Basic education of TPM

Chap3. Kobetsu-kaizen for production efficiency

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(Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance)


3. Kobetsu-kaizen for production efficiency
3.1 ・・・ Improvement of zero failure ・・・・・P38

3.2 ・・・ Improvement of the setup


3.3 ・・・ Improvement of cutting blade change loss・・・47 3.4・・・ Improvement of start up 3.5・・・ Improvement of Minor stoppage 3.6・・・ Improvement of Speed losses ・・・・・P50 ・・・・・P52 ・・・・・P56

3.7・・・ Improvement of Yield losses・・P58 3.8・・・ Principle of improvement ・・・・・・P60

“Kobetsu-Kaizen" takes the form of activities through project teams composed of managerial staff members and through small workshop groups. [6] Standardization and horizontal evolution should be completed for enhancement of OEE 3 . failure analysis methods and IE methods should be utilized.“Kobetsu-Kaizen" refers to the “individual improvement for further efficient production systems. PM analysis should be applied. The procedures for the implementation of “Kobetsu-Kaizen" by managerial stall members are as follows: [1] Selection of model equipment Model equipment or a model line should be chosen. [3] Grasping and confirmation of 16 major losses [4] Decision on the theme and preparation of a promotion program [5] “Kobetsu-Kaizen" project activities For these activities. with the line manager in charge of the model equipment serving as its leader. [2] Organization of a project team A team of several members should be organized. For chronic losses." It means efforts to select model equipment or a model line and to challenge the target of zero losses through project team activities according to improvement themes.

(2) Failure analysis is poor ・They have not drawn broken parts ・ They dose not have to disassemble the defective part ・They only exchange parts ・No relapse prevention Maintenance personnel does not understand the function of the parts They does not understand Why-Why analysis 4 .3.1 Improvement of zero failure 3・1・1 Common challenges related to failure (1) No interest production Section ・ The worker is not anything other than work ・ For safety reasons.They can . worker does not touch the equipment ・ There is no provision Workers just do not know how to Maintenance If Teach Maintenance to Wokers .

operating time. sound.method of inspection . inspection points is incomplete ・Defective Maintenance schedule ・ Record system of failure (4) Predictive maintenance is poor ・Periodically measuring equipment to determine the abnormality ・ Precision diagnosis ・・・Measure vibration. current load. etc and then understand the change point If there is no data management can not be right! 5 .(3) Maintenance system is incomplete ・Judgment standard . timing.

humidity. vibration. dust. Intensity <Stress Failure occurrence Cause failure : · deficiencies basic conditions · Do not keep the terms and conditions · Degraded without Restore · lowering skill · Lack of design To educate and Change the way of thinking and Change their behavior 6 .3・1・2 Thinking reduction of failure (1) Classification of failure ・failure Classified simple and complex then Give priority to simple failure ・ Method of stratified ・・・Mode causes / line/Occurrence location (2) Failure analysis ・Stress on the equipment → Electric or mechanical stress. temperature.

.Phase 3: To periodically repair deterioration to phases and implement them one by one under a restore original conditions. It is more effective deterioration. Prediction of the service life based on condition Repair of previous uncovered but unamended diagnosis degradation to restore the original conditions. plan.prevention of random failure A short-term and simultaneous implementation occurrences due to operation or repair errors. original conditions The four phases and principal themes of periodic maintenance: TBM). ~ Phase 1: To reduce dispersion of MTBF — . to divide enforcement of the measures into four . and grasping of individual themes are as follows: abnormal symptoms of internal deterioration based on the five senses.3・1・3 Four phases to achieve zero failures Four phases to achieve zero failures Improvement of design shortcomings (corrective maintenance).Phase 4: To foresee the service life. Through these steps. and preparation of basic conditions. techniques (predictive maintenance: CBM). steady approach to Regular deterioration repair to restore the zero failures will become possible. and technological prevention of artificial machine deterioration analysis of catastrophic failures. mean time between failures.Phase 2: To extend inherent service life. and restoration by fixing external appearance of the five measures for zero breakdowns is unlikely to progress smoothly. through observance of usage conditions. 7 .

' l5] "Improve skills: Ask to the machine cleaning. and retightening (of bolts and nuts). such as wear. l4] Improve design weaknesses: Only repeating correction of deterioration cannot lead to progress. so to speak.3・1・4 Five measures to achieve zero failures Failures represent only the tip of the iceberg. and declining insulation. [3] Restore original functions by fixing deterioration: The prevention of forced deterioration of quipment is possible by preparing basic conditions and abiding by usage conditions. Therefore. temperature. Even so. enforcement of cleaning.oiling. Methods for uncovering such latent defects and preventing failures are the "five measures to achieve zero failures. and flow rate. inevitably occurs.e.. such as pressure. such deterioration should not be left unattended but corrected to restore the original conditions. To begin with. corrosion. deterioration may be accelerated due to material selection errors or structural defects during design stage. l2] Abide by operational conditions: Observance of the specified operational conditions of the equipment.oiling.natural deterioration. speed. fatigue. and retightening is Important 8 . Such design shortcomings must be rectified (this is corrective maintenance). "and they are as follows: [1] Put basic conditions in place: Keeping of basic conditions for equipment. The leaving of latent defects below the “water surface" causes failures. i.

designed values The setup here means a series of work: W hat is achi ev ed t hro u gh t he removal of jigs/tools upon the completion [ 2] r e petition of trial and errors of the on-going production. adjustment. clearing up.attachment. and measurement of jigs/tools required for the next item and manufacturing of non-defective products. for instance. the manufacturing of the next item procedures to put quality within subsequent to setup and adjustment. preparation. to quantify ! 9 . Understand the setup. cleaning.3.2 Improvement of the setup This is one of the seven major losses that impede equipment operations and Adjustment means the following: refers to the time lost from the [1] Measures to be taken to seek the termination of the production of a optimum solutions or values to attain present item until the good-quality some purpose. There remain many issues to be addressed to shorten the time spent on „internal setup‟ (setup during machine stoppage) and „external setup‟ (setup without machine stoppage) based on IE approach.

3・2・2 Improvement of the setup (1) Organize and tidy ・ Management position of tooling ・ Do not search. do not move ① positioning ② centering ③ the correct dimensions ④ timing (2) Clarification External setup and Inter ⑤ balance setup ・ Study Elimination of work-Cause of the adjustment ・ Review of work procedures ① cumulative error ② shortage standardization (3)Study External setup to Inter setup ③ shortage rigidity ・Preset(Pre-assembled) ・ Sharing of jig and Exchange one-touch Analysis of adjustment ・ Changes the adjustment to External setup Study the one-touch setup ・Using the auxiliary jig・・・The elimination of adjustment (4) Study procedures of Inter setup ・Study on method of fixation Screw fixing → Hydraulic ・ One worker → Two worker Time savings (5) The elimination of adjustment · The purpose of the adjustment Study eliminating waste of External setup and Inter setup 10 .

Viewpoint Improvement of setup 5S. standardization. into fixture. preset. no adjustment 11 .

One-touch attachment and Analysis of adjustment The elimination of adjustment → One-touch attachment 12 .

hardness ・requirements of Quality product (Dimensional accuracy. surface roughness) ・Rigidity of the equipment Look the cutting edge! 13 .3.3 Improvement of cutting blade change loss 3.3.1- Problem of cutting blade (1)The life of the cutting tool ・Shape and material of the cutting tool · Cutting conditions (cutting speed) ・Material.

(2)Exchange conditions Reason: ・Unclear Exchange standards ・Failure occurs. Exchange without permission (3)Inhibiting unattended operation Reason: ・varies Quality ・Short-cutting tool life ・Occurs Minor Stoppage (4) Reduction of cutting tool’s cost ・Storing the old chip ・ No management objectives of cost cutting tool ・ Many kinds of cutting tool ・Management chip is loose ・ No historical record use of a chip ・ No Management abrasion of the chip (Can be use but exchange can not use but No exchange) 14 .

vibration.Detection parameters of the cutting tool life Quantify sound. AE. heat 15 . current. resistance.

rework due to failure to adjustment. warm-up and idling operations are conducted early in the morning.4 Improvement of start up Start-up losses denotes the time losses and volume losses (from defects and remark) until product quality stabilizes to manufacture non-defective products even in accordance with the specified cycle time without mechanic troubles. The target of start-up losses is “minimization.” Understanding the thermal displacement!! 16 . and breakage of cutting blades. such as minor stoppages. To prevent these. causing frequent adjustments.3. small troubles. At a machining shop dimension dispersions are likely to occur during the morning setup. during [1] start-up after periodic overhaul [shutdown maintenance] [2] start-up after downtime (long-term line stoppage) [3] start-up after holidays [4] start-up after the lunch break. and breakdown of cutting blades.

3.Time to settle 17 . (2) Study Material : ・Consult the manufacturer the material to minimize thermal displacement (3) Cooling the generator ・ Cool heat by Cooling fan (4) Automatic correction ・Automatically adjusts to predict beforehand the amount of displacement Study Cause.2 Improvement Way of start up (1) measure: ・Measuring temperature of the table.Thermal displacement curve. Main shaft. etc to stabilize.4.

analysis. are not required. they are fundamentally different from [3] ln case parts exchange or repair machine failures. minor stoppage/idling slight defects. it is important to in detail analyze phenomena [or slight defects] and to thoroughly eliminate Unlike failures.3. losses represent a status in which the machine is subjected to either stoppage or idling due to temporary troubles. [2] in case the recovery of functions is These are the conditions in which the made by simple fixing machine will revert to normal (elimination of abnormal workoperation. or when a sensor activated [4] Recovery time lasts from 2 or 3 seconds less than 5 minutes. Therefore. for instance. To reduce minor stoppages. when a work-piece is clogged in the chute. stratified to investigate at the site . if the stuck workpiece and/or resetting) piece is removed. 18 Observation.5 Improvement of Minor stoppage losses [1] In case temporary functional stoppage ensues. because of a quality defect to cause a temporary stoppage. or resetting is carried out. idling occurs .

3. retightening (4) Compliance with of the basic tasks: Correct operation.5. vibration (2) Remediation of the defect: Contact surface of the workpiece is key point Improve the small defects of parts and jigs (3)Compliance with the basic maintenance: Cleaning.2. Improvement Way of Minor stoppage losses (1) Phenomenon analysis and motion analysis of workpiece: Video recording the phenomenon of Minor stoppage . adjustment (5)Study on optimum condition: Studied the optimization of processing conditions of Parts (6)Study Weakness: Studied the problem of the design of equipment、parts.jigs 19 Understand the movement of the workpiece by video shoot . refueling. float. Viewpoint is movement posture. setup. angle.

Classification of phenomenon and Classification of causes 20 .

21 .

3.6 Improvement of Speed losses One of the seven major losses impeding improvement based on the current efficiency improvement of equipment. the cycle time is 60 seconds as reference but the actual operation cycle time is 65 seconds. Therefore. speed (or reference speed for each product the target should be to make item) nit the difference between the design speed [2] Losses resulting from lower design speed and the actual speed. These technological level. There is a speed loss of 5 seconds. There is a speed loss of losses incurred by slow machine speed are 10 seconds in this case. defined as follows: Aiming at speed increase would contribute to [1] Losses due to the difference between the clarification of problems and actual speed and the design upgrading of technological levels. the cycle time is set at 60 seconds but it could be reduced to 50 seconds through Into the data to understand the current status of equipment! 22 . As an example of the latter case. compared to the present technological level or desirable speed (or „mission‟ speed) As an example of the former case.

3.6.2 How to improve the speed loses (1)Understand the cause To speed up For the experiment. component structure.Operating time. Study Air cut time.Two person work 23 .Idle time. timing. ① Changes in Cp ? ② New bad item ? ③ The life of the cutting tool ? ④ Number of occurrences of Minor Stoppage? ⑤ Percentage occurrence of defective ? *Examine the aggravating factors measures ahead (2)Check the validity of the action ①Reduction of air cut time ②Reduction of idle time ③Reduction of operating time ④ Reduction of working hours by two people work *Make improvement on equipment mechanism. the cycle diagram.

As a result of these. or the service life of cutting blades shortened.3.7 Improvement of Yield losses This refers to the volume losses resulting from in the case of aluminum casting. in other words. gate weight. The former represents material losses that can result from leaving too much iron cast for fear of casting shortcomings (such as sand inclusion) or from forging too thick so that it may be sufficient enough to obtain mold precision in the shaping process. cutting time can be lengthened. or between raw losses representing runner weight and blur materials input and product weight. The latter represents the difference between whitewash weight. this refers to differences between raw material weight the and product weight. 24 . the losses in this category result from increased burr generation due to molding precision insufficiency. generated burr volume and the product weight. Weight.

3.7.2 How to to reduce chronic defects (1)Immobilization of variable factors factors?:Impact phenomena logically Cause?:Which have proved to have influenced the phenomenon “Restore .For Immobilizing the "Variation factor"!! 25 .

3.8 Principle of improvement 26 .

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