tantum. Com+are *it) &oncurring opinion.e or se0. *)en in t)e commission of t)e crime t)ere is some insult or disres+ect s)o*n to rank. 4%%5'. anyt)in. u+ somet)in. <o disa. 6enal Code *)ic) may 1e taken into account only in crimes a. $%.. to enforce in a dissentin.. 4%%5'. 1 "$'. a conflict of le. [#uristEs Le. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. 1 8'. Collado. 6ol. and neit)er dis+oses of. *ebuttable presumption. 4. or *indin. it merely e0+resses t)e vie*s of t)e dissenter. [3andoval. 3ee #iercing the veil of corporate entity or fiction doctrine. or *indin. +rocess of dissolvin. (n a.. of t)e Rev. 4%%5'.ainst +ersons or )onor.. ( disa. or *indin.ravatin. 4. Dispute. [La*Info Le. ( disa. <)e *ord is used in le. Dissolution. 3ee #rima facie presumption.. Disregard of the respect due the offended party by reason of his rank$ age or se%.. 1 8'. Fn. (+r.reement or conflict )as t)e c)aracter of an international dis+ute if it arises 1et*een t*o or more states. It is not +ro+er to consider t)is a. not a*ards. 1. C(. <)e minority o+inion of a 2ustice or 2ustices *)ic) runs contrary to t)e conclusions of t)e ma2ority.'..al Dictionary -4%%!. 1 1'.ree.reement on a +oint of la* or fact. u+ somet)in. <)e +)rase is t)e e7uivalent of Hrulin. $%. circumstance under (rt. ( voluntary dissolution of a Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ri. +rocess of dissolvin. <)ere is not)in. o+inion since it affirms or overrules no claim. <)e termination.2!3 C#3 +. [Glossary of Le.al vie*s or interests 1et*een t*o +ersons. circumstance in crimes a. #uly 8. GR L-18 $&. Disputed decision. Dissent. [Du)aime:s Le. Dissolution of a corporation. (+r.ation. terminatin.-u+ a cor+oration or its state of affairs.ainst +ro+erty.)t. order or decision a++ealed from... [<olentino v. Disregarding the fiction of corporate entity. Dissolution of a corporation by shortening corporate term.al circles to refer to t)e minority o+inion of a 2ustice *)ic) runs contrary to t)e conclusions of t)e ma2ority. Disrate. ( term of maritime la* *)ere an officer or ot)er seaman is eit)er demoted in rank or de+rived of a +romotion.ravatin.siako. or o1li. <)e act of endin. [6eo+le v. 1.

Distin.)t 1e distin.d. sa+.al Dict. (+r. 1 &8'. . <)e delivery or sale of any dru. on. to 1e associated in t)e carryin. Dissolution of a marriage. $. t)e 1usiness.F 18!. II Crim. CC'. Distraint. ot)ers. suc) as *anton disre+air or destruction of t)e +remises. [3ec. e0ce+t t)at suc) terms does not include a manufacturer or retailer of suc) +roduct.. 3u+erior Gas and .2!4 cor+oration effected 1y amendin. rented. ".inal and continuous distillation from mas).) continuous closed vessels and +i+es until t)e manufacture t)ereof is com+lete.uis) times and you *ill )armonize la*s. 1%& 6)il.al relations)i+ 1et*een t)ose +ersons formally 2oined 1y marria. of Customs v. 84 '. =ay 4!. Reyes. 1 & .. Distillers of spirits. Code'. [(rt. and condensin. 44!. ( com+ilation of rules and re. [Du)aime:s Le.7ui+ment Co. 14%. t)e le. Lat. +. Distraer. ( le. as collateral a. t)e standards for service and +erformance. Cor+. electric utilities in t)e o+eration and maintenance of t)eir distri1ution systems *)ic) includes. u+ of. 1 "%'.uis)ed from t)e *indin. and de-fines and esta1lis)es t)e relation-s)i+ of t)e distri1ution systems *it) t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%14%%"'. 1&4&. Distillation. La*. its articles of incor+oration to s)orten its cor+orate term +ursuant to t)e +rovisions of t)e Cor+oration Code. Com+ilation of @otes. or syru+ t)rou. <)e ri. 4%%5'. t)e resultin. as mi. [3ec.. *as).. *ort. citin. [Comm. Distribution. 6D 54"'. <)e c)an. 1. <o convert. Distribution code. [3ec.overnin. Distingue tempora et concordabis (ura. 6eo+le. GR &!8&!. of anot)er:s +ro+erty as if it *ere one:s o*n.e in t)e relation of t)e +arties caused 1y any +artner ceasin.oods t)at )ave 1een distrained is called Re+levin. va+or so as to +roduce a nearly +urified su1stance. amon. [Claridades. (.ulations . or dis+osin. [3y v. t)e tem+erature in se+arate t)e more volatile from t)e less volatile +arts and t)en coolin. Dissolution of a partnership. 6D 11&!'.)t of a landlord to seize t)e +ro+erty of a tenant *)ic) is in t)e +remises 1ein. 3+. or device for +ur+oses of distri1ution in commerce.al action to reclaim . =ay 44. 45.e. [3ec. <)e +rocess of first raisin. <)e term connotes t)e act of usin. 14t) .ainst a tenant t)at )as not +aid t)e rent or )as ot)er*ise defaulted on t)e lease. <)e act of endin. (ll *)o distill s+irituous li7uors 1y ori.

5. R( 1$"'. 5. 5. of t)e c)ar. Distribution retail supply rate. <)e conveyance of electric +o*er 1y a distri1ution utility t)rou. La*.. e0ce+t t)at suc) term does not include a manufacturer or retailer of suc) +roduct. R( 8$ 5'. or of any +rovincial 1oard or city or munici+al council or 1oard. <)e system of *ires and associated facilities 1elon. su++ly and ot)er related c)ar. 5. [3ec.ner.s of t)e @ational (ssem1ly -Con.in. R6C.y Re. for t)e use of a distri1ution system and/or t)e availment of related services.ulated 1y t)e . +rivate cor+oration. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o distur1s t)e meetin.) its distri1ution system +ursuant to t)e +rovisions of R( 1$". or in t)e +resence of any suc) 1odies s)ould 1e)ave in suc) manner as to interru+t its +roceedin. R( 1$"'. as reinstated 1y . Distributor.ress of t)e 6)ili++ines. local . Distribution retail wheeling charge. [3ec. [3ec. 155.F 1&8'. Crim. Distribution of electricity. 6ayment of 2ust indemnity for t)e distur1ance of +ro+rietary ri. (ny electric coo+erative.s or to im+air t)e res+ect due it. <)e cost or c)ar.ulatory Commission -. to a franc)ised distri1ution utility e0tendin.enerator connection and t)e +oint of connection to t)e +remises of t)e end-user. [3ec. . constitutional commissions or committees or divisions t)ereof. R( 1$"'. <)e total +rice +aid 1y end-users consistin. 5. R( 1$"'. or dis+ossessin. [(rt.RC.)t or title to it in favor of a +erson or +ersons ot)er t)an )is s+ouse Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Divestment. (. Distribution system. 5. [3ec.e re. transmission and related ancillary services. [Claridades. R( 1$"'. 4%%1-4%%"'.overnment-o*ned utility or e0istin. com+letely and actually de+rivin. Disturbance of proceedings. Disturbance compensation. [3ec. distri1ution.)ts as a result of e0+ro+riation.es for electric service. oneself of )is ri.ene-ration. R( 1$"'. 1et*een t)e delivery +oints on t)e transmission or su1transmission system or .overnment unit *)ic) )as an e0clusive franc)ise to o+erate a distri1ution system in accordance *it) R( 1$". 5.2!5 facilities or installations of t)e +arties connected t)ereto.es for . [(rt. Com+ilation of @otes. Distribution utility. or of any of its committees or su1committees. (ny +erson to *)om a consumer +roduct is delivered or sold for +ur+oses of distri1ution in commerce. <)e transfer of title or dis+osal of interest in +ro+erty 1y voluntarily.

future events 1y su+ernatural or ma. R( "81$'. [Diaz. 4. [(rt. 4 '.. @ov. &$ '. 1$&'. -1.. contract or covenant is no 1ar to a suit for a su1se7uent 1reac) t)ereof.e 1ond in accordance *it) t)e Code of =uslim 6ersonal La*s of t)e 6)ili+-+ines to 1e . 1y a for-+rofit cor+oration. <)e formal dissolution of t)e marria. -1 $8-$&'. D@( can 1e e0tracted from 1ody tissue suc) a strand of )air. -a. Divisible obligation. t)e stock)olders accordin. and a 2ud.e. [3uarez. +.ranted only after e0)austion of all +ossi1le means of reconciliation 1et*een t)e s+ouses.... +.. 4%%% . a contract to do several t)in. ( +ro+ortionate distri1ution of +rofits made in t)e form of a money +ayment to s)are)olders. (n o1li. <)e +retended art of foreseein. (ny distri1ution made 1y a cor+oration to its s)are)olders out of its earnin.ment recovered for a sin. 1y its . 8$. [@ielson v. @IRC. semen.ency. [9lossom C Co.d. 4%%5'.. 1. [3ec. DNA.al Dict. t)e )olders of t)e ca+ital stock. $5 C#. Con. i. $. 9us. or 1y t)e stock)olders at a cor+orate meetin. 1 "&'. Divorce 2talaq3. 1 1 . Le+anto. La* Rev.e. Divisible contract$ general rule on. =anila Gas. +. 6D 1%&"'. (11reviation for Deo%yribonucleic Acid. Divine +ositive la*. sets a+art for rata1le division amon. is ca+a1le of +artial +erformance. as amended'. in its delivery or +erformance.er-+rintin. and declared 1y t)e directors of t)e cor+oration as a dividend. Dividends are declared 1y a com+any:s 1oard of directors.le 1reac) of a continuin. It means t)e fund actually set aside. [Du)aime:s Le.ation t)e o12ect of *)ic). so as to aut)orize successive actions. citin. <en Commandments. ( c)romosome molecule *)ic) carries . [=orenoEs La* Dict. v. to 1e divided or distri1uted amon.. 5!. $. &..d. Com+are *it) 1ndivisible obligation..s at several times is divisi1le in its nature. and duly ordered 1y t)e directory.eneral rule.overnin. <)at +art or +ortion of t)e +rofits of t)e enter+rise *)ic) t)e cor+oration. 1lood Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Divine )uman +ositive la*. a. 1 $%. $.2!6 and relatives as defined in R( "81$.ical a.ents. Dec.s or +rofits and +aya1le to its s)are)olders. [3ec. i.. <)rou. 4&.) la1oratory +rocess. +. commandments of t)e c)urc). to t)eir res+ective interests. uni7ue to eac) +erson *it) t)e only e0ce+tion of identical t*ins -t)at is *)y it is also called D@( fin. Dividend. 3tat. Divination. (s a . Divine law. GR L41"%1. *)et)er in money or in ot)er +ro+erty.enetic codin. GR $4 !&.

ma. C(. [3ec. Com+are *it) 6iteral infringement test.ement also occurs *)en a device a++ro+riates a +rior invention 1y incor+oratin. al1eit *it) some modification and c)an. +osition. inclined +lanes. 6D &!8'. Doctrine of attractive nuisance. Dito. It can also 1e used to matc) D@( 1et*een +arents in a +aternity suit. [=a1ana. entrances.. v. Dock. [6@9 v.. ( test esta1lis)ed to determine infrin.al Dict.ation matters. =ar. Docket. -( doctrine. and ot)er *orks and t)in. 7uays.. do. C(.. . 3ee Attractive nuisance doctrine.al Dict.s filed in a case. a +rinci+le or +osition. 1 $'. t)e 1ook containin. sli+*ays. of all +leadin. +erforms su1stantially t)e same function in su1stantially t)e same *ay to ac)ieve su1stantially t)e same result.e.ainst D@( discovered at a crime scene or on a victim to scientifically im+licate an accused. in any 1ranc) of kno*led. tenet. Doctrine of estoppel. GR 8$5$. -t)e.2! and matc)ed a. [#uristEs Le. 8& 6)il. 4%%5'. to any dock. 1. ( rule or +rinci+le or t)e la* esta1lis)ed t)rou.ement *)ic) reco. [Godinez v. . 5 3CR( $!8'. Locks. [Du)aime:s Le. 4%%5'. Doctrine of equivalents test. 1$. 1 58'.al Dict.al <erms -6ro-3e. [Du)aime:s Le.e. 1ased on . cuts.)t. re+resentations.) t)e re+eated a++lication of le.ood fait) and 2ustice. a sc)ool. or a sect. (n official court record 1ook *)ic) lists all t)e cases 1efore t)e court and *)ic) may also note t)e status or action re7uired for eac) case.rounds of +u1lic +olicy. Doctrine of discovered peril.ainst )is o*n act. article. is to for1id one to s+eak a. track of deadlines and court dates for 1ot) liti. (n a1stract or listin. [Glossary of Le. or commitments to t)e in2ury of one to *)om t)ey *ere directed and *)o reasona1ly relied t)ereon. rule.ation and non-liti. Doctrine. <)at *)ic) is tau.ement. suc) entries. o+inion.al Dict. ( system for kee+in. 4. +ut fort) as true. +rinci+le of fait). It is a synonym of +rinci+le. an infrin. or t)e 1ody of +rinci+les.nizes t)at minor modifications in a +atented invention are sufficient to +ut t)e item 1eyond t)e sco+e of literal infrin.s a++ertainin. [Du)aime:s Le. docks. $. +ur+ose -of *)ic)..al +recedents. 4%%5'. fair dealin. and su++orted 1y a teac)er. 3ee 6ast clear chance doctrine. its innovative conce+t and. trial docket is a list of or calendar of cases to 1e tried in a certain term. 4%%5'. <)us. !. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1.ravin. Docket control. ma0im. 1. 4.. *)at is )eld. 4%%5'. 3e+. and a0iom.

d.2!! Doctrine of implication. 3ee &haracteri ation. C(. v. item +rovisions -in a 1ud. 3ee Doctrine of non-interference. citin. 5!. on suc) a++arent aut)ority. 1$ '. [In Re> =cCulloc) Dick. in favor of a +erson *)o deals *it) )im in . $%-( (m #ur "%!'. (lso Doctrine of (udicial stability. s+ecialized skills and kno*led. t)en relief must first 1e o1tained in an administrative +roceedin.. 3ee 6ast clear chance doctrine. <)e doctrine *)ic) states t)at *)at is im+lied in a statute is as muc) a +art t)ereof as t)at *)ic) is e0+ressed. 4%%!.et 1ill. 1efore a remedy *ill 1e su++lied 1y t)e courts even t)ou.. 1$ '. even in t)e a1sence of a +rior re. Doctrine of necessary implication.)er im+ortance in t)e administration of 2ustice t)at t)e 2ud. 51. t)at. 8$ (m #ur 4nd 5%5'.d. +. 4 . !%. Doctrine of (udicial stability.d. [=orenoEs La* Dict.ood fait) relyin. -It deals *it). 1 %'. t)at are to 1e treated as items for t)e 6residentEs veto +o*er. 4%%% . [Re+. -<)e doctrine )oldin. 1!! 3CR( $1$ -1 &8. *ill convert a claim of le. 4%%% . [Industrial . Doctrine of limited liability. Doctrine of outside appearance.ment of a court of com+etent 2urisdiction may not 1e o+ened. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students ..istration. v. Doctrine of inappropriate provision. Reyes. 1$$'.ua.e of t)e +ro+er administrative 1odies 1ecause tec)nical matters or intricate 7uestions of facts are involved. Doctrine of non-interference. or vacated 1y any court of concurrent 2urisdiction. <)at *)ic) is +lainly im+lied in t)e lan. +. of <rade Gnions -@(<G. modified. <orres. <)e +rinci+le t)at +rior use of a trademark 1y a +erson. or in e0cess of )is actual aut)ority. v. Inc. $! 6)il. 45 Lours 9efore t)e 9ar -1st .al a++ro+riation 1y su1se7uent users. &4 C#3 "$4. [Dean <u+az.) t)e matter is *it)in t)e +ro+er 2urisdiction of a court. Doctrine of primary (urisdiction.. (+r. Dec. 3tat. -<)e doctrine t)at )olds t)at. Doctrine of qualification. 1&. 1 5'.. (ssoc. Doctrine of prior use. (n elementary +rinci+le of )i. [@atl. +. 3ee 6imited liability doctrine. if t)e case is suc) t)at its determination re7uires t)e e0+ertise. GR $5"&.e of a statute is as muc) a +art of it as t)at *)ic) is e0+ressed. Con. a cor+oration is 1ound 1y a contract entered into 1y an officer *)o acts *it)out. GR &&!!%.. Doctrine of last clear chance. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 3tat. Con.nter+rises.

is a +u1lic document. GR "5% . alt)ou. 48. )e *ill )ave to dele. control t)e 1ureaus and ot)er offices under t)eir res+ective 2urisdictions in t)e e0ecutive de+artment. Document. v. La*. @e. 9arrios.. Britten or +rinted evidence of title to . 1. GR &!&"&. +articularly *)ere t)e ille. Cor+. Dol. 1 8 . La1or. 6ol. 1 1 .oods. e0+edient or +ractical. as t)e 6resident cannot 1e e0+ected to e0ercise )is control +o*ers all at t)e same time and in +erson. 1$.2!" Doctrine of qualified political agency. Inst. -<)e rule. Documentary bill. Ae1.vidence. )as a *ell reco. must )ave connection *it) actual fact. instrument or ot)er duly aut)orized +a+er 1y *)ic) somet)in.. Fne to *)ic) are attac)ed documents of title delivered and surrendered to t)e dra*ee *)en )e acce+ts or +ays t)e 1ill. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . *it) t)e solemnities re7uired 1y la*. Ae1.o. It )as also 1een referred to as Ht)e doctrine of relation 1ack. (lso *elations back doctrine. GR L-4$"15. Document. La* Rev. citin. $"!'. La*. Doctrine of strained relations.ally dismissed em+loyee )eld a mana. *)en invoked. evidenced or set fort). +. #uly &.s at la*. ( deed. 1 4'. [Arancisco. 1 &'. as *)ere reinstatement *ould only e0acer1ate t)e tension and strained relations 1et*een t)e +arties. <rust Recei+ts La*. <)e doctrine.)ts. 9us. <)at +rinci+le of la* 1y *)ic) an act done at one time is considered 1y a fiction of la* to )ave 1een done at some antecedent +eriod. (ny instrument aut)orized 1y a notary +u1lic or a com+etent +u1lic official.in. is +roved. 4 C#3 1$1%'. 1 & . Doctrine of relations..0ec. <)e doctrine *)ic) )olds t)at. Fct. . Cor+. (ny su1stance )avin.erial or key +osition in t)e com+any. *)o in turn and 1y )is aut)ority. +. GR 14"!"1. any matter e0+ressed or descri1ed u+on it 1y marks ca+a1le of 1ein. Rem.) of e7uita1le ori. 6D 11!'. . [Car+io v.. =ercury Dru. DII. 4. t)at *)ere reinstatement is not feasi1le. must 1e 1ased on some antecedent la*ful ri. 6art 1.al fiction invented to +romote t)e ends of 2ustice or to +revent in2ustice end t)e occurrence of in2uries *)ere ot)er*ise t)ere *ould 1e no remedy. [Mui2ano v. [3ec. 1 8%'. it *ould 1e more +rudent to order +ayment of se+aration +ay instead of reinstatement.d. [9erme2o v. 14 '.nized a++lication to +roceedin. read. 3ec. $. a le..H [(llied 9ankin.ate some of t)em to )is Ca1inet mem1ers. It is a doctrine *)ic). 15. C(.d. [Diaz. or *)ere t)e relations)i+ 1et*een t)e em+loyer and em+loyee )as 1een unduly strained 1y reason of t)eir irreconcila1le differences.

1"1 . #uly 1". 1 &8'. 55. -a. makin. [(rt. or +ur+ortin. one )undred ei. re+resentatives or distri1utors *)o are domiciled in t)e 6)ili++ines for a +eriod or +eriods totalin. R( &%54'. *ords.ulation. =oreno.ain or of t)e +ur+ose and o12ect of t)e 1usiness or.. -1. as insurer.d. entity or cor+oration in t)e 6)ili++ines.istered 1y t)e =i.oods re+resented 1y suc) document. CC'. <)is includes -a. 1. Rule 1$%. or -1. . or t)e e0ercise of some of t)e functions normally incident to. +urc)ases. orders. =an. num1ers. 4.s or arran.F 44". t)e +ur+ose and o12ect of its or.oods. letters..m1assy. offices. to aut)orize t)e +ossessor of t)e document to transfer or receive.itimate Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . La* Dict. or any ot)er document used in t)e ordinary course of 1usiness in t)e sale or transfer of .2"# Documentary evidence.s and arran. to make. 4. Doing business. IRR. eit)er 1y endorsement or 1y delivery. su+ervision or control of any domestic 1usiness firm.oods. service contracts.)ty -1&%. *)et)er called liaison offices or 1ranc)es. sym1ols or ot)er modes of *ritten e0+ressions offered as +roof of t)eir contents. Com+are *it) <estimonial evidence. Documented migrant workers.ressive +rosecution of. Doing or transacting an insurance business.rant Borkers and Ft)er Fverseas Aili+inos Resource Center or 1y t)e .( if re7uired 1y la* or re.ement.ements. (ny 1ill of ladin. or +ro+osin. any insurance contract. +. and in +ro. 4. 84 6)il. 7uedan. 1 84. any contract of suretys)i+ as a vocation and not as merely incidental to any ot)er le. 3olicitin. !45 -1 51. makin. <)ose re. 6)il. [(rt. as +roof of t)e +ossession or control of t)e . dock *arrant. Documents as evidence consistin. +artici+atin. to make. or aut)orizin. <)ose *)o +ossess valid +ass+orts and visas or +ermits to stay in t)e )ost country and *)ose contracts of em+loyment )ave 1een +rocessed 1y t)e 6F.ements and contem+late to t)at e0tent t)e +erformance of acts or *orks. and in +ro. 4nd . o+enin. . a++ointin. commercial . and contem+lates to t)at e0tent. RoC'.. days or more.ures.ressive +rosecution of.anization. t)e +erformance of acts or *ords or t)e e0ercise of some of t)e functions normally incident to.s or any material containin.aliman. Document of title to goods.oods. ( continuity of commercial dealin. [=ent)olatum v. fi. or *are)ouse recei+t or order for t)e delivery of . in t)e mana. of *ritin. and any ot)er act or acts t)at im+ly a continuity of commercial dealin. [3ec. or +ro+osin. [3ec.anization. 1&"'.. as surety.

-. [Geraldez v. 3+. to t)e same )ouse. distin. t)e rules and +olicies on t)e domestic ado+tion of Aili+ino c)ildren and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. 1&. 6ersons usually livin. 4!.n air trans+ortation. 4. Dolo. of t)e Insurance Code.. ( +erson usually livin. Domestic air carrier. (rlante. 1 5'. under t)e same roof. s+ecifically reco. $. doin. ( dece+tion em+loyed 1y one +arty +rior to or simultaneous to t)e contract in order to secure t)e consent of t)e ot)er. 4$. to t)e same )ouse. 1 &. 1 84. [Luzon 9rokera. and constitutin.. @ov.a. as amended. Ae1. 1. [6eo+le v. 4!. <)at an air carrier *)o is not a citizen of t)e 6)ili++ines 1ut *)o may 1e allo*ed to en. GR $5"55.e v. !! 3CR( +. 1. anot)er on a salary is desi. [G3 v.n air commerce.nated. ( conscious and intentional desi. a +art t)ereof. [3ec. C(. GR 1%&4!$.ations. [Geraldez v. +ertainin. in accordance *it) t)e +rovisions of R( 88". Ae1. [3ec.2"1 1usiness or activity of t)e surety. C(. GR L-$&! . and constitutin. C(.ned to evade t)e +rovisions of t)e Insurance Code. Incidental fraud. Dolo incidente. #an. 1 %&'. in a manner desi. $&'.nized as constitutin. 1e classified as a domestic air carrier. R( 88"'. to all intents and +ur+oses.oin. 1 5'. (ir commerce *it)in t)e limits of t)e 6)ili++ine territory. in t)is sense. $. s)all. $. 4'. (lvarez. 3+.uis)in. #an. 4.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . a +art t)ereof. of an insurance 1usiness *it)in t)e meanin. 1!.. (u.. 18. Dolo causante.e in domestic and/or forei. under t)e same roof. GR 1%&45!. or +ro+osin. -c. it from t)e term servant *)ere1y a +erson servin. GR 1%&4!$. any kind of 1usiness.n to evade t)e normal fulfillment of e0istin. t)e doin. Domestic. doin.. R( 88"'. a reinsurance 1usiness. <)ose *)ic) are not serious in c)aracter and *it)out *)ic) t)e ot)er +arty *ould still )ave entered into t)e contract. or domestic and/or forei. citin. Dol. +. -d. Ca+istrano. Domestic air commerce. =aritime 9uildin. (n air carrier *)o is a citizen of t)e 6)ili++ines> 6rovided. Civil Code of t)e 6)il. in t)is sense. 4$. Araud or malice. Causal fraud. includin. GR L-4!&&!. R( &!!4 entitled I(n (ct esta1lis)in. 1 5'. Domestic Adoption Act Cf +. o1li. 1 85. +ertainin. 3+. [3amson v. <)ose dece+tions or misre+resentations of a serious c)aracter em+loyed 1y one +arty and *it)out *)ic) t)e ot)er +arty *ould not )ave entered into t)e contract.. to do any 1usiness in su1stance e7uivalent to any of t)e fore.

LC'.er or car. [3ec. *)ic) is duly aut)orized 1y t)e =aritime Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .e in t)e 1usiness of domestic s)i++in. GR 11 8".eneral or limited clientele. Domestic industry. of t)e ca+ital of *)ic) is o*ned 1y Aili+inos. or a cor+oration at least si0ty +ercent -"%V.2"2 Domestic air transportation. <)e sale. 3ervice in t)e em+loyer:s )ome *)ic) is usually necessary or desira1le for t)e maintenance and en2oyment t)ereof and includes ministerin. and done for contractual or commercial +ur+oses. 4& C# 3. and de+ends on facts and circumstances. materials or +roducts *it)in t)e 6)ili++ines.o. 3e+. to en. Cor+. or 1ot). $.. [3ec. 4. 1&. in t)e sense t)at Domestic ship operator or owner. or +leasure. of like or directly com+etitive +roducts manufactured or +roduced in t)e 6)ili++ines or t)ose *)ose collective out+ut of like or directly com+etitive +roducts constitutes a ma2or +ro+ortion of +roducts. *)et)er +ermanent occasional or incidental. ( fi0ed +ermanent residence to *)ic) *)en a1sent for 1usiness. <)e trans+ort of +assen. ( cor+oration incor+orated under t)e la*s of t)e 6)ili++ines. =ousehelper. includin. [Romualdez=arcos v. *it) or *it)out fi0ed routes. for )ire or com+ensation. R( 4 !'. services of family drivers. Domestic or household services. Domestic servant.istered and licensed under 6)ili++ine la* to en. 14$. or a commercial +artners)i+ *)olly o*ned 1y Aili+inos. [(rt. as a *)ole. $. or for like reasons one intends to return. it )is +ermanent )ome. Domestic shipping. Code'. (ir trans+ortation *it)in t)e limits of t)e 6)ili++ine territory Domestic corporation. Y1'. Domicile. 151.a. 1y s)i+s duly re.e in trade and commerce 1et*een 6)ili++ine +orts and *it)in 6)ili++ine territorial or internal *aters.e of . <)e domestic +roducer. and t)at +lace is +ro+erly t)e domicile of a +erson in *)ic) )e )as voluntarily fi0ed )is a1ode. t)erefrom. 1ut *it) a +resent intention of makin. 1 !.oods. Comelec. 1. R( 4 !'. *it)out any +resent intention of removin. R( 4 !'. Com+are *it) 4oreign corporation. 1arter or e0c)an. citin. or )a1itation. to t)e +ersonal comfort and convenience of t)e mem1ers of t)e em+loyer:s )ouse)old. Domestic trade. <)at +lace in *)ic) a +erson:s )a1itation is fi0ed. not for a mere s+ecial or tem+orary +ur+ose. ( citizen of t)e 6)ili++ines. 3ee Industry (ut)ority -=(RI@(. *it) . [3ec. 5. [3ec.a. R( &&%%'. $. [3ec.

it may1e else*)ere. In ot)er *ords. or of t)e )ead of )is family. Domiciliary theory. Comelec. an intention to remain t)ere. (+r. 1&. It attri1utes to a +erson a domicile inde+endent of )is o*n intention or actual residence. GR 11 8". residence or 1odily +resence in t)e ne* locality. Lat. Domicile of origin. of Int. [Romualdez-=arcos v. [Fn. <aclo1an City. <)e +ermanent residence of a +erson. 1 !. or t)e relation of a +arent and a c)ild.eneral.in is . [. 1 !. 1 $'. 1&. $%. Dec. [Romualdez-=arcos v. Y"'. it )as for its true 1asis or foundation t)e intention of t)e +erson. 1 !. Comelec.. [Comm.al Dict. citin. [Romualdez-=arcos v.enerally t)e +lace *)ere one is 1orn or reared.2"3 t)ey disclose intent. Re+.e of residence must 1e voluntary. Domicile of choice. Comelec. and t)e residence at t)e +lace c)osen for t)e ne* domicile must 1e actual. <)e +lace *)ic) t)e +erson )as elected and c)osen for )imself to dis+lace )is +revious domicile. GR L-1" 44. and -$. [Romualdez-=arcos v. 3e+. Domicile by choice. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1&. 4& C#3 Y!'. GR 11 8".ally de+endent at t)e time of )is 1irt). 3e+. an intention to a1andon t)e old domicile. it is said t)at a +erson may )ave many residences 1ut only one domicile. 1&. 3e+. from le.lements in order to ac7uire a ne* domicile 1y c)oice> <)ere must concur -1. Luan <in v. 4& C#3 Y8'..al domestic relations. Domicile by operation of law. [Romualdez v. 1 3CR( "". GR 1%5 "%. Comelec. <)e +ur+ose to remain in or at t)e domicile of c)oice must 1e for an indefinite +eriod of time. 1 !'. citin. R<C 9r. t)ere must 1asically 1e animus manendi cou+led *it) animus non revertendi. " '. <)e domicile of )is +arents. Domiciliary principle. $. <)e t)eory t)at +ersonal status. is determined 1y and/or su12ect to t)e 2urisdiction of t)e domiciliary la*. <)e ta0ation of t)e same items 1y t)e country of residence or nationality of t)e ta0+ayer. 3ee *esidence. t)e c)an. Domicilium necesarium. Domicile 1y o+eration of la*. In la*. 4. in . a +lace to *)ic). as t)at of t)e *ife arisin. GR ""&$&. 8. GR 11 8". ordinarily resultin. [Du)aime:s Le. B)ile t)e domicile of ori. Rev. Com+are *it) )ource or situs rule. 1 1'.. -4. or of t)e +erson on *)om )e is le. GR 11 8". Re+. )e intend to return. v. 3e+. 4& C#3. (lso Nationality principle. 4%%5'. 6rocter C Gam1le 6)il. even if )e *ere tem+orary a1sence.. citin. . from marria. 1 "$'. 3e+.llis v. 15.e. 3ee Nationality theory.

La* Revie*er. trademarks *)ic) mi. @aked o*ners)i+. Domicile of ori. Domicilium voluntarium. GR 1%%% &. GR 11 8". 3ee )ervient estate. [Gold Creek =inin. "1$. Lat. 4%%4. Rodri. 4 . Qa+unan. 15$'.d. infrin. trademark contains t)e main or essential or dominant features of anot)er. 1&. v. 3ec. Lat. Com+are *it) 1mperium. *)et)er colora1le imitation e0ists *)ic) focuses on t)e similarity of t)e +revalent features of t)e com+etin. Lat. 4%%% . [. in Cruz v. If t)e com+etin. 4! '. [Romualdez-=arcos v. [Romualdez-=arcos v. GR 1$!$&!. <)e common case of t)e +lace of 1irt). 3e+. 4 '. [Romualdez-=arcos v. Lat. 4! '. <)e 7uestion at issue in cases of infrin. Cor+. <)e test in determinin. 1&. GR L-$$&5 . 1&. C(. Domicilium proprio motu. Comelec.ement of trademarks is *)et)er t)e use of t)e marks involved *ould 1e likely to cause confusion or mistakes in t)e mind of t)e +u1lic or deceive +urc)asers. <)e ca+acity of t)e 3tate to o*n or ac7uire +ro+erty suc) as lands and natural resources.. GR 11 8". Dominant estate. 6ol.)t cause confusion or dece+tion and t)us constitutes infrin. lands )eld 1y t)e state in its +ro+rietary ca+acity.ement. 1 !'.merald Garment =f. Geraldez. Cor+. Com+are *it) =olistic test.2"4 Domicilium originis. 1. Lat. v. <)e immova1le in favor of *)ic) t)e easement is esta1lis)ed. Dominium est (us utendi et abutendi$ re quatenus (uris ratio potitur. 1 88'. 1&. #.ement takes +lace. includin. 1 !'. [(le2andro v. (u. F*ners)i+ is t)e ri. (u.. <)at domicile *)ic) is voluntarily ac7uired 1y a +arty. 9eneficial o*ners)i+. GR L-$$&5 .. 1 88'... "" 6)il. Dominion or dominium. 9are o*ners)i+. of D. [3uarez. Comelec. Cor+. Comelec.d. 1 !'. Dominium.@R. 3e+. [Gold Creek =inin. Dec. Domicile of oneEs o*n c)oosin. 4. Dominium utile. +. <)e ca+acity to o*n or ac7uire +ro+erty. [(rt. nor it is necessary t)at t)e infrin. la1el s)ould su.uez.uez. Geraldez. Dec.. 3e+. [3e+arate F+inion. 1&.. GR 11 8". +. Dominancy test. 1st . [(le2andro v. v. [=orenoEs La* Dict..in. Du+lication or imitation is not necessary. Rodri. Aull o*ners)i+. "" 6)il. ". Dominium directum. Lat. Lat. CC'. 4%%%'.in. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .)t to use and a1use oneEs +ro+erty insofar as t)e la* and reason +ermit.. Lat. and confusion and dece+tion is likely to result.est an effort to imitate. 1 !'. Dominium plenum.

*)ic) is a sim+le matter of form and does not c)an. 18. Aull o*ners)i+. CC'. .)t on account of t)e latter:s merits or of t)e services rendered 1y )im to t)e donor.e is annulled. AC'.ratuitously of a t)in. &1. &4. Civ. Donation. 6osadas. *)en t)e marria. *)ic) s)all 1e .e. in consideration of t)e same. [9ala7ui v. (n act of li1erality *)ere1y a +erson dis+oses . 1ut out of t)e donor:s +ure . *)en t)e donee )as committed an act of in.uilty s+ouse. *)o acce+ts it.eneral. [Didal v. Civ. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( donation *)ic) t)e donor intends to take effect durin. Donation made *it)out consideration -of deat) or mortal +eril. (lso Donation propter nuptias. [<atoto v. (+r.2"5 Domino absoluto. s)all +ertain to t)e donee.al se+aration.enerosity and t)e reci+ient:s desires. Donation by reason of marriage. 1. [(rt.e takes +lace *it)out t)e consent of t)e +arents or . La*. Civ. <)e fruits of t)e +ro+erty from t)e time of t)e acce+tance of t)e donation. "$$'. Donation made 1efore t)e cele1ration of marria. 1%&. or t)e delivery is to 1e made +ost mortem. [(rt. t)e . Donation. . La*. !& 6)il. and t)e donee acted in 1ad fait). unless t)e donor +rovides ot)er*ise. or *)en t)e .overned 1y (rt. 4. I1ea. -c. t)e donee 1ein. Lat. La*. Leirs of Qa1alo ?uso+. CC'. -f.)t in favor of anot)er. 4. <)ere is also a donation *)en a +erson . Donation inter vivos. De Guzman v. -1. t)e lifetime of t)e donor. Com+are *it) Nuda proprietas. AC. -e.) t)e su12ect matter is not delivered at once.ift im+oses u+on t)e donee a 1urden *)ic) is less t)an t)e value of t)e t)in. 1 %'.ratitude as s+ecified 1y t)e +rovisions of t)e Civil Code on donations in .) t)e +ro+erty s)all not 1e delivered till after t)e donor:s deat). and suc) . t)ou.e is not cele1rated or 2udicially declared void a1 initio e0ce+t donations made in t)e marria. as re7uired 1y la*. &". +rovided t)ey do not constitute a demanda1le de1t. AC'. La*.iven.. u+on le. if it is *it) a resolutory condition and t)e condition is com+lied *it). or ri. [4' t)e increase in t)e +atrimony of t)e donee. [(rt. La*. 84 .e t)e nature of t)e act. Donation by reason of marriage. "8 6)il. If t)e marria.e settlements. or ri. CC'. and in favor of one or 1ot) of t)e future s+ouses.lements> <)ere are t)ree essential elements of donations> [1' t)e reduction of t)e +atrimony of t)e donor. -d. alt)ou.ifts are irrevoca1le. *)en t)e marria. [(rt.ives to anot)er a t)in. Civ. es+ecially if *it)out a +rice and onerous in c)aracter.. 84". [(rt. GR 854%$. Grounds for revocation> -a. Civ. 84!. and [$' t)e intent to do an act of li1erality -animus donandi.uardian.

and -c. Fct. CC'. or its free dis+osal in case of survival.ift is e0em+ted from t)e estate of t)e deceased as +ro+erty is automatically conveyed u+on deat). t)e . and s)all 1e . Donation propter nuptias. ( deat)1ed . [Du)aime:s Le.so.ift s)all kee+ t)e t)in. Civ.overned 1y t)e rules of succession.ainst t)e donee )imself. [9ala7ui v. Donation t)at e0ceeds *)at )e may . -1. "$$'. La*. <)e transfer conveys no title or o*ners)i+ to t)e transferee 1efore t)e deat) of t)e transferor. Donation$ when inofficious. -a. GR $11"1. or any act involvin. as its name im+lies. [(rt. -c. Donation mortis causa. ( donation to take effect at t)e deat) of t)e donor.ift..ift s)all kee+ t)e t)in. La*. testator. If t)e donee s)ould commit some offense a. even t)ou.al Dict. La*. De Guzman v.ive or receive 1y *ill. (lso Disposition post mortem. 1 4 '. 4%%5'. Civ. ( donation made. 6osadas. (u. Donation$ when revocable at the instance of the donor$ by reason of ingratitude.ally or morally Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . t)e . Geraldez. <)is donation +artakes of t)e nature of testamentary +rovisions. 1&. 1%&. GR L$$&5 . if t)e donee im+utes to t)e donor any criminal offense. 4&. Civ. La*.so. 8!4. 3a1iniano. 3ee Donation by reason of marriage. of t)e transferor -meanin. as in testamentary dis+ositions.ainst t)e +erson. [(le2andro v. *it) t)e intent t)at t)e +erson receivin. moral tur+itude. or of )is *ife or c)ildren under )is +arental aut)ority. "8 6)il. 3uc) a . t)e transfer *ould 1e void if t)e transferor survived t)e transferee. 4. Fct. 5.. 1.) )e s)ould +rove it. !& 6)il. 84&. 1 88'. unless t)e crime or t)e act )as 1een committed a. -1. Civ.2"6 Don. *it)out t)e donor:s intention to lose t)e t)in. 3uc) a . [Didal v. !.ift is e0em+ted from t)e estate of t)e deceased as +ro+erty is automatically conveyed u+on deat). +erson. CC'. made 1y a dyin.ift. in consideration of deat) or mortal +eril. 1 4 '. +erson. $. if deat) ensues. 4 6)il. C)aracteristics> -a. Don. GR $11"1. 4&. if )e unduly refuses )im su++ort *)en t)e donee is le. t)e )onor or t)e +ro+erty of t)e donor. t)e transfer is revoca1le 1efore t)e transferor:s deat) and revoca1ility may 1e +rovided for indirectly 1y means of a reserved +o*er in t)e donor to dis+ose of t)e +ro+erties conveyed [9autista v. full or naked -domino a1soluto or nuda +ro+rietas. *it) t)e intent t)at t)e +erson receivin. Donation mortis causa. 455'. ( deat)-1ed . if deat) ensues. )is *ife or c)ildren under )is aut)ority. La*. [(rt. I1ea. Civ. made 1y a dyin. retains t)e o*ner-s)i+.

. t)ere must 1e several insurers. t)e risk insured a. to t*o or more different donees *)ic) s)all 1e . Code of t)e 6)il.ive su++ort to t)e donor. a family )ome or residence. 3e+. [Romualdez=arcos. <)e +erson *)o donates +ro+erty to t)e 1enefit of anot)er. [(rt. <)e +erson *)o is t)e reci+ient of a +o*er of attorney.e at t)e time of t)e donation. -a. -c.2" 1ound to . Double (eopardy. 4%%5'. +.. <)e +erson insured must 1e t)e same.. descendants and ascendants. 3+. 1 . 4%%5'. *)ic) may 1e im+osed on t)e +laintiff or a++ellant.ainst must 1e t)e same. IB)erever -t)e )us1and. 1 !'. Commentaries C #uris+.overned 1y t)e +rovisions . -1. 1& '. Donde quiera su fi(e de residencia. and -e. t)e sale of t)e same t)in. [Du)aime:s Le. *is)es to esta1lis) residence. contem+lates only actual residence 1ecause it refers to a +ositive act of fi0in. +.. 1!55 of t)e Civil Code . t)ose made 1et*een +ersons *)o *ere . IC'.J <)is -+)rase. 4%%5'. [<io+ianco. [3ec. ( +artner *)o does not take active +art in t)e 1usiness of t)e +artners)i+ and at t)e same time not kno*n as a +artner. 1 1 . [(rt. CC'. Civ. [3ec. GR 11 8".al mec)anism of a trust.uilty of t)e same criminal offense. if so ordered 1y t)e court. 1$$ and 8$ . Donations 1et*een )us1and and *ife. La* Rev. 855. Civ. -c. [(rt.. Double costs. $. t)e +erson *)o *ould )ave to e0ercise t)e +o*er of attorney. RoC'. -a. Double insurance. Donation$ when void.al Dict. t)ose made to a +u1lic officer or )is *ife. -d. 1y reason of )is office. Double insurance. CC'. t)e su12ect matter insured must 1e t)e same. -d. 6uttin.) t)e le. in consideration t)ereof. Donee. 9us. $.(rt.d. La*.. It e0ists *)ere t)e same +erson is insured 1y several insurers se+arately in res+ect to t)e same su12ect and interest. *)ere an action or an a++eal is found to 1e frivolous. usually t)rou. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Re7uisites. Donor. Dormant partner.concernin. La*. 8"!. 9eneficiary of a trust. -1. on t)e Ins. $'. [Glossary of Le. 1&.d. Double donations. Donations of t)e same t)in.al <erms -6ro-3e. to 1e +aid 1y )is attorney. Rule 15$. CC'. [Du)aime:s Le. t)e interest insured must also 1e t)e same. <)ose made 1et*een +ersons found .. Costs -ot)er t)an tre1le costs.uilty of adultery or concu1ina.al Dict. a +erson on trial more t)an once for t)e same crime. [Diaz. to t*o or more different +ersons.

in an effort to render t)e decision. <)e +revious com+laint or information or ot)er formal c)ar. <)e rule t)at s)ould 1rot)er and sisters of t)e full 1lood survive to.n state. Do ut des. 1 4'. *)ere t)e o*ners)i+ s)all 1e transferred to t)e +erson *)o may )ave first taken +ossession t)ereof in .n renvoi rules. Co. +rovided t)ere is . [(rt. [<etley.ros Fcc.ood fait) first recorded it in t)e Re. t)e former s)all 1e entitled to a s)are dou1le t)at of t)e latter. =ay &. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. t)e forei. . I.. 4.an1ayan.istry of 6ro+erty.e. to different vendees. 1 & .n court *ould render if it *ere seized of t)e case..lements> -a. 5&'.ood fait).. <a0in. Double ta%ation. I . in t)e a1sence t)ereof. !!8. <)e referral 1y t)e forum court to t)e conflict rules.2"! Double (eopardy.ood fait). of a forei. La*. 1%%". Constl. Lat. it *)o in . and -c.ive t)at you . or t)e second offense includes or is necessarily included in t)e offense c)ar. t)e first 2eo+ardy must )ave 1een validly terminated. -1. 3)ould t)ere 1e no inscri+tion. @e. t)e renvoi rules. t)e o*ners)i+ s)all +ertain to t)e +erson *)o in . to t)e +erson ac7uirin. t)e same ta0in. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Dol. Cooley on <a0ation. v. 1 5'. *)ic) t)e forei. 1!55. 1" '. CC'. <)e sale of t)e same t)in. 5t) .ed in t)e first information. and.'. includin. if it s)ould 1e mova1le +ro+erty. 2urisdiction durin. -c. +. 1.d. =un. +eriod and for t)e same +ur+ose. GR 8415. [@avallo v.et)er *it) 1rot)ers and sisters of t)e )alf 1lood. Double share for full blood collaterals rule. 4%%5'. La*. [Dictorias =illin. Double sale. 4%%% .d. citin. CC'. 4%& 3CR( !!%. or is an attem+t to commit t)e same or is a frustration t)ereof. (dditional ta0es laid on t)e same su12ect 1y t)e same ta0in.. 4. t)e o*ners)i+ s)all 1elon. 6uno.. t)e accused )as 1een arrai. and -d. Double renvoi. t)e accused is convicted or ac7uitted or t)e case is dismissed *it)out )is e0+ress consent. Re7uisites> -a. F1li. <)us t)e forum court a++lies t)e la* s+ecified 1y t)e forei.ned and )as +leaded to t)e c)ar. 4! 3CR( 1 4 -1 "&. & . t)e same +erson t*ice 1y t)e same 2urisdiction for t)e same t)in.e is sufficient in form and su1stance to sustain a conviction> -1. +. [<orres. to t)e +erson *)o +resents t)e oldest title. [(rt.ive. includin. t)e second 2eo+ardy must 1e for t)e same offense. 3andi. ( first 2eo+ardy must )ave attac)ed +rior to t)e second. 1. [6eo+le v. of Dictorias.ood fait) *as first in t)e +ossession. Intl. +. 3)ould it 1e immova1le +ro+erty..d. C Cont. t)e court )as 2urisdiction to try t)e case. #uly 1&. [Cruz..n conflicts rules.

entina in 1 %4 *)en Great 9ritain. 1 ".es.2"" Do ut facias..)t of intervention. Drawee.e +rovision in (merican 2uris+rudence *)ic) is s+ecifically +)rased to su1sume all de1ts of +ast or future ori.ainst it. La*. Drinking water.ness to +ay t)e 1ill. and/or sellin. 4%%% .. I .ives t)e order to +ay money to a t)ird +arty. <)e 1usiness of im+ortin. La*. 1 &. (. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3ec. [Cruz. [3ec. Comml. s)i++in. [Claridades. La* Revie*er. Intl. Dol. 8%'. (. Com+ilation of @otes. <)e +erson to *)om t)e 1ill of e0c)an. Commentaries and #uris+. 1. Le 1ecomes an (cce+tor *)en )e indicates )is *illin. 6o*er +rovided 1y t)e cara1ao as a farm animal.-. 4%%14%%"'.. e0+ortin. [3ec 5. ( 1ill of e0c)an. Ae1..a.J It *as formulated 1y Aorei. <)e doctrine t)at Ia +u1lic de1t cannot .o of (r. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1.. 6rovision in a mort. 4%%14%%"'. R( 48!'.e +aya1le on demand and dra*n for t)e +ur+ose of collectin. . (1r...J [6)il. -1 &$. C(. 9ank of Communications v...d. +. GR 11&!!4. [Claridades. Downstream oil industry 2D013. 5. refinin. 1 && Rev. Dragnet clause. distri1utin. [9lackEs La* Dict. Lat. Y 154. for t)e dra*erEs o*n use and account a sum of money due )im from t)e dra*ee.in. crude oil. 1" '. !t) .e is addressed and *)o is ordered to +ay..or .n =inister Dra. R( &58 '. R( 8$%8'.. R( &58 entitled I(n (ct dere. Drawer.. 4&$-4&5'. 4!&'.. diesel.ive rise to t)e ri. marketin.d. 4.a. 1. $. Bater intended for )uman consum+tion or for use in food +re+aration. ( si. +rocessin. +. 1 " . <)e +erson *)o . re-e0+ortin.as -L6G. .d.a... Intl..a.ives security for +ast and future advances as *ell as +resent inde1tedness.asoline.d.. F1li. kerosene. t)e do*nstream oil industry.. li7uefied +etroleum . !. [<orres. !"'. Drago doctrine. La*s. +. <)e mort. C Cont. !! (m #ur 4d. storin. Downstream 0il 1ndustry Deregulation Act of +. [=artin. Com+ilation of @otes. Draft. 1%. Draft animal power.. +.)t draft is one for t)e immediate collection of money..ainst Denezuela in order to enforce certain contractual and ot)er claims a.ulatin.. trans-+ortin. citin. on Comml. Italy and Germany esta1lis)ed a 1lockade a.e in *)ic) a mort. =ort. and ot)er +etroleum +roducts.ive t)at you make -or do. 3uc) clauses are Hcarefully scrutinized and strictly construed.

enerally 1ut not necessarily in association *it) inactive in. com+ounded.s or medicines. [3ec. (ny or.et)er *it) t)e intention of committin. on a +eriodic or continuous 1asis. Drug or pharmaceutical laboratory. Drug syndicate.erous dru. in a +erson follo*in. su1stance-takin. GR 1%141"-1&. Drug establishment. 6D &!8'. re+ackin. ( state of +syc)ic or +)ysical de+endence.s or medicines. Drug dependence.nosis. $.uro-ami. a stron.anized . +)armacies. R( 1"!'.. 15!'. (lso #harmaceutical manufacturing laboratory. to. [3ec. [3ec. $. Drug product. [3ec. 1e)avioral and co. $.redients. Drugs. [3ec $. in *)ic) t)e use of +syc)oactive dru. *)ic) de+ends u+on t)e tolerance of a +erson to alco)olic drinks and *)ic) is relative in every individual. administration or use of t)at dru. [3ec. +ro+rietary medicines or +)armaceutical s+ecialties are +re+ared. or more +ersons formin. ( state of t)e mind. R( ""8!'. or levels of use. #une 5. Drug outlets. $. ( dock from *)ic) t)e *ater can 1e tem+orarily e0cluded. on a dan. amon. R( ""8!'.ation. and any ot)er 1usiness esta1lis)ments *)ic) sell dru.ical. Dual system/training. ( delivery system of 7uality tec)nical and Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Drunkenness. 4. R( ""8!'. any offense +rescri1ed under R( 1"!. 1e)avior in terms of its onset. (n esta1lis)ment *)ere +)armaceuticals. in order to effect re+airs to )ulls and keels of s)i+s or vessels. 1. 5. 1 $'. R( ! 41'. 3ee .3## Drive-in-net.redients. [=orenoEs La* Dict. (rticles intended for use in t)e dia. 4%%% . (ny or. or 1ot). . R( 8$ 5'. [6eo+le v.d. termination. standardized and distri1uted or sold. intended to affect t)e structure or any function of t)e 1ody of man or animals. it is a cluster of +)ysiolo.. <)e finis)ed +roduct form t)at contains t)e active in. arisin. takes on a )i. (rticles -ot)er t)an food. treatment. and/or distri1ution of dru. miti. ot)ers.. desire or a sense of com+ulsion to take t)e su1stance and t)e difficulties in controllin. 4. definition. [(rt. [3ec $. or +revention of disease in man or ot)er animals. Drydock.nitive +)enomena of varia1le intensity.) +riority t)ere1y involvin. (s 1ased on t)e Borld Lealt) Fr. +. 1. Dic)oso.anization or com+any involved in t)e manufacture.anization -BLF.rou+ of t*o -4. im+ortation. Dru. R( 1"!'. 54.. or 2oinin.stores. cure.

a++ro+riatin.t)en man+o*er education and trainin. and t)e latter 1y securin. [3ec.A. 4%%5'. to t)e court. 5. industrial and 1usiness esta1lis)ments *it) +rior notice and advice to t)e local .uidance and )uman formation. 1. <)e *ord is only e7uivalent to or synonymous *it) H+aya1le. <)e *ord HdualH refers to t)e t*o +arties +rovidin. Bit) reference to ta0es. 1ut t)e surrender of a t)in.J 4. (n instructional delivery system of tec)nical and vocational education and trainin. [3ec. +lan colla1oratively desi. funds t)erefor and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Ae1. Duces tecum. -e. Duct system. R( 88 " entitled I(n (ct to stren. 1ut in anot)er sense it Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $.ation to *)ic) it is a++lied )as 1y contract or o+eration of la* 1ecome immediately +aya1le. . develo+s )is skills and +roficiency in actual *ork conditions as it continues to inculcate +ersonal disci+line and *ork values. [3ec. R( 88 "'.ned and im+lemented 1y an accredited dual system educational institution/trainin..) +ractical trainin. Due. to 1e carried out alternately in t*o venues> In sc)ool and in t)e +roduction +lant. in t)e 6)ili++ines 1y institutionalizin. Gsed most fre7uently for a s+ecies of su1+oena -as in 3u1+oena duces tecum. *it) you. *)ic) seeks not so muc) t)e a++earance of a +erson 1efore a court of la*.overnment unit concerned.eneral and occu+ationrelated t)eoretical instruction. to serve as evidence in a trial. +rovides t)e trainee t)e t)eoretical foundation. t)e trainee *it) t)e 1est +ossi1le 2o1 7ualifications. instruction> t)e conce+t HsystemH means t)at t)e t*o instructin. *)ile in-+lant trainin. 6D 11&!'. +arties do not o+erate inde+endently of one anot)er.. 1ut rat)er coordinate t)eir efforts. said esta1lis)ments and t)e educational institution s)are t)e res+onsi1ility of +rovidin.. 9rin. 1 5.. [Du)aime:s Le.ricultural. t)at com1ines in-+lant trainin.e*ay for t)e transmission of air.sc)ool trainin. an ade7uate level of s+ecific. Dual <raining )ystem Act of +. Dual training system. t)e former essentially t)rou. R( 88 "'. +rovidin.. 1ased on a trainin. it im+lies t)at suc) ta0es are t)en Ho*in.. 1y its )older.J $. and in. system as an instructional delivery system of tec)nical and vocational education and trainin. t)e mec)anism.3#1 vocational education *)ic) re7uires trainin.. 4!. ( continuous +assa.al Dict. t)e dual trainin. IRR. collecti1le or matured. In-sc)ool trainin. . <)e de1t or o1li. Gnder t)is system. a document or some ot)er evidence. Lat. 1asic trainin. 1. center and accredited dual system a.

=ay 48. #an. 1 8 t) . in *)ic) it is synonymous *it) :o*in. Diada. 1"1 3CR( !4&. Duel.)t under determined conditions and *it) t)e +artici+ation and intervention of seconds. v. 1 &4. Disayan . *)o fi0 suc) conditions. +. Due e%ecution.ue. [Gre. <)ere must 1e a court of tri1unal clot)ed *it) 2udicial +o*er to )ear and determine t)e matter 1efore it. Due process of law.ned voluntarily and kno*in. $. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all kill )is adversary in a duel. [Diaz. Due and payable 2on a specified date3. of Int.reement to fi. ( formal or re.nature a++ears t)ereon. La*. 3ee 5enuineness. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [Century <e0tile =ills v. Comml. 1 "&. La* Rev. *it)out reference to t)e time +ayment.es )is inde1tedness to anot)er. Due process of law. (n a. 4. 1 1'. (. Com+ilation of @otes. 1 1 .ly 1y t)e +arty *)ose si. citin. [(nzaldo v. +. t)e offense. GR L-1&8&. =ar. alt)ou. (n instrument *)ere1y one +erson ackno*led.. *)o make t)e selection of arms and fi0 all t)e ot)er conditions of t)e fi. citin. La* Rev. Clave. 1. Duel$ participation in a. and disc)ar. <)e +)rase means t)e de1t or o1li. [6eo+le v. 1%8. 1% . "!!. trial accordin. La*. .lectric Co.d. Rev. GR L-!5! 8. [G3 v. !$!'. Crim. ++. Re7uisites> -a. @avarro. GR !$!&". 4"%. accusation in due form. 6ol. 4. Luma. +. citin. 11%'.orio. [(rt.3#2 denotes t)e e0istence of a sim+le inde1tedness. 1$-( Bords and 6)rases. <)e fact t)at t)e document *as si. La*. to esta1lis)ed +rocedure. 1 "&'. 6ol. In a criminal +rosecution. $8 '. [Comm.d. 4%%14%%"'. 1 %8'. GR L44"11. or inflict u+on t)e latter +)ysical in2uries only..e on eac) side. =ay 48.ation to *)ic) it is a++lica1le is t)en immediately +aya1le. due +rocess consists of a la* creatin.. @LRC.) no +)ysical in2uries )ave 1een inflicted. La*.. 1.e unless found ..uilty. of Int. Rev. Aund.: and includes all de1ts *)et)er +aya1le in +raesenti or in futuro. [Claridades. Aundamental fairness. GR L44"11.ular com1at +reviously consented 1et*een t*o +arties in t)e +resence of t*o or more seconds of la*ful a. Dec. 9us. of Crim. and t)e seconds *)o s)all in all events 1e +unis)ed as accom+lices. <)e t*in re7uirements of notice and )earin. or in any ot)er case. R6C'. Due bill. notice and o++ortunity to defend. v.)t to settle some antecedent 7uarrel. 1 &4'.. 1!. $%.H [Comm. an im+artial tri1unal of com+etent 2urisdiction. Disayan . or definin. 1" C#3 "18'.lectric Co.. constitute essential elements of due +rocess.

(ny unaut)orized or ille.l 9anco . 1 4.ulated under 6D 8 . 4%%1-4%%"'.inal. 4". C Direct. 1$ Bords and 6)rases. Dumping. 6alanca. $.oods *)ere it a++ears t)at a s+ecific kind or class of forei. citin. Duple%. from or related to t)e e0+loration. @ov. (. 4%%5'. and -d. t)e defendant must 1e . may 1e introduced in evidence *it)out accountin.in. industrial. La* Dict. for t)e non+roduction of t)e ori. 6D 8 '. 9ut. $. R( 48!'. t)e dis+osal of *astes or ot)er matter directly arisin. ( duty levied on im+orted . Dura le% sed le%.. ( term related to t)e +lacin.o to +rotect t)e same from t)e *ater comin. [Claridades. [Airst 6ly*ood Cor+.iven an o++ortunity to 1e )eard. =ar. [Dallarta v. 2urisdiction must 1e la*fully ac7uired over t)e +erson of t)e defendant or over t)e +ro+erty *)ic) is t)e su12ect of t)e +roceedin.n article is 1ein. from commercial. [Du)aime:s Le. 1 1&'. #uly 48. e0+orted .. +latforms or ot)er manmade structures at sea. 1.3#3 -1. <)at it does not mean a release of effluent comin.ned car1on co+y or du+licate of a document e0ecuted at t)e same time as t)e ori..s+aKol-Aili+ino v. im+orted into or sold or is likely to 1e sold in t)e 6)ili++ines at a +rice less t)an its fair value. 2ud. Dunnage.o to +revent t)em from in2urin.oods at +rices 1elo* t)eir normal value. of lum1er under t)e car. GR L-$"!5$.. Com+ilation of @otes. an unsi. of sea 1ed mineral resources unless t)e same is +ermitted and/or re. 4. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al dis+osal into any 1ody of *ater or land of *astes or to0ic or )azardous material> 6rovided.ment must rendered u+on la*ful )earin... [3ec. Duodenal ulcer. and domestic sources *)ic) are *it)in t)e effluent standards. [3ec. ( si. [3ec 5. aircraft.inal -*)ic). t)e accuracy of t)e co+y.ned and uncertified document +ur+ortin.a1le *aters of *astes or ot)er matter from vessels. e0+loitation and associated offs)ore +rocessin. GR &55"%. <)e la* is )ard 1ut suc) is t)e la*. -c. C(. eac) ot)er. 4%%5'. 3ellin. "$1'. 3ee )tomach ulcer. to 1e a car1on co+y is not com+etent evidence. It is 1ecause t)ere is no +u1lic officer ackno*led. <CC'. 1$. GR L-11$ %. includin. [Intl. Lat. Dumping duty.al Dict. Duplicate original. [. 1 &&'. ( )ouse *)ic) )as se+arate 1ut com+lete facilities to accommodate t*o families as eit)er ad2acent units or one on to+ of t)e ot)er. $%1. into t)e )old of t)e vessel or in 1et*een t)e different +arcels of car. (ny deli1erate dis+osal at sea and into navi.

not to encoura. 1y t)reats or force of anot)er. re. F1li. t)e causes confided to )im. -d. 3adan. $5 '. to +resent every defense t)at t)e la* +ermits.s only as a++ear to )im to 1e 2ust. (rizala..0ec. Aorce.ardless of )is +ersonal o+inion as to t)e . 4. ( finely +o*dered su1stance *)ic). Dust. Louse dress. [6eo+le v.d. ( loose kind of dress.iance to t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines and to su++ort t)e Constitution and o1ey t)e la*s of t)e 6)ili++ines. [<orres. 1y all fair and )onora1le means. GR ! 81$.oods. and to acce+t no com+ensation in connection *it) )is client:s 1usiness e0ce+t from )im or *it) )is kno*led. -. C Cont. on <a0ation. Duty. -c. -i. -). 1 &4. to t)e end t)at no +erson may 1e de+rived of life or li1erty.. suc) means only as are consistent *it) trut) and )onor. 4%.3#4 Duress.al Dict. 1 4.. to +reserve t)e secrets of )is client.. -e. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . unless re7uired 1y t)e 2ustice of t)e cause *it) *)ic) )e is c)ar. <o maintain alle. to maintain inviolate t)e confidence. $. to o1serve and maintain t)e res+ect due to t)e courts of 2ustice and 2udicial officers. [6eo+le v. in t)e defense of a +erson accused of crime. citin. Cooley. Duster. 3ec. -1. and at every +eril to )imself. t)e cause of t)e defenseless or o++ressed.e eit)er t)e commencement or t)e continuance of an action or +roceedin. It is t)e duty of an attorney> -a. to em+loy.' Duties of attorneys. or delay any man:s cause.nited *ill cause an e0+losion. 1!. 4%%5'. 1ut 1y due +rocess of la*. -or not actin. from any corru+t motive or interest. <)e *ord ordinarily Zmeans an indirect ta0. -f. 1. 1 5'.e or any 2udicial officer 1y an artifice or false statement of fact or la*. 4.ned under duress are voida1le. or consum+tion of . .. Rule 1$&. e0+ortation. #une 48. +. RoC'. 1. [Du)aime:s Le. *)en mi0ed *it) air in t)e +ro+er +ro+ortion and i. [3ec.. to a1stain from all offensive +ersonality and to advance no fact +re2udicial to t)e )onor or re+utation of a +arty or *itness.ed. 4%%% . [Garcia v.e and a++roval. to )is free *ill. GR 1%!$8&. =ar. accordin.. to counsel or maintain suc) actions or +roceedin.. and never seek to mislead t)e 2ud. Contracts si. never to re2ect. and suc) defenses only as )e 1elieves to 1e )onestly de1ata1le under t)e la*. violence or +ressure *)ic) induces a +erson to act in a manner contrary to )is o*n *is). [3ec. for any consideration +ersonal to )imself. for t)e +ur+ose of maintainin. im+osed on t)e im+ortation.uilt of t)e accused. +.. #uly $. ( situation under *)ic) a +erson is +revented from actin. 6D 11&!'. $'. GR 1%148$.

[Customs (dmin. Dwelling. +erson. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 $.reement and e0ecutin. or )otel rooms. 3uc) esta1lis)ments )ave 1een introduced to s+ecial economic zones in 3u1ic and Clark on contention t)at t)ese are +ermissi1le on free +ort areas. circumstances of suc) deat).es. 4. GR 854".otiatin. R( "14"'. I.3#5 Duty free shop. Lamilton Ins. +ur+oses. Dwelling unit..ree to a +ro+osal or to make any concession. itself and suc) 1uildin.reements if re7uested 1y eit)er +arty. 4% @. [3ec. 4.d.s as are used in connection *it) it. GR 8 % %. ( 1uildin. R( "$! . for t)e convenience of travelers. Fct. <)e declaration must concern t)e cause and surroundin. it includes t)e 1uildin. Dying declaration. [I1id. Frder $. 1. an a. suc) a. $8. Duty to bargain collectively.s.ation to meet and convene +rom+tly and e0+editiously in . Re7uisites> -a. 1. (+olinario. 4& C#3 1 (la (++ 58"'. made under t)e consciousness of an im+endin.ned or used as residence for one or more families. citin. [6eo+le v. Dol.!. 4!4. #oya. 1 &1 . RoC'. under suc) a. #une $. <)e declaration of a dyin.. $$"'. Co. 4. LC'. (n entire t)in. air+ort or sea+ort.)t dura1les. 1 !'. citin. 1ut suc) duty does not com+el any +arty to a. ( retail esta1lis)ment located *it)in t)e +remises of International +orts of entry. Rule 1$%. +arts or units t)ereof used solely as d*ellin. (lso kno*n as Ante mortem statement or )tatement in articulo mortis. In la*. aut)orized to sell ta0 and dutyfree merc)andise. 4. C)ase v. Dec. 1 $. #uly $1. C(.?. <)e +erformance of a mutual o1li. [(rt.ood fait) for t)e +ur+ose of ne. ( )ouse and lot used for residential +ur+oses and s)all include not only 1uildin. GR &$515. 1.s. Reyes. +laces. Dwelling house. 1ut also t)ose used for )ome industries or retail stores if t)e o*ner t)ereof and )is family actually live t)erein and use it +rinci+ally for d*ellin. it may em1race t)e d*ellin. [3ec. 3ec. ( 1uildin. a contract incor+oratin. !4'. 96 44%'. 1 & . [6eo+le v.rievances or 7uestions arisin. 6enal Code. )ours of *ork and all ot)er terms and any . *)ic) is admissi1le as an e0ce+tion to t)e )earsay rule. and suc) attac)ments as are usually occu+ied and used for t)e family for t)e ordinary +ur+oses of a )ouse. <)e Rev. $. desi. Dying declaration. or structure. of consuma1les and li. e0clusively used for rest and comfort. ". 3ec. consistin. [Caudal v. deat) *it) res+ect to t)e cause and surroundin. e0ce+t motels.reement *it) res+ect to *a. citin..

. Dyspareunia. 6ainful se0ual intercourse in *omen.3#6 circumstances of t)e declarant:s deat). deat). t)e declarant.. -4%%5. -1. +.al =ed. *as under t)e consciousness of an im+endin. t)e declarant is com+etent as a *itness.al =ed. and -d. [Flarte. 1st .d. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . at t)e time t)e declaration *as made. Clamor. -c.'. 1 & 3CR( "54 -1 1. Le. 11!'. t)e declaration is offered in a criminal case *)erein t)e declarant:s deat) is t)e su12ect of in7uiry [6eo+le v. Le.

It constitutes an advance +ayment and must. "arly childhood care and development 2"&&D3 system. C(. 1 !'. [3ec. *it) e0+ertise in t)e su12ect in t)e su1stance of t)e dis+ute.)t to.es Council. [(delfa 6ro+erties v. Dera.in. . GR 1114$&.et)er early in a +re-trial +)ase to +resent summaries of t)eir cases and receive a non-1indin. (lso. CC'.. 4. [6eo+le v. 4!. 3ee *etained earnings. or income. and if not raised in t)e trial court.eneral term em1racin.ro*t) and develo+ment.eneral rule is t)at t)e 7uestion of constitutionality must 1e raised at t)e earliest o++ortunity. 1"5 citin. [6eo+le v. (lso )ervitude. and -c. In criminal cases *)ere t)e 7uestion may 1e raised at any sta. $8 Fff.) raised for t)e first time on a++eal. early education and social services +ro-. [3ec. GR $%55. "arly neutral evaluation.s. Gaz. to a different o*ner. it s)all 1e considered as +art of t)e +rice and as +roof of t)e +erfection of t)e contract. ( real ri. -1. 1"5 citin. "arnest money.rams t)at +rovide for t)e 1asic )olistic needs of youn. Dera. "asement. 1e deducted from t)e total +rice. "arnings.ain. in civil cases *)ere it is t)e duty of t)e court to +ass u+on t)e constitutional 7uestion. ordinarily it may not 1e raised at t)e trial. assessment 1y an e0+erienced. ( statutory rule t)at *)enever earnest money is . *)ere it involves t)e 2urisdiction of t)e court 1elo*. #an.e of )ealt).iven in a contract of sale. 5. (lso Arras. [(rt. <)e . $8 Fff. +rocess *)erein +arties and t)eir la*yers are 1rou. "1$. 15&4. <)e full ran. CC'.e si0 -". it )as also 1een )eld t)at a constitutional 7uestion *ill 1e considered 1y an a++ellate court at any time. 4". 14 C# 8&"'. [(rt. R( 4&!'. 14 C# 8&"'. alt)ou.3# -""arliest opportunity. revenue +rofit. 1. 1 4'. nutrition. =ar. "arned surplus. Gaz. R( & &%'. it *ill not 1e considered on a++eal.e of t)e +roceedin. $. if it a++ears t)at a determination of t)e 7uestion is necessary to a decision of t)e case.0ce+tions> -a. t)ere-fore. @ational Ba.)t on anot)er:s Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( . to +ro-mote t)eir o+timum . (n encum1rance im+osed u+on an immova1le for t)e 1enefit of anot)er immova1le 1elon. neutral +erson. so t)at if not raised 1y t)e +leadin. c)ildren from 1irt) to a. "arliest opportunity. earnest money is .s.iven 1y t)e 1uyer to t)e seller to 1ind t)e 1ar. eit)er in t)e trial court or on a++eal. (n alternative dis+ute resolution -(DR. [RC6I v.

( ri.state v. Re7uisites for claimin.er in t)e same +erson of t)e o*ners)i+ of t)e dominant and servient estates. -1.)t to +ierce t)e *all of one:s nei.)ts to tunnel under anot)er:s land. $ 3anc)ez Roman 584'.3#! +ro+erty. 1 1.)1or:s land or *ater*ay. (n.)*ay may 1e t)e s)ortest. 4" 3CR( &1". suc) as a ri. ?u-<i1o. "asements$ how e%tinguished. t)ere are many ot)ers suc) as ri.)t may enter one:s )ouse. to +ass over *it) transmission to*ers. or affirmative easements -t)e most common. 1 %$'.e over a nei. to use a *as)room. and -d. *it) res+ect to discontinuous easements. claimed is at a +oint least +re2udicial to t)e servient estate. $. $1. =ar. t)e ri. [Locsin v. t)e ri. CAI of @e. cor+oreal and immova1le.ative -*)ic) +revents t)e servient land o*ner from doin. v. "asement of right of way. 45 3CR( !%%. *)ere t)e distance from t)e dominant estate to a +u1lic )i. t)e isolation *as not due to t)e +ro+rietor:s o*n acts. -d.asements are also classified as ne. Re7uisites for a valid . GR &%!11. =ay 4 . #uly 4".) ri. to +ay t)e +ro+er indemnity. to 1e done on )is +ro+erty. "asement of right of way. t)ere is a dominant and a servient tenement.)t of +assa.s.ros Fcc. *)ere1y t)e o*ner of t)e latter must refrain from doin. or allo*in.. 1 $ 3CR( $$$. C(. 1 " . and in so far as consistent *it) t)is rule.)1or to o+en a *indo* t)rou. GR L-48%&5. [Costa1ella Cor+. certain t)in.al Dict. Aor every easement. -1. [Cortes v. 1 "&. Climaco. C(. (lt)ou.)t-of-*ay. Ca+itol 3u1division. citin. 4%%5'. (lso 9us luminum. for t)e 1enefit of anot)er +erson or tenement. [Muimen v.'.)*ay. -4" 3CR( &$". . to access a dock and to access a *ell. Locsin v. 9acolod =urcia =illin. Climaco. [Du)aime:s Le.)*ay. 14. 18 3CR( 8$1'. citin. t)ereof> -a. t)is +eriod s)all 1e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . and. #an.ela . to emit smoke or fumes. GR 114$$1. v.) *)ic) t)e li. t)e isolation *as not due to t)e acts of t)e dominant estate. some1ody else to do or somet)in.. <)e dominant estate is surrounded 1y ot)er immova1les *it)out an ade7uate outlet to a +u1lic )i. (n easement is a ty+e of servitude.)t *ay claimed is at a +oint least +re2udicial to t)e servient estate. -c. after +ayment of t)e +ro+er indemnity. *)ic) allo*s t)e 1eneficiary of t)e easement to do certain t)in. 4!. 1 "". -a. #uly $1. t)e dominant estate is *illin. 9y mer.. -1. #an. 1 ".rant> -a. GR L-4!&&8. <)e estate is surrounded 1y ot)er immova1les and is *it)out ade7uate outlet to a +u1lic )i. 1y nonuser for ten years. "asement of light. GR L-48$1 .)t-of-*ays are t)e most common easements. -c.)t of *ay 1ein. GR 11.s. <)e ri.

from t)e day on *)ic) an act contrary to t)e same took +lace. <)eory t)at international la* is derived from 1ot) natural la* -1ecause certain ri.ious +ur+oses.reed u+on 1et*een t)e o*ners of t)e dominant and servient estates. Code'. "$1. and. 3ee "mployees' &ompensation &ommission or "nvironmental &ompliance &ertificate. or. in accordance *it) t)e +rovisions of t)e +recedin.ea++ro+riate and develo+mentally a++ro+riate educational o12ectives. 4%%5'. 1y t)e redem+tion a.) t)e various center and )ome-1ased +ro. -e. La* Dict. -c. R( 8 54'. "&&D.. *)en eit)er or 1ot) of t)e estates fall into suc) condition t)at t)e easement cannot 1e used. Com+are *it) 6ay corporation. "clectic theory. CC'. 3ee "arly childhood care and development 2"&&D3 system. and volunteer care. <)e various +rofessionals. C Direct. [3ec. -d.rams. 1% . [(rt.rams. Geo.anized fore reli. <)e a.ram of activities. and +ositive la* -1ecause t)e o1li.. e0+eriences and recommended learnin. "&&D service providers. "clecticism. 5. 1y t)e renunciation of t)e o*ner of t)e dominant estate. "&&. [3ec.)ts and duties are in)erent. [Intl. unless *)en t)e use 1ecomes +ossi1le. "cclesiastical corporation. 3ee &anon law. 1y t)e e0+iration of t)e term or t)e fulfillment of t)e condition.anized learnin. sufficient time for +rescri+tion )as ela+sed. [3ec. ( cor+oration or. 3ee )itus "cological profile or eco-profile. materials for c)ildren t)at are im+lemented 1y service +roviders t)rou. R( & &%'. "&&D curriculum. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . c)ildren t)rou. R( & &%'. $. -f. *it) res+ect to continuous easements. ca+acity of an area.ation to o1serve international la* is voluntary. if t)e easement is tem+orary or conditional. "cclesiastical law. +ara+rofessionals.ain +ermit its use. 5.ra+)ic-1ased instruments for +lanners and decisionmakers *)ic) +resents an evaluation of t)e environmental 7uality and carryin. theory. +ro-. Cor+.3#" com+uted from t)e day on *)ic) t)ey ceased to 1e used. 1ut it s)all revive if t)e su1se7uent condition of t)e estates or eit)er of t)em s)ould a. num1er.ivers *)o are directly res+onsi1le for t)e care and education of youn.) center and )ome-1ased +ro. [3ec.

3+ecies or su1s+ecies *)ic) )ave actual or +otential value in trade or utilization for commercial +ur+ose. (cts t)at make or attem+t to make a *oman financially de+endent *)ic) includes.a. [3ec. "conomically repairable.t. C Direct. $. R( 8"11'.in. (n area of fis)+ond t)at +ermits t)e sufficient use of la1or and ca+ital resources of a family and *ill +roduce an income sufficient Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [Intl..rou+ of states t)at )ave -a. eliminated trade 1arriers 1et*een t)emselves and -1. [3ec. to meet a farm family:s needs for food.31# "cology. ( . 5.s. 1"". t)e victims: o*n money or +ro+erties or solely controllin. controllin. R( 158'. and reasona1le reserves to a1sor1 yearly fluctuations in income.)t to t)e use and en2oyment of t)e con2u. 96 44%'. )ouse)old +ro+erty. ( ty+e of )ousin. -c. 4%%5'. <)e life-sustainin. $. =. [3ec. -1. 1usiness or activity. !.al money or +ro+erties. interrelations)i+s and interactions of or. esta1lis)ed a common e0ternal tariff. "conomic abuse. (n area of farm land t)at +ermits efficient use of la1or and ca+ital resources of t)e farm family and *ill +roduce an income sufficient to +rovide a modest standard of livin. "conomically important species. of t)e ac7uisition cost of t)e item to 1e re+aired/re)a1ilitated. de+rivation or t)reat of de+rivation of financial resources and t)e ri. clot)in. e0ce+t in cases *)erein t)e ot)er s+ouse/+artner o12ects on valid. C)an. t)e victim from en. "conomic family si e fishpond.. 8$ of t)e Aamily Code. "conomic family-si ed farm units. R( $&55'. <)at condition of su++lies or +ro+erty *)ic) can still 1e re+aired or re)a1ilitated at a reasona1le cost or t)at in *)ic) t)e cost of re+air or re)a1ilitation *ould not e0ceed si0ty +er cent -"%V.er amortization +eriods. in any le. s)elter. $&$.es in monetary rates s)ould 1e considered in t)e com+utation of cost. "conomic community. La* Dict. t)e con2u. [3ec. "conomic and sociali ed housing. and education *it) +ossi1le allo*ance for +ayment of yearly installments on t)e land.rounds as defined in (rt. +er 3ec.> -a. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+.itimate +rofession. R( 4"4'. destroyin. community or +ro+erty o*ned in common. 1ut is not limited to t)e follo*in. [3ec. *it)dra*al of financial su++ort or +reventin..anisms *it) eac) ot)er and *it) t)eir +)ysical surroundin. serious and moral .al. LGC'. +ro2ect +rovided to moderately lo* in-come families *it) lo*er interest rates and lon. occu+ation. $.

)ealt) and education *it) allo*ance for +ayment of yearly installments on t)e area. 5. industrial estates. 11. or instruction. also kno*n as t)e H3tudy @o* 6ay Later 6lan. 11 3CR( !& -1 "5. out of fi0ed costs over a . Aunds made availa1le 1y lendin. +. s)elter. La*. <)e ecolo..et)er *it) non-livin. 3ee . to meet a family:s need for food. "ducational 6oan 4und. e0-+ort +rocessin.rou+s of +ersons as suc) or associated in institutions involved in or. "conomic one. v. "conomic strike. $.anized teac)in. [3ec. "ducational community. "conomic life. 5.-@. "ducational Assistance Act of +. [3ec.anized to +rovide facilities for teac)in. 1 &4.reater num1er of units +roduced.e or ot)er concessions from t)e em+loyer *)ic) )e is not re7uired 1y la* to . 6D $4. <)e estimated +eriod over *)ic) it is antici+ated t)at a mac)inery may +rofita1ly 1e utilized. zones and free trade zones as defined in R( 8 1" or t)e 6. for t)e esta1lis)ment and maintenance of an inte.ularly carried on. 6D 5"5'. institutions to service t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . "ducation Act of +.311 to +rovide a modest standard of livin. R( &5$!'. 1 1 .d. =arsman.rant..ical community considered to.anized 1ody of +u+ils or students. and reasona1le reserves to a1sor1 yearly fluctuations in income. 6D 5$'. 96 4$4'. 1 8".ethylenedio%ymethamphetamine. ( strike *)ic) is to force *a. <)e minimum 7uantity or volume of . or attendance at t)e +lace *)ere t)e educational activities are re. (. La1or. ". 4 ".. Fleck. Com+ilation of @otes. "ducational corporation. 96 4$4 entitled I(n (ct +rovidin.rated system of educationJ enacted on 3e+t. citin. 4%%1-4%%"'.. [3ec. "conomic scale. "cosystem. [3ec. ( stock or non-stock cor+oration or. It maintains a re. [Consolidated La1or (ssoc. and learnin. <)ose +ersons or . "cstasy. +. <)e s+ecial economic zones.ned into la* on =ay 1$. factors and its environment as a unit. $. La* Rev. [Claridades. [3ec. "conomies of scale. $.8J. systems. [3ec. R( 4$ '. !5%'. [Diaz.'.ular faculty and curriculum and )ave a re.H si. =odern Cor+. clot)in. R( &5$!'.ular or. <)e decrease in unit cost as more units are +roduced due to t)e s+readin. 9us.oods re7uired to 1e efficient.W( La*.

1.overnment ca+a1le of makin. Dec. 1 &"'.J [Arivaldo v. its la*s res+ected. +artially or com+letely treated or any li7uid flo*in.312 financial needs of t)e eli. commercial and recreational facilities. La*. [3ec.nize e0clusively in its territory eit)er t)e nationality of t)e country in *)ic) )e is )a1itually and +rinci+ally resident or t)e nationality of t)e country *it) *)ic) in t)e circumstances )e a++ears to 1e in fact most closely connected. Intl. 1&% (. "ducational 6oan 5uarantee 4und.. <)ereafter. +lant.overnment for lendin. "ffective nationality principle. <uvera. t)e in2ury *ould not )ave occurred. 81 3. 4 of t)e Civil Code. in its name or 1y its aut)ority. mill o+erations. [Gelinas. "ffective occupation doctrine. and *)ic) *as an efficient cause in t)e sense t)at e0ce+t for it. v. ! of t)e La. GR L-"$ 1!. or *aste *ater flo*in. "fficient concurring cause. ( cause *)ic) *as o+erative at t)e moment of t)e in2ury and acted contem+oraneously *it) anot)er to +roduce t)e in2ury.. 1!%'. +. Gnder (rt. 6ol. *aste*ater Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ere.atives of )is office. (ny *aste*ater. [3ec 5. out of a manufacturin.ations. "ffective absence. 6D $4'. "45'. state. a t)ird 3tate s)all. #une 4$.ue Convention of 1 $% on t)e Conflict of @ationality La*s as follo*s> I(rt. La*. 4. 1.i1le students. out of minin. !.e t)e +o*ers and +rero. Batkins. t)e +u1lication of la*s must 1e made in t)e Ffficial Gazette.islature.d. 1 & '. "ffectivity of laws. 4%%% .. industrial +lant includin. [3andoval. La* Revie*er 4%%$'. "ffluent.e from kno*n sources *)ic) is +assed into a 1ody of *ater or land. Intl. as a re7uirement for t)eir effectivity. 1. Comelec. GR &81 $. to disc)ar. Au. more t)an one nationality s)all 1e treated as if )e )ad only one. [=orenoEs La* Dict. institutions to avail in case of defaults in +ayments of o1li. and not else*)ere. [3ec.anization or . Disc)ar. R( 48!'. 6D $4'. <)e +rinci+le e0+ressed in (rt. for t)e time 1ein. B. $!1. of t)e nationalities *)ic) any suc) +erson +ossesses. Bit)in a t)ird 3tate a +erson )avin. 4 . =ooney. must first take +ossession of t)e territory. [<aKada v. domestic. v. <)e nationals of t)e discoverin. "44. after fifteen days from suc) +u1lication or after a different +eriod +rovided 1y t)e le. $5". <)e funds to 1e made availa1le 1y t)e . t)ey must esta1lis) t)ereon an or. reco. Fne t)at renders t)e officer concerned +o*erless. Bit)out +re2udice to t)e a++lication of its la* in matters of +ersonal status and of any convention in force.

@R (dmin.0+ressly re+ealed 1y t)e La1or Code'. of +)ysical. 3e+. c)emical or 1iolo. CC'.s or classes of +ersons or su12ects.s includes all ot)ers of t)e same class. 1"&4 and 1"&8. -c. [(rt. violation of any of t)e conditions a. (lso "i incumbit probatio qui dicit$ non qui negat. Common*ealt) (ct @o. )as e0+ired.313 treatment +lants or tailin. t)e . 1 !'. "(ectment suit. <)is is 1ased on t)e rule of classification. t)e .e into a 1ody of *ater or land. 1"!8 of t)e Civil Code. rates. ( suit 1rou. 6D 11!4'. "ffluent standard. 4. 1". "(usdem generis. Frder !-4$'. D. Ff t)e same kind. *)en . F1li..ed from +oint sources. GR "1%8. 555. (n enumeration of a class of t)in.s or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3ec 5.ards t)e use t)ereof. (ny le.. "4.d. Gnder t)is doctrine.al restriction or limitation on 7uantities.al remedy availa1le to t)e o*ner of a +iece of land to remove +ersons in +ossession *)o )ave no ri. or if )e does not o1serve t)e re7uirement in @o.uilt of t)e accused. [De Leon v. [6eo+le v. [.eneral term *ill 1e construed to com+re)end t)ose t)in. B)en t)e +eriod a.eneral terms follo* t)e desi. [<orres. GR 1%&8$$. 1 "'. +. "(ectment. *)ere . *)ere dis+ossession )as lasted for not more t)an one year. 6arel. as re.reed u+on.s or o12ects as are of t)e same kind as t)ose enumerated. *)en t)e lessee devotes t)e t)in. 4 of (rt.s dis+osal system. Grounds> -a. "ight-=our 6abor. "i incumbit probatio non qui negat. Con. [3ec. Le *)o asserts R not )e *)o denies R must +rove. 1"8$.reed u+on in t)e contract. as amended. 1. #une 1 . $!%'.eneral *ords are deemed to include only suc) t)in.nation of +articular t)in. ( fundamental evidentiary rule in criminal la* t)at t)e +rosecution )as t)e onus +ro1andi of esta1lis)in. "(ectment.ical +arameters of effluent *)ic) a +erson or +oint source is allo*ed to disc)ar.eneral *ords follo* +articular or s+ecific *ords.)t 1efore t)e +ro+er inferior court to recover +)ysical +ossession only or +ossession de facto and not +ossession de 2ure. 4%%% . <)e le.. Lat. 4. 1. Restrictions esta1lis)ed to limit levels of concentration of +)ysical. Lat.ical constituents *)ic) are disc)ar. leased to any use or service not sti+ulated *)ic) causes t)e deterioration t)ereof. c)emical and 1iolo.)t to 1e t)ere. lack of +ayment of t)e +rice sti+ulated. -d. and/or concentrations or any com1ination t)ereof. [3ec. 3tat. or t)at *)ic) is fi0ed for t)e duration of leases under (rts. -1. C(. t)e . 5. R( 48!'. C Cont.

t)e office in dis+ute and in t)e case of elections of 1aran. and ot)er data. #an. "lection law. +. 3eriKa. #une $%.. (n e0tremely )ot luminous 1rid.ures for eac) candidate in a +recinct directly +roduced 1y t)e countin. ( document s)o*in. C3C Res.s 1y *)ic) matters involvin.t) and less t)an 1/5 inc) in diameter *it) a *ick. 4'. [<aule v. ( c)oosin. 14. 1 8'. t)e title or claim of title to an elective office. 3antos. 8-%&%8. or a selection 1y t)ose )avin. <)e selection of one +erson from a s+ecified class to disc)ar. 4.. GR L-44"1%. ( study of la*. ( mac)ine. "lection contests. [Cra*ford. "l diablo. citin.. 1. $1. t)e date of t)e election.d. (n act desi. [3ec. 4. 1 8$. $rd Rev. [3uarez. Go <iaco v. 8 '. [9u.0ec.e certain duties in a state. 3tat. 3ociety of Camilan. =ar.ton. 4%%4. "lection returns. Dol. Airecrackers tu1ular in s)a+e a1out 1 1/5 inc)es in len. R( &%5"'. Con.e of an electric current across a s+ace 1et*een t*o conductors or terminals due to t)e incandescence of t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .s after t)e +roclamation of t)e *inners as no +re-+roclamation controversies are allo*ed.ures for eac) candidate in a +recinct. [3ec. t)e conduct of election of all +u1lic officials *)o *ill e0ercise t)e +o*ers of . +. t)e munici+ality in *)ic) it is )eld. made 1efore or after +roclamation of t)e *inner.. [Muiem v. cor+oration. 3ec. 5%. or a society. and containin.overnment as allocated to and *it)in t)eir functions and res+onsi1ilities. Gnion Ins. $" 3CR( 44&'. .. (dversary +roceedin. also kno*n as la1intador [3ec.e formed 1y +assa. [#avellana v. a ri. t)e votes in *ords and in fi. 6ol. 1st .314 +ersons of t)e same class or of t)e same nature as t)ose s+ecifically enumerated. or of t)e ado+tion or re2ection of any +u1lic measures affectin.'.C. =utuc v. mac)ine. 4. 1 "". 4. munici+ality and t)e +recinct in *)ic) it is )eld and t)e votes in fi. Diosdado C.. of t)ose *)o s)all fill t)e offices. 1 1'. (u. it is restricted to +roceedin.. t)e territory involved. t)e +rovince. 9ouvier:s La* Dict. "lection campaign or partisan political activity. "lection. GR L-$"154.. GR %$$".)t to +artici+ate -in t)e selection. I.ned to +romote t)e election or defeat of a +articular candidate or candidates to a +u1lic office. C)oice.L. 4. 4&. CF=. "lectrical arc. 1. R( &5$"'. selection. 9ouvier:s La* Dict. rules and +rocedures involvin. is settled *)et)er or not t)e contestant is claimin. 1 1. citin.ay officials. 5% 6)il. +.enerated document s)o*in. t)e date of t)e election. La* Revie*er. R( 81&$'.

electric . stu+efy. control. as amended. <)e use of electricity . "lectrofishing. +lannin. 5. "lectric locomotive. 4. disa1le or render unconscious fis) or fis)ery/a7uatic +roducts in 1ot) fres) and salt *ater areas. va+or. 6D !$5'. [3ec. stu+efy. *)et)er or not t)e same are su1se7uently recovered.ineerin. 6o*er +lant mounted on *)eels as used in t)e railroad trans+ortation industry. (ny e7ui+ment *)ic) +roduces. +enalties for unla*ful use t)ereof and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on #une 15. 4%%%.315 conductin.. service. "lectric cooperative.eneration. (ny +erson or entity en. <)e c)oice of electrical systems. (n esta1lis)ment or a system for t)e +roduction and modification of electric ener. coordination and interlockin. [3ec. R( 8 4%'. R( 8 4%'. R( 8 4%'. [3ec. <)e use of electricity .enerators and ot)er source of electric +o*er to kill.ulates. distri1ution or su++ly of electricity. "lectrical engineering$ practice of. R( &!!%'. transmission.a.anized +ursuant to 6D 4" . 4.enerated 1y 1atteries. ( distri1ution utility or.nition and use of electronic commercial and noncommercial transactions and documents. "lectric plant. 5. or as ot)er*ise +rovided under R( 1$". electric . [3ec. 6D 11&!'. or controls t)e su++ly of electric ener. $. [3ec.y. [3ec. disa1le or render unconscious fis) or fis)ery/a7uatic +roducts. 5. ot)ers. of electrical systems amon. [3ec.y.enerated 1y dry-cell 1atteries. monitorin. "lectric supply equipment.enerated 1y dry cell 1atteries.ed in t)e . includin. $. 1. 4. 4. It s)all include t)e use of rays or 1eams of *)atever nature. disa1le or render unconscious fis)ery s+ecies. "lectrical system design. 6D 8%5'. R( 1$"'.enerators or ot)er source of electric +o*er to kill. R( &8 4 entitled I(n (ct +rovidin. [3ec. ( +erson is deemed to 1e in t)e +ractice of electrical en. [3ec. modifies. [3ec. 4. R( 1$"'. <)e use of electricity .enerators or ot)er sources of electric +o*er to kill. R( 8 4%'. 1. R( 8 4%'. electric . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . stu+efy. of re7uirements for +rotection. for t)e reco. form or source of +o*er. and detailin. "lectronic &ommerce Act. $. re. "lectric power industry participant. 4. [3ec. *)en )e renders or offers to render +rofessional electrical en.ineerin.

a timely relations)i+ 1et*een t)e first t*o factors. "lements of a crime. . "lectronic document. received or stored 1y electronic. data. [9akin. electronic key.y or +rocedures em+loyed or ado+ted 1y a +erson and e0ecuted or ado+ted 1y suc) +erson *it) t)e intention of aut)enticatin. +rocessed. Delicuente condenado a una +ena. descri1ed or )o*ever re+resented. *)ic) is receive. 3+ecific factors t)at define a crime *)ic) t)e +rosecution must +rove 1eyond a reasona1le dou1t in order to o1tain a conviction> -a. 1asic education and usually corres+ondin. ( cor+oration esta1lis)ed for or devoted to c)arita1le +ur+oses or t)ose su++orted 1y c)arity.e of com+ulsory. [3ec. and -c. ( secret code *)ic) secures and defends sensitive information t)at crossover +u1lic c)annels into a form deci+)era1le only *it) a matc)in.ister of eli. (ny distinctive mark. !.ment. R( &8 4'.ically associated *it) t)e electronic data messa..ures. [3ec. stored. (nnotated. . C)a+. +..F 4 4. [3ec.. 4%. sym1ols or ot)er modes of *ritten e0+ression.)t is esta1lis)ed or an o1li. includin. v. 1 " '.e or electronic document or any met)odolo. c)aracteristic and/or sound in electronic from. t)e identity of a +erson and attac)ed to or lo. recorded. or 1y *)ic) a fact may 1e +rove and affirmed.rams. Information or t)e re+resentation of information. <)e first sta. 96 4$4'.enerated. to si0 or seven . transmitted. +resc)ool +ro. "lectronic signature. . R( &8 4'. Code of t)e 6)il. Information .rades. $ '. t)at a crime )as actually occurred. [De Leon.ation e0tin. an electronic data messa. "ligible. !.uis)ed. sent. Com+are *it) &ivil corporation. R( &8 4'. retrieved or +roduced electronically. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 & . 3ec. "l penado. [3ec. 1. 3u1title (.ranted a civil service eli. -1. #uly 4&. "lementary education. R( &8 4'. Dir. 1y *)ic) a ri.i1les.al Dict. a convict or a +erson already sentenced 1y final 2ud.rade in a civil service e0amination or is . [3ec. [3ec. 3+. formal education +rimarily concerned *it) +rovidin. [#uristEs Le. of 6risons.i1ility and *)ose name is entered in t)e re. ( +erson *)o o1tains a +assin. 4%%5'. !.n. re+resentin.e or electronic document.d. GR L$%$"5. "lectronic key. !. o+tical or similar means. t)at t)e accused intended t)e crime to )a++en. "leemosynary corporation. Cor+.316 "lectronic data message. or a++rovin. $. !. fi. 6D &%8'.

R a ri.ent or e0+ectant ri. 14"'..e of t*enty-one years. it is only after com+liance *it) t)e conditions -in t)e certificate of land transfer under 6D 48.e of ma2ority.manci+ation also takes +lace> -a. Intl. =ar.. Fne is lia1le for all t)e direct and natural conse7uences of )is unla*ful act even if t)e ultimate result )ad not 1een intended. or a <ransfer Certificate of <itle..)teen years of a. 48. and +reservin.)t of o*ners)i+ over t)e land)oldin. "mancipation patent. [6a. merely +ossesses a contin. La* Revie*er. [3ec. disinfectin. a dead 1ody for its final dis+osal. 1.ression *)ere an order is made +ro)i1itin. <)e act of freein.)t *)ic) )as 1ecome fi0ed and esta1lis)ed. AC'..e. "mbalmer. any ve)icle t)at attem+ts to 1reak it or 1y trade +enalties. t)e farmer/. Clearly. and is no lon. "mancipation.iven freedom from )is master. to descri1e a former slave t)at )ad 1ou. 1.al.. [(rt.e of ma2ority. =ar.er o+en to dou1t or controversy. 3+.)t of a1solute o*ners)i+ in t)e land)oldin. ma2ority commences at t)e a.inal Certificate of <ransfer. Intl. +arental aut)ority and t)e minor at least ei. It takes +lace 1y t)e attainment of ma2ority. *)en slavery *as le. s)i+s or . 6D &!"'.31 "l que es causa de la causa es causa del mal causado. [Cruz.. 4$5. GR L-$%&%1. +.talunan v.reement in a +u1lic instrument e0ecuted 1y t)e +arent e0ercisin. 1 " . a +erson *)o is under t)e le. 1 .) seas.al Dict. redress of t)e vessels of t)e offendin. 1 85. *)et)er suc) vessels are found in t)e territory of t)e former or on t)e )i. ( +erson *)o +ractices em1almin. "mbargo. 4. city or territory and may 1e enforced 1y military t)reat of destroyin. Gral. <)e detention 1y t)e state seekin. 155'.e of t)e minor. +rior to com+liance *it) t)ese conditions. Gnless ot)er*ise +rovided.d. in t)e Civil Re. t)e a. <)e *ord )as also come to refer Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . a certain +ort. & .. (t 1est. GR !54&1. from t)at control -suc) as a c)ild reac)in. in t)e name of t)e .ister of an a. & . !" 3CR( 1$&.al aut)ority of anot)er -suc) as a c)ild 1efore t)e a.)t or 1een . 3uc) emanci+ation s)all 1e irrevoca1le. (n act of international military a. .rantee. 1 %'. 6re+arin. *)ic) entitle a farmer/. [Du)aime:s Le. 6D &!"'. "mbalming. <)e term *as also used.rantee. 1y t)e marria. [3ec. 1y t)e recordin. <amayo. state or its nationals. 4%%5'. It constitutes conclusive aut)ority for t)e issuance of an Fri.rantee to an emanci+ation +atent t)at )e ac7uires t)e vested ri. La*. -6eo+le v. or -1.oods from leavin. 4. Le *)o is t)e cause of t)e cause is t)e cause of t)e evil caused.

-1. +. t)e )earin. (lso "stafa with abuse of confidence. $. 1.reatly endan.nitude as to . *)ere t)ere is actual or imminent dan.ent Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . -c.lements> -a.ress and effective im+lementation of t)e economic. [3addul v.rams t)erein. (7uino. diversion or denial is to t)e in2ury of anot)er. a )ot +iece or lum+ t)at remains after a material )as +artially 1urned.d.) +ossessed le. even t)ou.al Dict.er lives and +ro+erties and set 1ack or )am+er t)e +ro. or one or t*o lim1s at or a1ove t)e ankle or *rist. 4%%5'. [3ec. 1 %. 1. ( condition or state of a +atient *)erein 1ased on t)e o12ective findin. . t)at +ersonal +ro+erty is received in trust.s of a +rudent medical officer on duty for t)e day t)ere is immediate dan.31! to a le.al transfer of money or +ro+erty t)at. su1version or ot)er criminal activities of suc) ma. (ny event or occurrence *)erein t)e need for su++lies or +ro+erty )as 1ecome e0ce+tionally ur. $.. 458'. Dec. for administration or under any ot)er circumstance involvin.ally 1y t)e em1ezzler. Dol. R( &$55'. 1. (n unforeseen com1ination of circumstances *)ic) calls for immediate action to +reserve t)e life of a +erson or to +reserve t)e si. GR 1%51. [Du)aime:s Le. riot. Crim. alt)ou. citin. "mbe lement. La*. and -d.uaranteed 1y a 1ond. city or munici+ality. insur.)t of one or 1ot) eyes. social.ency. on commission. 6D 11&!'.al Dict. [#uristEs Le. C(. *it)out t)e manifestation of flames. R6C. R( 451'. 1. t)e duty to make delivery of or to return t)e same. 4%%5'. t)at t)ere 1e demand for t)e return of t)e +ro+erty. 1%. "mbattled area.. and is still o0idizin.er of disorder. "mber. re1ellious or seditious cons+iracy. of one or 1ot) ears. [3ec.er and *)ere delay in initial su++ort and treatment may cause loss of life or cause +ermanent disa1ility to t)e +atient. <)e fraudulent a++ro+riation 1y a +erson to )is o*n use or 1enefit or +ro+erty or money entrusted to )im 1y anot)er.. <)e ille. +olitical and ot)er develo+ment and reform +ro. La*. 4. 4%%5'.al Dict. 4.. t)at t)ere is conversion or diversion of suc) +ro+erty 1y t)e +erson *)o )as so received it or a denial on )is +art t)at )e received it.oods or services +roduced 1y or *it)in a certain nation. "mbe lement. "mergency. 4. (n area suc) as a +ortion of a +rovince. t)at suc) conversion. Crim. is diverted to t)e em1ezzler +ersonally 1y )is fraudulent action. III. 6D 11"4'. [3ec. [3ec. la*less violence. 1 && .) t)e o1li.ation is .al +ro)i1ition of trade *it) a certain nation or a +ro)i1ition to*ards t)e use of . [Du)aime:s Le.

Const. La*. [(rt.rates to a forei. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. *orker or ot)er*ise.al Dict. as salary. into t)e atmos+)ere an air contaminant. fees and +er7uisites. 1 "!'. LGC'.er.. life or +ro+erty. "mission. 1!.li.li. +er 3ec.n country 1y virtue of an immi.ical measure *it)in t)e ca+a1ility of t)e )os+ital or medical clinic t)at is administered 1y 7ualified )ealt) care +rofessionals to +revent t)e deat) or +ermanent disa1ility of a +atient.)t to a++ro+riate. #uly 1". citin. "molument. [=oday v.uet v. <)e +o*er of . *)ile e0+ro+riation refers to t)e +rocess. <)e +o*er of . Dec. 1enefits or ot)er 1enefit received as com+ensation for )oldin. $. R( &$55'.)t.31" or a1solutely indis+ensa1le and only to +revent imminent dan. *)o emi. or loss of.. R( 1%!5. "mergency . ( le. +rivate +ro+erty for +u1lic use or +ur+ose.overnment to take and a++ro+riate +rivate +ro+erty for +u1lic use.'.. 6D 11!4'. "mergency treatment and support.rant visa or resident +ermit or its e7uivalent in t)e country of destination..es. 1. from office or em+loyment. [. (ny +erson. 4. =. . 4. in t)e nature of a com+ulsory sale to t)e 3tate.edical and Dental <reatment 6aw.ence. 9lack:s La* Dict. GR 1%8 1". GR L-81514. 1&.uilty of ne. 1 8.as stream and un*anted sound from a kno*n source. eminent domain refers to t)e ri. unless t)e emer. 1. if )e fails to ado+t *)at su1se7uently and u+on reflection may a++ear to )ave 1een a 1etter met)od.overnment to take +rivate +ro+erty for +u1lic use. Government:s ri. "4. [3ec..er.ence. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 &"'. 4%%5'. "minent domain$ power of. <)e +rofit arisin. GR L-4$$4". "mergency rule.ency in *)ic) )e finds )imself is 1rou. Gimenez. and is re7uired to act *it)out time to consider t)e 1est means t)at may 1e ado+ted to avoid t)e im+endin.er to. [Du)aime:s Le. LC'. 1$. t)at *)ic) is received as com+ensation for services or *)ic) is anne0ed to t)e +ossession of an office. C(. GR "&1%4. 1 4'. (ssoc. "migrant. B)ile eminent domain and e0+ro+riation are usually synonymous. $&$. v. one *)o suddenly finds )imself in a +lace of dan.t. 4. <)e act of +assin. (ny medical or sur. "1" -5t) . Re+.)t a1out 1y )is o*n ne. [3ec. Civ. dan. Ae1. is not . [=cQee v.al *ord *)ic) refers to all *a. +ollutant. I(C. 4%. [9en.0+ressly re+ealed 1y t)e La1or Code'. some office or em+loyment. [6)il. *)ic) can 1e done only if due +rocess is com+lied *it) and 2ust com+ensation is +aid. Gnder t)e rule.d. (u.

sold or used. <)ere is emotional ne. (ny individual em+loyed 1y an em+loyer. "mploy. #uly 1 . and ot)er +ersons *orkin. 1. t)e same *as increased 1y t)e claimant:s *orkin. <o suffer or +ermit to *ork. "mployees' &ompensation &ommission 2"&&3. 18". GR 11!45$. "mployee of den$ dive or resort. I.ood )ealt). as *ell as non+rofit +rivate institutions or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . LC'. [Ilusorio v. 4. Ilusorio-9ildner. )el+er. *atc)man. em+loyed 1y t)e maintainer.CC or any illness su12ect to +roof t)at t)e risk of contractin. 1 !'. <)e a. in t)e streets or +u1lic +laces.overnmento*ned or controlled cor+orations and institutions. lookout. over*orked or made to *ork under conditions not conducive to . LC'. -*)ic). "mployer. as amended.. ra+ed or seduced. ( s)ared feelin. 1et*een )us1and and *ife e0+erienced not only 1y )avin.erous dru. +rostitution and ot)er vices. 6D "%$'. conditions. <)e caretaker. C(. directly or indirectly in t)e interest of an em+loyer in relation to an em+loyee and s)all include t)e Government and all its 1ranc)es. [(rt. su1divisions and instrumentalities. or e0+osed to . R( 451'.lect *)en c)ildren are maltreated.ency created under t)e La1or Code -6D 554. La1or. and/or controlled +recursor and essential c)emical is administered. distri1uted. GR 1$ 8& .ram. [3ec. 6D "4". s+ontaneous se0ual intimacy 1ut a dee+ sense of s+iritual communion. [(rt. delivered. to initiate. or *)en c)ildren are in moral dan. 1. "mployee. Lealt) Ins.rants disa1ility 1enefits to t)ose *)o suffer loss or im+airment of a +)ysical or mental function resultin. dive or resort. 8. 4%%1'. in t)e den. LC'. rationalize and coordinate t)e +olicies of t)e em+loyees: com+ensation +ro.er. o*ner and/or o+erator *)ere any dan. =arital union is a t*o-*ay +rocess. "mpathy. R( 1"!'. 151.am1lin. in connection *it) t)e o+eration t)ereof. or in t)e course of em+loyment. or are made to 1e. [(rt.32# "motionally neglected children. out of. all . (ny +erson actin. 1. La1or. [3ec $. "mployees' &ompensation 6aw. [(rt. from in2ury arisin. or from any illness acce+ted as an occu+ational disease listed 1y t)e . 1. (ny +erson *)o +erforms services for an em+loyer in *)ic) eit)er or 1ot) mental and +)ysical efforts are used and *)o receives com+ensation for suc) services. [G3I3 v. *)ere t)ere is an em+loyer-em+loyee relations)i+. *it) or *it)out com+ensation. *)en c)ildren are e0+loited. 8. Dec.

3tat. 3ale of t)in. occu+ation or +rofession e0ercised 1y an em+loyer e0ce+t domestic service. (++ellate courts can consist of several #ustices. (ny +arent. [3ec.al . 4%%14%%"'.. 1. 3election and en. +rimarily at t)e level of t)e farmers. 6rovidin. [Du)aime:s Le. a document *)ic) is +u1lis)ed as an enforcea1le set of *ritten rules is said to 1e enacted. [3ec. [3uarez. aut)ority. -c. 5"'. [Claridades. [Dallum 3ecurity 3ervices v. (ll t)e #ustices of a court sittin.ed in a. CC'. "ncargado.a. $.. +.riculture and fis)ery +roduction. .0+ressly re+ealed 1y t)e La1or Code'. 9ook 4. If a case is )eard or re)eard 1y t)e full court. 3ale of mere )o+e or e0+ectancy. R( 511 '. "mpowerment. Con. $ . [. [Du)aime:s Le. 15"1. "nactment. R( 8"!&'. 1&85. "mptio or emtio. It is t)at +art of t)e statute *)ic) indicates t)e aut)ority *)ic) +romul. 4.es. "mptio res speretae. res+onsi1ility and information to +eo+le directly en. [(rt. 1ut often t)ey )ear cases in +anels of t)ree or five #ustices.et)er. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%5'. "n banc. t)e +o*er to control t)e em+loyee:s conduct. ( natural or 2uridical +erson *)o em+loys t)e services of an em+loyee. 1.. @LRC. "mployer's 6iability Act. Lealt) Ins.ive t)em *ider c)oices and ena1le t)em to take advanta.uardian or +roducer actin. (ct @o.ement of t)e em+loyee.al Dict. Renumerative *ork eit)er for an em+loyer or self-em+loyment. le. Rule 1. 4. "mployer employee relationship. -1 $. 4.lements> -a.e. [(rt. GR 8$4%-48.e of t)e 1enefits of t)e a. a +otential e0istence. 6urc)ase or t)e contract in *)ic) somet)in. "mployment. Lat.a. to. 1 $'. as em+loyer *)o )ires or en. [3ec. 3ee &oordinator. #uly $%.anizations. R( 451'... "mptio spei. 15"1. +ayment of *a. in order to . 5.a. +o*er of dismissal.es t)e services of any c)ild 1elo* 1! years of a.321 or. [3ec. (.a. ( la* or a statute. "nacting clause.ed in food and non-food +roduction and +rocessin. [3ec. R( &5$!'. 8. is 1ou. Lat. Com+ilation of @otes.ated t)e enactment.)t. 4%%5'. and -d. it is )eard en 1anc. CC'. [(rt. Lat. IRR of LC'. LC'. In case of +rivate em+loyers includes all em+loyment or *ork at a trade. 1.s )avin.riculture and fis)ery industries. -1..al Dict. fis)erfolk and t)ose en.

-1 &$.. dated (u.al ri. "ndorsement.e u+on +ro+erty. @LRC. delirium. R( 158'. Gnder claim of title.ered 1ut *)ose survival in t)e *ild is unlikely if t)e causal factors continue o+eratin. animals.al claim a. "ncyclopedia. [Re+. R( 158'.. 1 1. (nyt)in. ( le. v. 8. @ov. *)ic) +roduce distur1ances of sensorium. 1. an estate. 3ec.s -t)e menin. an em1arrassment of t)e estate or +ro+erty so t)at it cannot 1e dis+osed of *it)out 1ein. #une 4".a. C(. a lia1ility restin. or ri. !. 9enedicto. or interest in. ( si.eneral o*ner. a claim on lien u+on +ro+erty. =oreno. GR 1%%8% . information on areas of la*. citin. <)e inflammation of t)e 1rain and its coverin.)t to )inder or im+ede t)e transfer of o*ners)i+. Le. t)e land *)ic) may su1sist in t)ird +ersons.al <erms -6ro3e. *)ic) constitutes a 1urden on t)e title. 5. of t)e fee 1y t)e conveyance.322 "ncephalitis. La* Dict.0ec. t)eir value to t)e .e of *)ic) t)e estate is lia1le. 3+. 1 &'. [3ec. anyt)in.ulations. includin. as in +ossession. u+on an estate.al claim on an estate for t)e disc)ar.ainst an estate. 1 8. 4nd .. any -act. from t)e . !t) . "ncumbrancer. [=emo. 3+ecies or su1s+ecies t)at is not critically endan. "n cuadrilla. includin. a 1urden or c)ar. [Rase v. 4%. coma. 1 84.es. citin. (1r.)t in lands. 4.e )older. some varieties of corals and sea s)ells in dan. citations to su++ort t)e information. $. adverse. rarely. 4%%5'. interest. "ndangered rare or threatened species. and.. fis)ery la*s. 15. R( &!!%'.ed al+)a1etically 1y to+ics containin. su12ect to it. (7uatic +lants. ( 1ook or series of 1ooks arran. ++. ( lien or mort. +. to t)e diminution of t)e value of t)e land. !5 '. Fct.. $8 6)il.d.d. v. dro*siness. rules and re.very ri. diminis)in. 1 5'.. [Ro0as v. . 4%84%&'. [Cuaycon.er of e0tinction as +rovided for in e0istin. t)at im+airs t)e use or transfer of +ro+erty or real estate. 6)il. 3+ecies or su1-s+ecies *)ic) is naturally occur-rin. and found only *it)in s+ecific areas in t)e country. 3ee :and. 8&1'. GR 11%"$8. GR 445!. 485'. 1ut consistent *it) t)e +assin. "ndemic species. [3ec. 1. "n concepto de dueGo. [9lackEs La* Dict. +. one *)o )as a le. seizures.nature on t)e 1ack of t)e 1ill of e0c)an. 54 C#3. [Glossary of Le. C(. "ndangered species.)t to.e 1y *)ic) t)e +erson to *)om t)e note is +aya1le transfers it 1y Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . "ncumbrance. [3ec. !.. t)at im+airs t)e use or transfer of +ro+erty.

[=orenoEs La* Dict. "nergy *egulatory &ommission 2"*&3. t)e su++ly and delivery of electricity for its o*n use.otia1le instrument in si. +roduction. 4%%5'. "nglish "%chequer *ule. [3ec. to t)e +articular 1usiness. 4%%% . dra*ee. suc) as medical researc) or sc)olars)i+s.ency created under R( 1$". "nglish rule. unless t)ey merely affect t)in. t)e 1ack of t)e instrument. <)e rule t)at crimes committed a1oard forei.ulatory a.d. (ny +erson or entity re7uirin. *ords. or stora.al Dict. <)e transfer of money or +ro+erty -usually as a . 1!5'. 1!5'. 3ee =armless error.eneratin.ulatory 1ody created under . + 11"%'. citin. GR 1114%"-%&... <)e act of a +ayee. 5..J [6eo+le v. R( 1$"'. utilization. marketin.ement t)ereof. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. "ndowment. 4.. *it) or *it)out 7ualifyin. station located at t)e site. +rocessin. R( 8"$&'. as amended.y +roducts and resources.n merc)ant vessels can 1e tried in t)e courts of t)at country. [3ec. Fct. La* Dict.le act +ertainin. 4%%5'. 5. [3ec. ". *it)in t)e vessel or t)ey refer to t)e internal mana. to a +u1lic or. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [Du)aime:s Le. "nergy pro(ects. almost automatically re7uired a ne* trial. distri1ution. 7uasi-2udicial re. trans+ortation. +.nin. o+ cit. e0traction. [3ec. 3ee *ider.)ts in t)e instrument to anot)er. "ngaging in business. R( 1$"'. of a sin.ift. to transfer ri. [Intl. 6D 1%"&'. La Aave and Israel.anization for a s+ecific +ur+ose. 1 !. 6ursuin. "nd-user of electricity. accommodation +arty. R( 1$"'. 4%%% . ( sc)eme *)ere1y fast-. cro+s or trees suc) as i+il-i+il are deli1erately and systematically +lanted in order to continuously +rovide fuel to a +o*er . t)e note +aya1le to t)e 1earer or to a s+ecific +erson. an occu+ation or em+loyment as a liveli)ood or source of +rofit and must 1e a series of acts rat)er t)an t)e doin. C Direct. im+ortatione0+ortation. . <)e re. "nergy *egulatory :oard 2"*:3.. ( s+ecie of a mid-1&%% rule +ursuant to *)ic) Ha trial court:s error as to t)e admission of evidence *as +resumed to )ave caused +re2udice and t)erefore. <o de1ilitate. stock+ilin. 4. <ee)ankee.323 t)us makin. (ctivities or +ro2ects relative to t)e e0+loration.vid. [3ec. <)e inde+endent. or )older of a ne... "nergy plantation. conservation. 5. "nervate. $.F 184.e of all forms of ener. +..ro*in.d.

"ntity. +er 3ec. t)us attested.islative..al <erms -6ro3e.. "nquiry. a la*1reaker. "nrolled bill doctrine. 4%%14%%"'. citin.. 4%$ 3CR( 4$8 -1 1. [#uristEs Le. <)e doctrine under *)ic) a court may not look 1e)ind a -le. "nrollment. 3ec. Lealt) Ins. 1 5.ram. t)e sanction of t)e le. [Glossary of Le-. 4d 3eries. La* Revie*er. a +erson to sto+ +erformin. 4 5'.. officers. 5%4-54!'. Gn2ust enric)ment. <)at circumstance *)erein t)e su++lies or +ro+erty to 1e delivered e0ceed t)e normal re7uirement or is out of +ro+ortion to t)e usual volume of orders. and t)at it is delivered to )im in o1edience to t)e constitutional re7uirement t)at all 1ills *)ic) +ass Con. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( +erson or le. (. "ntrapment. Re. 4!. 6ro3e Land1ook. (. 3ec.alado #. "nriquecimiento torticero. 1. 15$ G. "%4 3out) Bestern Re+orter. t)us attested.324 [Claridades. [3uarez. its aut)entication as a 1ill t)at )as +assed Con. =. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. "normity of order.. La*. Com+are *it) 4rench rule. GR 11!!4!. $" L ed. 4%%4. of Ainance.ress s)ould 1e deemed com+lete and unim+eac)a1le.ress s)all 1e +resented to )im.anization. )as received in due form.al <erms.overnment. 1ill. or ca+turin. (nd *)en a 1ill. <)e +rocess to 1e determined 1y t)e 6)il. "n(oin. 4!.. 1 5. [3ec. 6ol. a s+ecific act. 4.t.nized or. Com+ilation of @otes. $&$. a s+ecified act or course of conduct.ally reco. 4%%5'. [Dissentin. (u. Clark. 3+. <)e em+loyment of suc) *ays and means for t)e +ur+ose of tra++in. [<olentino v. LGC'. #r.. <o order a +erson to +erform. of Ainance. "5 . R( 451'. 4%%5'.) t)eir +residin. 6u1. 4%%1-4%%"'.al Dict. and is de+osited in t)e +u1lic arc)ives. "nrolled bill. 4%%5'. +. 1%88'. Aield v. in order to enlist individuals as mem1ers or de+endents covered 1y t)e @ational Lealt) Insurance 6ro... 3ee 1n(unction. citin. enrolled and certified 1y t)e a++ro+riate officers.d. "n(oining. -6LIC. F+inion. in <olentino v. t)rou. (n ascertainment of t)e +ertinent facts and issues in a dis+ute. ( declaration 1y t)e t*o )ouses. [Claridades. [Glossary of Le. receives )is a++roval. Ramos.'.3. Cor+. GR 11!!4!. (u. 1. or to a1stain and desist from +erformin. to determine if t)ere are any defects. Com+ilation of @otes. (n order 1y t)e court tellin.islative 1ranc) of t)e . t)at a 1ill. to t)e +resident. [6eo+le v. Intl. 1st .

Customs La*. "nvironmental impact. "nucleation. Frder 11.ainst )im. [3ec. "ntruster. "ntrepreneurship training. <)e +erson )avin. [(rt.oods. $. of environmental conditions or t)e creation of a ne* set of environmental conditions. <)e alteration. [3ec.overnment a. 4%%5'.al <erms -6ro-3e.)t a.. <)e document *)ic) aims Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +ossession of . [Rodri. [Glossary of Le. "ntrepreneurship. [Glossary of Le. an enter+rise.in. and/or mana. "nvironment.anizin. and any successor in interest of suc) +erson. or takin. financin. "ntrustee. 4%%5'. [3ec. [3ec. "ntry..reement. adverse or 1eneficial. or instruments su12ect of a trust recei+t transaction. title over t)e . <)e removal of t)e eye 1all from t)e or1it after t)e o+tic nerve and eye muscles )ave 1een severed. "ntry of (udgment.oods t)rou. Com+are *it) 1nstigation.al <erms -6ro-3e. to 1e induced or caused 1y a +ro+osed +ro2ect. documents or instruments under a trust recei+t transaction. 1. Rule 1. <rainin.. <)e conditions. 9ook 4. <ariff and Customs Code. 6D 11!'.) t)e Customs )ouse. 1. 5. <)e +rocedure of +assin.al <erms -6ro-3e. IRR of LC'. ( statement of conclusion reac)ed 1y t)e court and +laced in t)e court record.. t)at t)e +ro2ect under consideration *ill not 1rin. $. individual or small industries.e *ill 1e 1rou. <)e su1mission and acce+tance of t)e documents. "nvironmental compliance certificate 2"&&3. "4.ency concerned certifyin. [Glossary of Le. R( 8 54'. 3e+. documents. C(. for self-em+loyment or assistin. <)e +erson )oldin. <)e documents filed at t)e Customs )ouse. influences. <)e document issued 1y t)e . 4%%5'. citin. and any successor in interest of suc) +erson for t)e +ur+ose or +ur+oses s+ecified in t)e trust recei+t a.325 <)e act of inducin. GR 11!41&.uez v. as *ell as t)e effect on +eo+le:s lives.oods. "nvironmental impact statement 2"1)3. a1out an unacce+ta1le environmental im+act and t)at t)e +ro+onent )as com+lied *it) t)e re7uirements of t)e environmental im+act statement system.!'. $. $. <)e trainin. to any de. 6D 11!4'. 55. LC'. 4. [3ec. or forces *)ic) affect t)e desira1ility and value of +ro+erty. sc)emes to develo+ +ersons for self-em+loyment or for or. [3ec. a +erson to commit a crime so t)at a criminal c)ar. DFL (dmin. 1 !. 14%1'. 3ec. 1&. 6D 11!'. .ree.

1rain dama.. 6D 1$%&'.ardin. [3ec. 3ee . re.ement system t)at includes or. "nvironmental management system.ree s)all in)erit in e7ual s)ares. +redict. +rocedures. <)e . "qual division rule. 4.a. [3ec 5. Diplomat or "nvoys e%traordinary.ation of t)e environmental im+acts of )uman activity. #une 18. $. c)an. "pilepsy. inter+ret. and re)a1ilitation of t)e )uman environment.e of alternatives for t)e o12ectives of t)e +ro+osal and t)eir im+act on t)e environment. s)ould t)ere 1e more t)an one of e7ual de. 3ee Ambassador.ulation and minimization of +ollution. <errestrial.ed in t)e +ractice of environmental +lannin. "nvironmentally critical areas. 1 5'. study and miti. R( 48!'. revie*in. e0ce+tions> -a.ree 1elon.ement. -1. conservation.istered *it) t)e 9oard of . "nvoy.ically fra.ile.et)er *it) 1rot)ers and sisters of t)e )alf 1lood. $. and duly re.ree. [3ec 5. "nvironmental management. res+onsi1ilities. activities.in.e or disorder..eneral rule t)at relatives in t)e same de. and environmental researc). 6D 1$%&'. s)ould t)ey 1e of different lines 1ut of e7ual de. <)e +art of t)e overall mana. im+lementin.nvironmental 6lannin. t)e former s)all 1e entitled to a s)are dou1le t)at of t)e latter. "nvironmental planning. R( 48!'. and maintainin. R( 8 54'. 1ut is not limited to. +lannin. (ctivities concerned *it) t)e mana. environmental education and information. su12ect to t)e follo*in. [3ec. *aste mana. one)alf s)all .. and -c. <)e entire system *)ic) includes.inisters plenipotentiary. GR 1%8 !%.. (ntonio. [3ec. +ractices. 4.es in environmental 7uality associated *it) a +ro+osed +ro2ect and *)ic) e0amines t)e ran.326 to identify. R( 8"11'. +rocesses and resources for develo+in. as *ell as t)e +reservation. "nvironmental planner. ( sym+tom of some underlyin. a7uatic and marine areas t)at need s+ecial +rotection and conservation measures as t)ey are ecolo.anizational structure. environmental la* and +olicy. ac)ievin. t)e environment +olicy. to t)e same line t)ey s)all divide t)e in)eritance +er ca+ita.o to t)e +aternal and t)e ot)er )alf to t)e maternal Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3ec. ( +erson en. 3)ould 1rot)er and sisters of t)e full 1lood survive to.ement and develo+ment of land. conservation. clean +roduction. and communicate information re. [6eo+le v.

GR 11& 1%. =orato. 1. In eac) line t)e division s)all 1e made +er ca+ita. "quipment. citin. [Claridades.. @ov.t.a. [6eo+le v. #uly 15. +er 3ec. of 3mall Lando*ners v. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. La*. $%'. of (. 415 3CR( 8%1.. "qual protection of the law. v. (ll articles needed to outfit an individual or or. in t)e evidence *)ic) s)all incline it to one side or t)e ot)er.. LGC'.t) of )is evidence and not on t)e *eakness of defendant:s claim. "quipment bonds.32 ascendants. 1 & '.er t)an t)at of t)e defendant. "quality in ta%ation.reater levy in +ro+ortion to value is im+osed on one +erson or s+ecies of +ro+erty t)an on ot)ers similarly situated or of like c)aracter. 1 1 . [Dillanueva v. Fct. Rem. 41.)ts conferred and t)e lia1ilities im+osed. "quipoise rule. 4%%14%%"'. <)e term refers to ty+e*riters. +. com+uters. citin. GR sL-4"!41. 9onds secured 1y a mort. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ve)icles.s similarly situated must 1e treated alike 1ot) as to t)e ri. (ll +ersons or t)in.)er rate or . $&$. [(ssoc. La*. so t)at no )i. [Diaz. 8%!-8%"'. 1 4. &8 and 1%%". addin. 3ec. t)e constitutional +resum+tion of innocence s)ould tilt t)e scales in favor of t)e accused. [3a+u-an v. 9enemerito. =. #uly 18. 1 "&. <)e .e on cor+orate mova1le +ro+erty. &5 C#3 88'. GR 14%$& . GR 8&854. t)e court *ill find for t)e defendant.. 1ut *)ic) may survive t)e +articular *ork and 1e furt)er used on *ork of like c)aracter. 6)il. [(rts. +rinters. CC'.ven if t)e evidence of t)e +laintiff may 1e stron. City of Iloilo.rarian Reform. Com+ilation of @otes. (. 4. -1 1-1 4 su++lement.uarantee in t)e 6)ili++ine Constitution t)at all +ersons 1e treated e7ually 1y t)e la*. Dec. Rem.. La* Rev. *ea+ons and ot)er similar items. 4. La*. 9us. t)ere is no +re+onderance of evidence on )is side if suc) evidence is insufficient in itself to esta1lis) )is cause of action. 1 . <)e rule t)at +rovides t)at *)ere t)e evidence of t)e +arties in a criminal case is evenly 1alanced. <)e rule *)ic) t)at states t)at *)en t)e scale s)all stand u+on an e7ui+oise and t)ere is not)in. C(.anization *)ic) do not lose t)eir identify *)en used or a++lied.d. [Qilos1ayan. Const. t)e +laintiff must rely on t)e stren. 4&. mac)ines. 1 !'. Cor+. 1 ". Com+are *it) )upply. La*. La* Dict. 4" '. "4. <)is is accom+lis)ed *)en t)e 1urden of t)e ta0 falls e7ually and im+artially on all t)e +ersons and +ro+erty su12ect to it. <)ose articles t)at are not necessarily so consumed. "quiponderance of evidence rule. Inc. Gnder t)e said +rinci+le. 1.e or +led. .

GR L-&%"% . "quitable title.d. 4%%% . <)at of one *)o )as t)e 1eneficial o*ners)i+. 1!"'.a. 4. (dmin. *it) ot)er +ersons.uis)ed from "quitable interest. 1. im+ossi1le or contrary to la*. "stoppel in pais. 4%%% . $% C#3 5%1'. 4". "quitable ownership. 1 &&'.. <)e amount received 1y . as distin.e. 1 & . La* Rev. 1$.32! "quitable assignment. +.d. (lmanzor. "quity. +.. to t)e system of e7uity. (+r.)t or title.d. La*. 158'. "quitable title.. 3ee 4%%% . @ov. 9us.F !1&'.. Civ. or ot)er re7uisites demanded 1y a statute nevert)eless reveals t)e intention of t)e +arties to c)ar. (rt.. (u. #ustice outside la*. 4$. [Diaz.al remedy accordin.e a real +ro+erty as security for a de1t. La* Rev. $.in. #ustice administered accordin. GR &$""5. and contains not)in. +.a.overnment in said cor+orations and *)ic) form +art of t)eir ca+italization. GR 5 &$ -5". . Courts *)ic) administer a le. Com+are *it) #rogressive ta%ation. @LRC.. ( mort. <)at of one *)o )as t)e 1eneficial o*ners)i+..enerally ca+ital investment of t)e national .. 1ut lacks t)e formalities of a mort... 1 1 .d. 1ut in e7uity alone. 4%%5'. 1ill or note made +aya1le to order and transferred *it)out indorsement. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . CC. It is . [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1 1 . 1 1'. 4.e in *)ic) alt)ou.)t or interest in +ro+erty *)ic) is im+erfect and unenforcea1le at la* 1ut *)ic) under *ell reco.overnment-o*ned or controlled cor+orations as +ayment of ca+ital su1scri+tions and .al ri. [Reyes v. [6LD< v. (n instrument.ation. +.nized e7uita1le +rinci+les s)ould and is converti1le into a le. 1ein. to t)e s+)ere of morals t)an of la*. <a0ation t)e 1urden of *)ic) falls on t)ose 1etter a1le to +ay.) lackin. "quity. 1!&'. t)e s+irit or )a1it of fairness in dealin.al <erms -6ro-3e. 1. (lso "quitable ta%ation. 9us. La*. form or *ords. citin.d.. 41$. Fne *)ere t)e intention of t)e +arties is sim+ly a security for t)e fulfillment of an o1li. C(. "quity$ courts of..nized 1y la*. to fairness. [Glossary of Le. 1"%4. it is a ri. [3antos v. 1!&'. "quitable estoppel. +. et)ical rat)er t)an 2ural and 1elon. in some formality.rounded on t)e +rece+ts of conscience and not on any sanction of +ositive la*.. (n interest not duly reco. (lso "quitable ownership. [3ec. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 51 C# $%$. [Diaz. citin. "quitable mortgage. [=orenoEs La* Dict.

(. Ra11it 9us Lines.*)ere s+ecific +erformance accordin. +. neurolo. GR L4 8%1. <)e ri. Dol. 4 ++. t)e amount fi0ed in t)e decision of t)e court *it)in ninety . [#uristEs Le. citin. La1or. ( situation *)ere t)e court is called u+on to decide a +articular situation and releases t)e +arties from t)eir correlative o1li.anization and none of t)e . 1".ardless of t)e nature of t)e industry and t)e location of t)e affiliates. (u. 45%. Rule "&.7uity #uris+.)t of t)e defendant mort.to ad2ust t)ose ri. 5.a. citin. 4. at t)e .ative conse7uences in t)e release of t)e +arties. Inc.ated -. <)e 2urisdiction *)ic) t)e Court may e0ercise -. <)e rule t)at all e0istin.a. Rem. H1alance t)e e7uitiesH or t)e res+ective interests of t)e +arties and take account of t)e relative )ards)i+ t)at one form of relief or anot)er may occasion to t)em.1.ment 1ein. it *ould 1e very im+ro+er for t)e court to take it u+ *)ere t)e la* leaves it and to e0tend it furt)er t)an t)e la* allo*s.. G3I3. 3ec. in determinin. (rcia.ment or even after t)e foreclosure sale 1ut +rior to its confirmation. 1 &&'. at t)e time of 2ud.al =ed. 1ut *)ere a +articular remedy is .ne v.32" courts of common la*.ives a remedy *)ere t)e la* . Com+are *it) *ight of redemption.d. citin. LC'.)ts liti.iven 1y t)e la*. [(rt. [(.e and retain o*ners)i+ of t)e +ro+erty 1y +ayin. La* Revie*er.ations 1ut if it *ould result in adverse conse7uences to t)e +arties and t)e +u1lic. 6omeroy:s . to one )undred t*enty -14%. "quity of redemption. v. =ar. t)e +recise relief to 1e . si. $%.)ts and. [(l1ano. 1st . 1 &8. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. +. from vascular im+airment. 4. GR L$%%!". 1&1 3CR( 8 $'.a.ic Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .rounds for cancellation s)all continue to maintain t)eir e0istin.itimate la1or or. and t)at remedy is 1ounded and circumscri1ed 1y +articular rules.uis) t)e mort.es. Le.o 1eyond its +o*ers to avoid t)e ne.nificantly different from t)ose e0istin.al Dict. 4%%5'. <)e +rinci+le t)at t)ere are instances in *)ic) a court of e7uity .%. "quity of (urisdiction$ e%ercise of. "quity follows the law.. RoC'.ives none. affiliates re. "quity of the incumbent. 1&&-1& '. days after entry of 2ud.eneration of t)e ri.or to e0tin.. "rectile dysfunction or impotence. Dir. [6)il. federations and national unions *)ic) meet t)e 7ualifications of a le. to t)e literal terms of a contract *ould result in ine7uity 1y reason of t)e circumstances o1tainin. of Lands. t)e court *ould . <)e ina1ility to initiate or maintain an erection of t)e +enis usually resultin. "quity (urisdiction.caoili v.iven.

Rem. "rror nominis nunquam nocet$ si de identitate rei constat. 1 8%'. Dec.sitco v. Flay1ar. La* Com+endium. "rgo$ res inter alios (udicatae nullum aliis prae(udicarium faciunt. +. Lat. 1 &'. #uly $1. s)all 1e dismissed. GR 14$5&!. "rror en la persona. C(. I. 5. Le. ..ical +ro1lems t)at interfere *it) se0ual arousal. $%.d. e. 1 ".rrors committed 1y a lo*er court *)ic) are correcti1le 1y a++eal. [Fn.d. Crim.alado. 1 && . [Fn.. Clauses in construction contracts *)ic) commonly +rovide for increases in t)e contract +rice under certain s+ecified circumstances.son v. [Ca+ulon. citin. 14"'. "rroneous appeal.)t not to in2ure. [@erves v. Lat.. as t)e cost of selected "rror in personae. [Flarte. =ay . GR 141!48. (n a++eal taken to eit)er t)e 3u+reme Court or t)e Court of (++eals 1y t)e *ron. 9lack:s La* Dict. void or voida1le. ( clerical error does not take a*ay e7uity. Lat. C(. a clerical error may 1e corrected. Dol. La*. 4 .al =ed. ( mistake in t)e name is never +re2udicial *)ere t)e identity or t)e +erson intended is certainly kno*n. 5. 1 8. 3ee v. [(rcelona v. GR L4"518. It is revie*a1le 1y a++eal...son v.ment -of t)e court. +. Re.rrors committed 1y a lo*er court *)ic) are revie*a1le 1y certiorari. =istake in t)e identity of t)e victim. 4 . [6eo+le v. 3C Circular 4. =atters ad2ud. a1normalities of t)e +enis or +syc)olo. =ar. Dec. Fct. 118&'. GR &!8 %. 1 %'. "rror placitandi aequitatem non tollit.. [Aernando v.33# disorders. C(. Das7uez. C(. citin. La* Com+endium. (n error t)at renders an order or 2ud..sitco v. citin. =ar. "rrors of (urisdiction. GR 141!48. [Aernando Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $%. "rror scribentis nocere non debit. 1 ".%'.alado. GR 14$!"1. 4. $1. Re. v. !4 6)il. (n error *)ic) t)e court may commit in t)e e0ercise of its 2urisdiction. or ina++ro+riate mode -*)ic) under t)e rules. Dol. 1st . -4%%5. 1 4&'. citin. Rem. (n error made 1y a clerk ou.d. C3C. 1 8%'. (u. GR L-4"518. . 1 && .d. "rrors of (udgment. "scalation clauses. [In. I. $ !. Aberratio ictus. It is revie*a1le on certiorari. Flay1ar.ed in a cause do not +re2udice t)ose *)o *ere not +arties to it. Das7uez. Lat. "rror of (urisdiction. Lat.'.s. "rror of (udgment. $ !. 3a1alones.'. 1 4&'. GR 1%4 %%. [In. Com+are *it) Aberratio ictus.. dru. !t) . #an. 1 8. !4 6)il. #an.

move u+ 1eyond s+ecified levels. "scrow. Crim. Com+ilation of @otes.oes to t)e state if no )eir can 1e found. 4%%5'.eneral community -as measured 1y. La*. t)e seller or contractor may raise t)e +rice u+ to a fi0ed +ercenta.io de 3an #ose.eneral +ro+erty of t)e 3tate. 1. ( -s+ecial. 1. [Claridades. v. Del Dalle. $-4'. Au.al <erms -6ro-3e.d.. <)e reversion of +ro+erty to t)e 3tate *)en t)e title t)ereto fails from defect of an )eir. [9aylen Cor+. "scalator clause.es. 4!. 1 1 . 1!4 3CR( $5"'.al <erms -6ro-3e. La*. #an. <)e felony committed 1y any +rivate +erson to *)om t)e conveyance or custody or a +risoner or +erson under arrest s)all )ave 1een confided. $.. +roceedin. Cor+. +. 1y a. Crim. [Glossary of Le. *)o s)all commit any of t)e offenses mentioned in (rt. <a. +arties. 6enal Code. 1 $&'. (. "skirol. GR 8"8&8. 4. C(. +. of a decedentEs estate into t)e . "spionage. 4.. 4%%1-4%%"'. 1 &8'. GR 5!5"%. 15. "scrow shares. La* Rev. Ae1.reement are met.331 commodities -cement. It is t)e fallin. is )eld 1y a neutral t)ird +arty -)eld in escro*. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o *it)out aut)ority t)erefor. fuel.oso. =oney or a *ritten instrument suc) as a deed t)at.. [=un. Cole. fort. B)en t)e +erformance of somet)in. steel 1ars. 1 58'.al )eirs.e of t)e 1ase. for instance. "scape of prisoner under the custody of a person not a public officer. or t)e cost of livin. "scritura de venta absoluta. GR L-11! . Dec. Council of 3an 6edro v. [Lino v. is outstandin. La*. until a certain condition is met 1et*een t)e t*o contractin. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. <)e +rocess 1y *)ic) a deceased +erson:s +ro+erty . 9us.reement 1et*een t*o +arties. *)ere1y t)e real and +ersonal +ro+erty of a deceased +erson 1ecomes t)e +ro+erty of t)e 3tate u+on )is deat) *it)out leavin. 3ca1. [9anco Aili+ino v. 4!%'.. or naval or military esta1lis)ment or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ularly 1y t)e Central 9ank. t)e Consumer 6rice Inde0 officially +u1lis)ed re. Fne in *)ic) t)e contract fi0es a 1ase +rice 1ut contains a +rovision t)at in t)e event of s+ecified cost increases. and a t)ird +arty )olds onto t)e money or a *ritten document -suc) as s)ares or a deed. 44!. [Diaz. enters a *ars)i+. $%. 3+. "scheat. [Glossary of Le. 4%%5'.. <)ose de+osited *it) a +erson to 1e delivered to anot)er u+on fulfillment of a condition. Deed of a1solute sale. any *ill or le. 44$ and 445 of t)e Rev. until all conditions of t)e a. in t)e . [(rt. R6C'.

(u. estate or ot)er institution or to +lace u+on a secure foundation. or information. "stablish. Commonly used to descri1e a rise in t)e 1lood +ressure of an individual *)en no s+ecific factor is attri1uted to its develo+ment.e and ot)er offenses a.n nation. .. ( list of dru.) any of t)e follo*in. <)at t)e accused defrauded anot)er -a. [3ec $.. 1y resortin.am1lin. Bit) unfait)fulness or a1use of confidence. if t)e fraud 1e committed 1y any of t)e follo*in. [(rt. GR &$!"&. or destroyin. Ae1. 451 3CR( 41".ra+)s. 1 1'.e or +re2udice ca+a1le of +ecuniary estimation is caused to t)e offended +arty or t)ird +arty. document or any ot)er +a+ers. +)oto. -c. to create and re. "stablished value. Gov. "spionage 6aw. "ssential hypertension. 1 !'. 1&. +lace on a +ermanent footin. 1y inducin. "ssential drugs list. . or 1ein. . in t)e 6)ili++ines as *ell as on an internationally acce+ted criteria. means> -a.ainst t)e national securityJ enacted on #une 5. 1 84'. 1y a1use of confidence.ulate. [6alad v. 1y means of deceit. of Muezon. t)at dama. 1y means of deceit. 9autista.n any document. -ii. 1nformation value. "stafa notes.332 reservation to o1tain any information. to si. $1!.inate and secure t)e +ermanent e0istence of. Crim. [6eo+le v. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all defraud anot)er. 3ee "stafa. -iii. or -1.ame. R6C'. in *)ole or in +art. to found. 1y removin.o. to institute. R6C'.. or ot)er data of a confidential nature relative to t)e defense of t)e 6)ili++ine arc)i+ela. as of a colony. R( 1"!'. 1 51. to some fraudulent +ractice to insure success in a . "stafa. GR L-45$%4. C( "1" entitled I(n (ct to +unis) es+iona. (lso )windling. anot)er. t)rou. #uly 1&.CC. -1. discloses t)eir contents to a re+resentative of a forei.. in +ossession. It s)all consist of a core list and a com+lementary list. and -1. data.s +re+ared and +eriodically u+dated 1y t)e De+artment of Lealt) on t)e 1asis of )ealt) conditions o1tainin. fraudulent means> -i.lements> -a. of suc) articles. 1y means of false +retenses or fraudulent acts e0ecuted +rior to or simultaneously *it) t)e commission of t)e fraud. office files. 444. 1y reason of t)e +u1lic office )e )olds. <o ori. ( muc) a1used and trite device resorted to 1y money Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . La*. (lso National drug formulary. +lans. . concealin. 118. [@aval v. [(rt. any court record. <o settle or fi0 firmly.

"stimated ta%. <)e totality of interest *)ic) a +erson )as from a1solute o*ners)i+ do*n to naked +ossession. "state. suc) as o1tainin. 4. -1. and ot)er +re+arations. life insurance to +ay for t)e costs of a funeral. a ta0 on t)e +rivile. or under any o1li. <)e amount *)ic) t)e individual declared as Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al Dictionary -4%%!. [(rt. GR 11&$!8.. -1.. [6@9 v. C(. activities. R6C'. [Aontanilla v. citin.. 1. =ore com+re)ensive +lannin. <)at money. "state ta%. and -d. 1"1'. [Glossary of Le. for t)e inevita1ility of deat). 6enal Code. suc) as +re+arin. or in commission or for administration. "!&'. t)e duty to make delivery of.333 lenders to cover t)eir usurious lendin. t)e same. 6eo+le. +. 3ee also "stafa with abuse of confidence. or denial on )is +art of suc) recei+t. of t)e succession. Reyes. t)e same.)ts and o1li. <)e +ro+erty and transmissi1le ri. t)at t)ere 1e misa++ro+riation or conversion of suc) money or +ro+erty 1y t)e offender or denial on )is +art of suc) recei+t. 4%%% .oods or ot)er +ersonal +ro+erty is received 1y t)e offender in trust. 4%%5'. GR 14% 5 . . documents may also 1e needed. "state planning. or for administration. or to return.lements> -a. +ro+erty to ot)ers after a +erson:s deat). $1!. 1 ". t)at t)ere 1e misa++ro+riation or conversion of suc) money or +ro+erty 1y t)e offender. 4%%% . -c.d. +. t)e duty to make delivery of. t)e area of la* t)at deals *it) +lannin. . or under any ot)er o1li. -d.lements> -a. or to return. 1 8'. a more com+le0 Bill. 9ook II. 1$t) . -c.d.ation involvin. #uly !. t)at t)ere is a demand made 1y offended +arty on t)e offender.oods. =ay ". <)e Rev. +re+arin. and related estate +lannin.ation involvin. t)at suc) misa++ro+riation or conversion or denial is to t)e +re2udice of anot)er.. "stafa with abuse of confidence. t)at suc) misa++ro+riation or conversion or denial is to t)e +re2udice of anot)er.. t)at t)ere is a demand made 1y t)e offended +arty on t)e offender..e of transferrin. It de+ends on t)e size of t)e estate and )o* com+re)ensive t)e needs are. a sim+le Bill. <rust.d. or on commission.ations of a +erson e0istin. <)at money. [=orenoEs La* Dict. or ot)er +ersonal +ro+erty 1e received 1y t)e offender in trust. 3ee also "stafa through misappropriation. "stafa through misappropriation.'.. [La*Info Le. Generally. 1"1'. +. at t)e time of )is deat) and t)ose *)ic) )ave accrued t)ereto since t)e o+enin. . .al <erms -6ro3e. [=orenoEs La* Dict.

@IRC. <)e 7uestion *)et)er t)e court )ad 2urisdiction eit)er of t)e su12ect matter of t)e action or of t)e +arties *as not im+ortant in suc) cases 1ecause t)e +arty is 1arred from suc) Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . after o1tainin. it. -c. or failin. at +. ( +arty cannot invoke t)e 2urisdiction of a court to secure affirmative relief a.e of t)e facts. #an. " 6)il. and -d. "stoppel against tenant. 1 &4.'. Re7uisites> -a. 1 4&'. "stoppel. intentionally or t)rou. [3ec. ( doctrine in (merican 2uris+rudence *)ere1y a +arty creatin. an a++earance of fact *)ic) is not true is )eld 1ound 1y t)at a++earance as a. 85. [(rt.. [3tron. 1.)tfully relies and acts on suc) 1elief.. it must )ave 1een made *it) t)e intention t)at t)e ot)er +arty *ould act u+on it. "stoppel by laches. v. re-+resentations. <)is is a conclusive +resum+tion. or admissions. GR L$$8 5. t)e current ta0a1le year. 9aun. "&!'.) cul+a1le ne. ta0a1le year minus t)e sum of t)e credits allo*ed under t)is <itle a. t)e ta0+ayer reasona1ly e0+ects to +ay a 1i. [=aneclan. -1.ainst t)e said ta0. v. )e s)all file an amended declaration durin. durin. RoC'. Com+are *it) "stoppel in pais. any interval of installment +ayment dates. (n admission or re+resentation *)ic) is rendered conclusive u+on t)e +erson makin. 5" (m #ur 4d. Luyatid. and cannot 1e denied or dis+roved as a. 4%& 3CR( 18 . t)e liti.334 income ta0 in )is final ad2usted and annual income ta0 return for t)e +recedin. !"$-!""'. t)e re+resentation must )ave 1een *it) kno*led. 15$1. Rule 1$1.ence induces anot)er to 1elieve certain facts to e0ist and suc) ot)er ri. If.ainst )is o++onent and.)t to s+eak out. re+udiate or 7uestion t)at same 2urisdiction.li. [=eralco v. =ay $1. 584"!-R. 1 4. or 1y )is silence *)en )e ou. citin. 1 4 -(+r.norant of t)e trut) of t)e matter. so t)at )e *ill 1e +re2udiced if t)e former is +ermitted to deny t)e e0istence of suc) facts [Luyatid v. ( tenant is not +ermitted to deny t)e title of )is landlord at t)e time of t)e commencement of t)e relation of landlord and tenant 1et*een t)em. t)ereon. <)e rule +recludin. ++. to o1tain suc) relief.ainst t)e +erson relyin.ation of +articular issues in a su1se7uent action on a different cause of action.ainst anot)er +erson *)o )as acted on t)e fait) of it. 1y )is acts. "stoppel by (udgment. t)e +arty to *)om it *as made must )ave 1een i. CC'. 44. as amended'. Gutierrez Re+ide. 3ometimes called "stoppel by record. "stoppel by conduct. 4. 4 -1. <)ere must )ave 1een a re+resentation or concealment of materiel facts. [3ec. "stoppel by deed. It arises *)en one. C(.er income ta0. 5.

#uly 8. fair dealin.o 3y2uco. citin. of t)e actual facts. [=eralco v. or 1y )is silence *)en )e ou. 1!. <)e effect of t)e former +roceedin.'. L-$%&$1.e. 1 4. Castro. actual or constructive. "stoppel in pais or by conduct.)t result. [6@9 v. 1 4 -(+r. 1 "&'. !"$!""'. Conduct amountin. 1 &4. t)ose *)ic) t)e +arty su1se7uently attem+ts to assert. v. 5" (m #ur 4d. to +reclude furt)er liti. kno*led. #une 4 . "stoppel by (udgment. Inc. re+resentations. so and t)ere1y leads t)e ot)er to 1elieve in t)e e0istence of a state of facts in reliance on *)ic) )e acts to )is +re2udice.li. 1 8 . refrains from doin. 1y )is acts. 44. 3ee "stoppel by verdict. 9aun. "stoppel by record.ned to aid t)e la* in t)e administration of 2ustice *)ere *it)out its aid in2ustice mi.ood fait) and 2ustice.ent.ence. 41. "stoppel by silence. GR 8%5%$. and inconsistent *it). ++. -1. 1ut for t)e reason t)at suc) a +ractice cannot 1e tolerated R o1viously for reasons of +u1lic +olicy. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 3aid doctrine s+rin. GR &1 $ . Ca.s from e7uita1le +rinci+les and t)e e7uities of t)e case. [=aneclan. *)o 1y force of circumstances is under a duty to anot)er to s+eak. necessarily made findin. =ay $1.335 conduct not 1ecause t)e 2ud. . [6anay . or t)rou. It arises *)en one. or commitments to t)e in2ury of one to *)om t)ey *ere directed and *)o reasona1ly relied t)ereon. C(.ainst )is o*n act. C(. v.sto++el -t)at. . GR L-$$8 5. at +. "stoppel by pais. GR L-415!%. t)at t)is conduct s)all 1e acted u+on. 3ilence may su++ort an esto++el *)et)er t)e failure to s+eak is intentional or ne. [<i2am v.s in t)e former action.ation of t)e +articular facts on *)ic) t)e -court.rounds of +u1lic +olicy. 5 3CR( $"&'. so t)at )e *ill 1e +re2udiced if t)e former is +ermitted to deny t)e e0istence of suc) facts. Com+are *it) "stoppel by (udgment. It is 1ased u+on t)e . 3i1on. intent. Re7uisites> -a. [3antia.)t to s+eak out.lectric v. or at least influenced 1y t)e ot)er +arty.)anoy. @ov. "stoppel doctrine. 1 & '. to false re+resentation or concealment of material facts or at least calculated to convey t)e im+ression t)at t)e facts are ot)er*ise t)an.)tfully relies and acts on suc) 1elief.li. induces anot)er to 1elieve certain facts to e0ist and suc) ot)er ri. (+r. (lso "quitable estoppel. 1 & '. and -c. arises *)ere a +erson.ment or order of t)e court is valid and conclusive as an ad2udication. and its +ur+ose is to for1id one to s+eak a. intentionally. re+resentations or admissions. or at least e0+ectation. 4%& 3CR( 18 ..) cul+a1le ne. It is desi.

to deat). or 1y usin. *it) "stoppel by to +rofessional standards. Intl. t)e term of )is im+risonment 1y reason of final 2ud. 1 8&'. deceit. Crim. *)atever . conformin. [#uristEs Le. 4". GR L-$$$5!. of a terminally-ill or severely de1ilitated +erson t)rou. (n a11reviation of t)e Latin et alii. 3uc) evasion or esca+e may also take +lace 1y means of unla*ful entry. Ff or relatin. Hand ot)ers. <)e felony committed 1y any convict *)o s)all evade service of )is sentence 1y esca+in. @ov. all names of +ersons involved in a +roceedin.al <erms -6ro3e.H ordinarily used in lieu of listin. =arave. [9a. 4. 4%%5'. GR L4!88!. [3andoval.ra+)ical areas *)ere +articular .. CC'. 4%.ates.nition to . <)e doctrine t)at es+ouses a +olicy of never issuin. roofs. "t seq. or commission of an act -(ctive eut)anasia.al Dict.336 Com+are deed. 4%%5'.. "t al.ment. *indo*s.overnment is in effective control *it)out raisin. a life-savin.n =inister Genaro . *alls. and -d. [Cruz. 6ol.. ( doctrine attri1uted to Aorei..ivin. 6aulino.. or floors. Certain . La*. +.) connivance *it) ot)er "stoppel in pais or by conduct. "strada doctrine. "thnolinguistic regions. (+r. [9ucoy v. 4%%5'. .overnments and of acce+tin. 4. to a section of statutes.al Dict. R( 81%5'.) t)e omission -intentionally *it))oldin. "uthanasia. t)e re+resentation must )ave 1een made *it) kno*led. .strada of =e0ico.lements> -a. to moral action and conduct. durin.nition. (n a11reviation for t)e Latin et se7uentes. -1. Com+are *it) Bilson doctrine.rou+s of +eo+le s+eak a common lan. Hand t)e follo*in. [Glossary of Le. t)e +arty to *)om it *as made must )ave 1een i. Intl. or t)rou. -c.ua. 15$8. 1. (rt.H ordinarily used in referrin. 1y 1reakin. meanin. 1 " . it must )ave 1een made *it) t)e intention t)at t)e ot)er +arty *ould act u+on it. [#uristEs Le.. t)e issue of reco. "vasion of service of sentence. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .d. meanin.al Dict. "thics. La* Revie*er. false keys. =ercy killin. also kno*n as 6assive eut)anasia. 4%%5'. $.)t.eo.. +icklocks. <)e +uttin. La*. <)ere must )ave 1een a re+resentation or concealment of material facts.. 55'. [3ec. medical +rocedure. 1 "&.e of t)e facts. any declaration . La* Revie*er 4%%$'. (lso "quitable estoppel. +rofessionally ri.norant of t)e trut) of t)e matter. reco.a2o v.. [Du)aime:s Le. 1. 1y +ainless met)od.e. violence or intimidation. doors.

. a matter of fact. Crim.ration. 1y leavin. *it)out e0ce+tion. in a 2udicial +roceedin. [(rt. t)e trut) res+ectin. from a confla.. a mutiny in *)ic) )e )as not +artici+ated. )e evades service of sentence 1y esca+in. 9esides oral testimony. 1etter kno*n in civilian 2urisdictions. sanctioned 1y t)e Rules of Court. [<orres.. Rule 14&. =asakayan. [@ational Lousin. It means all +ossi1le and all. In certain cases. on t)e occasion of disorder resultin. e0+losion. 1. t)e vendee is de+rived of t)e *)ole or of a +art of t)e t)in.. an o12ect can 1e de+osited *it) t)e court -e. (rt. CC'. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. GR L-481 1. <)e act *)ic) de+rives a +erson of t)e use and en2oyment of +ro+erty. of ascertainin. [3ec. evidence can 1e circumstantial. Crim. 1!8.33 convicts or em+loyees of t)e +enal institution. 4%%5'. 1$$. 1. 4%%5'. <)e offender is a convict 1y final 2ud. +resented at a trial.a v. La*. 1$5 3CR( 18$'.d.d. )e His servin. in order to avoid t)e a++lication of t)e +ro+er la*.ned contract.ment. +. "vasion of the law.ment 1ased on a ri. F1li.rou+. "vasion of service of sentence on the occasion of disorder$ conflagrations$ earthquakes$ or other calamities. v. La*. or similar catastro+)e. or durin. R6C'. $!%'. 4%%% .. 4. 6roof of fact-s.d. "viction. "very. taken one 1y one. eart)7uake... citin. Cor+.ac) one of a . "vidence. C Cont.. [Diaz. 1 "8. . RoC'. La* Rev.. <)e 1est and most common met)od is 1y oral testimony *)ere an eye-*itness s*ears to tell t)e trut) and to t)en relate to t)e court )is e0+erience. [<ane. 1 1 . a *ritten instrument may 1e e0+lained 1y evidence aliunde. 1!5&. t)e term of )is sentence. *)ic) consists of t)e intentional and im+ro+er mani+ulation of contacts -connecting factors. <)e means. ( +rinci+le of t)e conflict of la*s. II. Dol. 9us. 1!&.)t +rior to t)e sale or an act im+uta1le to t)e vendor. In ot)er cases. [<etley. R6C'. -1. Reyes. and -c. <)is is sometimes called real evidence. +. durin. . 11!'. "vidence aliunde.. 6enal Code. from anot)er source. 4. citin. t)e +enal institution *)ere )e s)all )ave 1een confined. 1y Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .vidence from outside. <)e felony committed 1y a convict *)o s)all evade t)e service of )is sentence. [Du)aime:s Le. . <)e 2udicial +rocess *)ic) takes +lace *)enever 1y a final 2ud. 1 !" . )is sentence *)ic) consists in de+rivation of li1ertyH. +urc)ased. #uco.. "vasion of service of sentence. Ae1. 4&. a si. +.lements> -a. 1. [(rt. t)at is. Rev.al Dict..

3ilvestre. admissions. +.. 4%%% . Com+are *it) 'ltimate facts. 1 !'. "vident premeditation. <)e time *)en t)e accused decided to commit t)e crime. -a. Aor e0am+le. 1 1.'. "% aequo et bono.. from outside t)e *ill. t)e testimony of a *itness to conversations.d. =a. an overt act s)o*in. . "videntiary facts. 4%%% .. Ft)er international tri1unals -includin. 1"4'.tolis. Lat.H 3omet)in.. )ave )eld t)at t)ey )ave in)erent e7uita1le +o*ers Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4. !t) . [3alita v. 455 3CR( 58 . 3tated in o++osition to a court order..al system no matter )o* HunfairH it may +rove to 1e. -1.d.33! evidence dra*n from sources e0terior to t)e instrument itself. #une 1$.e. to *)at is 2ust and . +. [=orenoEs La* Dict. may 1e received to e0+lain an am1i. GR 1%"54 ..d. 1. citin. a contract *ill 1e normally u+)eld and enforced 1y t)e le.. <)e International Court of #ustice *ill only make suc) a decision if instructed to do so 1y t)e +arties. [<antuico v. Lat. citin. 4. 1. to allo* t)e accused to reflect u+on t)e conse7uences of t)e act. HIn 2ustice and fairness.lements> -a. 4%%% .otiations. t)ey are t)e +remises u+on *)ic) conclusions of ultimate facts are 1ased. -1. Clear to t)e vision and understandin.. t)at is to 1e decided 1y +rinci+les of *)at is fair and 2ust. to 1e decided e0 ae7uo et 1ono is somet)in.anization (dministrative <ri1unal. 4.. it is an e0+ression t)at +etitioner takes suc) order *it) a1undant a1undant caution. !%%'. Dec.d.iven t)e circumstances. rules of international la*. [9lackEs La* Dict. [6eo+le v. [=orenoEs La* Dict. or +reliminary ne. 9ut a case to 1e decided e0 ae7uo et 1ono. .d. 1"$'.'. "vidence in chief. +. [=orenoEs La* Dict. e. overrides t)e strict rule of la* and re7uires instead a decision 1ased on *)at is fair and 2ust . =a0im t)at a tri1unal s)ould decide a dis+ute u+on rules of e7uity rat)er u+on t)an u+on t)e e0istin..ood.d. to t)eir determination to commit t)e crime. 1"4'.vidence aliunde -i. "% abundanti cautela.uity in a *ill. =ay 4 . <)ose facts *)ic) are necessary for determination of t)e ultimate facts. (1r. (ccordin.. Aacts necessary to +rove essential or ultimate facts.. and -c. 9lack:s La* Dict. +.. t)e International La1or Fr. =ost le... 9lack:s La* Dict. t)at t)e accused )ad clun. t)e la+se of a sufficient +eriod of time 1et*een t)e decision and t)e e0ecution of t)e crime. !t) . "vident. 1 5.. -1 &$. $&'. Re+.al cases are decided on t)e strict rule of la*. 5t) . GR & 115.al Dictionary -4%%!. Direct evidence.. 5 5-5 !. Bit) a1undant caution. [La*Info Le. +.

Dec. Bitnesses are introduced to a trial 1y t)eir e0amination-in-c)ief. +)rase indicatin. 1"5'. "%cellence. 1 &4 .in. 4%%5'. +. +. su++lementary to e0ecution and is entirely statutory.d. (fter t)eir e0amination-in-c)ief. 3andi. (dmin. Rule $ of t)e Rules of Court.al =ed. citin. and 7uality Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. 1 . of un*arranted *ell-1ein.ional offices or 1y ot)er de+artments or a. t)e e0amination of a 2ud. [3ec. and t)e like. In ot)er *ords. t)is is called crosse0amination.encies +ursuant to 6D &%8. and )a++iness. La*. t)at t)ere *as no de+osit or arran. sufficiency. La* Dict. [Flarte. 4%%% . 1!%'.d. effective and innovative delivery of relevant. "%amination of books.s. revie* +rocedures. [Du)aime:s Le.d. <)ey are su++lementary +roceedin.. fi. and 7uestion +ersons. 1 & . 1"5-1"!'.. "%amination-in-chief. La*. "%amination. of one la*yerEs o*n *itness under oat).. +ro+riety. $&. +.ement *it) t)e 1ank for t)e +ayment of t)e dis)onored c)eck.33" to decide dis+utes. [Intl.. t)e disclosure of any +ro+erty )e may )ave *)ic) is not e0em+t from e0ecution. 1. 6D &%8'. ++. *)et)er or not a +articular item may 1e allo*ed.d. 1st . <)e mat)ematical +rocess of verifyin...ate to de+artments and a. functional. <)e efficient. 3tate (udit Code of t)e 6)ils. auditin. GR &1!"$. and t)ose t)at it may dele. at an o+inion of accuracy.d. in +art a summary met)od of +ur. ( civil service e0amination conducted 1y t)e Civil 3ervice Commission and its re.H [(rias v. t)e +arty *)ic) called t)em to t)e stand.ment de1tor *)en t)e e0ecution is returned unsatisfied -*)ic).ures and com+utations *it)out in any *ay determinin. or t)ose t)at may )ave 1een dele. "%amination of debtor. *)ic) is *)en t)ey ans*er 7uestions asked 1y t)e la*yer re+resentin. more com+re)ensive t)an e0amination.. t)e ot)er +arty:s la*yer can 7uestion t)em too.an1ayan. 4%%% . t)e de1torEs conscience and com+ellin. Gnder 3ec. [=orenoEs La* Dict.. ( 1ankin. Rem. ( feelin. 4 (s a++lied to auditin.. all for t)e +ur+ose of arrivin.ated 1y la*. La*. e0amination is 1ut a +)ase of auditin. or in coordination or 2ointly *it) it. 4%%5'. +. [=orenoEs La* Dict. $. [=orenoEs La* Dict. (nnotated 1y <antuico.al Dict.al =ed. "%ceeds arrangements. is a +roceedin. 1ein.. Rem. or ins+ect securities or ot)er documents. C Direct... Le. -4%%5. "%altation. 1"5'. Le.. <)e 7uestionin. 4%%% . it means Hto +ro1e records. !8'.encies *it) t)e assistance of t)e Commission.

C(.34# +ro. Ae1. GR & !". R( 4"4 '. +.et)er 1uyers and sellers and e0ecutes trade of securities and/or commodities. re-searc) and community service. Inc.anized for t)e +ur+ose of furnis)in. [3ec. to its mem1ers a convenient and suita1le +lace to transact t)eir 1usiness of +romotin. . 4. association. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+. Ledesma C Co. GR %$"5.rou+ of +ersons *)ic) constitutes. of facilitatin..et)er +urc)asers and sellers of securities or for ot)er*ise +erformin. 1 "'. valua1le commercial and economic information and . $%. CF( Circ. <)ese include e0+enses *)ic) e0ceed *)at is usual or +ro+er as *ell as e0+enses *)ic) are unreasona1ly )i. =. Dec. Locsin. FE9rien. "%ceptio firmat regulim in casibus non e%ceptis. LGC'. "%cess property. 1 15'.e.). $.er needed 1y a de+artment or an office. &.anization. 1 &&'. [(rriola v. =ay 45. Lat.'.s to. uniformity in t)e customs and usa. citin. ( fine t)at e0ceeds t)e utmost limit of +unis)ment *)ic) t)e vindication of t)e la* demands.t. La*. of inculcatin. 1&4 -1 1&. $. $& 6)il. CF(. ( voluntary association or cor+oration or.0+ressed e0ce+tion or e0em+tion e0cludes ot)ers. "%cessive e%penditures. 9en v. t)e s+eedy ad2ustment of 1usiness dis+utes. Leun. Gnreasona1le e0+ense or e0+enses incur-red at an immoderate 7uantity and e0or1itant +rice.in.es of merc)ants. v. 1.rams in teac)er education. 5. <)ey also include e0+enses in e0cess of reasona1le limits. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $. "%change. <)e court )as 2urisdiction 1ut fails to com+ly *it) t)e conditions +rescri1ed for its e0ercise. [<i1ay v. of ac7uirin. 3e+. [3ec. to its mem1ers t)e 1enefits of coo+eration in t)e furt)erance of t)eir le. (ny or. GR 11 "!!. R( &8 '. maintains. or . +rinci+les of 2ustice and e7uity in trade. *it) res+ect to securities t)e functions commonly +erformed 1y a stock e0c)an.. (n or. ( +ro+erty no lon.enerally of securin. citin.e as t)at term is . [3ec.enerally understood. Rem. 1 1. +er 3ec. and includes t)e market +lace and t)e market facilities maintained 1y suc) e0c)an. &!-!!-('. 4-&". C(. "%cessive fine.es. or +rovides a market +lace or facilities for 1rin. trainin. to. and disseminatin. 4. Dalera. [G3 v. $&$. R( 88&5'. "%cess of (urisdiction. and 1eyond 2ust measure or amount.itimate +ursuits. [Lo+ez. GR L-514 1.anized market +lace or facility t)at 1rin..

3ee :arter contract.al for any1ody to +ossess or kee+ in t)e 6)ili++ines any form of money or currency ot)er t)an 6)ili++ine currency and for Aili+ino citizens to +ossess or kee+ outside t)e 6)ili++ines any form of forei..n affairs actin. (n informal met)od 1y *)ic) 3tates su1scri1e to a certain understandin. 4%%% . La*. 3ec. La*. [=orenoEs La* Dict. formal notes are e0c)an.e im+osed u+on t)e +erformance of an act. Dec. 4&. in 1e)alf of t)eir .in.n currency. !1 (m.overnments.o.ally seized and Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . +. at *)ic) one can sell or 1uy *it) one:s o*n domestic currency a forei. [Gonzalo L. Intl. Intl. "%change rate$ legal. in an occu+ation.a. 4 5'. (ny1ody in t)e 6)ili++ines desirin.ations as 1indin. -1 &. on <a0ation. Gsually. $rd ..nize certain o1li.d. GR 1%148$.ko 3entral. =anuel C Co. [Co7uia and 3antia. t)ey do not re7uire t)e concurrence of le. +. or to any of its duly aut)orized a. GR L4"!41. citin. matters of lesser im+ortance t)an t)ose dealt *it) 1y treaties. #ur. 1. of Aorei. 1 "&. levied u+on articles of manufacture or sale.reement entered into 1et*een t)e e0ecutive de+artment of .ed 1y ministers of forei. (+r. t)e en2oyment of a +rivile. #uly $. +. La*. La*. (n inland im+ost.ainst unreasona1le searc)es and seizures 1y outla*in. Intl. Gsually. $%. t)e constitutional in2unction a. or reco. Const. statin. $'. @ormally. 1"!'.d. and also u+on licenses to +ursue certain trades or to deal in certain commodities. 1 4. "%change of notes. in )is a++lication t)e reason 2ustifyin.0ec. v.islative 1odies to make t)em effective. "%change of agreement. La*. <)e rule enforcin.overnments concernin.. 1usiness in t)e 6)ili++ines P for a license to +urc)ase forei.n <rade. [Co7uia and 3antia.e. citin. 5 $'.d. all evidence ille. "%cise duty. )is re7uest. GR L-418& . Lenius. Intl. ( rule t)at made it ille.341 "%change contract.. "%change rate or rate of e%change. (n international a. Dict. -1 &. $rd . or t)e en. 5 4'.o. "1'. +.ents P licensed commercial 1anks doin. citin.n currency unit. <)e +rice. 3ee 6egal e%change rate. "%clusionary rule. +. City of Iloilo. or t)e indication of t)e +rice.n currency. [Garcia v. Central 9ank.. 1 81. to use forei. ( c)ar. "%cise ta%. "%change control.n currency )ad to a++ly to t)e Central 9ank -no* 9an. t)e rate is determined 1y t)e la* of su++ly and demand for a +articular currency. [Dillanueva v. Cooley. . u+on t)em.

R( 8 54'. [<olentino v. 1. 4. (+art from all ot)ers. suc) as t)e +roduction of ener. <o t)e e0clusion of all ot)ers. "%clusive economic one 2""K3. 4%%14%%"'.342 t)ere1y removin. "%clusive bargaining representative. [Glossary of Le. ++. Com+ilation of @otes. ( maritime zone sea*ard of t)e territorial sea *it) an outer 1oundary t)at may 1e u+ to 4%% miles out from t)e territorial sea:s 1aselines. "%clusive. 1 8. +ollution control. 6arel. t)e incentive on t)e +art of t)e military and +olice officers to disre. $. resources. $. -e. (n area 1eyond and ad2acent to t)e territorial sea *)ic) s)all not e0tend 1eyond 4%% nautical miles from t)e 1aselines as defined under e0istin. only. *it)out admission of ot)ers to +artici+ation. to t)e su12ect alone. [Fn. livin. includin..nizance of t)e settlement of t)e estate of t)e decedent s)all e0ercise 2urisdiction to t)e e0clusion of all ot)er courts. includin. installations. amendin. and dissentin. of Ainance. su1stantially all or for t)e . su1soil. (ny le. -c. it is )is. In an e0clusive manner. 4... 6ossessed to t)e e0clusion of ot)ers. fis). unit. 3ec. &. 4!. La*. [3ec. -d.reater +art. 9lack:s La* Dict. GR 8"81%. and structures. Bit)in t)is. undivided. a++ertainin. 4!.y from t)e *ater. (. as. currents. to anot)er or ot)ers. 4%%5'. Fct. to t)e e0clusion of all ot)ers. in @olasco v. -a.. only. 1. (u. 6aKo. 41.anization duly reco. v. 9ook D. (u. citin. #. It +recludes t)e idea of coe0istence and refers to 2urisdiction +ossessed to t)e e0clusion of ot)ers. and -f.)ts. s. concurrin. not includin. <)e *ater. 1 &!'. LC'. Rem.ainin. [3ec. 3ec. marine scientific researc). m.ally o1tained evidence to 1e used in any trial. [3ec. of Ainance.o u+ to t*o )undred nautical miles -4%% n. in a manner of e0clude. solely. 5. sole. <)e rule +reventin..nized or certified as t)e sole and e0clusive 1ar. resources.ard suc) 1asic ri. [<olentino v. 4%%5'.ent of all t)e em+loyees in a 1ar. $. [<ee)ankee. "%clusive (urisdiction.ainin. "%clusively. sea 1ottom and su1surface measured from t)e 1aseline of t)e 6)ili++ine arc)i+ela.ulate.. and +lants. ot)er economic resources. [Intl. GR L-" &%$. o+inion. or +ertainin. la*s. t)e sea1ed. crustaceans. GR 11!5!!. 4.al <erms -6ro-3e. La1or. a coastal state may re. R( &!!%'. co. ille. GR 11!5!!. a. [Claridades. and su+er2acent *aters. 1 5'. 1 &8. DF % .. 3+ec.. 6ro. -1. and *inds. 1. <)e rule t)at t)e court first takin. 1 5'.. "8$ and 14!1'. C Direct. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . nonlivin. artificial islands. admittin. La* Dict. Dec.itimate la1or or. offs)ore.

<)e follo*in. [Be1ster:s @e* Intl. 1reac) of duty. Com+are *it) "% contractu. t)at *)ic) is ac7uired 1y ri. 1st ..)t of redem+tion. t)at *)ic) is +urc)ased *it) e0clusive money of t)e *ife or of t)e )us1and. or *illful disre. +rovided t)at t)ere *ill 1e no commercial dis+osition t)ereof. 9lackEs La* Dict. [#uristEs Le. 1 &". 1y 1arter or 1y e0c)an. "% contractu. <)at *)ic) is 1rou. in case of insolvency of t)e de1tor. 6ossession *)en t)e adverse +ossessor can s)o* e0clusive dominion over t)e land and an a++ro+riation of it to )is o*n use and 1enefit.er or re+resentative. t)at *)ic) eac) ac7uires durin. [(rt. if )e )as e0+ressly renounced it.al Dict.ravel or ot)er loose or unconsolidated materials from +u1lic lands for )is o*n use. "%cussion.. 6revious e0)austion of t)e +ro+erty of t)e de1tor. (risin. *)en )e )as a1sconded. I(C. "% delicto. "%culpate. (risin. +. 4%%5'. Aailure to take t)e +ro+er ste+s at t)e +ro+er time. citin. +. "%cussion$ e%ceptions to benefits of.e as )is or )er o*n.uarantor is not entitled to t)e 1enefits of e0cussion -a.d. or cannot 1e sued *it)in t)e 6)ili++ines unless )e )as left a mana. citin.. "%clusive property of each spouse.ratuitous title. "%cusable neglect. R( 8 54'. 4%! . -d. AC'. !%8'. [(rt. La* Revie*er..ranted 1y t)e +rovincial .overnor to any 7ualified +erson to 7uarry and utilize sand and . [Du)aime:s Le. from a *ron. 1% . <)e . [(rt.d.)t to t)e marria.ilance of )is counsel or on +romises made 1y t)e adverse +arty. Lat.ard of t)e unavoida1le )indrance on t)e care and vi. if it may 1e +resumed t)at an e0ecution on t)e +ro+erty of t)e +rinci+al de1tor *ould not result in t)e satisfaction of t)e o1li. !%&'. 4%%5'.d. Rem. 9lack:s La* Dict. "%clusive sand and gravel permit. [Dir. action. and -d. !t) ... -e. -1. to only one of t)e s+ouses.al Dict.. -c. [#uristEs Le. not in conse7uence of a +artyEs o*n carelessness. CC'. of Lands v...al Dict.ation. t)e marria.'.. CC'. [3ec.in. <o e0cuse or 2ustify a *ron. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . from a contract.d. $5%. -1.343 e0clusively. s)all 1e t)e e0clusive +ro+erty of eac) s+ouse> -a. if )e )as 1ound )imself solidarily *it) t)e de1tor. Com+are *it) "% delicto.e 1y .e *it) +ro+erty 1elon. inattention. 4%%5'. Dict. 5&. GR "& 5". -c. 4%! . [(l1ano. =ay 44. !t) . Lat. 1 4. -$rd . "%clusive possession. <)e +ermit .

GR " 5!%. Dol. of t)e term is or includes> to +ut into effect. +erform *)at is re7uired to . Civ. ( term *it) a sus+ensive effect. do *)at is +rovided or re7uired. and. to si. 1 & '. from a certain day. by whom established. or -e. effect. 1 8 . $%.. La*.ment. 1 & '.344 "% die. t)e com+letion of an act or instrument. "%ecution. 3ee also Destruction of the instrument. and deliverin. +erform. t)e act of si.. 44. a le. 1y t)e +erson or +ersons *)o e0ecuted it.nin. 1!!'. 3ee . 1 1!'. . I(C. @ov.nin. -c..nin. =ic)ael C Co. -d. 4%%% .al <erms -6ro3e. "%ecution. 1 85'. 1y any +erson *)o.inisterial e%ecution. Civ. 45. 1 %. Com+are *it) "%ecutory.. of e0ecution is not limited to t)e si.. sealin. GR 5 1&&.ed.. accom+lis)ment.astern (ssurance C 3urety Cor+. <)e +rocess *)ic) carries into effect a decree or 2ud. <o com+lete. 9lack:s La* Dict. -1. [6CI9 v. +erformance. Com+are *it) 1n diem. 1y a +erson to *)om t)e +arties to t)e instrument )ad +reviously confessed t)e e0ecution t)ereof.n..d.ive effect to. after its e0ecution and delivery. <)e ordinary or dictionary meanin. citin.nri7uez. sa* it and reco. and deliverin. @ov. 44. "%ecute. v. to carry out accordin.vidence. <)e accom+lis)ment of a t)in. 1y t)e +erson 1efore *)om its e0ecution *as ackno*led. and +er)a+s sealin. Dec.natures. F1li. Civ. #an. v.ive validity to -as 1y si.'. I(C. to 1ot) t)e act or +rocess of e0ecutin. [. +. +. "%ecuted. 4 . La*. t)e fulfillment of an undertakin. of a contract 1ut includes as *ell t)e +erformance or im+lementation or accom+lis)ment of t)e terms and conditions of suc) contract. <)e term is understood ordinarily and literally as referrin. or concludin. It means t)at all t)e terms of t)e contract )ave 1een fulfilled. [Arancisco. C(.d. [. "%ecution as a matter of right. [Glossary of Le. +erform t)e re7uirements of. 4%%5'. 1. carry out fully and com+letely. [<orres. "%ecution and delivery of the document. .al instrument or . to its terms.ivin.. <)us. [. Lat.0colin.. t)e ordinary meanin. v. GR 1%&45. La*. =ar.astern (ssurance C 3urety Cor+. [6(L v. it t)e forms re7uired to make it valid. GR L48&"% C L-48& ". DII. . 1y any +erson *)o *as +resent and sa* it e0ecuted and delivered. GR " 5!%. $!%'. +erform t)e acts necessary to t)e effectiveness of.. Rem. com+lete.... 6art 1. how proved and Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .nized t)e si. C Cont. "%ecute a contract. 4. to . <)e e0ecution and delivery of t)e document may 1e esta1lis)ed> -a. La*.

"%ecution of (udgment pending appeal.ment un2ust. "%ecutive clemency.ainst t)e *ron. [(rt.)er interests of 2ustice.345 6oss of the instrument. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . "%ecution of deeds by means of violence or intimidation. <)ere must 1e a motion 1y t)e +revailin. su+ra note $". <)e offense committed 1y any +erson *)o. *)en it a++ears t)at t)e controversy )ad never 1een su1mitted to t)e 2ud.ment de1t )as 1een +aid or ot)er*ise satisfied. 3ee "%ecutive committee. R6C'. [. "%ecution$ writ of. to direct its modification in order to )armonize t)e dis+osition *it) t)e +revailin. +arty. or -f. e0ce+t *it) res+ect to> -a.udela v. circumstances.ment )as 1ecome final *)ic) could render t)e e0ecution of t)e 2ud. +arty *it) notice to t)e adverse +arty. #une 4&. 3ee Brit of "%ecution. 3ee Discretionary e%ecution. 1y ma2ority vote of all its mem1ers. in t)e )i. -e. -d.reement entered into 1y a state:s e0ecutive *it)out follo*in. t)e . "%ecution of (udgments.as v. e0ecute or deliver any +u1lic instrument or documents. how shown.ment of t)e court.ated to it in t)e 1y-la*s or on a ma2ority vote of t)e 1oard. [Intl. 4 &. 1 1'. C Direct. <)e court *ould invaria1ly stay e0ecution of 2ud. s)all com+el )im to si. *)en it a++ears t)at t)e *rit )as 1een issued im+rovidently or *it)out aut)ority or a. *)ere it 1ecomes im+erative. Lidal. on suc) s+ecific matters *it)in t)e com+etence of t)e 1oard. 4%%5'.ood reason must 1e stated in a s+ecial order. &lemency.n. *it) intent to defraud anot)er. GR &%15%. -1. "%ecutive agreement. . ConstEn v. @a+ocor. when stayed. to 1e a++ointed 1y suc) 1oard. at !!1'. and -c. 1!-1" [1 &&'. ( treaty or international a.ments> -a. It is not effective domestically.E. "%ecution of (udgment pending appeal.. as may 1e dele. t)at t)e 2ud. t)ere must 1e a . 1"$ 3CR( .e in t)e situation of t)e +arties *)ic) make suc) e0ecution ine7uita1le or *ould render t)e e0ecution of t)e 2ud. 1y means of violence or intimidation.ment un2ust. a++eal.o.n. C(. -c. *)ic) may act. [Frte. -1. La* Dict. t)e state:s constitutionally re7uired ratification +rocedure. *)en t)ere )as 1een a c)an. ( committee created under t)e 1yla*s of a cor+oration com+osed of not less t)an t)ree mem1ers of t)e 1oard of directors. *)en certain facts and circumstances trans+ire or su+ervene after t)e 2ud.ood reason for e0ecution +endin. Re7uisites for t)e valid e0ercise of t)e discretion> -a.

overnment. of 9inalonan. vol. or administrative 2ud. 18$ -1 ". 9ut t)e e0ecutor needs to 1e issued letters testamentary after t)e court determines )is or )er 7ualifications. La*. Cor+. $!.. (n e0ecutor is a +ersonal re+resentative. malicious or o++ressive c)aracter of t)e acts com+lained of. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud.es .. 1 &.es.. [<orres.d. -c. t)at t)e *ill is +ro+erly e0ecuted. [=orenoEs La* Dict. $-4'. +. and -e. 4. La*. [Du)aime:s Le.al Dict. GR 148"&!. <)e construction and inter+retation of la*s or statutes 1y t)e various e0ecutive )eads of t)e various de+artments of t)e .. and <aKada and Carreon.... 6ol. La* Revie*er. "%ecutive power. 4%%5'. Govt. li7uidated or com+ensatory dama.es on account of *anton.ood. t)at final *is)es are res+ected -i. "%ecutive construction. Code'. of vacancies in t)e 1oard. [3uarez. t)ey are allo*ed as a +unis)ment of t)e defendant as a deterrent to Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .al <erms -6ro-3e. ( lady e0ecutor is called e0ecutri0.o 1eyond t)e actual dama. "%ecutor. "%ecutory. "%ecutive (udge. t)e amendment or re+eal of 1y-la*s or t)e ado+tion of ne* 1y-la*s. v. a distri1ution of cas) dividends to t)e s)are)olders. "$5'. [3ec. [Claridades. <)e +residin. 4%%1-4%%"'.d.. citin. named in a *ill. La* of t)e 6)ils. t)e la*s into +ractical o+eration and enforcin. 4%%5'. ( +erson s+ecifically a++ointed 1y a testator to administer t)e *ill ensurin. t)e amendment or re+eal of any resolution of t)e 1oard *)ic) 1y its e0+ress terms is not so amenda1le or re+eala1le. 4%%4. 6ol. +. [(rt. ++. ( +ersonal re+resentative. 6)il.es. 1st .e in a court. 4%%% . #uly 4$. $!%'. CC'. <orres. reckless. ( contract *)ere no +erformance )as yet 1een made.es *)ic) are . C Cont. Com+ilation of @otes. t)eir due o1servance.. in addition to t)e moral. t)e filin. 1"8'. Dama. Cruz.. tem+erate. 48! -1 "1. <)ese are im+osed. $. -d. It means t)at some +rovisions of t)e contract still )ave to 1e com+lied *it). citin. 1. It is t)e +o*er of carryin. 444 . +.d.. 4%%% . "%emplary or corrective damages.e. +. =un. [Glossary of Le. F1li.346 a++roval of any action for *)ic) s)are)olders: a++roval is also re7uired. 4. 6ol. 1y *ay of e0am+le or correction for t)e +u1lic .iven in en)ancement merely of t)e ordinary dama. Com+are *it) "%ecuted. .'. 6ol. 1. [F+le v. (. -1. <)e +erson named in t)e *ill *)o is entrusted to im+lement its +rovisions.es suffered in t)e case.. $4 6)il. *)o administers an estate. <)e +o*er to enforce and administer t)e la*s. 1. +. "%ecutory contract. 3uc) dama.

4%%5'. [Intl. Doctrine t)at )olds t)at. Learin. <uason.ment s)ould 1e reco.ainst a state in an international tri1unal on 1e)alf of a +rivate +erson. C Direct. 1 4"'. Com+are *it) 6etter patent.) t)ere is no criminal lia1ility. t)ere is civil lia1ility. +. -f. *)en t)ere is no ot)er +lain. 1 8 t) . La* Revie*er. of Crim..iven t)e consuls 1y t)e receivin. s+eedy and ade7uate remedy.. !1'. +. *)en stron. [Intl. "%emption from ta%ation. Doctrine t)at )olds t)at. La* Rev.es are used interc)an. "%haustion of administrative remedies doctrine. t)e +rivate +erson must first seek to o1tain relief from t)at state. (1ad. B)en t)e 7uestion raised is +urely le. and -2.34 ot)ers.ent of t)e crime any or all of t)e conditions t)at *ould make an act voluntary and )ence.. $$!'. -c. <)e +ermission .. [3unville v. Intl. Resort to t)e a++ro+riate administrative aut)orities in t)e resolution of a controversy fallin. -. *)en t)e act com+lained of is +atently ille. La* Dict.n 2ud.. *)en t)ere is ur.. e0e7ui> to +erform or to e0ecute. C Cont. to determine if a forei. -1.d. La*. *)en t)e claim involved is small. C Direct.)t to control its distri1ution.)t to control its distri1ution.. "%haustion of rights doctrine. +u1lic interest is involved. <)e terms e0em+lary. t)e licensor )as no furt)er ri. -). 4%%5'. 1. [<orres. [Intl. 1 " . <)ose circumstances *)erein t)ere is an a1sence in t)e a.orio. 3+. alt)ou. 9efore suit may 1e 1rou.s. t)e aut)or )as no furt)er ri. La* Dict. C Direct.)t a. 4%%% . in 7uo *arranto +roceedin.ood made or sold under license is in circulation. Ae1. [Intl. 4%%5'. .. -d. %'. GR &!!%4.)ted *ork is in circulation..nized and enforced locally. -e. *)en t)e administrative 1ody is in esto++el. 3ee <a% e%emption. 4$. "%haustion of administrative remedies.. state to +erform t)eir functions t)erein. under t)eir 2urisdiction 1efore t)e same may 1e elevated to t)e courts of 2ustice for revie*.ent need for 2udicial intervention. [Gre.al. GR 4$ 4$. Intl. *)en irre+ara1le dama. La* Dict.e *ill 1e suffered. La* Dict. once a .0ce+tions> -a. Ff t)e son.d. *)en t)e su12ect of t)e controversy is +rivate land. +unitive and vindictive dama. "%empting circumstances. -i. [9arretto v. "%equatur.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . =ar.ea1ly. "% filio. 45.d. once a co+y of a co+yri. Arom Lat. 4.al. 1 4'. "%haustion of remedies. [Cruz. C Direct. F1li. +. 4%%5'. Aund. "%haustion doctrine.

1. 4%%5'.. Arom office..ent. 9y virtue of office. 1.vid. comes. Ff )is o*n mere motion. demands.d. .0ec. t)e trial. 44. -1 &$. la*s. a mineralized area . . +. [Flarte.. 1 1.. La*. Lat. an emer. a situation *)ic) demands immediate attention and +rom+t solution. usually t)e o++osite se0.. Documents or ot)er items introduced as evidence durin. [3ec. "%humation. <)e *illful e0+osure in +u1lic +laces of oneEs . Lat. 3ec. +. and *it)out any ot)er a++ointment or aut)ority t)an t)at conferred 1y t)e office. "%-officio. Le. 4%%% . 4 "'. (1r.al =ed. 1"$'.. Lat.overnment officer.reement coverin.. 1st . 11&'. not)in. 1ut rat)er anne0ed to t)e official +osition. .. Arom not)in. +. [3ec. ur. R( 8 54'.al =ed. minin. [9lackEs La* Dict.d. "%isting mining or quarrying right. [=orenoEs La* Dict. or re7uest. (dmin.d. [Civil Li1erties Gnion v.al <erms -6ro3e.d. "%igencies of the service. 1"&'. not e0+ressly conferred u+on t)e individual c)aracter. (lso 1ndecent e%posure. a state of 1ein. 3uc) need or necessity as 1elon. [Glossary of Le. a trial or )earin. Ae1. !t) . [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4%%% . "%igencies or "%igency. (n aut)ority derived from official c)aracter merely.. R( 8%8"'. "% mero motu. +. +. GR &$& ". [=orenoEs La* Dict.ency or demand for t)e *ork +erformed 1y a . a mineralized area +rior to its declaration as a +eo+le:s smallscale minin. license or +ermit coverin. voluntarily and *it)out +rom+tin. 4. -4%%5. ( valid and su1sistin. <)e ur.d. 4%%% . claim. "%isting mining right. 1"&'.iven a num1er or letter 1y t)e clerk of court as t)ey are introduced for future reference durin. 6erfected and su1sistin. (n act done in an official c)aracter.ranted/issued under +ertinent minin. 4. $. lease. area. Documents or o12ects s)o*n to t)e court as evidence in a trial.enital in t)e +resence of ot)er +ersons. 9lack:s La* Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .s to t)e occasion. <)ey are eac) . In a strict sense. lease contract or a.. of )is o*n accord. In a 1road sense. Le.34! "%hibitionism..0ce+t *it) s+ecial +ermission of t)e court.iven situation..ency. e0)i1its are +laced in t)e custody of t)e court until t)e trial is over. re7uirements P usually used in +lural.. $.. or as a conse7uence of office. "%hibits. t)e demands or re7uirements in)erent in a . citin. claim or +ermit or 7uarry +ermit or any minin. 3ee Disinterment. "% nihilo$ nihilo fit.

. [Glossary of Le. [I1id. and *it)out furt)er *arrant or a++ointment. "%onerate. +. v. *)erein relief is . or consent 1y any +erson adversely interested or a +roceedin. GR L-588 $. of t)e =anual for Clerks of Court -++. 1 & '.ant *it)out notice to t)e ot)er. <o clear from accusation or 1lame.'.. as amended'. Lat. Fn 1e)alf of only one +arty. and 1ecomin. 1. "% parte motion. Lat. Fne *)o is a mem1er 1y virtue of )is title to a certain office. Lan. Rem. [Glossary of Le. 1!( Bords C 6)rases. 4.. 1. Aor one +arty only. $! C#3.ain. 1!( Bords and 6)rases. $ 4'. ( 2udicial +roceedin. or duty. 3+ecies or su1s+ecies *)ic) do not naturally occur in t)e country. !. +. 8!-8". [3ec. [Du)aime:s Le. <)e *ord may im+ly com+lete clearance not only from immediate c)ar. Dict.. t)e citizen or su12ect of anot)er. @o action arises out of an illicit 1ar. Removal of a c)ar. [G3I3 v.ration. C(..34" Dict.ainst *)om t)e relief is sou. +. Ae1. [<orres.al Dict. 4%.. [Civil Li1erties Gnion v. and is not +resent at t)e )earin. "%-parte proceeding. $. <)e voluntary act of a1andonin. citin. "%patriate. 3ec. or considered as in default -for failure to a++ear at t)e +re-trial.al <erms -6ro3e. since t)e +erson su12ect to t)e searc) is not notified of t)e +roceedin. C Cont. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4%%5'. 3ee . of t)e . Inc. $ 4'.e or accusation 1ut from sus+icion or attendant deni. 1 1.'. 48. 1 &5'. "% pacto illicito non oritur actio. +. 4.l. *it)out notice to any ot)er +arty. Be1ster. R( 158'. +. "%patriation. 1rou.ranted *it)out an o++ortunity for t)e +erson a.nter+rises.. . 448'. (n a++lication to t)e court made 1y one liti. Aor e0am+le. and *it)out notice to.. citin... CF(. GR &$& ". I(C. A.. !1". [Clemente v. $rd @e* Intl. a re7uest for a searc) *arrant is an e0 +arte +roceedin. GR 5448&. [3ec. 4%%% .n.in and citizens)i+ and )as 1ecome a su12ect or citizen of anot)er country. 4%%5'. 1 &5. #an.al <erms -6ro-3e. =ar.. 4%%5'.0ec. res+onsi1ility. 1. La*. (+r. $!%'. F1li. to relieve. <o e0cul+ate.d.otion e% parte. ( +erson *)o )as a1andoned )is country of ori.)t to 1e )eard. [I1id.. citin. citizens)i+ of oneEs country. "%otic species. "% parte. 44.)t for t)e 1enefit of one +arty only. "%-officio member of a board. [Lita .. 4%.e. t)e Court may no* aut)orize t)e Clerk of Court to receive evidence e0-+arte.. GR L-"5" $. B)en a defendant is declared in default -for failure to file ans*ers.

[3ec. GR 1%$"!. 1 1!'. !$%'.ricultural land utilized 1y a 1usiness or cor+oration to conduct studies.d. citin. !t) . [(rt. [#uristEs Le.ood fait) *)o )e may remove t)e ornaments *it) *)ic) )e )as em1ellis)ed t)e +rinci+al t)in. Record -of t)e case or +roceedin. $%".ard to a +articular su12ect or de+artment of )uman activity. +oultry. tec)nical or +rofessional matter 1y e0+erts. LGC'. medicines. 1$! Cal (++ 5!1'. t)e 7uality and 7uantity of . !5&. [<am1untin. i. de Fliveros. 5$ (++ Div 584'... 48 64d "!!. "%pert evidence. [IRR on 3u++ly C 6ro+.?. or a7uatic.e. 6ayment. "%pert.. estimated in terms of +erformance measures or +)ysical tar. [1!( Bords C 6)rases 515.ets. -1 &$. +er 3ec. kno*led.oods or +roducts. if it suffers no in2ury t)ere1y. 4 . 3e+. IRR. 1$ 6)il. researc)es or e0+eriments involvin. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <am1untin. fora. in re. in re. "%penses for pure lu%ury or mere pleasure. money e0+ended. +. <)e s+endin. a. +ayment. 1'. marine. and if )is successor in t)e +ossession does not +refer to refund t)e amount e0+ended. fuel. Cro* v 9oard of 3u+v:rs of 3tanislaus County.35# [9lackEs La* Dict. =. 45$.ard to a +articular o12ect or de+artment of )uman activity. "%penditure.. citin..iven in relation to some scientific. out of money. and suc) s+are or re+air +arts as are used to re+air or com+lete ot)er articles and *)ic) t)ere1y lose t)eir identity in t)e +rocess. dairy and ot)er similar +roducts for t)e +ur+ose of im+rovin. 6art 1. <)e testimony of one +ossessin. 3+.d. dru. [Arancisco. "%pert testimony.e not usually ac7uired 1y ot)er +ersons [G3 v. [(rt. $&$. "%pected results. (1r..ri1usiness. "%pendable supplies. +erson 7ualified to s+eak aut)oritatively 1y reason of t)eir s+ecial trainin. 4.e. 6eo+le v Qane "1 @. Dol. <estimony .vidence. kno*led. a. +roducts.t. v. (. Fne +ossessin. dis1ursement e0+ense. (rticles *)ic) are consumed in use..al Dict. [1!( Bords C 6)rases 515. LGC'. "%perimental farms.ricultural. +. or 1enefits t)at s)all accrue to t)e +u1lic. . 1 8 . of money.0+enses *)ic) s)all not 1e refunded to t)e +ossessor in .. "%pediente. tests. CC'. skill or familiarity *it) t)e su12ect. . DII. livestock. t)e act of e0+endin.. Gil. '.. <)e services. suc) as ammunition.e not usually ac7uired 1y ot)er +ersons. LGC'. 1 !. 4%%5'.s. 1.3. a layin.

)t to develo+ +etroleum +roduction *it)in t)e s+ecified areas.e *)o are not )is c)ildren or descendants.e to +erform any dan..irl under si0teen years of a. any +erson *)o.ar. "%piry or e%piration date. 5. ( concession *)ic) . "%ploitation of child labor. R6C'. . La*. 5.ed in any of t)e callin. a. [3ec. +)ysical stren. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .e to a1andon t)e )ome of its ascendants. (dmin. s)all. La*. [6)il. to *)ic) t)e su12ect matter of t)e in7uiry relates and *)o +ossesses s+ecial kno*led. s)all em+loy in e0)i1itions of t)ese kinds c)ildren under si0teen years of a.erous feat of 1alancin. 6D 141 '.erous e0)i1itions. 1$. [3ec. ro+e-*alker.ainst t)e latter:s *ill. *)o s)all deliver suc) c)ild . any +erson en.. [(rt. 4. retain )im in )is service. "%ploitation concession. "%ploitation.uardian or +erson entrusted *it) t)e custody of a minor.. 1 1'.s to t)e +rofession or callin. any +erson *)o s)all induce any c)ild under si0teen years of a. "! FG 8584'. [(c)acoso v. cosmetic.e.er +ermissi1le to sell t)em. <)e felony committed 1y> 1. Fne *)o 1elon. "%piration of the term.e as to t)e very 7uestion on *)ic) )e +ro+oses to e0+ress an o+inion. or to any )a1itual va. dru. Crim.at)erin. 1.ratuitously to any +erson follo*in.s enumerated in t)e +recedin. La*. or contortion. R( 8$ 5'. . any +erson *)o s)all cause any 1oy or . <)e felony committed 1y anyone *)o. =acarai. GR $%4$.. R( $&8'. =ar. num1er *)o s)all em+loy any descendant of )is under t*elve years of a.ed in a similar callin..s enumerated in num1er 4 )ereof. <)e actual e0traction. $. 6eo+le v. or !. 3antos. and collection in accordance *it) acce+ta1le coral develo+ment and conservation +ractices. 4. *ild-animal tamer or circus mana.uardian. any ascendant.er or en.351 "%pert witness. )imself of a de1t incurred 1y an ascendant. [(rt. any of t)e callin. diver. device or )azardous su1stance after *)ic) t)ey are not e0+ected to retain t)eir claimed safety. . 6D 5"$'. efficacy and 7uality or +otency and after *)ic) it is no lon. 48$. a met)od of terminatin. official relations.t). La* Dict. 1%.a. <)e date stated on t)e la1el of food.a.ymnast. teac)er or +erson entrusted in any ca+acity *it) t)e care of a c)ild under si0teen years of a. 448 citin. . [(rt.. "%ploitation of minors. Crim. $. <)e e0traction and utilization of mineral de+osits. 1ein. under t)e +rete0t of reim1ursin.e in suc) dan.rant or 1e. In t)e la* of +u1lic officers. +.rants to t)e concessionaire t)e e0clusive ri. an acro1at. 4.

a.352 . e0tent. trenc)in. 6D 1!"$'. s)aft sinkin. of t)e develo+ment sta. for t)e +ur+ose of +ro1in. 1%. eit)er solid or li7uid.ar.ar. (ny +erson.innin.. "%ploited infant or child.e of t)e mine or de+osit. remote sensin. <)e e0amination and investi.rants to t)e concessionaire t)e e0clusive ri. licensed to do 1usiness in t)e 6)ili++ines.ranted 1y t)e =ines and Geosciences 9ureau to a 7ualified +erson for t)e ri. ca+s.. +ercussions. cartrid.in.eo+)ysical surveys.. (n infant or c)ild & years and 1elo* *)o is used in 1e. [3ec.)t to conduct e0+loration for all minerals in s+ecified areas. or any ot)er means for t)e +ur+ose of determinin. "%ploration.ical. 1lastin. R( 8&55 entitled I(n (ct to develo+ e0+orts as a key to*ards t)e ac)ievement of t)e national . $. $. e0ce+t 1ullets for firearm. 4. [3ec. R6C'. "%ploration permit.. [(rt. <)e +ermit . tunnelin. 6D 5"$'. or one *)o accom+anies a )a1itual va. "%plosive. location. [3ec. . trendin. =ay 44.A. test +ittin.. "%porter. for mineral resources 1y . $5. in e0+losion.)t to e0+lore for +etroleum *it)in s+ecified areas. <)e term s)all include 1ut not limited to dynamites. and +aid or incurred 1efore t)e 1e.. @IRC.s mentioned in num1er 4 )ereof.uardians. or +ros+ectin. "%ploration e%penditures.rant or 1e. firecrackers. 1ursters. R( 8 54'. R( "4$!'.as at )i. test +ittin. and ot)er means.. t)em for +rofit. "%port.F 18!. 4%. "%ploration concession. 7uantity and 7uality t)ereof and t)e feasi1ility of minin.. or 7uality of any de+osit of ore or ot)er mineral. [3ec.. 1y drillin.. *)ic) 1y c)emical reaction li1erates )eat and .0+enditures +aid or incurred for t)e +ur+ose of ascertainin. curators. R( 8 54'. [3ec. t)e +resence of mineral de+osits and t)e e0tent t)ereof.ed in any of t)e callin. .) s+eed and causes tremendous +ressure resultin. <)e searc)in. land or air. e0tent. . mi0ture or sin. [(rt.ation of lands su++osed to contain valua1le minerals.rant or 1e. <o 1rin.le com+ound. or teac)ers to follo* any +erson en. drillin.. s)aft sinkin.. 48&. 41. 1 5. t)e e0istence. (ny su1stance.a. ( concession *)ic) . 1. 1lack +o*ders. "..oals to*ards t)e year 4%%%J enacted on Dec. !. or to accom+any any )a1itual va. out of t)e 6)ili++ines 1y sea. natural or 2uridical. "%port Development Act of +.eoc)emical or .es and ot)er e0+losive materials. en. 1 &8'. 4.. t)e e0istence.ed Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . R( $&8'.eolo. as amended'. tunnelin. [3ec. [3ec.

"%port promotion. 5. tariffs or duties eit)er *)en t)e . $.n country.n markets. t)ose activities necessary for t)e im+lementation of t)e 6)ili++ine . +u1lication of e0+ort-related documents. R( 8&55'.n . on e0+ort-related su12ects.nter+rises located in e0+ort +rocessin.reed u+on *)ic) may Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . zones are allo*ed to im+ort ca+ital e7ui+ment and ra* materials free from duties. [3ec. R( 8&55'.n e0c)an. irres+ective of any s)i++in. <)e total forei. arran. +roduct desi. +rinci+ally 1ein. +redominantly oriented to e0+ort +roduction..oods from t)e 6)ili++ines to a forei. of 7uality standards. lectures. or. . [3ec. "%port incentives. create a freer trade environment and motivate e0+orters to increase e0+ort sales and +erform com+etitively in t)e e0+ort market. es+ecially in e0+ort su++ort services and t)e +rovision of trade/market information. e0istin. of television or motion +ictures or musical recordin. of its normal o+eratin.ement t)at may 1e a. "%port fees. t)e s)o*in. 3u++ort measures +rovided 1y t)e . ta0es and ot)er im+ort restrictions. conferences and trainin. )andlin. or +ermittin.overnment to e0+orters to encoura. [3ec. manufacture or trade of +roducts or services *)ic) earns at least fifty +ercent -!%V. or +erformin. 5.oods or materials are im+orted or e0+orted.s. 5. out *ildlife from t)e 6)ili++ines to any ot)er country.n currency. es+ecially t)ose meant to reinforce and im+rove t)e +osition of 6)ili++ine e0+ort +roducts in s+ecific forei. ( ran. R( "1$!'.istered service e0+orter for furnis)in. +rovision of advisory services.anization of trade fairs and missions. e0+orts. 4. 4%%5'. "%port permit.e *)ic) is c)ar. ( s+ecialized industrial estate located +)ysically and/or administratively outside customs territory. It means> -a. [3ec. !.e investment in t)e e0+ort sector.0+ort Develo+ment 6lan.oods and materials for e0+ort *it)out +ayin. services. or +layin.. C Direct. "%port sales. outside of t)e 6)ili++ines. [3ec. conduct of seminars.353 directly or indirectly in t)e +roduction. revenues from t)e sale of its +roducts or services a1road for forei. suc) as net*orkin..ed or received 1y a re.n and suc) ot)er activities aimed at +romotin. ( +ermit aut)orizin. ( free zone in *)ic) manufacturin. an individual to 1rin.e of e0+ort activities *)ic) t)e +u1lic and +rivate sectors undertake. 1. "%port processing one 2"#K3. 5. R( 158'. R( 8&55'. R( 8 1"'. La* Dict. facilities allo*ed to +rocess forei. *orks)o+s. [3ec. <)e sale and actual s)i+ment of . [Intl.

Lat.e of t)e la* and *)ic) *as innocent *)en done. 3ale of . Fct.es t)e le.> -a. and ot)er s+ecial la*s.oods so e0+orted and +aid for in acce+ta1le forei. (fter t)e fact. *)ic) retros+ectively c)an.n customer of any mana. @IRC. t)e manufacture. (ny transaction involvin.ulate civil ri. R( "545'. of any ri. of total annual +roduction.. alters t)e le.F 44".al conse7uences or relations of suc) fact or deed. t)e renderin.354 influence or determine t)e transfer of o*ners)i+ of t)e .ko 3entral n. treatment or servicin. materials to a nonresident 1uyer for delivery to a resident local e0+ort-oriented enter+rise to 1e used in manufacturin.ulations of t)e 9an. of . to re. or ot)er services. +rocessin..n customer.)t in a +atent. -1. or -d. or makes it . 6ili+inas -936. 6ili+inas -936.erial. ( la* *)ic)> -a. -e. t)e e0+ort of .al rules of evidence.)t to a forei.in.n currency or its e7uivalent in . marketin. 6ili+inas -936.. to a forei. and +unis)es suc) an act. c)an. -c. -1. in t)e 6)ili++ines of t)e said 1uyer:s . "%port transaction. -d. "% post facto law. and -f. as amended'. ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e Fmni1us Investment Code of 1 &8.ical. La*.ravates a crime. [3ec. [In re> Qay Dille.oods or services.ko 3entral n. 3ale of ra* materials or +acka. +ackin.)ts and remedies only. Const. -1.n currency and accounted for in accordance *it) t)e rules and re. $. and accounted for in accordance *it) t)e rules and re.in.reater t)an it *as. *)ic) *)en done *as la*ful. materials to e0+ortoriented enter+rise *)ose e0+ort sales e0ceed seventy +ercent -8%V. La*. de+rives a +erson accused of a crime of some la*ful +rotection to *)ic) )e )as 1ecome entitled. or co+yri. -c.. trademark. t)e sale or licensin. 44.ulations of t)e 9an.oods out of t)e 6)ili++ines. -c.oods for. makes criminal an act done 1efore t)e +assa. L-$45&!. 1 8%'. 1%!.)t for somet)in. It is a la* *)ic) +rovides for t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .as Qami. <)ose considered e0+ort sales under . construction. ( la* +assed after t)e occurrence of a fact or commission of an act. "% post facto.oods and +aid for in acce+ta1le forei. -d. of . or t)e sale or leasin. and aut)orizes conviction u+on less or different testimony t)an t)e la* re7uired at t)e time of t)e commission of t)e offense. Const.reater +unis)ment t)an t)e la* anne0ed to t)e crime *)en committed.n customer. or a +roclamation of amnesty. and -e. tec)nolo. [3ec. in effect im+oses +enalty or de+rivation of a ri.. suc) as t)e +rotection of a former conviction or ac7uittal. *)en committed.old to t)e 9an.. a. 3ale of ra* materials or +acka.ko 3entral n. assumin. or re+ackin.es t)e +unis)ment and inflicts a .oods to a forei.

or of t)e +roclamation of amnesty. !t) .0+ress mention is im+lied e0clusion.. =endez -C(. *as innocent. *)en it *as committed. GR L-585 &. +.d. R( 8"%%'.ranted 1y a la* to sue t)e state or any of its a. "%press acceptance of the inheritance. 455'. refer to criminal matters. [(rt. [6eo+le v. suc) as t)e +rotection of a former conviction or ac7uittal. GR L-$!$8". Const. Re7uisites> <)e la* must> -a. <)ere is e0+ress +ardon *)en t)e offended +arty in *ritin. a la* t)at c)an. 1e retroactive in its a++lication.)ts and remedies only. FG 1 % '. "%press malice. )is or )er errin.encies. 1 &%'. $8'. <)e )uman milk *)ic) )as 1een e0tracted from t)e 1reast 1y )and or 1y 1reast +um+. a la* *)ic) a.an1ayan. *)en done.. $. 3e+. 6ol. 1 4.es t)e rules of evidence and receives less or different testimony t)an *as re7uired at t)e time of t)e commission of t)e offense in order to convict t)e offender. citin. or in an affidavit asserts t)at )e or s)e is +ardonin. Const. "%press consent. in relation to t)e offense or its conse7uences. to re. 1 &8. .ulate civil ri. =ay 8. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (n acce+tance of t)e in)eritance *)ic) must 1e made in a +u1lic or +rivate document. "%pressio unius est e%clusio alterius. a dro++er. a cu+ and s+oon. [Cruz. <)e aut)ority e0+ressly . 3ee . a naso.reater t)an *)en it *as committed. Com+are *it) 1mplied pardon.. +. 11. s+ouse and +aramour for t)eir adulterous act t)is is a case of e0+ress +ardon.stenzo. 3andi. v. or a 1ottle. alters t)e situation of a +erson to )is disadvanta. GR 1%1845. +. [Li. La*. *as la*ful. C(.d. #uly $. 4%%4.ravates a crime or makes it .)t *)ic). "%press pardon. a la* t)at c)an.tas v.es t)e +unis)ment or inflicts a . citin.alice in fact. . La*. !4%'. CC'.e.355 infliction of +unis)ment u+on a +erson for an act done *)ic).reater +unis)ment t)an t)e la* anne0ed to t)e crime *)en it *as committed. [3uarez.atric tu1e. Lat. every la* *)ic). -1. 6eo+le v.d. La* Revie*er. and -c. 9lack:s La* Dict. "%pressed breast milk. 1st . 1%5 . [Re+... a la* *)ic) de+rives +ersons accused of crime of some la*ful +rotection to *)ic) t)ey )ave 1ecome entitled. Com+are *it) 1mplied consent. "% post facto law. in effect im+oses a +enalty or t)e de+rivation of a ri. 1 & . assumin. [3ec. It can 1e fed to an infant usin. a la* *)ic). to t)e +re2udice of t)e accused.

es in every action of e0+ro+riation. GR !&%1%. ( form of novation 1y *)ic) a creditor acce+ts a ne* de1tor *)o 1ecomes 1ound in +lace of t)e old de1tor. 4. It ends *it) an order.ically re7uires t)e consent of t)e t)ird +erson and t)e creditor. 1y some *ritin. [=orenoEs La* Dict. t)e natural tendency of *)ic) is to induce t)e 1uyer to +urc)ase t)e same. 1 $'. 4. or *ill. not merely im+lied or left to inference. Civ. GR L-4"%!&. <)e first is concerned *it) t)e determination of t)e aut)ority of t)e +laintiff to e0ercise t)e +o*er of eminent domain and t)e +ro+riety of its e0ercise in t)e conte0t of t)e facts involved in t)e suit. =ar. an intention to create a trust. sta..al Dict. "%propriation$ stages in an action of. and +ortions t)ereof. if not of dismissal of t)e action. <rusts t)at are created 1y t)e intention of t)e trustor or of t)e +arties. clause. 1.)t to 1e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . "%promission.. 4&. Denturanza. Dec. CC'. to t)e +erson or t)in. 4%%5'. i. since it consists in a t)ird +erson assumin. "%press trusts. of condemnation declarin. Arom Lat. $1. 4. and +ro+rius> one:s o*n.e does not come from t)e de1tor and may even 1e made *it)out )is kno*led. 81. $!%'.e. is re+ealed. Co C)o C)it. +. it lo. t)erein a re+ealin. <)ose trusts *)ic) are created 1y t)e direct and +ositive acts of t)e +arties. 1551. IC'. ( form of novation *)erein t)e initiative for t)e c)an. 3ynonymous to t)e Doctrine of eminent domain.356 "%press prohibition.. t)at are intended to 1e re+ealed. <)e forced sale of land to a +u1lic aut)ority. t)at t)e +laintiff )as a la*ful ri.)t to take t)e +ro+erty sou.. CF(. t)e o1li. 1 88'. "%press warranty. 1!5". <)at *)ic) is directly or distinctly stated.e. +rovision *)ic) e0+ressly and s+ecifically cites t)e +articular la* or la*s. t)e latter 1ein. 1. Ins. C Cont.d. ( declaration in a statute. 4%%5'.d. [F:laco v. [3ec. (ny affirmation of fact or any +romise 1y t)e seller relatin. Com+are *it) 1mplied repeal. CC'. 4%%% .. GR 1%$ &4..ation. 11. <)ere are t*o -4. F1li. "%propriation. ( re+eal of a la* 1y incor+oratin. 1. [(rt. 4%%% . t)ereon +urc)ases t)e t)in. C Direct. e0> from. [(rt. and t)e 1uyer relyin. La*. [Du)aime:s Le. released. (s suc). or 1y *ords evincin. +. [De Cortes v.overnment. to t)e t)in. 1. usually in its re+ealin.. "%press repeal. Com+are *it) Delegacion. 1 4'. insured. or deed. +ro)i1ited. Fct. 1" '. t)at a +articular and s+ecific la*.. ( takin. [=ecano v. 4. or to t)e risk. [Intl. Com+are *it) 1mplied trusts. as a fact. ( statement in a +olicy of matter relatin. [<orres.. identified 1y its num1er or title. of +rivately o*ned +ro+erty 1y a . La* Dict.

for t)ereafter. La*. (u.e somet)in. of farmers. "%tension services.. since it finally dis+oses of t)e action and leaves not)in. 3o. R( &5$!'.n and domestic 1orro*in. "%tension worker. Garcia.et clientele 1y +erformin. *ould 1e a final one. <)e second +)ase of t)e eminent domain action is concerned *it) t)e determination 1y t)e Court of t)e 2ust com+ensation for t)e +ro+erty sou. aut)orized 1y la*.overnment and non. R( 8"%8'. disseminatin. s)all 1e filed or )eard. [. [3ec. Dec. too. 4%%5'.al Dict.)t of condemnation -or t)e +ro+riety t)ereof. <o . 5.ical kno*led. for t)e +u1lic use or +ur+ose descri1ed in t)e com+laint. [(rt. of 9iKan v. information.overnment em+loyee *)o is +rimarily or fully en.ricultural sector suc) as trainin.s. contri1utions from t)e @ational Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 &1'. *ould an order of condemnation 1e a final one.F 81!. su+ervisin.overnment or. or im+lementin. (n a11reviation of . "%ternal sources of funds. 1usiness and social ca+a1ilities of farmers and fis)erfolk. "% rel.. 5.ed in t)e non-formal transfer of scientific and tec)nolo. <)ose t)at are o1tained from suc) sources as forei. <o +)ysically erase. [Du)aime:s Le. any one or a com1ination of t)e functions of facilitatin.. Crim.overnment or. (n order of dismissal. 148. in t)e +roceedin. of t)e com+laint.)t to 1e taken. credit assistance and t)e like.0+un. no o12ection to t)e e0ercise of t)e ri. not 1ein. if t)is 1e ordained. 4%%5'.anizations to t)e a. <)e +rovision of trainin. ".e and skills for t)e +ractical use of a s+ecific tar. more to 1e done 1y t)e Court on t)e merits.. as t)e Rules e0+ressly state..e )is residence. [3ec. from a court record means to remove every reference to it from t)e court file. of course. s)all e0+el any +erson from t)e 6)ili++ines or s)all com+el suc) +erson to c)an. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer or em+loyee *)o. and su++ort services 1y t)e . 1 & '.. ( . Latin for Ion t)e relation of..s 1efore t)e <rial Court.J It refers to information or action taken t)at is not 1ased on first-)and e0+erience 1ut is 1ased on t)e statement or account of anot)er +erson. 1. u+on t)e +ayment of 2ust com+ensation to 1e determined as of t)e date of t)e filin. 4.riculture and fis)eries sectors to im+rove t)e tec)nical.al Dict.y transfer +rovided 1y t)e Government and non. "%pulsion. <)e tec)nolo.anizations to t)e a. "%punge. 44. GR " 4"%.0 relatione. to *)ite or strike out..35 condemned.a. R6C'. [Du)aime:s Le. [=un.

amnesty. -f. GR L-8$ "$. fulfillment of a resolutory condition. =ali. -f.enerated t)rou. -e. +rescri+tion of t)e crime. 4 . or reluctant +erson 1y +)ysical force.)ts and actions t)rou. [Du)aime:s Le. C(.. 4.al Dict.) sale of stocks to t)e +u1lic. +rescri+tion. a +erson to . 1y +ayment or +erformance. [=orenoEs La* Dict. [Bri. Aorcin. funds . of a fortuitous event.uis)ed only *)en t)e deat) of t)e offender occurs 1efore final 2ud. 1y com+ensation. +. 1. "%tinguishing criminal liability. -c. [Claridades. -e. deat) of a +arty in case of +ersonal o1li. Delivery 1y t)e state of a +erson accused or convicted of a crime. -c. Case 45% . "%tortion.ment. . -c. "%tinctive prescription. #an. to anot)er state *it)in *)ose territorial 2urisdiction. and as to +ecuniary +enalties.. -f. rescission.itive *anted for a crime committed in anot)er Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . CC'. $. <)e loss of ri.er of t)e ri. 6eo+le. (u.. 1 &1 . $55 of t)e Code. La* 581 -1 "4. 1 5. -1. t)e marria. =odes> <)e causes t)at totally e0tin. *)ic) com+letely e0tin..)t v.)ts of creditor and de1tor. arrival of a resolutory +eriod. 1 &8'. La*. service of t)e sentence.uis) criminal lia1ility enumerated under (rt. [Diaz.an v. it *as committed and *)ic) asks for )is surrender *it) a vie* to e0ecute 2ustice. as to t)e +ersonal +enalties. 6enal Code are as follo*s> -a..ive u+ +ro+erty in a t)in. citin.d. !. )a++enin. +. & of t)e Rev. "%tort. La* Rev.. 1 &&. (dm. -d. "%tinguishment of obligations. Be1ster:s $rd @e* Intl.) t)e la+se of time. F1li.d. "%tradition. 9is)o+ Intl. Dict. as +rovided in (rt. <)e arrest and delivery of a fu. due. 4%%14%%"'..uis)es t)e +enalty and all its effects.al or official aut)ority. +rescri+tion of t)e +enalty. and donations from +rivate individuals or institutions [3ec.'. (. 1y novation..d.. "%tinguishment of obligations.) t)e use of violence. [(rt. GR 11$41$. <o o1tain from an un*illin. -d.. Ft)er causes> -a. 1y t)e condonation or remission of t)e de1t. -. 9us. 18%'. 14$1. 1y t)e loss of t)e t)in. annulment. [<an. -1. intimidation or t)e a1use of le. lia1ility t)erefore is e0tin. "%tract. Com+ilation of @otes.uis)ed> -a. [=acias v. -1.. 1y t)e confusion or mer. <o se+arate an ore or mineral from a de+osit. -e. a1solute +ardon.F !1&'. $!'. @ov. actual or constructive. t)rou. -. -d.'.35! Government in t)e form of su1sidy or ca+ital su1scri+tion +ayments.ations. 1!.e of t)e offended *oman. 4%%5'. t)e deat) of t)e convict. 4%%% . Intl. 1 1 .ations are e0tin. citin. fear or under +retense of aut)ority.

vidence.ers safely as far as )uman care and foresi. 18!!.d. 11$8. 4%%5'. Com+are *it) 9udicial admission.ers safely as far as )uman care and foresi. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3andoval. 18%'. citin.35" country.al <erms -6ro-3e. GR !!" 1. . [=orenoEs La* Dict.. +. Intl. <)is re7uires t)at t)ere 1e +u1lic. La* Revie*er 4%%$. %'.ence of very cautious +ersons. "%traordinary acquisitive prescription. DII. CC'. t)e utmost dili.d.. "%tradition treaties. 1 &8 ed. Com+are *it) 9udicial confession. <)at em+loyed for an e0ce+tional +ur+ose not usual. [9orillo v.ard for all t)e circumstances. Intl. *it) a due re. 1. ( duty to carry +assen. ( duty to carry +assen. 1 4. C(. "%traordinary diligence. (n admission made out of court. +. "%tra-(udicial admission. +o*er of t)e currency *)ic) could not )ave 1een reasona1ly foreseen. [Arancisco. GR L-5$55". +o*er of t)e 6)ili++ine currency *)ic) is unusual or 1eyond t)e common fluctuation in t)e value of said currency. years.. 1 8 . usin.ular or of t)e customary kind. =ay 41. usually under t)e terms of an e0tradition treaty. 6art 1.ation. 6ol. and suc) decrease or increase could not )ave 1een reasona1ly foreseen or *as manifestly 1eyond t)e contem+lation of t)e +arties at t)e time of t)e esta1lis)ment of t)e o1li.)t can +rovide. [Aili+ino 6i+e and Aoundry Cor+.)t can +rovide. *it) a due re. CC'. 1 %'... v.ard for all t)e circumstances. [Lausa v. "&'. Dol. re. #uly . usin. 4. t)e utmost dili. ( confession made 1y t)e accused in any ot)er +lace or occasion and cannot sustain a conviction unless its voluntariness is +roven and unless corro1orated 1y evidence of t)e cor+us delicti. +. . $. [Claridades. crime 1y facilitatin. @LRC. [Glossary of Le. @(B(3(. 4%%% . <)e surrender of an accused criminal 1y one state to t)e 2urisdiction of anot)er. (. =ay $.. +eaceful and uninterru+ted +ossession in t)e conce+t of o*ner for a +eriod of t)irty -$%. 9assiouni. Com+ilation of @otes. "%traordinary inflation or deflation of currency. GR 8 8$1. "%traordinary inflation. La*. <reaties entered into for t)e +ur+ose of su++ressin. 1 &&'. (ny uncommon decrease or increase in t)e +urc)asin. "%tra-(udicial confession. "%traordinary e%pense. t)e arrest and custodial transfer of a fu.ence of very cautious +ersons. ( decrease or increase in t)e +urc)asin. [(rt. 4%%1-4%%"'.itive from one state to t)e ot)er. (rt.0tradition.

ardless of . "%traordinary prescription. "%traordinary writ. availa1le remedies not re.. 1y +u1lication in a ne*s+a+er of . $!'. +. -1. "%trinsic fraud. "%traterritorial service of summons. Com+are *it) 1ntrinsic or latent ambiguity.. +. 4%%4.ant e0+enditures e0ceed t)e 1ounds of +ro+riety. 4%%14%%"'. =ay 1$.d. [#uristEs Le. "%traterritorial (urisdiction. <)e +o*er and 2urisdiction of t)e state 1eyond or outside its territory. ( *rit.0trava. [=orenoEs La* Dict. La*. +. Aor instance.al.uity not a++arent on t)e face of t)e *ritin.istered mail to t)e last kno*n address of t)e defendant.d. 181'. GR L-$5$15. (lso &ollateral fraud..ant Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . to 1e added in order to ascertain t)e meanin. or one *)ic) o+erates u+on matters +ertainin.. . (s a . Com+ilation of @otes. <)e service of summons effected. +rodi. F1li. lu0urious. out of t)e 6)ili++ines in t)ree *ays> -a.. +ro)i1ition and 7uo *arranto. *asteful. [De =id. ( fraud *)ic) +revents a +arty from )avin. +arty *)ic) +revented a fair su1mission of t)e controversy. $& FG 815'. and in2udicious. <)ese e0+enditures are immoderate.d. lavis). a trial or +resentin. (. makin. La* Revie*er. [Claridades. Aerandos.) fraudulent mac)ination 1y one -)is adversary.. a liti. and -c. 1ut to t)e manner 1y *)ic) suc) 2ud. often issued 1y an a++ellate court. 1 8!'. "%trinsic ambiguity.ment *as +rocured so muc) so t)at t)ere *as no fair su1mission of t)e controversy. not to t)e 2ud. *it) leave of court. in *)ic) case a co+y of t)e summons and order of t)e court s)ould 1e sent 1y re.ment.ularly *it)in t)e +o*ers of lo*er courts. dated %& 3e+.) la+se of time. +ersonal service. 1 &!'. it is any act or conduct of t)e +revailin.round for annulment of 2ud.. David. "%travagant e%penditures. <)ey include *rits of )a1eas cor+us.eneral circulation in suc) +laces and for suc) time as t)e court may order. all of )is case to t)e court.. (m1i. &&-!!-(. itself and re7uires somet)in. [3uarez. 4. [Arancisco v.36# [<orres. 4%%% .ood fait) or 1ad fait) on t)e +art of t)e adverse +ossessor. <)ose e0+enditure incurred *it)out restraint.ely v. 6ol. 1st . . (lso #atent ambiguity.al Dict.. 4%%% . re. <)e ac7uisition i+so facto of o*ners)i+ of real +ro+erty 1y +ossession t)rou.rossly e0cessive.. mandamus. 11!'. service of summons may 1e effected in any ot)er manner *)ic) t)e court may deem sufficient. if t)rou. 2udiciousness and economy. of t)e *ords used. C Cont. 1. 6ol. 4%%5'.ment itself. [CF( Circular @o.

La* Dict. 55"4$-R. Cited in 6)il.rounds of +u1lic +olicy.al +rinci+le t)us e0+ressed is t)at. motivation and recruitment of donors. DFL (dmin. eye tissue for trans+lant suc) as. 1 81. [3ec. Arom a 1ase cause no action arises.al or an immoral act. 5.ui.d. "% turpi causa non oritur action.) no fault of )is o*n. #uly $1. 1y =oreno.361 *as induced to *it)dra* )is defense or *as +revented from +resentin. ! 6)il. Lat. Darela v. [?atco v.radin. Frder 11.ment may 1e availed of. t)e e7uita1le relief a. researc) and/or teac)in. 1ut no limited to.ainst suc) 2ud.ment *as o1tained. +rocessin.!'. an availa1le defense or cause of action in t)e case *)erein t)e 2ud. <)e le. of donor 1lood. 3uma. and distri1ution of said tissue for trans+lant. Glossary of Conflict of La*s.. 4%%5' "ye bank. Com+are *it) 1ntrinsic fraud. ( la1oratory or institution *it) t)e ca+a1ility to +erform all or some of t)e activities related to +re+arin. screenin.. suc) t)at t)e a. on . [<etley. evaluation and .. eye and eye tissue retrieval. Dillanueva.rieved +arty *as de+rived of )is day in court t)rou. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . of eye/corneal tissue.. no court *ill lend its aid to a +arty *)o founds )is cause of action on an ille. 45&'. 1 84 .

d. !1 FG $5$4'. 1ut not limited to t)e collection of tolls. Dec. Lat.362 4acility operator. +.ations conducted 1y t)e +olice and ot)er investi. R( 881&'. 4.. I make -or do. *)ic) may or may not 1e t)e +ro2ect +ro+onent.. (= %%-5%8-3C'. 4acilities.ative a. 6art 1. +. and eit)er *)olly false or else *ar+ed and discolored 1y artifice and contrivance *it) a deceitful intent.encies to . [Qa+unan v.C.vidence manufactured or arran.d.e and *)en furnis)ed 1y t)e em+loyer are deducti1le t)erefrom. . #une $%. fees. (n innominate contract *)ic) is 1ased on t)e +rinci+le t)at Hno one s)all un2ustly enric) )imself at t)e e0+ense of anot)er. 4act-finding inquiry. Lat. [<orres.istered *it) t)e 3.. social *orker. Bed. o*ned 1y Aili+inos. t)ey form +art of t)e *a. and *)ic) is res+onsi1le for all as+ects of o+eration and maintenance of t)e infrastructure or develo+ment facility. ( com+any re. t)e la1orer *ould s+end and +ay for t)em 2ust t)e same. !$% 9lackEs Dict. 4acio ut des..vidence. v. Dol. L-8$5 . "&. so t)at 1y e0+ress +rovision of la*.. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ive.d.ious leader. . 4%%% . De Dilla. GR L5%545. ( +erson a++ointed 1y t)e court to +ose 7uestions to a c)ild *)o may 1e a c)ild +syc)olo. 4acilitator. of t)e a++ro+riate c)ar. 1 &%'. rentals or c)ar. [3ec.es from facility users> 6rovided. $'. 1 &&'.ed after t)e fact. Bed.e Co.at)er facts to su++ort t)e su1se7uent filin. La*. GR L-&$188. reli.d. 1 !!. Rem. or e0istin. ". . DII. t)e facility o+erator s)all 1e Aili+ino or at least si0ty +er centum -"%V. [Lerrera. t)at you make -or do. F1li. 1" '.es a.uidance counselor.ainst sus+ects. #uly 1 . 5 -c.. [3ec. <)e items of e0+ense necessary for t)e la1orer:s and )is family:s e0istence and su1sistence.s. [Cor+us v. [Arancisco. -44abricated evidence. C(. 1 .. [(tok-9i. assumed -for t)e moment. C Cont.. (tok-9i. (ny event or act or condition of t)in.e (ssn. since if t)ey are not furnis)ed. +syc)iatrist. 4acio ut facias.. teac)er.'. +. 1 8 . I do and you . !t) .ist. includin. as )a++enin. (n in7uiry akin to t)e investi. +arent or relative. 4act. <)at in case t)e facility re7uires a +u1lic utility franc)ise.. citin.

14%".. 4acultative obligation. must 1e +ersuaded.nation or any ot)er cause. *)et)er in t)e service or se+arated t)erefrom 1y resi. material evidencin. 4ailure of accountable officer to render accounts. t)e o1li.)t of t)e reinsurer to acce+t or not to acce+t +artici+ation in t)e risk insured.d. 4acultative. Comm.. [=oy ?a Lim ?ao v. Lat.ulation to render account to t)e CF( (uditor. [Claridades. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer. ( fact as to t)e correctness of *)ic) t)e court. [Intod v. +. [Arancisco.7uita1le Ins. 9ut once t)e s)are is acce+ted. C(. GR L185$". or to a +rovincial auditor and *)o fails to do so for a +eriod of t*o mont)s after suc) accounts s)ould 1e rendered. C Cont. ( +erson *)o takes +ro+erty or merc)andise of anot)er to sell for )im. . and 3urety Co. F1li.ation *)ere only one +restation )as 1een a. R6C'. La*. Crim.ation is a1solute and t)e lia1ility assumed t)ereunder can 1e disc)ar. 1ut t)e o1li. 41&. [<orres. Com+ilation of @otes. Com+ilation of @otes. CC'. 4actum probans.or may render anot)er in su1stitution. Rural Ins.reed u+on. $1.d. [(rt. $'. (n o1li. v. GR 1%$11 . +. Inc. La*. *)o is re7uired 1y la* or re. 4%%% .. 6art 1. <)ere is no alternative or su1stitute +restation. 1 8 ..vidence. [(rt. DII. Com+are *it) Alternative obligation.. and Casualty Co.. <)e term is used in reinsurance contracts merely to define t)e ri. Lat.)t to 1e esta1lis)ed. under t)e la* of t)e case. ( fact esta1lis)ed and +roved in evidence. #re-trial +ro+osition. It may also refer to a +erson or firm *)o takes over t)e accounts receiva1le of a 1usiness to collect sums of money due..ed 1y one and only *ay R +ayment of t)e s)are of t)e losses. 1 4'. 4actual impossibility. GR L414& . 4actor.. 41. 4actum probandum. 4%%14%%"'. Fne e0am+le is t)e man *)o +uts )is )and in t)e coat +ocket of anot)er *it) t)e intention to steal t)e latter:s *allet and finds t)e +ocket em+ty. 4act-in-issue. <)e ultimate fact sou. (lso &ommission agent. [Claridades. 5. $!%'. <)is occurs *)en e0traneous circumstances unkno*n to t)e actor or 1eyond )is control +revent t)e consummation of t)e intended crime. Crim. #an. <)e t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Dol. Fct.ration.363 Com+are *it) investigation. It is t)e fact 1y *)ic) t)e factum +ro1andum is esta1lis)ed. (. Fct. 4%%14%%"'. Inc. (. of Immi.. [. 1 81'. 1 "4'.

is filed and can 1e determined only from t)e alle. . R( 8&&% entitled I(n (ct +rovidin. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer *)o unla*fully leaves or attem+ts to leave t)e 6)ili++ines *it)out securin. *)et)er t)e t)ird +erson:s Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . GR 1%"1"5. 4ailure of elections.e or +ay. 4ailure of (ustice. Com+are *it) 6ack of cause of action.ement and em+loyee +rovidin. t)at t)e votes not cast t)erein suffice to affect t)e results of t)e elections. unless t)e la1orer *as a1le. v..ation to make +ayment from Government funds in )is +ossession.ations in t)e initiatory +leadin. Crim. R6C'. [#. 6D 15&8'. )as 1een )eld in any +recinct or +recincts 1ecause of force ma2eure. 18. 4air day's wage for a fair day's labor.overnin. 441. 4air and "quitable Access to "ducation Act. 4 6)il. t)at if t)ere is no *ork +erformed 1y t)e em+loyee t)ere can 1e no *a. Comelec. 1 !. (= R<#-%4-1" ". s)all refuse to make suc) delivery. R6C'. 4ailure to state a cause of action.)t.'.et for ca+ital outlayJ enacted on Ae1. Lo+ez. for t)e fair and e7uita1le allocation of t)e De+artment of .364 4ailure of a responsible public officer to render accounts before leaving the country. 6ro. Civ. (u. of t)e failure of re+aration for a +articular *ron. t)at )is accounts )ave 1een finally settled. and ready to *ork 1ut *as ille. *illin. [Domondon v.al remedy for t)e enforcement of t)e one or t)e redress of t)e ot)er. !88 -1 !$. 1efore a res+onsive +leadin. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer under o1li. Culture and 3+orts 1ud. from t)e lack or inade7uacy of a le.ally locked out.e a sufficient cause of action is raised in a motion to dismiss under Rule 1" -of t)e. and not from evidentiary or ot)er matters aliunde. [(rt. 4%. ordered 1y com+etent aut)ority to deliver any +ro+erty in )is custody or under )is administration. a certificate from t)e CF( s)o*in. <)e rule . [3ec. *)o s)all fail to make suc) +ayment. [(rt. 4airest test. 1 $'.. Leil1ronn Co. violence or terrorism. 4%%4'.ducation. <)e defeat of a +articular ri. and -1. <)e situation *)ere t)e com+laint -*)ic). 4ailure to make delivery of public funds or property.6. t)e relation 1et*een la1or and ca+ital or mana. La*. In determinin. #une 4%. t)at no votin. 1ein. a failure of election> -a. La*. does not alle. Rules of Court. Crim. 6reconditions for declarin. or 1y any +u1lic officer *)o. [3ardea v. @ational La1or Gnion. dismissed or sus+ended. 41 .

.. 4%%14%%"'. <)e +rice at *)ic) a +ro+erty may 1e sold 1y a seller *)o is not com+elled to sell and 1ou.enuine keys stolen from t)e o*ner. GR &54!". s)all issue a false certificate. in connection. 1. LGC'. [(rt. or 1y any +rivate +erson *)o s)all falsify a certificate fallin. . 4.ncarnacion.d. 4%1. 4alse keys. Lat. 3e+. R6C'. La*.al Dict. 4%%% . Com+ilation of @otes. [Alorentino v. [Glossary of Le. Defective ca+tion .. . -c. Aalse descri+tion does not in2ure or vitiate a document. =alicious +rosecution. R6C'. [(marante v. 4alse arrest. <)e value for *)ic) a reasona1le seller *ould sell an item of +ro+erty and for *)ic) a reasona1le 1uyer *ould 1uy it. $%. [3ec. 4allo. <)e dis+ositive +ortion -*)ic). *)et)er or not carried out 1y a +eace officer. 4air market value. -1. 4alsa demonstratio non nocet cum de corpore constat.. C(.iven to a +leadin.ood conduct or similar circumstances. 4%%5'. any +u1lic officer *)o s)all issue a false certificate of merit of service. 4%%5'. $%5 of t)e Rev. num1ers. <)e term s)all 1e deemed to include> -a. +rovided t)at t)e t)in. e0ce+t as a result of fire. of @otes. [(rt. 1 88'. 4%%1- 4alsa descriptio.al <erms -6ro-3e.. (ny unla*ful +)ysical restraint of anot)er:s +ersonal li1erty. 1 -l. -1. [Claridades. (. -c. is *)at actually constitutes t)e resolution of t)e court and *)ic) is t)e su12ect of e0ecution. GR 8"$&". 4all-of-building clause. *it) t)e +ractice of )is +rofession. (.$ issuance of. <)e tools mentioned in t)e (rt. 4. all insurance 1y t)e +olicy s)all immediately cease. <)e felony committed 1y> -a.. or any +art t)ereof falls. 8 3CR( 1 4. +. Crim. Com+ilation 4%%"'.eon *)o. *it)in t)e classes mentioned in t)e t*o +recedin. any keys ot)er t)an t)ose intended 1y t)e o*ner for use in t)e lock forci1ly o+ened 1y t)e offender. 3e+. 4alse medical certificates$ false certificates of merits or service$ etc.. $%!. =ay 41. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [Claridades.365 interest in a contract is a sti+ulation +our autrui or merely an incidental interest. any +)ysician or sur. C(. 1 %'. 1 4'. ( clause in a fire insurance +olicy t)at if t)e 1uildin. . Lat. [#uristEs Le. 6enal Code. [Rivera-Flac v.)t 1y a 1uyer *)o is not com+elled to 1uy. 185. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 18$'. 4alse accusation.. or +erson intended )as once 1een sufficiently descri1ed. t)e fairest test is to e0amine t)e intention of t)e +arties as disclosed 1y t)eir contract.

or surre+titiously removin. 4. a c)eck in +ayment of an o1li. *)ere1y a +erson o1tains anot)er:s money or . fineness or *ei. credit.al Dict. [Comm. (u. to )ave 1ri1ed any Government em+loyee.in.. of Int. ( material statement *)ic) is untrue and kno*in. #avier. or a+artment )ouse 1y t)e use of any false +retense..)t of anyt)in. inn. $1!. 4alse return. *it)out +re2udice to t)e action for calumny *)ic) t)e offended +arty may deem +ro+er to 1rin. +ertainin. 9y alterin. food. #uly $1.ainst t)e offender. or falsely +retendin. days from recei+t of notice from t)e 1ank and/or t)e +ayee or )older t)at said c)eck )as 1een dis)onored for lack of insufficiency of funds s)all 1e +rima facie evidence of deceit constitutin. any food. for )is food. [#uristEs Le. t)erefor. title or +ermit -under t)e +rovisions of t)e 6u1lic Land (ct. fictitious name. 9y usin.inary transactions. It may not al*ays 1e an attem+t to evade a ta0. any +art of )is 1a. or 1y a1andonin. to )is art or 1usiness. [(rt. 7ualifications. GR 8& !$. *)et)er intentional or not. Re+resentation of some fact or circumstance *)ic) is not true and is calculated to mislead. 1 85'. credit at )otel.366 4alse pretenses or fraudulent acts. influence. refres)ment or accommodation. Com+ilation of @otes.in. false +retense or fraudulent act [(s amended 1y R( 5&&!'. refres)ment or accommodation t)erein *it)out +ayin. refres)ment or accommodation at a )otel. restaurant.. or issuin.ation *)en t)e offender t)erein *ere not sufficient to cover t)e amount of t)e c)eck.er t)ereof. +ro+erty. )ouse. )ouse. lod. restaurant. -c. )ouse or a+artment )ouse after o1tainin. 1oardin. lod. 1oardin. <)e failure of t)e dra*er of t)e c)eck to de+osit t)e amount necessary to cover )is c)eck *it)in t)ree -$. t)e 7uality. or 1y o1tainin. t)us tendin... 1 1'. to mislead t)e official c)ar. t)e act e0ecuted +rior to or simultaneously *it) t)e commission of t)e fraud> -a. 1oardin. -1. 9y +retendin. 4$. 4%%14%%"'.ency. to +ossess +o*er. or a+artment )ouse and t)e like *it)out +ayin. )ouse. )ouse. )ouse. R6C'.oods. a. Rev. -d. 4.. a c)eck. GR L-4%!" . v.ly stated as suc) in t)e a++lication for a concession. C(. or 1y means of ot)er similar deceits. 9y +ostdatin. <)e term merely im+lies deviation from t)e trut). Com+are *it) 4raudulent return. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . inn.e from a )otel. 1.ed *it) t)e +rocessin.in. [(znar v. In t)e crime of estafa or s*indlin. (.a. credit. 4%%5'. lod. [Claridades. 4alse statement. <a0ation. a. 9y o1tainin. inn. 1. restaurant. -e. *it) intent to defraud t)e +ro+rietor or mana. of said a++lication. 1usiness or ima.

R6C'. 6enal Code. [(rt. u+on any material matter 1efore a com+etent +erson aut)orized to administer an oat) in cases in *)ic) t)e la* so re7uires. <)e felony committed 1y any ecclesiastical minister *)o s)all commit any of t)e offenses enumerated in t)e first +ara. 5$$'. [(rt. or 1y any +erson *)o. [(rt. La*. La*. <)e felony committed 1y any +u1lic officer. R6C'. 1&%. Crim. 6enal Code. 181 of t)e Rev. 1&%. s)all commit any of t)e false)oods mentioned in t)e Rev. =isre+resentation of a t)in. 4alsification. 6enal Code. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all .ive false testimony a. R6C'. 4alse testimony favorable to the defendants$ giving of. in case of a solemn affirmation made in lieu of an oat). 6enal Code in any +u1lic or official document or letter of e0c)an. any )and*ritin. La*.. Crim. any +rivate individual *)o s)all commit any of t)e falsifications enumerated in (rt. 1&1 and 1&4 of t)e Rev. Crim.ly makes untrut)ful statements and not 1ein. La*. R6C'. acts> 1. is true *)en it is not. or make an affidavit.. any of t)e follo*in. Causin.e of )is official +osition.)t to make t)e re+resentation or certificate. fact or condition. [G3 v.nature or ru1ric. Crim. certifyin. R6C'. [(rt. 1 6)il. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o s)all .ra+) of (rt.36 4alse testimony against a defendant$ giving of. 4.ainst t)e defendant in any criminal case. 4alsification by public officer$ employee or notary. 184. included in t)e +rovisions of (rt. and 4. em+loyee. *)et)er one )as t)e ri.e. it to a++ear t)at Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . s)all testify under oat). 181 of t)e Rev. or *it) t)e intent to cause suc) dama. 4alsification by ecclesiastic minister. 9uenaventura. 1&1. advanta. La*. 181 of t)e Rev. takin. La*. or imitatin. *it) res+ect to any record or document of suc) c)aracter t)at its falsification may affect t)e civil status of +ersons. 6enal Code. s)all in any +rivate document commit any of t)e acts of falsification enumerated in (rt.e of a t)ird +arty. any +erson *)o. si. *)o kno*in. 181. Crim. t)at a t)in. 1&$. to t)e dama. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson. s)all falsify a document 1y committin.ive false testimony in favor of t)e defendant in a criminal case.e or any ot)er kind of commercial document. <)e felony committed 1y> 1. or notary *)o. 4alse testimony in other cases and per(ury in solemn affirmation$ making of. [(rt. 4alsification by private individual. Counterfeitin. Crim.

e of any system or falsifies t)e same.unsad v. or includin. 4alsify. 18%. 181. to 1e a co+y of an ori. 4alsification of a private document. or &. 1 5'. it. Civil La* Revie*er. 8. 1 &8 ed. [(rt. ( natural and social institution founded on t)e con2u. R6C'. 1 t) Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <o tam+er *it) or alter.inal. #une 4". Inc. (rt. GR "!4!. ". to.. (ttri1utin. v. R6C'. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o. Aalse in one +art. re. a++roval 1y eit)er Louse of Con.ress or any +rovincial 1oard or munici+al council. citin. La*. Crim. Crim.et)er t)e individuals com+osin. 4amily. Intercalatin. <o re+resent falsely. *it)out +ro+er aut)ority t)erefor alters any 1ill. [6(L. (lterin. resolution. Lat. [La. statements ot)er t)an t)ose in fact made 1y t)em. or ordinance enacted or a++roved or +endin. (7uino. 4alsus in uno$ falsus in omnibus. 18$. [#urado. or different from. or receivin. 4alsification of legislative documents. II.enuine ori. Issuin. in suc) a co+y a statement contrary to. untrut)ful statements in a narration of facts. or *)o s)all use suc) falsified dis+atc) to t)e +re2udice of a t)ird +arty or *it) t)e intent of cause suc) +re2udice.inal e0ists. GR &8$!$. Ae1. <)e crime is not committed 1y t)e mere falsification of t)e document. for t)e common accom+lis)ment of t)e individual and s+iritual ends of life. It does not suffice t)at t)e document itself 1e false.ra+) or tele+)one messa. R6C'. any instrument or note relative to t)e issuance t)ereof in a +rotocol. false in everyt)in. distort or violate t)e trut). [(rt. t)at of t)e . Crim.a. 1indin. *)en t)ey did not in fact so +artici+ate. =akin. +. or official 1ook. v. 1 1'. Dol. GR 1%5 $ . $. 1. in an aut)enticated form a document +ur+ortin. #uly $.inal ascendant *)o )eads it. La*. 4"5.e *)o utters a fictitious *ireless.al union.36! +ersons )ave +artici+ated in any act or +roceedin. [(rt. under t)e aut)ority of t)e ori.istry.enuine document *)ic) c)an.. 1ut t)ere must also 1e +roved t)e +re2udice caused to a t)ird +erson or t)e intention to cause it. La*. =akin. 4. ca1le or tele+)one messa.ed in t)e service of sendin. to +ersons *)o )ave +artici+ated in an act or +roceedin. 5. !.. any alteration or intercalation in a . <)e commission of a crime 1y an officer or em+loyee of t)e Government or of any +rivate cor+oration or concern en. 184 -4. 4alsification of wireless$ cable$ telegraph and telephone messages$ and use of said falsified messages. tele.. @LRC. R6C'. [=ercury Dru. C(. @LRC. *ireless.inal document *)en no suc) ori. 1 4.es its meanin. true dates.

. Loans . 4amily &ourts Act of +. amendin.rantin. 1!%. )ouse *)ere a )us1and and *ife. . 4amily home. funds t)erefor and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on Fct. and amon... 4. 18!'. ot)er descendants. 3urname. union or connection *)ic) e0ists 1et*een mem1ers of t)e family. . +arent and c)ild.inal 2urisdiction over c)ild and family cases. <)ey include t)ose> -a. and as amon. R( "81$'. 8$'.e of +u1lic officials or em+loyees. AC'. t)em e0clusive ori.ranted to currently em+loyed mi. )ouse *)ere t)ey and t)eir family reside. +. or an unmarried )ead of t)e family resides. 14 . <)e s+ouses and unmarried c)ildren under ei.rant *orkers or t)eir eli.. ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e #udiciary Reor. 1 &8. 18!'. Intro.8. 1&8. +. -c.d. emer. AC'. [3uarez. Aamily Courts. [(rt. 4&. 4amily-si e fishpond. +. $%. 4.)teen -1&. <)e d*ellin. $. R( &$" entitled I(n (ct esta1lis)in. (n area of fis)+ond t)at +ermits t)e efficient use of la1or and ca+ital resources of a family to +roduce an income sufficient to meet a family:s need for food. +. $-$. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. and t)e land on *)ic) it is situated. Constituted 2ointly 1y t)e )us1and and t)e *ife or 1y an unmarried )ead of a family. 1 8. 1 ! $rd .ency situations. 4amily assistance loans. ( 1asic social institution *)ic) +u1lic +olicy c)eris)es and +rotects. 1rot)ers and sisters. 5 Dalverde &'. a++ro+riatin.. IRR. 1et*een +arents and c)ildren. 4%%% . 4amily relationship. as t)at 1et*een )us1and and *ife.. 4amily &ode. 1et*een )us1and and *ife. to La*.d.i1le de+endents/families in t)e 6)ili++ines to tide t)em over durin.ned on #uly ". 1rot)ers and sisters. [(rt. forced sale or attac)ment e0ce+t as +rovided 1y la* and to t)e e0tent of t)e value allo*ed 1y la*. and t)e land on *)ic) it is situated. [3ec. [3ec. s)elter. )ealt) and education *it) reasona1le reserves to Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4amily name. 4amily of public officials or employees. -1.d. and is e0em+t from e0ecution. as amended. +. *)et)er of t)e full or )alf-1lood. 1!4 and 1!$. 9atas 6am1ansa 9ilan. R( &%54'. <)e relation. it is t)e d*ellin. [=orenoEs La* Dict.36" . amon. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4amily relations. *)ic) is no* deemed constituted from t)e time it is occu+ied as a family residence. citin. CC'.F 4% entitled I<)e Aamily Code of t)e 6)ili++inesJ si.es. 4%%% . 1.. 1!4. clot)in.. (rts.d. citin.anization (ct of 1 &%. years of a.

R( ""!8'. 4nd . ( natural +erson *)o renders service value as an em+loyee or la1orer in an a. $. 1"". 5. R( $&55'. 5. mont)ly or +akya* 1asis. or cor+orations duly re. a. Dict.ricultural +roducers. 5. of domestic or ot)er animals. Aarmers and fis)erfolk:s coo+eratives. as a farm em+loyer. ( +lot or tract of land devoted to t)e raisin.reement or arran. *eekly. and ot)er a. [3ec. Land tools or mac)ines ordinarily em+loyed in a farm enter+rise. 1. [3ec.ricultural cro+s. coastal landin.rarian reform 1eneficiaries *)o voluntarily 2oin to.'. R( &5$!'.3 # a1sor1 yearly fluctuation income. Aarmers: coo+eratives. 1ut s)all not include any la1or or. farm*orkers. ( natural +erson *)ose +rimary liveli)ood is cultivation of land or t)e +roduction of a. ( natural +erson *)o renders 4arm. farm *orkers.overnment a.ent of suc) la1or or.istered *it) a++ro+riate . or cor+orations duly re. t)e a. 4arm employer. farmers. [Be1ster:s Intl. or 1y anot)er +erson under a lease)old or s)are tenancy a.d.et)er to form 1usiness enter+rises or non1usiness or.encies and *)ic) are com+osed +rimarily of small a.encies and *)ic) are com+osed +rimarily of small a. associations.)*ays.overnment a. [3ec. 4armers' organi ation. 3ec.et)er to form 1usiness enter+rises *)ic) t)ey t)emselves o*n. (ny +erson actin. 4armworker.ardless of *)et)er )is com+ensation is +aid on a daily. *)et)er t)e land is o*ned 1y )im. R( 8"%8'. -1 !5. control and +atronize. eit)er 1y )imself. R( 8"%8'. 4. farmers. 1""..anizations *)ic) t)ey t)emselves o*n. in t)e ca+acity of an officer or a. [3ec. directly or indirectly in t)e interest of a farm em+loyer *)et)er for +rofit or not. [3ec. [3ec.istered *it) a++ro+riate . 4arm implements. 6D 8%5'. 4arm-to-market roads. $.anization -ot)er*ise t)an *)en actin.ricultural enter+rise or farm re. or anyone actin.anization. +oints and +ost)arvest facilities to t)e market and arterial roads and )i.ricultural +roducers. or +rimarily *it) t)e assistance of )is immediate farm )ouse)old. 4armer's and fisherfolk's organi ations or associations. 4armer. R( &5$!. associations.rarian reform Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [3ec. as *ell as a la1or contractor.ement *it) t)e o*ner t)ereof. [3ec. 5. fis)erfolk *)o voluntarily 2oin to. 5.riculture and fis)eries +roduction sites. R( $&55'. R( &!!%'. in 1eneficiaries. control and +atronize. Roads linkin.

Gmad)ay. (u. *eekly. 1 " . terms and conditions of em+loyment. 1 $'. It is a reaction to an e0ternal dan. (n e0am+le is t)e Gnited 3tates. [6eo+le v.d. <)e term includes an individual *)ose *ork )as ceased conse7uence of. in *)ole or in +art. a. 4A). 4ee for service..rarian dis+ute and *)o )as not o1tained a su1stantially e7uivalent and re. 4ederal union. Lat. [6eo+le v. Dulay. deadly or mortal.. 1 !'.ulation or ins+ection of a 1usiness or activity.er *)ic) is +erceived to cause )im )arm. Wervoulakos. 4eatherbedding activities. (ny union or association of farm *orkers *)ic) e0ists.e fi0ed 1y la* or ordinance for t)e re. (lso .ree of +o*er over t)eir domestic affairs and t)eir in)a1itants. 4ederation. 1&. Causin. 3ee 4ree alongside ship. (n un+leasant emotional state c)aracterized 1y antici+ation of +ain or . u+on mer. feet in len. [3ec.ardless of *)et)er )is com+ensation is +aid on a daily. 1" Bords C 6)rases 55&'. GR 1%$ 8!.3 1 service for value as an em+loyee or la1orer in an a.reat distress. 1 &. R( ""!8'. citin.ainin.e for Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . *it) farm em+loyers concernin. La1or Rel. La*. 4ee.t) [9lack:s La* Dict. !t) .d. [Cruz. R( 81"%'. ( com1ination of t*o or more states *)ic). Intl. 4athom. (n unfair la1or +ractice of a union for e0actin.ricultural enter+rise or farm re.ular farm em+loyment. 1$1. 1$'. 3ee 4ederal union. 4avorabilia sunt amplianda adiosa restrigenda. 4arm workers' organi ation. [3ec.. #an. +. ( nautical measure of si0 -".er. $. 4$. (lso 4ederation. 1 . $.. in t)e creation of a ne* state *it) full international +ersonality to re+resent t)em in e0ternal relations and a certain de.iven retroactive effect. [6eo+le v. GR 11 !55. 1"". [3ec. for t)e +ur+ose of collective 1ar. mont)ly or H+akya*H 1asis. Ae1. !58'. 4ear. ( reasona1le and e7uita1le )ealt) care +ayment system under *)ic) +)ysicians and ot)er )ealt) care +roviders receive a +ayment t)at does not e0ceed t)eir 1illed c)ar. a +endin. to e0act from an em+loyer. +. La*. [6o7uiz. ceases to 1e states. Intl. com+ensation for service nor rendered or not intended to 1e rendered. resultin. or dealin. La* Revie*er. deat). 4atal. or attem+tin. 1"8'.d. R( $&55'. GR 4"%%. or in connection *it). 6enal la*s *)ic) are favora1le to t)e accused are . ( c)ar.ake-work activities.

. +. 1 . R6C'.)ts of dis+osal and recovery. (lso 1rrumation. Gonzales. sell or dis+ose of. 4elonies. *)o is not a +rinci+al or accom+lice in t)e commission of t)e crime of ro11ery or t)eft. kee+. 4encing. 4. e2aculation. t)e +enis and initiatin. 3in. t)ere must 1e an act or omission.al Dict. 3e0ual .droso v.. almost all land is )eld in fee sim+le and t)is is as close as one can . and -c. 4elonies. to )ave 1een de+rived from t)e +roceeds of t)e crime of ro11ery or t)eft. [Flarte. t)ere is. <)e act of any +erson *)o. of value )as 1een derived from t)e +roceeds of t)e crime of ro11ery or t)eft. t)e accused. or in any manner deals in any article. 6D 1"14'. association cor+oration or +artners)i+ or ot)er or.3 2 eac) unit of service +rovided. 4ee simple absolute. on t)e +art of t)e accused. -4%%5. 3a1lana. item. (lso Delitos. Le.et to a1solute o*ners)i+ in common la*. [Du)aime:s Le. t)e accused kno*s or s)ould )ave kno*n t)at t)e said article. 4%%5'.. (cts and omissions +unis)a1le 1y la*. 1st . or in any manner deal in any article.lements> -a. Le. R( 451'.al =ed. 11!'. <)e ri.. or 1uys and sells.. conceal. unlimited form of o*ners)i+ of real +ro+erty. receives.d. [3ec. =ar. [3ec. item. sells or dis+oses. of value *)ic) )e kno*s. [#uristEs Le. o12ect or anyt)in. 1 %'. 4. ( crime of ro11ery of t)eft )as 1een committed. of value. 4encing. <)e most com+lete. 4ee simple.eneral are> -a. receive. *it) intent to . 1$.ain for )imself or for anot)er s)all 1uy. o12ect or anyt)in. item. [(rt. In modern la*. kee+s.al =ed. [. 1 1$'. Com+are *it) &unnilingus. GR "&8&. 4.lements. 3e+. -1. $. 4elony. 1ut also 1y means of fault -cul+a.. of 4elonies. conceals. firm. +ossesses. t)e tenant to sell or convey 1y *ill or 1e transfer to a )eir if t)e o*ner dies intestate. 1uys. or s)ould 1e kno*n to )im. 1. o12ect or anyt)in. 6enal Code. and -d. <)e elements of felonies in . or s)all 1uy and sell. <)ey are committed not only 1e means of deceit -dolo. ac7uires.ratification attained 1y suckin. intent to . 4%%5'. +ossess. 4ellatio. t)e act is +erformed or t)e omission incurred 1y means of deceit or fault. [6eo+le v. *)ic) )as 1een derived from t)e +roceeds of t)e said crime.. -c. . ac7uire.anization *)o/*)ic) commits t)e act of fencin.ain for Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . <)e most e0tensive tenure allo*ed under t)e feudal system allo*in. 4ence. 1. 6D 1"14'. GR &%8"4. (ny +erson. . [3ec. t)e act or omission must 1e +unis)a1le under t)e Rev. -1.al Dict.

surety. 3+. 1 &8'. (u.or...ratification. [Dizon6amintuan v. cro+ yield or im+rovin. t)e tenant *ould 1e +rotected from attack. *)ic) are small 1ody of *aters se+aratin. . citin. 4eudal system. [Claridades. 4%%14%%"'. 1 4"'. +.uarantor. #uly 11. 4%%5'. Inc. City of 9acolod. in a curved s)a+e 1et*een t*o +oints as a decoration. -4%%5. +lant . rivers or even lakes. to a t)ird +erson *)o receives t)e name of 1eneficiary -fideicomisario. suc) as military assistance or money. Dec. Cor+. 4ictitious sale.)*ay *)en crossin.e. +. 11. $.) t)e )eavens s)ould fall.<enants *ould lease land from t)e lord in e0c)an. 6D 1155'. 1 5'. 9eneficiary. R( &5 1'. <uason.solid or li7uid .e for loyalty and .al =ed. t)eir 7uality. ( form or manner of testamentary su1stitution 1y *)ic) t)e testator or trustor c)ar.ro*t).oods or services. $. [3an 6a1lo v. v. Ro11:s Dict. ?ared.al Dict. 4iat (ustitia ruat coelum.e of confidence im+osed u+on t)e first-1orn usufructuary +ossessor Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( sale *)ic) does not +roduce le. Let ri. 6eo+le. 3+. 41. Le. (. 6antranco 3out) . ( se0ual +erversion *)erein t)e real or fantasized +resence of an o12ect or 1odily +art is necessary for se0ual stimulation and/or . [Flarte. [3ec.uro+e 1et*een &%% and 15%% and t)at revolved around a multilevel )ierarc)y 1et*een lords -*)o )eld land .. 4etishism. 1st . In e0c)an. ! 6)il.)out muc) of . 4erryboat service.anic sin. GR 11154". Com+ilation of @otes. $1. t)e land. ( social structure t)at e0isted t)rou. 9ondsman. 4ertili er.. 1acker. of Le. and t)eir tenants -also called Dassals. 9ankin.. 3+. !"'.3 3 )imself or for anot)er. GR 4$ 4$. <rust. ( c)ar.al <erms -1 "". 11"'.d. 1ailor.. 1 8%.. 4ideicomisario. a++lied directly to t)e soil for t)e +ur+ose of +romotin.. (ny su1stance .anic or inor. or all t)ereof. [9arretto v.ly or in com1ination *it) ot)er materials. [Luzon 3urety v. 4iador. increasin. 4$. Com+are *it) &oastwise or interisland shipping service. Le. ( *ater trans+ort service considered as a continuation of t)e )i.or any nutrient element or elements .es t)e )eir -trustee.e in t)e 2uridical situation of t)e +arties.al effects or any c)an. GR L-"15"1 C "1!%1. 1 $$'. 84.ranted under tenure from t)e kin. [3ec. GR L4$"1&.. [Du)aime:s Le. Lat. (u. 4ideicomiso.)t 1e done t)ou. 4estoon... [Intl. =ar.al =ed..0+ress. <o )an. to deliver a certain ali7uot +ortion of t)e estate.

3 4 to +reserve t)e entailed +ro+erties in order to deliver in due time t)e +ossession and en2oyment t)ereof to t)e succeedin. in any fiduciary ca+acity for any +erson. +. 4ideicommissary substitution. citin. t)eft or any act of t)e +rinci+al o1li. <uason.. 4iduciary.. t)ere must 1e an o1li. as amended'. +. and -c. 44.)ts *)ic) )e must e0ercise to t)e 1enefit of t)e 1eneficiary. &"$-&"!. <)e su1stitution must not .es. 1. GR 4$ 4$.al Dict. [#urado. citin. +. 1 8. )im to deliver to anot)er t)e *)ole or +art of t)e in)eritance under t)e circumstances +rovided in (rt. Limitations> -a. -1. &"$.e. !. or any +erson actin.inally instituted.nates a +erson as an )eir c)ar. 6erez v. i. Garc)itorena. ( su1stitution 1y virtue of *)ic) t)e fiduciary or first )eir instituted is entrusted *it) t)e o1li. [Claridades. t)e su1stitution must not 1urden t)e le. t)e su1stitution must 1e made e0+ressly. first-1orn. $-$'. to anot)er +erson.itime of com+ulsory )eirs. [#uristEs Le. (rts. Comments C #uris+. @IRC. 1 1 &t) . +ersonal re+resentative or e0ecutor of an estate. [(rt. It takes +lace *)ere t)e testator desi. 4. =ar. Comments C #uris+.d. !5 6)il. [9enc) 9ook for <rial Court #ud. (. [#urado. 4ideicommissary substitution. ( . 4%%5'. -1. <)ere must 1e a first )eir +rimarily called to t)e en2oyment of t)e estate. t)e fiduciary and t)e fideicommissary must 1e livin. 4%%14%%"'. at t)e time of t)e deat) of t)e testator. 4$. -c. 1 4". administrator. 4idelity bond.)ts and +o*ers *)ic) *ould normally 1elon. [3ec. &"$ of t)e Civil Code. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . CC'. 1 "-1 8. *)ic) is t)e classic form of a fiduciary relations)i+. Dol.. on 3uccession. 1 1 &t) .uardian trustee.. receiver. <)e term is synonymous to a trustee. infidelity. 4. ( fiduciary )as ri. ( kind of surety 1ond under *)ic) t)e lia1ility of t)e surety is conditioned u+on dis)onesty. ( +erson or institution *)o mana.ation clearly im+osed u+on t)e first )eir to +reserve t)e estate and to transmit it to t)e second )eir. Com+ilation of @otes. e0ecutor. conservator. <)e fiduciary )olds t)ose ri. 5$1'. etc.in.es money or +ro+erty for anot)er and *)o must e0ercise a standard care im+osed 1y la*.or amountin. Re7uisites> -a. 1. Diccionario de la (dministracion .. on 3uccession.d. a trustee.s+aKola. to estafa. +. "$!'.ation to +reserve and to transmit to a second )eir t)e *)ole or +art of t)e in)eritance. CC'. $. and -d. [9arretto v.o 1eyond one de. 4ideicommissary substitution.ree from t)e )eir ori. citin. t)ere must 1e a second )eir.

4ieri facias writ. and *)ere 1y reason of kins)i+. t)e course of relations)i+.oin. confidential relations)i+ e0ist *)ic) +ro)i1its t)e one entrusted from seekin. AC'. various documents. 4ile.ard to anot)er and t)e latter re+oses a de. 1 t) . nationali ation law. a s)eriff to take and sell enou. 184.ularly +erform t)eir duties a*ay from t)e +rinci+al +lace of 1usiness or 1ranc) office of t)e em+loyer and *)ose actual )ours of *ork in t)e field cannot 1e determined *it) reasona1le certainty. Fct. 4ield personnel. [3otto v. and affords a 1asis for im+osin. <)e record of 1irt) a++earin. +. Civil La* Revie*er. t)e le. 4ilipini ation law. an admission of le. [(rt. or ot)er +a+er to t)e clerk of court.ister or a final 2ud.ment. or -1. RoC'. LC'. t)e . t)e o+en and continuous +ossession of t)e status of a le. -1 .> -a.e of t)e 6)ili++ines. 4%%5'. 4%%5'.e or +)ysical or mental condition or ot)er reason. <)e filiation of le. R( 81%5'. <)e act of +resentin. In t)e a1sence of t)e fore. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . La*. in t)e civil re. <o +lace a +a+er in t)e official custody of t)e clerk of court/court administrator to enter into t)e files or records of a case. [Glossary of Le. 1 "'. social. &4. $1. 4%%5'. Rem.al. <eves. @on-a. a constructive trust. 4iliation. [3ec.ua.rantee is in an es+ecially intimate +osition *it) re. [3ec.ment. [Du)aime:s Le.3 5 4iduciary relation$ what constitutes. <)e relation 1et*een +arties in order to 1e fiduciary need not 1e le. <)e fee re7uired for filin. evidence. 1ut 1y moral.d. Rule 1$. 3ee #aternity. 1 8&'.ree of trust and confidence in t)e former. to +ay t)e de1t o*ed 1y t)e 2ud. La*. 4. <)e civil status of a c)ild in relation to )is/)er fat)er or mot)er.. Rem. [Glossary of Le. 4iliation$ proof of. GR L-$&%1&. domestic or merely +ersonal. 3ee 4ilipino. $. dis+arity in a.al <erms -6ro-3e. 4iling fee. [(rt. or -1. [#urado.ned 1y t)e +arent concerned. <)e national lan. 4iling.al Dict.. ( *rit commandin..itimate c)ild. t)e +leadin.ricultural em+loyees *)o re. 1usiness association..itimate filiation in a +u1lic document or a +rivate )and*ritten instrument and si.al <erms -6ro-3e.itimate c)ildren is esta1lis)ed 1y any of t)e follo*in.) +ro+erty from t)e +erson *)o lost t)e la*suit. (ny ot)er means allo*ed 1y t)e Rules of Court and s+ecial la*s. a selfis) 1enefit for )imself durin.itimate filiation s)all 1e +roved 1y> -a.

u+ of t)e +roceedin. La*. naturalization. @ov. 4%%1 . Ainality of 2ud. +rivile. La*. Aili+inos *)o are +ermanent residents a1road.)ts. Civ. 5 $'. ( 2ud. GR 1%%"4". 4. t)e +reliminary mandatory in2unction. La*. recommendations and ot)er acts a. XII of t)e 1 &8 Constitution'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . GR 11&4 !. includin. 1 8'. of t)e 9oard of Directors t)ereof are citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines.. or a cor+oration or ot)er 2uridical entity.s of a di+lomatic conference and usually includes a re+roduction of t)e te0ts of treaties. [3ec. (n. reco. [Co7uia and 3antia. [3ec.. *)o is a citizen of t)e 6)ili++ines. (n instrument *)ic) records t)e *indin.s of a conference. 1 1'. 4ilipino-first policy.es. [3ec. La*.nition. and concessions coverin. t)e conference. in t)e case of a cor+oration. $4!. and t)eir descendants. is o*ned and )eld 1y citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines and at least si0ty +er cent -"%V.s of a +rotracted conference *)ic) may )ave taken +lace over several years. and in t)e case of any ot)er 2uridical entity. at least si0ty +ercent -"%V. [Aeria and @oc)e. 4ilipinos overseas.ara.ment rendered after trial *)ic) +er+etually restrains t)e +arty or +erson from t)e commission or continuance of t)e act or acts. Intl. $.ment *)ic) 1ecomes Hfinal and e0ecutoryH 1y o+eration of la*.ned 1y t)e +leni+otentiaries attendin. <)e constitutional +rovision *)ere1y t)e 3tate is mandated to . 4 . conventions. 4inal in(unction. t)e national economy and +atrimony. of its ca+ital stock outstandin. $rd . Dol. It is not t)e treaty itself. Rem.n countries or are still Aili+ino citizens a*aitin.3 6 4ilipino contractor. . -1 &.ive +reference to 7ualified Aili+inos in t)e . Intl. =ay 4. 96 8 '. Com+are *it) 4inal (udgments. +arty is entitled to a *rit of e0ecution. 3ec. 4inal act. C(. ( 2ud. 1. RoC'. of *)ic).reed u+on and si. 6ro. <)e records of t)e *indin. t)e +revailin. [City of =anila v. 4. [<aKada v. Rule !&. Rem. or admission. of its e7uity is o*ned and )eld 1y citizens of t)e 6)ili++ines. at least si0ty +ercent -"%V. 1%.ment 1ecomes a fact u+on t)e la+se of t)e re. It is rat)er a summary of t)e +roceedin.o. citin. +. Aili+ino emi.d. (nnotated. ( construction contractor. u+ of t)e +roceedin.rants *)o are eit)er already citizens of forei. (rt.lementary +eriod to a++eal if no a++eal is +erfected.rant of ri. 4inal and e%ecutory (udgment. +. 3ee Act.d. 6D 11"8'. and issuance t)ereof is a ministerial duty of t)e court. and entitled to vote. 1. In suc) a situation. 3ometimes called #rotocol de cloture. or confirmin.

1 -&". costs and +rofits. 4inancial assistance. La*. GR 14%&18.lementary +eriod for a++eal. 5. [=arcelo v. ad2udicate. leavin. +arty as a matter of ri. La*. GR &$11$. (. GR 1%%"4". <)e .)ts of t)e +arties in t)e case. GR !4 ". t)e e0+iration of t)e re. collection fees. [Reyes v. out of money to anot)er *it)out t)e e0+ectation of any returns Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . or action.encies must 1ecome final at some definite date fi0ed 1y la*. Rem.inal condition. 4inance lease. =ay 1 . 1 $'. Com+are *it) 4inal and e%ecutory (udgment. Rem. (lso 4ull payout lease. a case. of a case. 1 4. citin. Com+are *it) 1nterlocutory order. [9eltran v. of s+ecified rental amounts for t)e use of a lessor:s +ro+erty. Rem. 4 . [3ec. and ot)er service c)ar. @ov. not)in. C(. t)e order to +lace t)e +arties in t)eir ori. de Guzman.)t in suc) manner as to +ut it out of t)e +o*er of t)e court makin. La*. not)in. 9ut suc) 2ud.ated 1y t)e DFA on 1 #an.. ( resolution finally dis+osin.ation fees. 1 &8'. 4inal (udgments. La*. sufficient in total to amortize t)e ca+ital outlay of lessor and to +rovide for t)e lessor:s 1orro*in.es. or determine t)e ri. it is t)at *)ic) dis+oses of t)e *)ole su12ect matter or terminates t)e +articular +roceedin.ment of court and a*ard of 7uasi-2udicial a. Durin. Fne *)ic) eit)er terminates t)e action itself or o+erates to vest some ri. 4inal resolution.rounded on t)e fundamental +rinci+le of +u1lic +olicy and sound +ractice t)at at t)e risk of occasional error.ments are not yet Hfinal and e0ecutoryH +endin.ivin. t)at +eriod. t)e 2ud. $. 115 3CR( "!8'.3 4inality of (udgment rule. Re. @o.ments *)ic) finally dis+ose of.. 1 "'. +ayment over an o1li. Rev. C(.atory +eriod -also called +rimary or 1asic +eriod. 6(IC Ainance Cor+. 4inal (udgment or order. #ud.)t. suc) as one dismissin. $. Rem. Com+ilation of @otes.. 4 #une 1 &4. Rem. L-4 %88. (n order *)ic) dis+oses of t)e *)ole su12ect matter or terminates a +articular +roceedin. 4inance charges. La*. 6romul. R( &5&5'. e0ecution of t)e 2ud. [City of =anila v. <)e amount to 1e +aid 1y t)e de1tor incident to t)e e0tension of credit suc) as interest or discounts.s or action. =ore s+ecifically. ( contract involvin. 4%%14%%"'.ment cannot yet 1e demanded 1y t)e *innin. leavin. [Claridades. ( rule . 1 1'. [Ceniza v. to 1e done 1ut to enforce 1y e0ecution *)at )as 1een determined. @ov. to 1e done 1ut to enforce 1y e0ecution *)at )as 1een determined. C(. 4inal order or (udgment. credit investi. Ae1.

ricultural enter+rises. ( contract involvin. 1. ( mode of e0tendin. or factorin. raises or su++lies money for. It connotes an e0 . 6D 81'.es. commercial. R( 1"!'. 1usiness and office mac)ines. 4. investin.anized for t)e +ur+ose of e0tendin. 1. savin. investments )ouses.atory +eriod of not less t)an t*o -4. [3ec $. v.)t to )old and use t)e leased +ro+erty *it) t)e ri. motor ve)icles. [3ec.al activities +rescri1ed under R( 1"!. $. insurance com+anies. (ny +erson *)o finances t)e o+erations of any ille. financial or tec)nical assistance for lar. of Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 4inancier or &apitalist. $1. 4inancial or technical assistance agreement. develo+ment. 1 & '. *)ic) are +rimarily or.) a noncancela1le lease contract under *)ic) t)e lessor +urc)ases or ac7uires. mac)inery.) t)em. 4inancial leasing. eit)er for t)eir o*n account or for t)e account of ot)ers. #an.3 ! t)erefrom. at t)e instance of t)e lessee. or a.ame. insurance and +reservation t)ereof.escale e0+loration. years durin. or +lacement of funds or evidences of inde1tedness or e7uity de+osited *it) t)em. GR 8% 4". or ot)er evidences of inde1tedness. and ot)er financial institutions or. and sellin.ratia dole out in favor of someone driven into a state of destitution. R( 8 54'. 4inancier. *)ic) t)e lessee )as t)e ri.)t to e0+ense t)e lease rentals +aid to t)e lessor and 1ears t)e cost of re+airs. or ot)er*ise coursed t)rou. contracts. [3ec. coo+eratives. e7ui+ment. 4inancing companies.a. (ny +erson *)o +ays for. R( &!!"'. and ot)er mova1le or immova1le +ro+erty in consideration of t)e +eriodic +ayment 1y t)e lessee of a fi0ed amount of money sufficient to amortize at least seventy -8%V.ation or o+tion on )is +art to +urc)ase t)e leased +ro+erty from t)e o*ner-lessor at t)e end of t)e lease contract. or 1y discountin.in of +rofit over an o1li. maintenance. Cor+orations. leases. and utilization of mineral resources. a++liances.anized or o+eratin. credit facilities to consumers and to industrial. 1ut *it) no o1li. commercial +a+ers or accounts receiva1le. [3ec. 6ersons or entities *)ose +rinci+al functions include t)e lendin. or 1y financial leasin.s and loan associations. of t)e +urc)ase +rice or ac7uisition cost.al num1ers .. 4inancial intermediaries. $. or 1y 1uyin. any incidental e0+enses and a mar. R( 4&8'. e0ce+t 1anks. [3ec. 1y direct lendin. includin. [Leun. under ot)er s+ecial la*s. ac7uired 1y t)em. c)attel mort. or under*rites any of t)e ille. credit t)rou. I(C.

it t)e a++earance of t)at *)ic) it is not. @et *it) mes) size of less t)an t)ree centimeters -$ cm. t)ey consist of t)e court:s conclusions *it) res+ect to t)e determinative facts on issue. 4ine mesh net. @ov. 1 &.eneris. De <ad-y v. . <)e *ritten statement of t)e ultimate facts as found 1y t)e court and essential to su++ort t)e decision and 2ud. 4inding. 6rocessed and manufactured coral articles of trade and commerce in a form t)at may 1e immediately utilized 1y t)e end-user or consumer suc) as. R( &!!%'. 1 " . 1 ""'.ment rendered t)ereon... <)e financial lessee is entitled to t)e +ossession and use of t)e leased e7ui+ment. 4inancing &ompany Act. Com+any (ctJ enacted on Ae1. some 1ut not necessarily all of t)e elements of an ordinary or civil la* lease.. 2e*elries or decorative articles. GR &$11$ and &$4!&. 4indings of fact. citin.. R( &!!"'. Ledesma.overnment a.al Dict. 1ut not limited to.ed in t)e financial lessor. *)ic) ena1le t)e financial lessor to recover t)e +urc)ase +rice of t)e e7ui+ment *)ic) )ad 1een +aid to t)e su++lier t)ereof. 5. $. 6D 141 '.. [3ec. 4inancing &ompany Act of +. 4inished products. 4ine.n.3 " mova1le as *ell as immova1le +ro+erty.ulatory a. GR 1. +ossessin. . <o counterfeit somet)in. GR L-415$&. t)e financial lessee is o1li. 6(IC Ainance Cor+. 1 4'. (t t)e same time. R( ! &% enacted on (u. 4". [3ec.ated to make +eriodic +ayments denominated as lease rentals. 1 4&. 4 9ouvier:s La* Dict.. 3+. 4. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1 4!'. It may 1e seen to 1e a contract sui . o++osite knots of a full mes) *)en stretc)ed or as ot)er*ise determined 1y t)e a++ro+riate .ency. 4&. It may include a forfeiture or +enalty recovera1le in a civil action. measured 1et*een t*o -4. [Glossary of Le. ot)er*ise kno*n as t)e Ainancin. 4ingir.ency on issues of fact.. <)us. $. Com+are *it) &ontrahaciendo. [#uristEs Le. Contra)acer al. [9eltran v. [(ir Arance v. R( ! &%. Carrascoso.. R( &!!" entitled I(n (ct amendin. as amended.ivin.al <erms -6ro-3e. 6ecuniary +unis)ment im+osed 1y a la*ful <ri1unal u+on a +erson convicted of crime or misdemeanor.-. GR 4&"$&.una cosa dandola la seme2anza de lo 7ue no es. 3e+.. 5.al title to t)e e7ui+ment leased is lod. 3e+. ( sum of money +aid as +art of a +enalty of conviction for a +articular criminal offense. 1$.e or re. 41. le. [3ec. 6araiso. 1 %1'. 4inancing lease. [Dda. 4%%5'. [G3 v. 1. =ay 1 . Aormal conclusion 1y a 2ud. 4%%5'.

( fire resistive door +rescri1ed for o+enin.enerated 1y t)e com1ustion of an e0+losive su1stance. (ny condition or act *)ic) increases or may cause an increase in t)e +ro1a1ility of t)e occurrence of fire. . units and from t)e lo*est +ortion of t)e *all ad2oinin. (ny instrument or device *it) *)ic) it is +ossi1le to +ro+el a +ro2ectile 1y t)e e0+ansive force of t)e . units u+ to t)e +oint 2ust 1elo* t)e roof coverin. 6D 11&!'. 6D 11&! si. $. for a fee. at least 5H t)ick. If t)e )ouse does 1urn. 4ire alarm. [3ec. $.. Cruz(rnaldo. )inder or interfere *it) fire fi. 4ire &ode of the #hilippines. $. livin. 3uc) *all s)all 1e of masonry construction e.. [3ec.uardin. *it) t)e insurer assurin. [3ec. Insurance a. $. ( +ersonal contract of indemnity a.. v.)tin. 6D 11&!'. [Arancisco. etc. Fct. 4ire ha ard.. 4ire. or fire fi. delay. 4irearm.. 6D 11&!'. (n aleatory contract 1y *)ic) t)e insured in effect *a. of life and +ro+erty.)t of com1ustion. 4ireblock. -=ICF. [3ec. $.s in fire se+aration *alls or +artitions. reinforced concrete. DII. 14. of +urlins. (ny visual or audi1le si. 1 &8'.. Dol. and s)all e0tend t)rou.ainst t)e loss.)tin. IC'. <)e active +rinci+le of 1urnin. 96 44%'. c)aracterized 1y t)e )eat and li. of a surface for ornamental or +rotective +ur+oses.ainst loss 1y fire.)out t)e *)ole len.er of fire to ena1le t)em to undertake immediate action to save life and +ro+erty and to su++ress t)e fire. t)e insured.nal +roduced 1y a device or system to *arm t)e occu+ants of t)e 1uildin.ases . *ins t)e *a.)tnin.ned into la* on (u. 4ire door. *)ile losin. " "'. +. li. cement )ollo* 1locks. 4". 1 88. Inc. [3ec. $. 6art 1. GR L-"8&$!.t) of t)e livin.ers t)at )is )ouse *ill 1e 1urned.iven 1y t)e insurer to make .ainst a Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1"8. 1ricks.3!# 4inishes. 4.. 1. =aterials used as final coatin. )im a. elements of t)e +resence or dan. *)en suc) risks are covered 1y e0tension to fire insurance +olicies or under se+arate +olicies. t)e livin.ood t)e loss t)e insured )as sustained. or *)ic) may o1struct. o+erations and t)e safe. 1 8 . 6D 11&!'. )is )ouse. <)e +rize is t)e recom+ense to 1e . [3ec. tornado or eart)7uake and ot)er allied risks.. 4ire insurance. 6D 11&!'. [3ec.vidence. units so as to resist t)e s+read of fire. [=alayan Insurance Co. 4ire insurance policy. *indstorm.d.er. (ny *all *)ic) se+arate t*o a1uttin.

n and installation of *alls.. in *ritin. 1arriers. detectors for )eat. <)e +ortion of a road*ay or +u1lic*ay t)at s)ould 1e ke+t o+ened and uno1structed at all times for t)e e0+edient o+eration of fire fi. Fct. t)at u+on *ritten re7uest of t)e insured.uis)in. unsafe in case of fire 1ecause it *ill 1urn Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (ny device intended for t)e +rotection of 1uildin. $. ( 1uildin. t)e notice must 1e 1ased on t)e occurrence. +. [3ec. 4ire lane. $. t)e insurer *ill furnis) t)e facts on *)ic) t)e cancellation is 1ased. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 1urned *)ic) may 1e one-)our.)tin. or delivered to t)e named insured. 18 '. *indo*s. *alls and floors. of one or more of t)e . 4%%% .s or +ersons to include 1ut not limited to 1uilt-in +rotection system suc) as s+rinklers and ot)er automatic e0tin. 4-)ours. *)ic) of t)e . 6D 11&!'. [3ec. [3ec. t)e confinement of fire or smoke in t)e room or floor of ori. 6D 11&!'. means of e. -4.er to life from fire. $)ours. 4ire insurance policy$ conditions for cancellation of. -$. t)e notice must 1e -1. Co. "5 -of t)e Ins. or structure in order to minimize dan. fumes or +anic 1efore t)e 1uildin. conditions> -a.d. [3ec. fire. v. <)ese features are also desi. system. It s)all also mean to include t)e treatment of 1uildin.loves and ot)er .arments t)at may 1e +ut on or *orn 1y +ersons to +rotect t)emselves durin. -1..in and delay t)eir s+read to ot)er +arts of t)e 1uildin. at t)e address s)o*n in t)e +olicy. -=ICF. inte. units. -d. $. Inc.rounds mentioned in 3ec.rounds mentioned.) means of e. <)e len. 4ire-resistive time period rating. <)ere must 1e +rior notice of cancellation to t)e insured.s com+onents or contents *it) flame retardant c)emicals. )elmets. GR L-"8&$!. 5-)ours. 4ire safety constructions. +ersonal +rotective e7ui+ment suc) as fire 1lankets.3!1 loss 1y t)e +erson insured.. fire suits.. 96 44%'. Desi. [=alayan Ins. etc. is relied u+on and -4. -c. 1y fire. ot)ers. 4ire protective and fire safety device. must re7uire concurrence of t)e follo*in. it must state -1. 6D 11&!'. smoke. Cruz-(rnaldo. vents.ned to ac)ieve. system com+onents. $. is evacuated. . 4ire trap. 14.t) of time a material can *it)stand 1ein. 1y means of smoke sealed and fire resistant doors. smoke and com1ustion +roducts and ot)er *arnin. doors. after t)e effective date of t)e +olicy. 1 &8'.ral to and incor+orated into a 1uildin. safe and ra+id evacuation of +eo+le t)rou.ress. etc. ( valid cancellation -of a fire insurance +olicy. mailed. amon.ress sealed from smoke or fire. Code.

$ !'. [9lackEs La* Dict. -1 &$. $. 96 44%'. (n offer *)ic) t)e offeror +romises to kee+ o+en for a fi0ed +eriod of time. [Intl.)t to meet any ot)er offer. !& 6)il. 1 1'. 18% 3CR( 154'. GR "5$"4. $. !t) . 4irst reading of a bill. . -1. of Ainance. [<olentino v. (1r. ( fire1lock *it) e0tends vertically from t)e lo*est +ortion of t)e *all *)ic) ad2oins t)e 4 livin.. 3ome firms may 1e or.)t is t)e first to 1e offered t)e desi. 4ire wall. <)e o*ner of t)is ri. years. 4irm offer. [3ec. [3ec.lements> -a. Court of com+etent 2urisdiction. $. [Du)aime:s Le.nated o12ect if it is ever to 1e offered for sale.3!2 easily or 1ecause it lacks ade7uate e0its or fire esca+es.. 4%%5'.al Dict. 4!.iven to a +erson *)ic) may consist of one or more names in addition to t)e middle and last names.rou+s of la*yers are called.nment and a -d. [3ec. 6D 11&!'. of t)e num1er. In eit)er case. C Direct. -e. 4irst class ricelands. &!$'.$% meter 1eyond t)e outermost ed.)t of %. =onsod. (u. [6eo+le v. valid +lea [6eo+le v. and aut)or follo*ed 1y t)e referral to t)e a++ro+riate committees. 4iscal adequacy. units u+ to a minimum )ei.an.iven to a +erson to 1e t)e first +erson allo*ed to +urc)ase a certain o12ect if it is ever offered for sale. t)e mem1ers of t)e firm are t)e e0+erienced attorneys.. 4irst (eopardy.d.. ?la. 3e+.)est +ortion of t)e roof attac)ed to it.overnment Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . units. title. livin. arrai.e )arvest of t)e t)ree +recedin. <)e term 1y *)ic) . 4%%5'. La* Dict. 1. [Cayetano v. &!1. It is usually a +artners)i+ and mem1ers of t)e firm are t)e +artners. Ae1. Fne of t)e c)aracteristics of a sound ta0 system *)ic) re7uires t)at sources of revenues must 1e ade7uate to meet . [3ec. -c. t)e defendant *as ac7uitted or convicted or t)e case *as dismissed or ot)er*ise terminated *it)out t)e e0+ress consent of t)e accused. 4irst refusal$ right of. ( name or nickname . or t)e ri. 4irst name.anized as +rofessional cor+orations and t)e mem1ers called s)are)olders. <)e readin. 1 5'. GR 11!5!!. t)e fire *all s)all also e0tend )orizontally u+ to a minimum distance of %. t)e same to 1e com+uted u+on t)e normal avera. 3ec. Declaro. .$% meter a1ove t)e )i. 15. 4irms. <)ose *)ic) yield more t)an forty cavans +er )ectare. <)e ri. valid com+laint or information. R( %!$'. ( ri. GR 1%%11$. 1 & .)t to )ave t)e first o++ortunity to +urc)ase real estate *)en suc) 1ecomes availa1le.. R( 44"$'.)t . 4.e of t)e a1uttin. 4.

1 4'. scallo+s. t)e Commission on . 4ish corral or :aklad. assess and collect fees. t)e autonomy en2oyed 1y t)e #udiciary.3!3 e0+enditures and t)eir variations. made u+ of nets or screens se*n or fastened to. $.innin. @IRC. 4ish cage. s)rim+s and lo1sters. (ll fis)es and ot)er a7uatic animals suc) as crustaceans -cra1s. t)e Civil 3ervice Commission.. +lastic nets and ot)er materials fenced *it) s+lit 1lood mattin. oysters. Areedom from outside control.a. R( &!!%. [9en. [3ec.e of t)eir functions. [3ec. 1 %'. <)e +eriod 1e. 1. [3ec. [3ec. and *it) or *it)out leaders to direct t)e fis) to t)e catc)in. 1!. (n enclosure *)ic) is eit)er stationary or floatin. .zon v. +eriod of t*elve -14.. <)is includes not only finfis) 1ut also mollusks. Fn. 6eo+le directly or +ersonally and +)ysically en. marine mammals. 4. 44. 4iscal year. mussels. 6D 8%5'. 4ish. (+r. +urse or 1a. as amended'. Drilon. 4iscal autonomy. 4isherfolk. GR 8"88&. contem+lates a . t)e )i. mont)s endin. of ro*s of 1am1oo stakes. GR 1%$!45. Com+are *it) &alendar year.s or *ire mattin. mollusks -clams. C)a+. 5. 4ish and fishery or aquatic products. 1. [3ec. R( &!!%'. 6D 5$'. 3ec. and all ot)er s+ecies of a7uatic flora and fauna and all ot)er +roducts of a7uatic livin. 4. +ra*ns. on t)e last day of any mont) ot)er t)an Decem1er.nizes t)e +o*er and aut)ority to levy.lections. at t)e surface or covered and )eld in a +lace 1y *ooden/1am1oo +osts or various ty+es of anc)ors and floats. 4. [C)avez v. t)e Commission on (udit. resources in any form. ec)inoderms. $.+in. *it) t)e t)irty-first day of Decem1er of eac) calendar year. *it) t)e first day of #anuary and endin. #une ". [3ec. crustaceans. and t)e Fffice of t)e Fm1udsman -*)ic). R( &!!%'.et)er and installed in t)e *ater *it) o+enin. c)am1ers.)est rates aut)orized 1y la* for com+ensation and +lay +lans of t)e . 9ook DI. usually *it) easy entrance 1ut difficult e0it. ( stationary *eir or tra+ devised to interce+t and ca+ture fis) consistin. (n accountin. It reco. 1.ed in takin.s *it) one or more enclosures.uarantee of full fle0i1ility to allocate and utilize t)eir resources *it) t)e *isdom and dis+atc) t)at t)eir needs re7uire. 5.overnment and allocate and dis1urse suc) sums as may 1e +rovided 1y la* or +rescri1ed 1y t)em in t)e course of t)e disc)ar. fi0 rates of com+ensation not e0ceedin. (s envisioned in t)e Constitution.s.F 4 4'. and/or Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . snails and ot)er s)ellfis). 5.

ned into la* on =ay 1". fis) +rocessors.ro*in. 6D 5$'... t)e +rivile. a set of officers. and mana. +rocessin. 5.8>.istered association of fis)erfolk *it) a common 1ond of interest. *)o )ave voluntarily 2oined to. and consolidatin. and fis)eriesJ si. [3ec.et)er to ac)ieve a la*ful common social or economic end.)t to fis) or take suc) +roducts t)erefrom. $.s in accordance *it) universally acce+ted coo+erative +rinci+les.e +lants servin. develo+in.. (n or. R( &!!%'. $. 6D 8%5'. $. and +rocessin. )arvestin. 5. Ais) +roducers. marketin. an or.in. R( &5$!'. 5. )andlin. to t)e act or 1usiness of fis)in.eratin.in. [3ec. 4ishery industry. 5. and +reservin. <)e sector en. <)e 1usiness of catc)in. $.. association. 1ot) *)olesalers and retailers. [3ec. includin. fis)in. 1 85.. 1.... 6D 5$'. [3ec. [3ec. <)e +roduction. e7uita1le contri1ution to t)e ca+ital re7uirement and acce+tin. of all a7uatic resources and fis)eries areas. (ll activities relatin. R( &!!%'.3!4 culturin.. R( &!!%'. a constitution and 1y-la*s. 4. fis) traders. +reservin.rou+. +rocessin.eratin. t)e fis)in. a7uatic resources and t)e fis)ery areas.. +rocessin.. federation. ( duly re.. and cold stora.. t)e industry.e to fis) or take a7uatic resource t)ereof.in. [3ec. fis) +rocessors.ram of action. 6D 8%5 entitled IRevisin. [3ec.. and mana.ed in t)e +roduction. R( &5$!'. conservin. makin. develo+in. marketin.. 4isheries sector.. [3ec. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . (ll systems or net*orks of interrelated activities *)ic) include t)e +roduction.a. 4isheries. all la*s and decrees affectin. and o*ners of refri. 4isheries Decree of +.e +lants servin. 5. a fair s)are of t)e risks and 1enefits of t)e undertakin. and mana. marketin.. )arvestin. 4isherfolk cooperative. of a7uatic resources and fis)eries areas. mem1ers. marketin.. and distri1ution of fis) and fis)ery +roducts. conservin.. ..rounds. R( &!!%'. alliance or an institution of fis)erfolk *)ic) )as at least fifteen -1!. and o*ners of refri. 6D 8%5'. 4isherfolk organi ation.. fis) traders 1ot) *)olesalers and retailers. . 1. 4ishery.. and cold stora. conservin. [3ec. takin. 5.anizational structure and a +ro. fis)ery and/or a7uatic resources. culturin. [3ec. develo+in. marketin.anized . fis) or ot)er fis)ery/a7uatic +roducts. +rocessin. 4ishery industry$ components of the. t)e industry. 4. and t)e ri.ro*in. Ais) +roduces. . +reservation.

! cm. $.ulated and set aside for educational and researc) +ur+oses. mollusks. 5. [3ec. $. R( &5$!'. o+erations s)all 1e considered as a fis)in.ic fis)ery resources.ulf. [3ec. Fne *)o o*ns and +rovides t)e means includin. to a1out "-1$ cm. 4ish fry.3!5 4ishery management areas. 4ishing gear. 5.ate and 1ecome tar. 4ishery products. [3ec. +ur+oses> 6rovided. 1oat. (reas in any 1ody of *ater *)ere fis) and ot)er a7uatic resources con. fis). 4ishery refuge and sanctuaries. [3ec. 5. various . ( 1ay. ( desi. 5.ae. 5. coelenterates. motor 1oats or any ot)er ty+e of *atercraft. 4. resources in any form.e at *)ic) a fis) )as 2ust 1een )atc)ed usually *it) sizes from 1-4. R( &!!%'. [3ec. on t)e s+ecies. .ement +ur+oses. [3ec. lake or any ot)er fis)ery area *)ic) may 1e delineated for fis)ery resource mana. 5.nated area *)ere activities are re. *)et)er licensed or not. (ll +roducts of a7uatic livin.ears and vessels. [3ec. 4ishing. al.. 4ishery operator. 4. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1.re. 4ishery reserve. 4ishing grounds. R( &!!%'. 5. 1ut does not +ersonally en. [3ec. [3ec. ( +ermit to o+erate s+ecific ty+es of fis)in. of fis)ery s+ecies from t)eir *ild state of )a1itat. suc) as 1ancas.nated area *)ere fis)in. R( &!!%'.ear for s+ecific duration in areas 1eyond munici+al *aters for demersal or +ela. 4ishing boat. <)at any suc) 1oat used for t)e +ur+ose of trans+ortin. (ll a7uatic flora and fauna includin. la1or. 6D 5$'. ( desi.et of ca+ture. 5. [3ec. <)e takin. R( &5$!'. 1ut not restricted to. sail1oats. R( &!!%'. [3ec. fis) and ot)er fis)ery s+ecies.a. 5. . (lso Gear license.e in fis)ery. or ot)er forms of activities *)ic) may dama. [3ec. land. 5. 5. vessels. used for fis)in. 6D 8%5'.e in t)e life cycle of t)e fis) measurin. R( &!!%'. 1oat/. R( &!!%'. R( &!!%'. t)e fis) in t)e course of fis)in. ca+ital. [3ec. R( &!!%'. (ll 1oats. de+endin. [3ec.ear in catc)in. 5. R( &!!%'. ec)inoderms and cetaceans. *it) or *it)out t)e use of fis)in. (ny instrument or device and its accessories utilized in takin. 4ishery species. fis) and ot)er fis)eries +roducts. ( sta. R( &!!%'. 4ish fingerlings.e t)e ecosystem of t)e area is +ro)i1ited and )uman access may 1e restricted. crustaceans. fis)in. 1. ( sta. <)e a++lication of tec)ni7ues usin.

screen or nylon nettin. stu+efy. for +ur+oses of +rofit.. fis). 4ishponds. or more vessels in t)e +erformance of any activity relatin.in. includin.ro*in. one -1. ot)er e0+losives or ot)er c)emical com+ounds t)at contain com1usti1le elements or in. t)e natural )a1itat.ro*in. 9odies of *ater enclosed 1y dikes of eart) or ot)er material constructed for t)e care and conservation of fis). 3tri+s of iron &H to 14H lon. to fis)in. $. or ot)er materials attac)ed to +oles staked to t)e *ater 1ottom for t)e +ur+ose of . 5. R( &!!%'. 5. 4ish pen. C(. 4ish plates.ar Central Co.redients *)ic) u+on i. Inc.eration. 6D !$5'. 48. not natural. [=a-(o 3u.) )uman effort and la1or. 1. trans+ortation and/or +rocessin. as t)ey are constructed t)rou. 3ec. 4. (ny 1oat. sodium cyanide and/or cyanide com+ounds or ot)er c)emicals eit)er in a ra* or +rocessed form. concussion. *)ic) *ill kill. 1. [3ec. v. 4ishpond. disa1le or render unconscious any fis)ery s+ecies and a7uatic resources and ca+a1le of dama. Ais) enclosure made of closely*oven 1am1oo screens or nets. 4ishing with the use of e%plosives. 5. refri. stu+efy.. +lant e0tracts or 2uice t)ereof. or render unconscious fis) or fis)ery/a7uatic +roducts.ned. and alterin. $. stora.. 1 %'. to +revent esca+e of fis). stu+efy. 6D 8%5. +ercussion or detonation of all or +arts of t)e com+ound.. and $ 1/4H t)ick *)ic) are attac)ed to t)e rails 1y 5 1olts. su++ly.e.. disa1le or render unconscious any fis)ery s+ecies. R( &!!%'. GR &$5 1. [3ec. <)e use of any su1stance. <)e use of t)e dynamite. or assistin. [3ec.nition 1y friction. of fis)ery s+ecies or aidin. *)et)er in ra* or +rocessed form. (n artificial enclosure constructed *it)in a 1ody of *ater for culturin. fis) and fis)ery/a7uatic resources made u+ of +oles closely arran. and/or culture of fis) to various sizes in 1ot) fres) and salt *ater areas.s. s)i+ or ot)er *atercraft e7ui++ed to 1e used for takin. in t)is res+ect fis)+onds and its *aters are artificial. )armful or )armless. 4. 1ut not limited to. 4ishing with the use of no%ious or poisonous substances. )armful or )armless to )uman 1ein. [3ec. [3ec. 5. *ill kill. R( &!!%'. 1. 1. to kee+ t)e rails ali. 6D 8%5'. 6D 8%5. 6D !$5'. *)ic) kill. t*o on eac) side. [3ec.ed in an enclosure *it) *ooden materials. R( &!!%. 5. disa1le.3!6 4ishing vessel. (u. +reservation. 3ec. $. 3ec. R( &!!%'. ( land-1ased facility enclosed *it) eart)en or stone material to im+ound *ater for . [De Guzman v. [3ec. <)e use of any su1stance or c)emical. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .

[<orres. C Cont. 4%4. from *)ic) t)ey can 1e +erceived..) a device.e of )is +rivile. 4lag state. or +arlementaire. i. 1et*een t)e s)i+ and t)e state. t)e freedom to land for non-traffic +ur+oses. etc. fis) corrals/tra+s.. and t)at . 1 " . [3ec. of <aytay. <)e em1odiment of sounds.3! =un.. 4lag and =eraldic &ode of the #hilippines. 8"'. (n im+lied *arranty 1y t)e seller to t)e 1uyer of food. +lants. of nationality -and t)e ri. ( +erson re. or to +ut do*n traffic comin. [Cruz. 4it for human consumption. +ra*n farms. La*. carried 1y an individual aut)orized 1y one 1elli. La* Revie*er.ularly em+loyed in commercial fis)in.d. fis) ca. ( contract -*it). R( &5 1 entitled I(n (ct +rescri1in.inatin. 4lag salute law. 4i%ed price contract. 4ishworker. 5. nationality of t)e cre*. t)e freedom to +ut do*n traffic ori. *)ose income is eit)er in *a. salt 1eds. GR 5$"4".e.. =ar.e. -c. in t)e state of t)e aircraft. 154'. sea farms. a t)ird state. [Cruz.es. 8.. ( *)ite fla. ceremony com+ulsory in all educational institutionsJ enacted on #une 11. and related industries.ed +osition to commit an act of treac)ery. C(.. fis)in. 4%%% . t)e freedom to em1ark traffic destined for t)e state of t)e aircraft. Dec. 4ive air freedoms.d. 14. 4i%ation. 1asis. 4%%5'. +. <)e . t)ose *orkin.ularly or not re. is entitled to inviola1ility as lon.d. not su12ect to escalation. t)e code of t)e national fla. to fly across territory *it)out landin. F1li. v. +rofit-s)arin. 1 " . La*. [3ec. as )e does not take advanta. [Intl. includin. routes follo*ed. and/or +ackin. Intl. La* Revie*er.erent to enter into communications *it) t)e ot)er 1elli. or fis) +rocessin. R( &!!%'.. -d.)t to fly a fla. 1 !!. or stratified s)arin. 1 &8'. 4lag of convenience. R( &4 $'. -a. fis) +orts.. Intl. Intl. 1 &. motto. t)e freedom to em1ark traffic destined for. fla.rantin. GR 8"8&8. -1. 4lag of truce. +. fis)+onds.rants Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $!1'. a fi0ed +rice. to a s)i+ 1y a state *)en t)ere is little or no connection -suc) as o*ners)i+.erent... 1 $&'. R( 14"! entitled I(n (ct makin. [9aylen Cor+. coat-of-arms and ot)er )eraldic items and devices of t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on Ae1. C Direct. La* Dict. in fis) +ens. re+roduced or communicated t)rou. Intl. <)e state t)at allo*s a s)i+ to fly its fla. 15. and -e. ant)em. <)e 1earer. +.. from. 1oat or tra*lers. or of t)e re+resentations t)ereof.

iance to t)e -6)ili++ine.. 1 & '. ++. of determinate amount t)at *ould 1e added to t)e +revailin. ammonium c)lorate and ot)er ammonium mi0tures and ot)er similar su1stances or materials. ( clause in a contract *)ic) +ermits one +arty to t)e contract to c)oose t)e a++lica1le la*. R( "4$!'. R6C'. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . [=orenoEs La* Dict. Crim. remained *it)out *ork or assi. in a decision t)at 1ecame final. 1st . 3e+. 4.ency. 1&1'. 4%%5'. GR "1" . 4loating status. t)e core *ork )ours as defined 1y t)e em+loyer. R( & 84'. [3uarez. +eriod. 6D 11&!'. Com+are *it) *igid constitution. -.ranted to a solo +arent em+loyee to vary )is/)er arrival and de+arture time *it)out affectin. <)e ri.o to an enemy country *)en +ro)i1ited 1y com+etent aut)ority. ( met)od used in le. 4lammable. 1 & '. <)e stances of an a. 4 . [(rt. [Intl. La* Revie*er. '. $. 4loating law clause. [<etley. 4%%5'.e. 45. 4light to enemy's country.islation involvin.nment 0 0 0 for a -certain.m+loyees *)o.uilty. allene. -a +erson. do not receive any salary or financial 1enefit +rovided 1y la*. La*. @B6C.islation.ed 1y ordinary le.nitin.CF6 v. 6ol. [3ec.3!! t)e s)i+ its nationality. after a1solvin. @LRC. 4lesh wound. +. after a +redetermined event )as occurred. attem+ts to flee or .. Reyes. [. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. aluminum dyet)yl monoc)loride. 1.nita1le mi0ture *it) air. 4loor-wage method.ency or 1oard *)ere1y. La* Dict. 141.)ly com1usti1le and self-i. C Direct. #uly $1. <)e minimum tem+erature at *)ic) any material . GR &4$%5. 3uc) clauses )ave 1een criticized for lendin. alle.d. ( constitution *)ic) can 1e c)an. ( *ound *)ic) is su+erficial in nature. 4lip-flopping or flipping.d.ives off va+or in sufficient concentration to form an i. @ov. 4le%ible constitution.)t . statutory minimum *a. Inc. 4%%4. [(. [Aruto v. o*in. (ny su1stance or material t)at is )i. it reversed itself and found t)at )e *as . 4lash point. Government. 1y c)emical reaction and s)all include 1ut not limited to acrolein. v. 1ased on t)e same evidence it )ad re2ected in its first decision. (n indefinite +eriod of time *)en -em+loyees. [3ec.. t)e fi0in. and ot)er aluminum com+ounds. GR &4&4$-45. $. 4%%% .ro Commercial 3ecurity 3ervices (. t)emselves to evasion of t)e la*.. !. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o. [3ec. 4le%ible work schedule of a solo parent.

+acka. <)e +art of t)e fla. a com+onent or ot)er*ise affectin. if suc) su1stance is not .es. 5. [3ec. of a ne*1orn *it) a )erita1le condition for t)e +ur+ose of ensurin. drinks and 1evera. +lan and strate. 5.. 4ood security. ".) scientific +rocedures to 1e safe under t)e conditions of t)e intended use. 4ollow-up.. <)e monitorin. +olicy or strate. or )oldin. Com+are *it) )alary-ceiling-method. @B6C:s Frder of @ov. +re+arin. $. food. 4ood-grade salt. t)at t)e ne*1orn +atient com+lies fully *it) t)e medicine of dietary +rescri+tions.) local +roduction or im+ortation. *)et)er +rocessed. amon. 5. 3ee #ath walk.aritime domain.. R( &184'. trans+ortin. [3ec. (ny su1stance. 5. .y of meetin. 3ee 4ree on :oard. 1ased on t)e country:s e0istin. 1 %'. or 1ot). [3ec. R( &5 1'. 40:. R( 4&&'. t)e food re7uirements of t)e +resent and future . R( &!!%'.um.nized. t)e c)aracteristics of any food -includin. manufacturin. and +otential resource endo*ment and related +roduction advanta.. and includin. (ny +lan. [3ec. 4ly. and consistent *it) t)e overall national develo+ment o12ectives and +olicies. [(rt. [(rt. 5. e0+erts 7ualified as )avin. directly or indirectly.. +ackin.3!" 1 1. semi-+rocessed or ra*. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . R( 8$ 5'. [3ec.y aimed at ensurin.uis)ed from industrial salt. 4ood. R( 8$ 5'. +rocessin... (ny su1stance. treatin. [3ec.in.es and any su1stance *)ic) )as 1een used as an in.. 3ee . <)e +olicy o12ective. 4ootpath.enerally reco. 4ood fortification. +re+aration or treatment of food. 1een ade7uately s)o*n t)rou. in its 1ecomin. R( &184'. ensurin. intended for )uman consum+tion and includes c)e*in. t)e availa1ility and afforda1ility of food to all. 3alt for )uman and animal consum+tion as distin.redient or a com+onent in t)e manufacture. 5.t).. <)e addition of nutrients to +rocessed foods at levels a1ove t)e natural state. eit)er t)rou. any source of radiation intended for any suc) use. 4ood additive.enerations of Aili+inos in su1stantial 7uantity. 4luvial domain. any su1stance intended for use in +roducin. outside t)e )oist or len. t)e intended use of *)ic) results or may reasona1ly 1e e0+ected to result. ade7uate su++lies of a++ro+riate food at afforda1le +rices. 5. 7uotin. 1. 4. R( &5$!'.

-c. 4orcible abduction.'. R( 4%&'. 155 3CR( ! " -1 &". any dis+ute *it) surface o*ners and ot)er la1or dis+utes. 4orced labor and slavery. C)atto. GR &"451. civil distur1ance. 4orced heirs. C(. 1 4. -1. &. a . strike. La*s. GR &8!&5.ation in a normal manner. 1$& 3CR( !!$ -1 &!.. Crim. 144'. e+idemic. Commentaries and #uris+. 4orce ma(eure. adverse action 1y . use of force or coercion. [=artin. 1185 of t)e Civil Code> -a. #une 1".. or a. under (rt. de1t t)en due and +aya1le. <)e a1duction of any *oman a. (ct of God. 5! 6)il.d.)tnin.ation must 1e inde+endent of t)e )uman *ill -t)e *ill of t)e de1tor or t)e o1li.o. $.3"# 4orbearance. La*. t)e cause of t)e 1reac) of t)e o1li. <)e e0traction of *ork or services from any +erson 1y means of enticement. (lso &aso fortuito. C(. lockout. t)e de1tor must 1e free from any +artici+ation in. suc) as li. and -d. <)at means Ha . intimidation or t)reat. Ar. violence.iven +eriod to re7uire of t)e de1tor +ayment of an e0istin. an accident +roduced 1y any +)ysical cause *)ic) is irresisti1le. 3ee &ompulsory heirs.ation of t)e creditor to for1ear durin.e or dece+tion. on Comml.. *ar... [Dario v. 1. sa1ota. +erils of t)e sea. 1lockade. . 4orce ma(eure. tem+est. 1ut not limited to.lements t)at must concur to e0em+t +arty from lia1ility. de+rivation of freedom. @ak+il C 3ons v. Das7uez v.. t)e event must 1e eit)er unforeseea1le or unavoida1le. 51&'. 4or cause.ravation of t)e in2ury to t)e creditor [Lasam v. <)e contractual o1li. t)e sudden illness or deat) of a +erson.uarantee of 1ot) +rocedural and su1stantive due +rocessJ -in t)e removal or sus+ension of a civil service officer or em+loyee. 3mit). or eart)7uake. v. R( 8 54'. 4 9lackstone:s Commentaries. 1 & '. =ison. em1ar. (ustria v. [3ec.. (u. C(. eart)7uake. . 1. +. fire. storm. t)e event must 1e suc) as to render it im+ossi1le for t)e de1tor to fulfill )is o1li. a1use of aut)ority or moral ascendancy. e0+losion. Dol. insurrection. includin.ainst )er *ill and *it) le*d Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .or. [Gotesco Investment Cor+. 4. 1 && Rev. flood or ot)er adverse *eat)er conditions. (cts or circumstances 1eyond t)e reasona1le control of t)e contractor includin. $. re1ellion.e..overnment or 1y any instrumentality or su1division t)ereof. "!8 -1 45. act of God or any +u1lic enemy and any cause t)at )erein descri1ed over *)ic) t)e affected +arty )as no reasona1le control. citin.. inundation.. Inevita1le accident or casualty. de1t-1onda. riots. $ 3CR( !48 -1 81. [3ec.

t)reat.. ( court +roceedin.. [3ec. 6D 11&!'. C Cont.a.. 3ummary and e0+editious +rocedure 1y *)ic) a +erson seeks to recover material or +)ysical +ossession of any land or 1uildin.) force or intimidation. [(rt. its s)a+e or dimensions. 4oreign agent.rees to act as +olitical consultant. 8. $. citin. [e. .a. 4.ns. [Glossary of Le.y.a.a. 1. servant. 4oreclosure of mortgage.n +rinci+al.n a.ns $4 and -c.itimate functions as suc).in. [6eo+le v.a. +u1lic relations counsel.anizations reco. or stealt). -1. 4%%% .8.)t of a +erson a. R6C'.a. +u1licity a. or attorney for a forei.)ts is allo*ed to )ave t)e mort. 1 8 .. t)e de1t may 1e satisfied.. 4. 1%. t)e activities and re7uirin.ulatin. 1y force. R6C'.nized 1y t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines *)ile en. $54. t)e re. 4orcible entry. t)e takin. F1li..n a. or as a.n country or officials of t)e Gnited @ations and its a. 4oreign Agents Act of +. GR $%4 . <)e unla*ful de+rivation of t)e +ossession of any land or 1uildin.ed +ro+erty sold so t)at from t)e +roceeds of said sale. [3ec.n +rinci+al or for any domestic or.ed in activities *it)in t)e sco+e of )is le. (u. re+resentative.y.itimate functions as suc) officers or a 1ona fide mem1er or em+loyee of a forei.ed in activities *it)in t)e sco+e of t)eir le. is *it) le*d desi. taken from )im 1y force. strate. +.al <erms -6ro-3e. u+on default in a mort.lements> -a.ent.. ( +rocess *)ere a +iece of metal is )eated +rior to c)an.ent. of a *oman a.ents in t)e 6)ili++inesJ enacted on 3e+. 1.d. t)e +ro+er civil remedy is forci1le entry'. 4%%5'. 4orcible abduction with rape. $!1'. $.n +ress service or ne*s or. t)e ra+e of t)e *oman *as accom+lis)ed t)rou. 1. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .ainst )er *ill. in court 1y *)ic) t)e ri. (czon. Com+are *it) &onsented abduction. <)e takin. Crim. Rule 8%.istration of forei. 96 $ entitled I(n (ct re.3"1 desi.ent s)all not include a duly accredited di+lomatic or consular officer of a forei. 4orcing. ( +roceedin.ee-creditor or one *)o )as succeeded to )is ri. 1 $. intimidation.ee. strate.ainst real or +ersonal +ro+erty is determined and enforced.. RoC'. 4. <)e 2udicial or e0tra-2udicial +rocedure 1y *)ic) a mort. <)e term forei. La*. (ny +erson *)o acts or a.anization *)ile en. 96 $ '.. t)reat or stealt). $54.e to vest title in t)e mort. *)en an intruder occu+ies 1y force.encies and of ot)er international or. intimidation.anization su1sidized directly or indirectly in *)ole or in +art 1y a forei. (rt. [<orres. [3ec. information re+resentative.

[3ec. [3ec. of La*s. ( +erson or any entity. 4oreign bill of e%change. @IRC. [Diaz. [(.anized or e0istin. 4oreign air commerce. [3ec. Com+are *it) 1nland bill of e%change.. 4oreign element. 1%!. R( "54" entitled I(n (ct institutin. It s)all )ave t)e ri. (ir commerce 1et*een t)e 6)ili++ines and any +lace outside it.n currency de+osit system in t)e 6)ili++ines. as amended'. e0ce+t t)ose mentioned in 3ecs. [3ec. and may include a forei. Com+are *it) Domestic corporation. +aid for in acce+ta1le forei..overnment and reco.. (ny aut)orized di+lomatic re+resentative of t)e re7uestin.ency. of Aorei. under any la*s ot)er t)an t)ose of t)e 6)ili++ines and *)ose la*s allo* Aili+ino citizens and cor+orations to do 1usiness in its o*n country or state. ( factual situation t)at cuts across territorial lines and is t)us affected 1y t)e diverse la*s of t*o or more states. 15 and 1!% of t)e @ational Internal Revenue Code. 4oreign customer. assem1led or manufactured in t)e 6)ili++ines for delivery to a resident in t)e 6)ili++ines. R( 88"'. or *)olly outside t)e 6)ili++ines. cor+oration. $. 1 1 . 4oreign diplomat. (ir trans+ortation 1et*een t)e 6)ili++ines and any +lace outside it. +. state or . or or. 14$. 4oreign air transportation. 4. Conf.ulations of t)e 9an.nized as suc) 1y t)e 3ec. and for ot)er +ur+osesJ enacted on (+r. 9us.overnment.n . R( 88"'. Cor+. 3ale to a nonresident of . Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $""'. $. [3ec. +.+alo.anization carryin.overnment a. $. on 1usiness or ot)er activities outside t)e 6)ili++ines.n currency and accounted for in accordance *it) t)e rules and re. R( "545'. a forei.o. La* Rev. Inst. @e. and/or an air carrier ot)er t)an a domestic air carrier.ko 3entral n.3"2 4oreign air carrier. 5. 1 84. R( 88"'. 4oreign &urrency Deposit Act of the #hilippines. Code'.)t to transact 1usiness in t)e 6)ili++ines after it s)all )ave o1tained a license to transact 1usiness in t)is country in accordance *it) t)e Cor+oration Code and a certificate of aut)ority from t)e a++ro+riate . or. $. Conflict of La*s. 4oreign corporation. [3ec.d.oods. [3ec. ( cor+oration formed. ( 1ill *)ic) on its face does not +ur+ort to 1e 1ot) dra*n and +aya1le *it)in t)e 6)ili++ines. (n air carrier *)o is not a citizen of t)e 6)ili++ines. 4oreign currency denominated sale. 6D 1%" '. 5'. 6ili+inas -936.n (ffairs.

n country or a forei. 96 $ '. $. international +ayments.e re+resentin.istered *it) t)e Central 9ank -no* 9an.n e0c)an. La* Dict. 1&$'. or. .n e0c)an. <)e conversion of t)e money of one state into t)at of anot)er state.istered *it) t)e Central 9ank-no* 9an. $. [3ec. made in t)e form of forei. [3ec.anization or ot)er entity o*ned or controlled 1y forei. R( !1&"'.3"3 4oreign e%change. [3ec. $. C Direct. [Intl. or a +artners)i+.. In a strict sense. t)e +roceeds of t)e loan. <)e . [3ec. Aorei.istered under t)e la*s of a country ot)er t)an t)e 6)ili++ines.e or ot)er instruments customarily em+loyed for international transfer. a 2ud. coins. (n informal net*ork of 1anks. a forei. +artners)i+. R( 54"'.d. <)e . o*ned 1y a non6)ili++ine @ational in a re.ko 3entral.e 1rokers. 4%%5'. 4. association.e or ot)er assets actually transferred to t)e 6)ili++ines and re. [=orenoEs La* Dict. $. letters of credits. +.e of currencies. $.istered enter+rise.n e0c)an. forei. 4oreign principal. or of any +olitical su1division or a.n +olitical +arty. 1.ners. 4oreign loan. and forei. of t)e ca+ital is o*ned 1y Aili+ino citizens. cor+oration.7uity investment. [3ec. 4oreign e%change market.n country.n e0c)an. C Direct.. [3ec.overnment of a forei.ner located *it)in or outside t)e 2urisdiction of t)e Re+u1lic of t)e 6)ili++ines. (ny credit facility or financial assistance ot)er t)an e7uity investment o1tained 1y a re. ( doctrine +recludin. t)e institution Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . 1ills of e0c)an. $. 4oreign sovereign immunity.e dealers *)o facilitate t)e e0c)an. 4%%5'.ency t)ereof. or coo+erative duly re. [Intl.n currency notes.. *)ic) s)all assess and a++raise t)e value of suc) assets ot)er t)an forei.e. 4oreign government. [3ec. La* Dict. and t)e 9oard of Investments.e or in ot)er assets and re. 4oreign investments. c)ecks. 4%%% . ot)er t)an t)e 6)ili++ines.ko 3entral. 4oreign (udgment. ( vessel or *atercraft re.)t into t)e 6)ili++ines eit)er in forei. and t)e 9oard of Investments. $. 4oreign flag vessel. (ny cor+oration. R( "545'. [3ec. $. 4oreign-owned corporation. *)ic) s)all assess and a++raise t)e assets ot)er t)an forei.ment rendered 1y a court of a forei. 1. drafts. R( 8 54'.. (ny medium for effectin. association. R( !1&"'.n e0c)an. 6D 585'.istered in accordance *it) la* in *)ic) less t)an fifty +er centum -!%V.n e0c)an.istered enter+rise from a source outside t)e 6)ili++ines and 1rou.overnment of a country. 6D 1&&$'.

+ul+*ood. rattan. $1. 4orest charge. a 1ody of *ater. 4". 6D 8%!'. and flo*erin. Aorest lands *)ic) )ave 1een reserved 1y t)e 6resident of t)e 6)ili++ines for Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . ( strin. 1ees*a0. (la. Rev. to t)e flo* of t)e tide. +lant.um. C Direct.ad. *ood. of Crim. C Direct. tree to+. 4.ro*t) suc) as . Ae1. Com+are *it) <imber land. Lands of t)e +u1lic domain *)ic) )ave not 1een declared as aliena1le or dis+osa1le. GR ""&%8. [Intl. [3ec. <)e 1ranc) of medicine t)e o12ect of *)ic) is to +lace medical kno*led. 4oreseeability.razin.eolo. lands. #an. [Comm.al +ur+oses. +ermanent forests or forest reserves. <)e reasona1le antici+ation t)at some )arm or in2ury is a likely result of an act or a failure to act.rass. Glossary of Conflict of La*s.) and lo* *ater marks and t)at is alternatively *et and dry accordin.overnment of a country *it)out its consent. 1 &8'. <)e +rinci+le of a1solute soverei.3"4 of an action a. . 1ark. scenic. (lso <imber land.ame refu. $%. oil. 1ut u+on t)e +rivile. of Int. 1. 1 & '. 4orest. 4%%5'. forest reservations. s)ru1. .e at t)e dis+osal of t)e administration of 2ustice. [3ec. La* Dict. ( 1reac)in. [<etley. ( ta0 not on t)e minerals. 4oreshore land. 1ot) civil and criminal. ni+a.e of severin. 4%%5'.ic resources in forest lands. and 1ird sanctuaries.'. 3e+. [Intl. +arty is lia1le only for t)ose dama. La* Rev. 4orest product. <)is includes tim1er. [Gre. resin. )istorical. +u1lic forests. t)e +art of a seas)ore 1et*een t)e lo*-*ater line usually at t)e sea*ard mar. C(. La* Dict. recreational and . 1 8 t) .)t to )ave foreseen. 4orest reservations. GR L-!" 5&. 4orensic medicine. 4oreseeability test.ainst t)e .) tide usually marked 1y a 1eac) scar+ or 1erm. 1 "8'.n immunity )as eventually 1een re+laced 1y t)e doctrine of restrictive soverei. "&. v. or e0tractin. Guerrero.ro*t)s of trees and under1us). t)e same from t)e eart). )oney. tim1erlands.d.in of a lo* tide terrace and t)e u++er limit of *ave *as) at )i. [3ec. <)e stri+ of land t)at lies 1et*een t)e )i.al status nor a classification for le. .n immunity. Dast tracts of *ooded land *it) dense .e. 5. t)e associated *ater. 4%%5'. 4orest land.ame.orio... R( &!!%'. It is descri+tive of *)at a++ears on t)e land 1ut is not a le.inin. GR L1 %85. or ot)er forest .es *)ic) )e or s)e foresa* or ou. Aund. [Re+. 5. fis). v. fire*ood. . of land mar. R( 8 %%'. [Re+. v..

ement and su+ervision of forest +lantation and tree farm leases *it)in +u1lic forests. or -1. <)e false makin.. or alterin. +re+aration and im+lementation of reforestation and afforestation +lans. 1 "4. [(rt. of a lia1ility to +ay a definite sum of money as t)e conse7uence of violatin. <)e felony committed> -a. of a *ritin.al action *)ere1y a contract +urc)aser follo*in. of lo.ame and *ildlife. to a treasury or 1ank note or any instrument. 1. [Ca1al v. and maintenance or restoration of necessary ecolo. scalin. ! '. silviculture.ures. t)e +rovisions of some statute or refusal to com+ly *it) some re7uirement of la*. 4orestry &ode. <)e incurrin. $. administration. services in t)e form of forestry consultation. [3ec. R6C'. in conse7uence of a default or an offense.ical 1alance.enuine document. GR L-1 %!4. Qa+unan. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Com. 4. 4!!'. t)e a++earance of a true . 1" .. 1y any means t)e fi. mana. Qa+unan. C Direct. investi. La* Dict. t)e a++lication of forestry +rinci+les. letters. ( cancellation. and ..ement +lans for forests and national +ark areas and t)e determination of t)e suita1ility of +u1lic forest land for +asture or a.radin. 115 3. ( le. [Intl.ivin. 4%%5'.3"5 any s+ecific +ur+ose +ur+oses. 4. or 4orfeiture. *it) t)e intent to defraud. and im+lementation of mana.. +aya1le to 1earer or order mentioned t)erein. +rotection and conservation of . 4$ (m. 4orgery. forest reconnaissance and tim1er estimate. <)e scientific conservation and mana. 1y erasin. *ords or si. how committed. [Glossary of Le. 4 . $. +lannin. Dec.ation.. su+ervision of any forestry activity re7uirin. La*.ns contained t)erein. It may 1e said to 1e a +enalty im+osed for misconduct or 1reac) of duty. importing$ and 4orest reserves. citin.s and lum1er. R( "4$ '. 4orging treasury or bank notes on other documents payable to bearer. Dec. 4orgery.ricultural land. lo. 1 "4. #ur. su1stitutin.ement of forests for t)e continuous and 2udicious utilization of forests +roducts.. GR L-1 %!4. identification of *oods and ot)er forestry +roducts. 6D 8%!'. and suc) ot)er activities as related to forest +rotection. 1y . Crim. [Ca1al v. [3ec. v. or alterin. 4%%5'.al <erms -6ro3e.. +re+aration. citin. 3ee #ermanent forest. 4 . includin. Arenc). 4orestry profession$ practice of. ( divestiture of +ro+erty *it)out com+ensation.in. default loses all )is interest in t)e +ro+erty. counterfeitin. 3ee *evised 4orestry &ode of the #hilippines.B.

1 4'. an amendment *)ic) does not c)ar. (n instrument ackno*led. <)e systematic and deli1erate +rocess of )ierarc)ically structured and se7uential learnin. [3ec. *)ic) could )ave 1een +resented and offered in a seasona1le manner *ere it not for t)e oversi. in connivance *it) for. an amendment *)ic) does not adversely affect any su1stantial ri. R( 1!!'. =ar. 1 8 t) . to t)e . GR 1%$1%4. Aund. <)ose crimes *)ic) are al*ays consummated 1y a sin. Com+are *it) )ubstantial amendment. <)e )ierarc)ically structured and c)ronolo.nation of t)e +arties and ot)er clearly clerical or ty+o. 4ormal.d.ed 1efore a notary +u1lic. 4orgotten evidence. <)e summary correction 1y t)e court of a defect in t)e desi. RoC'. e0+licit. Civ. re.eneral conce+t of elementary and secondary level of sc)oolin.ations *)ic) do not alter t)e +rosecution:s t)eory of t)e case so as to cause sur+rise to t)e accused and affect t)e form of defense )e )as or *ill assume. at its initiative or on motion. 4ormal education. v. 1 & '. 1. [(rt. [<uman.. (+r.e of t)e action. 1&5'.ular. La*. (mendments )eld to 1e merely formal. corres+ondin. . and not necessarily *ritten. (t t)e end of eac) level.. additional alle. 4%%% .in.)t to invoke +rescri+tion. ". definite.ed in t)e ori. it and. [3ec. -c. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 5. -1. suc) as )is ri. 1"". 18. GR &4%84.. fi0ed. 6ro.d. 4. 1&5'.d.> -a. 4ormal amendment.ations or notes. <)e felony committed 1y for. =adaya.ically .ers or im+orters of suc) false or for. trial.ra+)ical errors at any sta. solemn.)t or for. $$'.)t of t)e accused. 4ormal act. +. 4%%% .e of t)e +enalty t)at t)e court mi. +. Rule 1%.. 5. <)e term may 1e taken to mean official. [<ee)ankee. R6C'.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. +ositive. 1. C(.e anot)er offense different or distinct from t)at c)ar. *)ic) *as kno*n to and o1taina1le 1y t)e +arty offerin..ations *)ic) relate only to t)e ran. [Gre. or falsification of treasury or 1ank notes or certificates or ot)er o1li.3"6 uttering such false or forged notes and documents. +.vidence already in e0istence or availa1le 1efore or durin.etfulness of suc) +arty or )is counsel.orio.le act like slander.ed o1li. v. viz. t)e learner needs a certification in order to enter or advance to t)e ne0t level. Crim. +ro+er. of Crim.ations and securities +aya1le to 1earer and t)e im+ortation and utterin.. La* Rev.raded learnin. ne* alle. and -d.inal one. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . #r. 4ormal crimes.. +rovided no +re2udice is caused t)ere1y to t)e adverse +arty. 4.)t im+ose in t)e event of conviction.

4ortificant. 4ortification. or if it can 1e foreseen. -1 &$. to +roceed *it)out lia1ility for court fees or costs. 4ormula feeding. (s an a++roac) to control micronutrient deficiency. La*. 4ormal offer of documentary evidence as an e%hibit.)er levels. $5. 1185.iven to a +oor +erson -i.) foreseen. CC'. $.. 4ortuitous event. or +reventin. t)ou. RoC'. Rule 1$4. [Inter+acific <ransit v. if t)e act s)all not constitute a more serious offense in accordance *it) t)e +rovisions of t)e Rev. 1.ree as to com+el or force t)e la1orers or em+loyers in t)e free and le. R( & 8"'. [3ec.ations. for t)e +ur+ose of or. <)e cause of t)e unforeseen and une0+ected occurrence. [3ec. must 1e inde+endent of t)e )uman *ill. or t)e failure of t)e de1tor to com+ly *it) )is o1li.rades or move to )i. $ &'. R( 8"%%'. -1. #une ". <)e addition of nutrients to +rocessed foods or food +roducts at levels a1ove t)e natural state.vid. C)aracter or manner of a +au+er. *ere inevita1le. [9lackEs La* Dict.rou+s. GR &"%"4. of a ne*1orn *it) infant formula usually 1y 1ottle-feedin..ent.e. (1r. $. it must 1e im+ossi1le to avoid.. t)e Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .) t)e .. 4ormal offer. 96 4$4'. Com+are *it) 1dentification of documentary evidence. after t)e termination of t)e testimonial evidence. food fortification is addition of a micronutrient. 6enal Code. s)all em+loy violence or t)reats in suc) a de. (viles. deficiency in t)e diet. R6C'. <)e feedin. -c. indi. 4%. 4ormation$ maintenance and prohibition of combination of capital or labor through violence or threats. 4orma pauperis. <)e felony committed 1y any +erson *)o. R( & 8"'. [3ec. 6ermission .. it must 1e im+ossi1le to foresee t)e event *)ic) constitutes t)e caso fortuito.vid. C)aracteristics> -a. [(rt. Crim. [3ec.anized and +rovided 1y t)e formal sc)ool system and for *)ic) certification is re7uired in order for t)e learner to +ro. . 1 %'. ( su1stance. [3ec. to a food *)ic) is *idely consumed 1y a s+ecific at-risk . (ny event *)ic) could not 1e foreseen. It is also called artificial feedin. or *)ic). [(rt. added to food to increase its nutrient value.al e0ercise of t)eir industry or *ork. Fffer done only *)en t)e +arty rests its case and not 1efore. . coalitions or ca+ital or la1or. <)e formal offer made 1y t)e +ro+onent statin. Lat.ress t)rou.anizin. in c)emical or natural form. t)e s+ecific +ur+ose for *)ic) t)e evidence is offered. !t) . maintainin.3" or. 4ortuitous event. strike of la1orers or lockout of em+loyees. 4& .d. $.

4%%5'. dismisses conditionally or unconditionally t)e suit. GR L-111$&". 1 !'. A++ro+riate or convenient court.anization t)at serves +rimarily as a meetin. o+inion in anot)er forum ot)er t)an 1y a++eal or t)e s+ecial civil action of certiorari. it is necessary t)at )e 1e free from ne. [Frti. C Direct.ment )as 1een rendered in one forum. nevert)eless stays conditionally or. Lat. 4%%5'.natin.. to t)e creditor. [Intl.. in order to ensure t)at 2ustice is done.s . Lat. 6ro. 4orum non conveniens. <)e +rinci+le *)ere1y a court *)ic) )as 2urisdiction over a claim.. 4orum selection clause. 4%%5'. +lace for discussions. Ina++ro+riate or inconvenient court.or must 1e free from any +artici+ation in t)e a. <)is occurs *)enever. Delasco.'.al decision is made. ad2udications. [Intl. 4orum.oin. Glossary of Conflict of La*s.3"! occurrence must 1e suc) as to render it im+ossi1le for t)e de1tor to fulfill )is o1li.. La* Dict. ( +rovision in a contract desi.overnmental or. <)e court or locale *)erein causes are 2udicially tried. <)e +rinci+le *)ere1y a court *)ic) *ould not normally )ave 2urisdiction over a claim nevert)eless acce+ts 2urisdiction. 1ecause t)ere is no ot)er a++ro+riate 2urisdiction to )ear t)e claim. [=etal Aormin.ravation of t)e in2ury resultin. !%% -1 5.ation.ainst *)om an adverse 2ud. in order t)at t)e claim may 1e tried in anot)er 2urisdiction to *)ic) t)e defendant is amena1le and *)ic) t)e court 1elieves is more a++ro+riate or convenient for t)e liti.as C Com+any Ltd. 4%%5'. 4orum organi ation. ne. 4%%5'. anot)er -and +ossi1ly favora1le. 4. v. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students .. a +articular court or tri1unal to resolve any dis+ute t)at may arise concernin. Cor+.. 9ased on t)e fore. Glossary of Conflict of La*s. La* Dict. (u. as a result of an adverse o+inion in one forum. includin. [<etley.ence.. Civ.)t look *it) favor u+on t)e +arty. and related activities. 6artners)i+ v. or more actions or +roceedin. 4orum conveniens. 4$5 3CR( 5!!. [Intl. t)e o1li. t)e interests of 2ustice. 1. -d.ation in a normal manner. [<etley. -a. <)e +u1lic market or +aved court of a Roman city *)ere 2udicial and +u1lic 1usiness *as transacted. La* Dict. Fffice of t)e 6res. C Direct. Lat. in order t)at a fortuitous event may e0em+t a +erson from lia1ility. <)e act of a +arty a. -1. (n inter. 4orum shopping.rounded on t)e same cause on t)e su++osition t)at one or t)e ot)er court mi. 4&.otiations.li. t)e contract. of seekin. <)e +lace *)ere a le. or t)e institution of t*o -4. C Direct. and.

it must 1e for a limited +eriod not to e0ceed five -!. B)en suc) items are to 1e s)i++ed overseas.) t)e factors of distri1ution until it finally settles on t)e ultimate +urc)aser or consumer. $.es. [De Leon. or educational +ur+oses -non-+rofit +ur+ose.)ted on t)e . to avoid overcro*ded dockets. 3alon.3"" a +arty seeks a favora1le o+inion -ot)er t)an 1y a++eal or certiorari. t)eir suit for various reasons or e0cuses. colors and intermittent li.round and desi. Cor+.nited.ranted. years su12ect to t)e a++roval of t)e 3. 45. (dre. 554'. 4ountain. [Dillanueva v. &t) . +. 1 ". Conflict of La*s.. involvin.d. [3ec.'. acce+ts t)e +lacement or delivery of *)atever .. ( 1ill *)ic) contains a notation t)erein t)at t)e . or to select a more friendly venue.oods. [=orenoEs La* Dict. 4%%% .d. no more t)an a mere +)ysical transfer of t)e items from t)e seller.oods to it is a mere +re+aratory ste+ for t)eir eventual s)i+ment.inated as a conce+t in +rivate international la*.. Fne *)o. <)e transfer of t)e 1urden of t)e ta0 from a factor of +roduction t)rou. Com1inations of ca+ital. [Airst 6)il. [6aras. ( kind of s+arkler conical in s)a+e *)ic) is li. 6)il. +rovided t)at *)ere t)e e0clusive ri. 4orward shifting. +. <a0 La*. and or. +. 1&"'. 6rivate Intl. 1&"'. +. includin. 4ounders' shares.oods covered 1y it are in 1ad condition. inde+endent of individuals. 1 ! ed.. in anot)er.)ts u+on 1ein.iven certain ri.anized +rinci+ally for c)arita1le. -1 ".'. <o com1at t)ese less t)an )onora1le e0cuses.ned to +rovide various risin.d. R( 81&$'.C. 1y t)e nature of )is 1usiness. 4. Intl. to annoy and )arass t)e defendant. 4%%% .es not en2oyed 1y t)e o*ners of ot)er stocks. t)e +rinci+le of forum non conveniens *as develo+ed *)ere1y a court. It ori.. 184 3CR( &8". +. La*. 8.. 4oundations. may refuse im+ositions on its 2urisdiction *)ere it is not t)e most convenient or availa1le forum and t)e +arties are not +recluded from seekin. Aundamentals of <a0ation. 4oul bill of lading.ants are . #an. citin. 9ank v. GR 11!&5 . Code'. *)ere non-resident liti. [3ec. La*. Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . medical. Cor+. 4orwarder. remedies else*)ere.)t to vote and 1e voted for in t)e election of directors is .)ts and +rivile.iven t)e o+tion to c)oose t)e forum or +lace *)erein to 1rin. [=orenoEs La* Dict.a.d. to secure +rocedural advanta. i. 3)ares classified as suc) in t)e articles of incor+oration *)ic) may 1e . !" et se7. t)e delivery of t)e . 4%%% .. !!'.. in conflicts of la* cases. &&4 -1 & . C(.

R( 81"%'. 4#A clause. Le. -a. 4raud.)t or +rivile. 4%%% .)t to s+eedy dis+osition of )is case. len.ratin.as+i Fil v. Aree from +articular avera. trade. 1 & . li7uid car1on dio0ide. 1$1. #uly 1.e or ri. 4ranchise area. +art of t)e female . In t)e . 1y *)ic) t)e ot)er is induced to enter into a contract *)ic).. (+r. +.d. security.e.ful act. )e *ould not )ave a. kno*in. Cor+.enerally as a matter of common ri. *it)out t)em.s scre*ed t)ereto. +.4## 4ourchette.d.. ( small fold of mem1rane connectin. all acts. t)e effects *)ic) naturally and necessarily arise from suc) act or omission. i. omissions. 1. C Direct. [Claridades.an or t)e Ds)a+ed a++earance formed 1y t)e union of t)e t*o la1ia +osterity.eo. +arties.ranted to a distri1ution utility for distri1ution of electricity. t)e la1ia minora on t)e +osterior +art of t)e vulva -e0ternal. 4%%5'.. [=orenoEs La* Dict. and disinte. +. assertion of t)e ri. 1. CC'. <)e voluntary e0ecution of a *ron. &!'. [Le. under suc) terms and conditions as t)e . (lso kno*n as :alancing test. (nyt)in. of a cylinder containin. and -d. a 1reac) Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . $.)t or failure to assert it.. 1. GR "!%!. +. +re2udice caused 1y t)e delay. Code of t)e 6)il.. 4ranchise.e. <)e insidious *ords or mac)inations of one of t)e contractin. 1&8'.d. (ny s+ecial +rivile.reed to. 4%%!. 1 $'. [3ec. and safety. *)ic) acts as a safety device t)e function of *)ic) is to 1urst *)en e0cessive +ressure is 1uilt *it)in t)e cylinder to +revent t)e +ressure vessel from e0+lodin. 1&"'. 4. $.ned or . Lacson. (nnotated.t) of t)e delay.d.. 4%%$'. citin. 1.ra+)ical area e0clusively assi. (.. [Dean <u+az. ( ri.al =ed. 3+ecial license t)at re7uires t)e franc)isee to *ork t)e licensed +ro+erty under t)e su+ervision and control of t)e franc)isor. [De Leon. 6eo+le v. a +iece of steel disc 1et*een t)e valves and t)e +lu. 5. R( 1$"'. [=orenoEs La* Dict. -c.)t.. 4%%% . Com+ilation of @otes. reason for t)e delay. GR 15 5!$. !%.as 1ottlin. C(. and intendin. 4our-factor balancing test. [Intl. -1.. 45 Lours 9efore t)e 9ar -1st . [(rt.overnment and its +olitical su1divisions may im+ose in t)e interest of +u1lic *elfare. 1$$&. or a *illful omission. [3ec..enital or. <)e test to determine *)et)er an accused )as 1een denied t)e constitutional ri. 4%%14%%"'. and concealment involvin. ( . to t)e citizens of t)e country . La* Dict. calculated to deceive. affected *it) +u1lic interest *)ic) is conferred u+on +rivate +ersons or cor+orations. includin.e clause. 4rangible disc.)t conferred 1y t)e 3tate on cor+orations or +ersons and *)ic) does not 1elon. 4.

a. or enter+rise for o1tainin. La*. 4raud orders.. <)at fraud *)ic) destroys t)e contract itself. or indirectly. or t)e ad2ustment or settlement of accounts relatin. Crim.ard to furnis)in.to any +ostmaster or ot)er officer or em+loyee of t)e 9ureau -of 6osts. entrusted *it) t)e collection of ta0es. 9ein.d. directly. acts or omissions> -a.. 3ometimes kno*n as 4raud in esse contractus. ( transaction 1y means of *)ic) t)e o*ner of real or +ersonal Alvin Claridades’ Legal and Jurisprudential Lexicon for Law Students . Aailin. or t)at any +erson or com+any is conductin.reement *it) any interested +arty or s+eculator or make use of any ot)er sc)eme..4#1 of le. c)ance. f