USER MANUAL
March 2011
This document has been prepared for the users of HydroStar for version 6.1 and above and
deals with the aspects related to the computation of ﬁrst and second order loads and motions
for arbitrary bodies in deep and ﬁnite depth waters, with or without forward speed.
Research Department
BUREAU VERITAS
92571 NeuillySurSeine
Tel: +33 (0)1 55 24 70 00
Fax: +33 (0)1 55 24 70 26
HydroStar For Experts BV (19912011) is distributed by Bureau Veritas.
First Printing, April 2006
Revised, August 2007
Revised, September 2007
Revised, April 2008
Revised, October 2008
Revised, December 2008
Revised, March 2009
Revised, May 2010
Revised, March 2011
c Bureau Veritas
Contacts:
Bureau Veritas France
Dr. Xiaobo CHEN
email: xiaobo.chen@bureauveritas.com
Guillaume deHAUTECLOCQUE
email: guillaume.dehauteclocque@bureauveritas.com
Bureau Veritas China
Brice LeGALLO
email: brice.legallo@cn.bureauveritas.com
Haixia Xu
email: haixia.xu@cn.bureauveritas.com
Cong YU
email: cong.yu@cn.bureauveritas.com
Bureau Veritas Korea
YunSuk CHUNG
email: yunsuk.chung@kr.bureauveritas.com
Bureau Veritas USA
Paulo BIASOTTO
email: paulo.biasotto@bureauveritas.com
Bureau Veritas Brazil
Fl´ avia REZENDE
email: ﬂavia.rezende@bureauveritas.com
Hydrostar User Manual
Release Notes
Version 6.0:
• Correction of bug in hsrdf for ﬁnite water depth and when no symmetry condition was
used (example, multibody in ﬁnite water depth).
• Inclusion of sidewall eﬀects in hsrdf (page 56).
• Construction of transfer function of relative motions between two bodies in hsrao (page
1212).
• Construction of QTFs according to O(∆ω) approximation in hsrao (pages 108,1215)
• Correction of bug in hsmec on the hydrostatic stiﬀness for the applications with tanks
• Modiﬁcation of hsmec for the applications with tanks: the global mechanical properties
including the liquid in tanks must be given (page 64).
• Modiﬁcation of the limit on the number of characters of the input ﬁles. The name of the
input ﬁles was limited in the previous versions to 15 characters and has been extended to
80 characters
• Modiﬁcation of the limit on the number of characters of the FILENAME used in the input
ﬁle of hsrdf and hsmec . In the previous versions the limit was 3 characters. It has been
extended to 15 characters.
• Construction of input ﬁles for Ariane v7 in hsrao (page 1217).
• Modiﬁcation of hsrsn . Not only the resonance frequencies are displayed in the screen,
but also the Eigen vectors associates to each resonant mode.
• Use of ”LU decomposition” for the solution of the linear system instead of ”Gauss Elim
ination”.
• Modiﬁcation of computation progress display in hsrsn . The computation time for each
frequency as well as the remaining computation time are displayed in the screen.
Hydrostar User Manual
Version 6.10:
• More eﬃcient compilation. Calculation about 40% faster.
• MiddleField implementation improved in hsqtf , the control surface can now coincide
with the free surface, this leads to better convergence
• Automatic control surface generation improved (Multibody, more parameters)
• Manual updated (phase convention error corrected and more details about the 2nd order
calculations)
• Modiﬁcation in output for Ariane7 (Added mass format changed) in hsrao
• Spectral tool ”StarSpec v1.10’ included. hspec and hslps are available in HydroStar console.
For further information, refer to StarSpec user guide.
Version 6.11:
• Install (improved) : Restart not needed anymore
• HSlec (bug ﬁxed) : Automatic freesurface generation in some multibody cases ﬁxed
• HSchk (bug ﬁxed) : Visualisation of sections for bodies with very low draft
• HSmcn (bug ﬁxed) : Recombinaison of several HStnk calculations ﬁxed
• HSmcn (new) : Calculation of multibody cases with internal tanks (in only one body)
• HSmcn (improved) : Beam damping model linearisation improved for better convergence
• HSmcn (bug ﬁxed) : NOTANKS option ﬁxed
• HSqtf (bug ﬁxed) : Number of heading in HSqtf calculation not limited to 50 anymore
• HSrao (bug ﬁxed) : Ariane7 output when HSdft is not run works
• HSrao (new) : Wave reference point written in Ariane7 output
• HSrao (new) : Orcaﬂex output
• HSpec (new) : Longterm extrem assiocated to a probability in a reference duration
• HSpec (new) : Shortterm extrem assiocated to a probability in a seastate duration
• HSpec (new) : Spline interpolation of RAOs
• HSpec (new) : Wrapped normal spreading
• HSwav (bug ﬁxed) : Crash with some meshes, ﬁxed
Version 6.20:
• HSpec (bug ﬁxed) : Problem with m
2
calculation when using both speed and spreading
ﬁxed
• HSpln (new) : New module to interpolate through HSrdf results
• HSrdf (new) : Iterative solver as an option (Keywords : ”SOLMETHOD GMRES”)
• HSbln (new) : New module to equilibrate a ship on still water
• HSdft (new) : Side wall eﬀect option
• HSqtf (bug ﬁxed) : Correction of vertical 2nd order loads (Aﬀected only moments Mx
and My with NearField formulation.)
Hydrostar User Manual
Contents
Release Notes
Introduction 0–1
1 Getting Started 1–1
1.1 Hardware conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–1
1.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–1
1.3 HydroStar interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2
1.4 Running tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3
2 Overview 2–1
2.1 HydroStar structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–2
2.2 Conventions used in HydroStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–5
2.3 Units used in HydroStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–8
3 Mesh Generation 3–1
3.1 Single simple geometry mesh generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–1
3.2 Bodies composed by various simple geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–5
3.2.1 Example of Input ﬁle for hsmsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–10
3.2.2 Generating the mesh using hsmsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–10
3.3 Use AMG to generate Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–11
3.4 Mesh equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–11
4 Reading the Mesh 4–1
4.1 Input ﬁle format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–1
4.2 Input ﬁle for a single body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–5
4.3 Input ﬁle for multi bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–7
4.4 Input ﬁle including dissipation zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–9
4.5 Input ﬁle including tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–13
4.6 Input ﬁle of hybrid model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–16
Hydrostar User Manual
4.7 Reading the input ﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–17
4.8 Getting information about the mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–19
4.9 Preliminary veriﬁcaton of the mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–20
4.10 Checking the hydrostatic properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–21
4.11 Visualization of the mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–21
5 Diﬀraction radiation computation 5–1
5.1 Input ﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–2
5.2 Elimination of irregular frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–5
5.3 Encounter frequency approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–6
5.4 Sidewall Eﬀects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–6
5.5 Diﬀraction and radiation computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–7
5.6 Radiation/Diﬀraction interpolation : HSpln module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–7
5.7 Radiation computation inside tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–8
6 Motion Computation 6–1
6.1 Input data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–1
6.2 Input ﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–1
6.2.1 Centre of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–4
6.2.2 Gyration Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–4
6.2.3 Inertia Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–5
6.2.4 Stiﬀness Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–6
6.2.5 Damping Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–7
6.3 Computing the vessel’s motions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–10
7 Global wave eﬀorts computation 7–1
7.1 Global wave loads for ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–1
7.2 Global wave loads for non slender bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–4
8 Waves visualization 8–1
9 Pressure and wave elevation computation 9–1
10 Second order computation 10–1
10.1 Mean drift loads in unidirectional waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–2
10.1.1 Input ﬁle for hsdft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–2
10.1.2 Checking and visualizing the control surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–4
10.1.3 Running hsdft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–5
10.2 Mean drift loads in bidirectional waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–5
10.2.1 Input ﬁle for hsmdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–5
10.2.2 Running hsmdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–6
10.3 Full QTF computation in uni and bidirectional waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–6
10.3.1 Input ﬁle for hsamg and hsqtf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–6
10.3.2 Running HydroStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–7
10.3.3 O(∆ω) Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–8
11 FEM model interface 11–1
11.1 Input ﬁles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–1
11.1.1 FEM model input ﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–1
11.1.2 Input ﬁle with the pressure transfer information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–4
11.2 Running hsfem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–6
11.2.1 Reading the pressures by NASTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–6
12 Construction of the transfer functions 12–9
12.1 Input File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–9
12.2 Running hsrao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–18
A Examples A–1
A.1 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A–1
A.2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A–15
B Index of commands B–1
C VISU4D interface C–1
D References D–1
0–8 Hydrostar User Manual
Introduction
HydroStar is the hydrodynamic software developed in Bureau Veritas since 1991, that provides
a complete solution of ﬁrst order problem of wave diﬀraction and radiation and also the QTF
of second order lowfrequency wave loads for ﬂoating body with or without forward speed in
deep water and in ﬁnite water depth.
For the versions 4.0 and above, the QTF (Quadratic Transfer Function) of secondorder wave
loading can be computed by using three diﬀerent formulations: the new middleﬁeld formula
tion plus the classical nearﬁeld formulation consisting of direct pressure integration and the
farﬁeld formulation derived from the theorem of momentum conservation. In version 5.0 the
nearﬁeld and middleﬁeld formulations have been extended to the case of cross waves not only
for the calculation of mean drift loads but also for the QTF of lowfrequency loads. Addition
ally, the control surface needed when middleﬁeld is used can be now automatically generated
by the program.
The following advanced fonctionalities are present in HydroStar :
• Fairly perfect ﬂuid formulation: In the classical potential theory there’s no limit
in predicting resonant wave kinematics while the resonant motion is in reality largely
damped by diﬀerent mechanisms. In order to avoid unrealistic resonant wave motion, we
have added a ﬁctitious force to the momentum equation in the same way as Gu´evel (1982)
to represent the energy dissipation of various sources without modifying the inviscid and
irrotational properties. As a result a dissipation term is present in the classical boundary
condition over the free surface. The formulation of the socalled ”fairlyperfect ﬂuid”
is a soundbasis applicable for a number of analysis. One example of application is the
prediction of wave kinematics in the gap between two vessels in sidebyside conﬁguration.
• Green function and inﬂuence coeﬃcients: The integral equation of the ﬁrstorder
boundary value problem is derived by making use of the Green theorem. The Green
function involved in the wave diﬀraction and radiation problem is then formulated as the
fundamental solution expressed by the FourierHankel integral. The ﬁnite depth Green
function is decomposed into the deepwater Green function and two regular functions rep
resenting the eﬀect of the seabed. The regular functions are then evaluated accurately and
approximated by Chebychev polynomials of three variables. Furthermore, the involved
special functions and the deepwater Green function are also approximated by Chebychev
0–1
0–2 Hydrostar User Manual
polynomials of one and two variables, respectively. It is shown that polynomial approxi
mations are extremely eﬃcient in computation of the Green function. Furthermore, the
originality and interesting features of the formulation of the Green function in water of ﬁ
nite depth given in Chen (1993) lead us to develop our eﬃcient algorithms of its numerical
computation.
• Removal of irregular frequencies: In the Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) we
make use of the Green function which satisﬁes the governing equation in the ﬂuid domain.
Thus, the real physical problem exterior to the body surface and the ﬁctitious interior
problem are solved at the same time. If the Green function is chosen in such way that the
interior problem has no unique solution at some eigenfrequencies, the exterior solution
will be also aﬀected and important numerical errors will arise around these frequencies.
The method adopted to remove those irregular frequencies is the extension of the BIE
to a ﬁctitious free surface in the interior of the body, taking advantage of the fact that
we can modify the boundary value problem in the interior domain in such way that it
has a unique solution. If we discretize the interior surface in an appropriate way, we may
eliminate all the irregular frequencies or at least shift them suﬃciently far away. The
interior surface mesh is automatically generated by HydroStar .
• Seakeepingsloshing coupled analysis: In HydroStar we consider the seakeeping and
the sloshing problems separately. For the sloshing problem, only the linear case is con
sidered. An interior boundary value problem is formulated associated to the six degrees
of motions of the tank. The results obtained for both, the exterior and interior problems
are combined at the computation of the motion equation. As no damping is obtained in
the potential theory for the closed problem of the tank, we have modiﬁed the boundary
condition at the tanks walls, in order to include a dissipation parameter with the aim of
simulating the energy disspation caused by viscous eﬀects. This dissipation parameter
gives an artiﬁcial damping which should be calibrated against model tests results.
• Formulations for secondorder loads computations: The user of HydroStar is able
to choose between diﬀerent formulations for the computation of secondorder loads. In
addition to the classical nearﬁeld and farﬁeld formulation, the middleﬁeld formulation
has been implemented. This formulation written on the control surface at some distance
from the body, has the same virtue as the farﬁeld formulation to have rapid numerical
convergence for horizontal drift loads. Furthermore, in the case of multiple bodies, the
control surface can be one surrounding an individual body and the wave loads applied on
the surrounded body are then obtained, while the farﬁeld formulation provides only the
sum of wave loads applied on all bodies and cannot give access to the wave loads on one
individual body. An important application of the developed method is the multibody
interaction.
• Lowfrequency loads in cross waves:
In the common practice, only the longcrested seas are used for the design of ﬂoating
systems. At the most, a directional spreading is considered for the ﬁrstorder motions.
At the ﬁrstorder, the eﬀects of directionality may be obtained by a simple sum of the
eﬀects of the unidirectional waves independently. However, for the secondorder loads,
Contents 0–3
the interaction between two waves coming from diﬀerent directions may lead to additional
loading term that could represent an important part of the total secondorder load acting
on the system. In HydroStar , the nearﬁeld and the middleﬁeld formulations have been
extended to the case of cross waves. Not only the mean drift loads, but also the full QTF
of lowfrequency loads can be computed.
In order to simplify the understanding of this user manual, the ﬁrst two chapters provide pre
liminary information on the installation and conventions used in the software, followed by the
chapters which are organized in the order of the execution of HydroStar in its common appli
cations.
0–4 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 1
Getting Started
This chapter provides instructions for the installation of HydroStar and for making test runs in
order to check if the installation was well done.
1.1 Hardware conﬁguration
The following minimum hardware conﬁguration is necessary to run HydroStar :
• PENTIUM 500MHz as a minimum;
• 100MB free on the Hard Disk ;
• 256MB RAM as a minimum;
• Windows 95, 98, 2000, NT , XP, Vista , 7
• Graphic Card allowing OPENGL emulation.
1.2 Installation
In order to install HydroStar , the user must follow the steps below:
• log on with Administrator privileges (required for Windows XP);
• Run the Setup.exe program (the setup of HydroStar can be now downloaded on the
website www.veristar.com).
• the user also needs a license ﬁle that is provided by Bureau Veritas.
If there’s any problem in installing HydroStar please contact the following support people
at Bureau Veritas:
1–1
1–2 Hydrostar User Manual
XiaoBo Chen email: xiaobo.chen@bureauveritas.com tel: +33 (0)1 55 24 74 74
Guillaume deHauteclocque email: guillaume.dehauteclocque@bureauveritas.com tel: +33
(0)1 55 24 74 71
1.3 HydroStar interface
After having installed HydroStar , a short cut of the program will be created in the user’s com
puter work area. Double click the icon and the following HydroStar ”DOSlike” window will be
opened.
===========
****
HydroStar For Experts V6.20
****
===========
(c)BV/DR 19912011
A new generation of hydrodynamic software
for offshore and naval applications
Hstar>>
To ﬁnd out the working directory, type ”pwd” and to change directory, just type cd ”path”:
Hstar>>pwd
C:/BVeritas/Hydrostar
Hstar>>cd c:/hydro/study
Additionally to this manual, HydroStar also provides an online manual. To access a list of
commands just type ”man”, and to access the description of one speciﬁc command just type
”man” followed by the name of the command.
===========
****
HydroStar For Experts V6.20
****
===========
(c)BV/DR 19912011
A new generation of hydrodynamic software
for offshore and naval applications
Hstar>>man
Chapter 1. Getting Started 1–3
1.4 Running tests
Some test examples can be found in the folder ”/examples” and can be used to check whether
the program was correctly installed. The test examples also provide to the users the possibility
of using and modifying the input ﬁles for tutorial purposes.
To run the test examples the user may follow the instructions provided in the following chapters
of this manual.
1–4 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 2
Overview
HydroStar is a powerful 3D diﬀraction/radiation potential theory 3D panel software for wave
body interactions taking into account multibody interaction, eﬀects of forward speed and
dynamic eﬀects of liquid motions in tanks. Evaluation of 1st and 2nd order wave loads, mo
tions, accelerations, relative motions, wave elevation is dedicated to all structure systems in
deep and ﬁnite depth waters with or without speed.
HydroStar is conceived to enhance technical excellence and productivity. It brings together
numerous advantages and functionalities to meet high level requirements:
• Rapid results as it uses eﬃcient advanced algorithms
• Elimination of irregular frequencies
• Mixed panel  beam model
• Multibody interaction
• Wave tank eﬀect and wave attenuation in harbor
• Inputs for air gap analysis, green water & slamming estimation
• Linear and nonlinear wave loads
• Multidirectional second order loads
• Dynamic eﬀects of liquid motion in tanks
• Account for resonant eﬀects of moonpool
• Automatic Transfer of Hydrodynamic pressure loads to FEM;
• Fully interfaced with VeriStar Oﬀshore mooring and structural software
2–1
2–2 Hydrostar User Manual
2.1 HydroStar structure
HydroStar is structured into the following main modules:
• hslec : reading the mesh;
Input: body’s geometry (coordinates, panel connectivity and condition of symmetry);
Output: hydrostatic properties of the body (Volume, center of buoyancy, wetted surface,
waterplane area and inertia, etc.);
• hsrdf : radiation and diﬀraction computation;
Input: wave conditions (wave frequencies and headings, water depth);
Output: elementary solutions including addedmass, radiation damping and wave excita
tion loads;
• hstnk : radiation computation inside a tank;
Input: same as for hsrdf
Output: added mass for each tank included in the calculation.
• hsmec : motions computation;
Input: mechanic properties (mass distribution, additional stiﬀness and additional damp
ing matrices);
Output: motions of ﬂoating bodies;
• hsdft : secondorder drift computation in unidirectional waves;
Input: choice of formulation type (farﬁeld, nearﬁeld or far ﬁeld);
Output: second order drift loads in unidirectional waves;
• hsmdf : secondorder drift computation in bidirectional waves;
Input: choice of formulation type (nearﬁeld or middle ﬁeld);
Output: second order drift loads in bidirectional waves;
• hsamg : preprocessing for secondorder lowfrequency computation in uni and bidirectional
waves;
Input: choice of formulation type (nearﬁeld or middle ﬁeld); diﬀerencefrequencies and
wave frequencies for the computation.
Output: input ﬁles for hsqtf ;
• hsqtf : secondorder lowfrequency computation in uni and bidirectional waves;
Input: choice of formulation type (nearﬁeld or middle ﬁeld); diﬀerencefrequencies and
wave frequencies for the computation.
Output: second order lowfrequency loads in uni and bidirectional waves;
Chapter 2. Overview 2–3
• hsprs : pressure computation;
Input: Coordinates of points to compute the pressure;
Output: Pressure at the given points;
• hswld : computation of global wave loads;
Input: mass distribution along the ship (sections where the eﬀorts are required);
Output: eﬀorts per deﬁned station;
• hsrao : construction of the transfer functions;
Input: choice of which transfer function the user want to construct and the name of the
ﬁle to store the results;
Output: transfer functions of motions, velocities, accelerations and second order loads;
• hswav: wave visualization;
Input: free surface mesh and wave components to visualize;
Output: input data ﬁles of VSHIP for simulation of vessel’s motions and waves;
• hsfem: transfer of hydrodynamic pressure loads to FEM;
Input: whole ship ﬁnite element model and wave conditions (heading and frequency);
Output: real and imaginary parts of hydrodynamic pressure loads.
• hspec: Spectral analysis of short and long term;
Input: wave data, etc;
Output: spectral results.
Some secondary modules are available in addition to the ones listed above. Those modules
are used or for preprocessing purpose or for checking any result at intermediate stage of the
calculation.
• hsmsh : mesh generator for simple geometries;
Input: main dimensions of the body (barge, sphere, etc);
Output: input ﬁle for hslec ;
• hschk : veriﬁcation of the mesh;
Input: output of hslec ;
Output: check of mesh (inconsistency, normal orientation, etc);
• hvisu : visualization of the mesh;
Input: output of hschk ;
Output: view of the mesh;
2–4 Hydrostar User Manual
• hsinf : information about the mesh or information about mechanical computation;
Input: output of hslec or output of hsmec ;
Output: information about the mesh (like mean length of panels, etc) or information
about mechanical computation (like frequencies, headings, etc);
• hstat: hydrostatic properties veriﬁcation and/or inertia matrices computation through a
weight distribution;
Input: Weight distribution (only needed for the calculation inertia matrices at given
sections);
Output: hydrostatic properties or/and input data for hsmec and hswld
• hsrsn : resonance periods / frequencies computation;
Input: output of hsmec ;
Output: resonance periods / frequencies
• hsplt: plotting of the RAOs;
Input: output ﬁles from hsrao ;
Output: graphic view of the RAOs
Chapter 2. Overview 2–5
The ﬁgure 2.1 represents a scheme of HydroStar including all of its modules.
Figure 2.1: General scheme
2.2 Conventions used in HydroStar
The following coordinate system is used by HydroStar :
• Axis Ox is positive in the forward direction;
• Axis Oy is positive to port side;
• Axis Oz is positive upwards.
The origin of the reference system used by HydroStar is at the free surface level. However, at
any input ﬁle, the user is able to deﬁne the zcoordinates with respect to any other point (e.g.
keel of the vessel). Let’s call this additional reference system as ”user reference system”.
The ”user reference system” is only used for the input data. It needs to be parallel and with
its origin at the same vertical line as HydroStar reference system. If the origin of the vertical
axis is not at the free surface, the user needs to input the keyword (ZFSURFACE) followed by
the zcoordinate of the free surface given in the ”user reference system”. For example, the user
2–6 Hydrostar User Manual
may deﬁne the zcoordinates of the mesh with respect to keel in the input for hslec if in the
same input ﬁle he deﬁnes ZFSURFACE equal to the draft. By default, the ZFSURFACE is equal
to 0 corresponding to HydroStar reference system.
NOTE: The keyword ZFSURFACE should be used in every input ﬁle where the origin of the
”user reference system” is not at the free surface. The results are always given in HydroStar
reference system (z=0 at the free surface).
The vessels translations surge, sway and heave are the motions in Ox, Oy and Oz respec
tively. The vessel’s rotations roll, pitch and yaw are deﬁned as follows:
• Roll is the rotation around the axis parallel to Ox through the reference point;
• Pitch is the rotation around the axis parallel to Oy through the reference point;
• Yaw is the rotation around the axis parallel to Oz through the reference point.
Regular incoming waves are described by their amplitude (a), frequency (ω) in rad/s and head
ing (β). The wave heading is deﬁned by the angle between the propagation direction and the
positive direction of the axis Ox.
x
y
0
0°
45°
90°
135°
180°
225°
270°
315°
AF
Midship FP
Figure 2.2: Wave headings
A regular wave is deﬁned by its analytical expression:
η(X, Y, t) = a cos{ωt −k[(X −X
cal
) cos β + (Y −Y
cal
) sin β]} (2.1)
Chapter 2. Overview 2–7
with k the wavenumber determined by the dispersion equation:
k tanh(kH) =
ω
2
g
(2.2)
where, H is the water depth and g is the acceleration due to gravity.
If the wave reference point is taken equal to the calculation point, X = X
cal
and Y = Y
cal
, the
incident wave elevation is given by (see also ﬁg 2.3):
η(X
cal
, Y
cal
, t) = a cos(ωt) (2.3)
t
elevation
Figure 2.3:
Any other physical value of responses like vessel’s motions is written in the way:
U(t) = ucos(ωt +φ) (2.4)
with the amplitude u and the phase φ. The ratio between the response amplitude and wave
amplitude is called RAO:
RAO = u/a (2.5)
φ is often called as phase lead as it represents an advance comparing to waves. φ is the value
ouput by HSRAO when specifying the keyword PHASE
NOTE 1 : Internally the phase convention is based on the incident potential (φ
i
= −
ag
ω
e
i(kx−ωt)
)
so the incident wave height at the reference point is η
0
= a cos(ωt +
π
2
). The real and imaginary
2–8 Hydrostar User Manual
part that can be output by HSRAO with keywords COS and SIN are linked to this conven
tion. This imply that phase Φ
0
= arg(RAO
cplx
) is related to the wave η
0
= a cos(ωt +
π
2
), other
physical values being given by U
0
(t) = ucos(ωt −φ
0
)
NOTE 2: Attention should be made to the deﬁnition of the wave reference point (REFWAVE)
and to the calculation point, also called reference point (REFPOINT). The ﬁrst one deﬁnes the
point where the wave is zero ascendent at the instant zero. The other is the reference point
located on the body for the calculations. By default those points are taken equal to the centre of
buoyancy for the radiation and diﬀraction computations (hsrdf ) and equal to centre of gravity
for the motions computations (hsmec ). Obviously all the results obtained in hsrdf in the centre
of buoyancy are transferred to the centre of gravity, consistently, for the computations in hsmec .
2.3 Units used in HydroStar
The following units are used in HydroStar :
Length (L) m
Surface (S) m
2
Volume (V ) m
3
Mass (M) Kg
Inertia (I) Kg.m
2
Mass density (r) Kg/m
3
Time (t) s
Gravity (g) m/s
2
Wave frequency (ω) rad/s (circular frequency)
Wave period (T) s
Wave amplitude (A) m
Wave heading (β) deg
Translations (T) m Surge, sway and heave
Translations RAO (T) m/m
Rotations (R) deg Roll, pitch and yaw
Rotations RAO (R) deg/m
Forces (F) N(= Kg · m/s
2
)
Moments (M) N · m
Pressure (P) m in waterhead
Speed m/s
Chapter 3
Mesh Generation
HydroStar provides two automatic mesh generators for simple geometries. The ﬁrst one is ded
icated to single simple geometries, such like cylinders, barges, spheres, ect. The second one is
dedicated to bodies composed by several simple geometries.
In addition, the module AMG (Automatic Mesh Generation) provides the possibility of au
tomatic generation of ship meshes by just inputting the stations coordinates and some infor
mation about the aft and forward parts of the vessel. This module can be used independently
from HydroStar .
3.1 Single simple geometry mesh generation
This module allows the user to generate the following geometries:
• Cylinder
• Semisphere
• Elliptical cylinder
• box
The following commands shall be input in HydroStar window for the generation of each
type of geometry mentioned above:
• Cylinder:
i) Type ”hsmsh cs[symmetry code]”
where:
3–1
3–2 Hydrostar User Manual
symmetry code
=0 if no symmetry
=1 if symmetric around x axis
=2 if symmetric around x and y axi
ii) HydroStar will then require the following values in order to deﬁne the mesh:
R = radius of the cylinder;
H = height of the cylinder;
ntheta = number of panels along the circumference;
nH = number of panels in the cylinder height;
nR = number of panels in radial direction in the bottom of the cylinder.
Figure 3.1: Example of cylinder mesh
iii) HydroStar generates a ﬁle named ”cyls[symmetry code].dat” with the appropriate for
mat already described here above.
Hstar>>cyl>>hsmsh cs2
R,H,ntheta(0>PI/2),nH,nR(fond)=: 15 40 20 20 15
Output mesh file name : cyls2.dat
• Semisphere:
i) Type ”hsmsh ds[symmetry code]”
where:
symmetry code
=0 if no symmetry
=1 if symmetric around x axis
=2 if symmetric around x and y axi
Chapter 3. Mesh Generation 3–3
ii) HydroStar will then require the following values in order to deﬁne the mesh:
R = radius of the cylinder;
ntheta = number of panels along the circumference around z axis;
nphi = number of panels along the circumference around x / y axis
Figure 3.2: Example of sphere mesh
iii) HydroStar generates a ﬁle named ”dsphs[symmetry code].dat” with the appropriate for
mat already described here above.
Hstar>>dsphe>>hsmsh ds2
R,ntheta(0>PI/2),nphi = : 10 20 20
Output mesh file name : dsphs2.dat
• Elliptical Cylinder:
i) Type ”hsmsh es2”
ii) HydroStar will then require the following values in order to deﬁne the mesh:
a = length of the elliptical cylinder;
b = breadth of the elliptical cylinder;
H = height of the elliptical cylinder;
ntheta = number of panels along the circumference
nH = number of panels in height;
nR = number of panels in radial direction in the bottom of the cylinder.
iii) HydroStar generates a ﬁle named ”cyls2.dat” with the appropriate format already de
scribed here above.
Hstar>>ellyp>>hsmsh es2
a,b,H,ntheta(0>PI/2),nH,nR(fond) = : 20 10 10 20 10 10
Outputmesh file name : cyls2.dat
• Box:
3–4 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure 3.3: Example of elliptical cylinder mesh
i) Type ”hsmsh bte”
ii) HydroStar will then require the following values in order to deﬁne the mesh:
L = length of the box;
B = breadth of the box;
T = height of the box;
nL = number of panels in length;
nB = number of panels in breadth;
nT = number of panels in height.
Figure 3.4: Example of box mesh
iii) HydroStar generates a ﬁle named ”boite.don” with the appropriate format already de
scribed here above.
Hstar>>boite>>hsmsh bte
L,B,T= : 20 10 5
nL,nB,nT= : 20 10 5
Output mesh file name : boite.don
Chapter 3. Mesh Generation 3–5
3.2 Bodies composed by various simple geometries
The user can use several simple geometries to compose a single body. In this case, an input ﬁle
shall be generated with the following keywords:
TYPE 1
SYMMETRY isym (=1 for symmetry XZ
= 2 for symmetry XZ and symmetry YZ)
ZFSURFACE zfs (z coordinate of the free surface, default = 0)
NODE id nd x y z (id number of the node, x, y and z coordinates)
OBS: This module only generates the mesh up to the free surface level.
The user may deﬁne rules for the discretization of the mesh. This option allows to reﬁne
the mesh close to the free surface and/or close to the keel.
RULE id rl cos(A1) cos(A2) (Rule for the reﬁnement of the mesh)
where:
cos(A1) is the cosine of the ﬁrst reﬁnement angle
cos(A2) is the cosine of the second reﬁnement angle
The principle for reﬁnement are explained in ﬁgure 3.5.
For example, if the user deﬁnes ”RULE 1 0.0 0.0”, which corresponds to A1=90 and A2=90,
the mesh will be uniform. If the user deﬁnes ”RULE 1 0.90 0.0” the mesh will be more reﬁned
at the left side.
After deﬁning nodes and rules for the reﬁnement of the mesh, the user can deﬁne elements
or geometries to be meshed. Diﬀerent elements can be used and composed together into a
single mesh:
3–6 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure 3.5: Reﬁnement of the mesh
• PATCH: A patch is a ﬂat panel described by four nodes A B C D. In case of triangles, one
node should be repeated in the deﬁnition of the panel. The normal is oriented following
the righthand rule.
A patch is deﬁned as below:
PATCH id element NODE id nd(A) id nd(B) id nd(C) id nd(D) AB NB nb el(AB) AB RULE
id rl(AB) BC NB nb el(BC) BC RULE id rl(BC)
where:
nb el(AB) & nb el(BC) correspond to the number of elements along the side from node
A to node B and the number of elements along the side from node B and C, respectively.
id rl(AB) & id rl(BC) correspond to the reﬁnement rule applied to the sides AB and
Chapter 3. Mesh Generation 3–7
BC, respectively.
Figure 3.6: Patch Deﬁnition
As an example, a barge can be decomposed in several ”PATCHS” like in ﬁgure 3.7 below:
Figure 3.7: Barge
• CIRSEG: This type of element is used to represent a segment of circle as in the ﬁgure
3.8, where C is the node at the centre of the circle, R is the radius of the circle. A and B
are the two nodes that compose the segment. A segment of circle is deﬁned as below:
3–8 Hydrostar User Manual
CIRSEG CTR id nd(C) RAD R ANG ang1 ang2 NODE id nd(A) id nd(B) C NB nb el(AB)
C RULE id rl(AB) H NB nb el(R) H RULE id rl(R)
where:
ang1 & ang2 are the ﬁrst and last angle for the deﬁnition of the segment, respectively.
In the ﬁgure 3.8 the ﬁrst angle is 0 deg and the last angle is 90 deg.
nb el(AB) & nb el(R) correspond to the number of elements in the segment from node
A to node B and the number of elements in the direction of the radius of the circle (R),
respectively.
id rl(AB) & id rl(R) correspond to the identiﬁcation number of reﬁnement rule applied
in the direction of the segment AB and in the direction of the radius R respectively.
Figure 3.8: CIRSEG Deﬁnition
Chapter 3. Mesh Generation 3–9
• CIRCYL: It’s used to generate vertical cylinders or segments of cylinders like in ﬁgure
3.9. The following keywords are used to deﬁne a cylinder or a part of it:
CIRCYL CTR id nd(A) id nd(B) RAD radius(A) radius(B) ANG ang1 ang2 C NB nb el(arc)
C RULE id rl(arc) H NB nb el(height) H RULE id rl(height)
where:
radius(A) & radius(B) are the radius of the cylinder at the horizontal plane passing
by node A, and the radius of the cylinder at the horizontal plane passing by node B,
respectively. In this way the radius of the cylinder may vary along its height.
ang1 & ang2 are the ﬁrst and last angle for that deﬁne the cylinder in degrees. For
example, a cylinder with ang1= 0.0 and ang2= 360.0 means a complete cylinder.
nb el(arc) & nb el(height) correspond to the number of elements along the arc of the
cylinder and along the height of it, respectively.
id rl(arc) & id rl(height) correspond to the identiﬁcation of the reﬁnement rule along
the arc of the cylinder and along the height of it, respectively.
Figure 3.9: CIRCYL Deﬁnition
3–10 Hydrostar User Manual
3.2.1 Example of Input ﬁle for hsmsh
The ﬁgure 3.10 gives an example of input for the module hsmsh where several simple geometries
are used to composed a mesh.
TYPE 1 #For the type of mesh deﬁnition as described above
SYMMETRY 2 #Number of symmetries
ZFSURFACE 42.0 #Position of free surface
#Nodes for the deﬁnition of the mesh (up to free surface only)
NODE 1 0.000 0.000 0.000
NODE 2 0.000 0.000 4.000
NODE 3 0.000 0.000 42.000
NODE 4 26.625 0.000 0.000
NODE 5 18.830 18.830 0.000
NODE 6 0.000 26.625 0.000
#Reﬁnement Rules
RULE 0 0.00 0.00 #Uniform mesh
RULE 10 0.95 0.00
RULE 99 0.95 0.95
#Elements of the mesh
PATCH 1 NODE 1 6 5 4 AB NB 8 AB RULE 0 BC NB 8 BC RULE 0
CIRSEG CTR 1 RAD 46.625 ANG 0.0 45.000 NODE 4 5 C NB 8 C RULE 0 H NB 10 H RULE 10 INVERSE
CIRSEG CTR 1 RAD 46.625 ANG 45.0 90.000 NODE 5 6 C NB 8 C RULE 0 H NB 10 H RULE 10 INVERSE
CIRCYL CTR 1 2 RAD 46.625 46.625 ANG 0.0 90.0 C NB 16 C RULE 0 H NB 3 H RULE 99
CIRCYL CTR 2 2 RAD 43.500 46.625 ANG 0.0 90.0 C NB 16 C RULE 0 H NB 3 H RULE 99 INVERSE
CIRCYL CTR 2 3 RAD 43.500 43.500 ANG 0.0 90.0 C NB 16 C RULE 0 H NB 20 H RULE 99
ENDFILE
Figure 3.10: Input ﬁle for hsmsh
NOTE: When the keyword INVERSE is used at the end of the command lines used to gen
erate the elements of the mesh, it means that the orientation of the normal vector is inversed.
3.2.2 Generating the mesh using hsmsh
After constructing the input ﬁle as explained in the above items, the user is ready to construct
the mesh by using the following commands in HydroStar window:
Hstar>>hsmsh inputfile
Immediately after running hsmsh the user may visualize the mesh generated by typing:
Hstar>>hvisu
The ﬁgure 3.11 represents the mesh generated using the example ﬁle in ﬁgure 3.10.
Chapter 3. Mesh Generation 3–11
Figure 3.11: Example of mesh generated using hsmsh
The input ﬁle for hslec named ”proj.hst” is generated in the working directory.
3.3 Use AMG to generate Mesh
AMG (Automatic Mesh Generation) is delivered in the HydroStar package. To generate mesh
using AMG, use the command ”hsmsh ship”. For additional information about AMG, please
refer to the AMG user manual.
Hstar>>hsmsh ship input
3.4 Mesh equilibrium
The displacement of the mesh input in HydroStar must correspond to the mass later described.
Althought it is better to generate a mesh directly at the equilibrate draft and trim, the tool
hsbln can be used to get a balanced mesh from mesh input up to the deck.
INPUT MESH Input mesh (up to the deck)
OUTPUT MESH test.hst Output balanced mesh
COGPOINT BODY 1 134.126 0.0 4.971 Position of the center of gravity in the Input mesh reference system
MASS BODY 1 118992250.0 id of the body , Mass of the body
Be carefull : In the new mesh reference the position of the center of gravity
will be changed !
Compared to a mesh directly generated at the equilibrate draft, the panel near the free
surface can not be as regular and reﬁned.
Hstar>>hsbln input.bln
3–12 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 4
Reading the Mesh
The input of the mesh is performed by HydroStar using the module hslec (see ﬁg 4.1).
Project
hschk
hslec
Figure 4.1: hslec
To run this module, the user is supposed to have already prepared the mesh. For prepara
tion of the mesh, refer to Chapter 3.
The hull geometry shall be represented by ﬂat quadrilaterals or ﬂat triangulars with the normal
vector oriented towards the ﬂuid (see ﬁg 4.2).
4.1 Input ﬁle format
The format of the deﬁnition of the nodes coordinates in the input ﬁle is as follows:
4–1
4–2 Hydrostar User Manual
n
1
n
1
n
2
n
2
n
3
n
3
n
4
−→
n −→
n
Figure 4.2: Flat quadrilaterals and ﬂat triangulars
.
COORDINATES
[no node], x no, y no, z no
ENDCOORDINATES
where:
no node sequential number of the node;
x no x coordinate of the number no;
y no y coordinate of the number no;
z no z coordinate of the number no.
The format of the deﬁnition of the panel connectivity in the input ﬁle is as follows:
PANEL TYPE itype
[no panel], n1 panel, n2 panel, n3 panel, n4 panel
ENDPANEL
where:
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–3
itype
=0 where no panel is not given
=1 where no panel is given
no panel = sequential number of the panel
n1 panel = node number of the ﬁrst corner
n2 panel = node number of the second corner
n3 panel = node number of the third corner
n4 panel = node number of the forth corner
The following key words shall be used in the input ﬁle for hslec module:
COORDINATES start line of node deﬁnition
ENDCOORDINATES end line of node deﬁnition
PANEL start line of panel deﬁnition
ENDPANEL end line of panel deﬁnition
ENDFILE to end the input ﬁle.
4–4 Hydrostar User Manual
The following keywords may be input as optional commands:
PROJECT project title (default= project)
USER user’s name (default= anonym)
REFLENGTH reference length (default= 1.0m)
GRAVITY gravity acceleration constant (default= 9.81m/s2)
RHO ﬂuid mass density (default= 1025kg/m3)
NBNODES number of nodes
(default= no of lines on
the nodes deﬁnition)
NBPANEL number of panels
(default= no of lines on
the panels deﬁnition)
NBBODY number of bodies (default= 1)
NFHULL number of panels of the body’s hul l (default= NBPANEL)
SYMMETRY number of symmetry (default=0)
NUMPANEL
start number and end number (default= 1 to
of panels NBPANEL)
NUMFHULL
start number and end number
of the hull panels
NUMFPONT
start number and end number
of the panels above the hul l
NFSWATER
number, start number and end
number over the interior waterplane
NFREESURFACE
number, start number and end
number of panels over the free surface
ZFSURFACE coordinate of the freesurface in the user
reference system (see item 2.2)
(default= 0)
COEFZ0
ratio of the panel size of the waterplane
mesh and of the hull mesh
(default=1.5)
ZONEDAMPING xmin xmax dltx ymin ymax dlty epslon dissipation zone
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–5
The ﬁgure (see ﬁg 4.3) contains an example of the input ﬁle for hslec .
PROJECT LNG CARRIER  Full Loaded case T=12.350m
USERS BV
NBBODY 1
SYMMETRY BODY 1 1
RHO 1025.0
GRAVITY 9.81
COORDINATES TYPE 0
1 0.10005E+02 0.00000E+00 0.10821E+02
2 0.10005E+02 0.11428E+01 0.92114E+01
.. .. .. ..
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0
1 2 17 16
2 3 18 17
.. .. .. ..
ENDPANEL
ENDFILE
Figure 4.3: Input ﬁle for hslec
In the following sections of this chapter, some speciﬁc fonctionalities on the input of the mesh
are described in more details.
4.2 Input ﬁle for a single body
The input ﬁle for a single body may contain only the part of the body below the waterline or the
complete ship mesh containing the parts below and above waterline and even superstructure.
The upper parts of the mesh are used for visualization purpose only.
In case the mesh generated contains also the part of the vessel above the waterline, the mesh
should be divided into two parts: the submerged part actually used in the calculations and the
upper part only used for visualization. It means that during the construction of the mesh all
panels and nodes composing the submerged part should be grouped together in one block of
data (nodes and coordinates). In addition, there should be no panels cutted by the free surface.
When deﬁning coordinates and nodes of the mesh, the user needs to specify which panels
compose the submerged part and which panels compose the upper part by given the ﬁrst and
last panel number of each part.
4–6 Hydrostar User Manual
For that, the following keywords should be used:
NUMFHULL nb body, ni hull, nf hul l
number of the body, start number and
end number of hull panels
NUMFPONT nb body, ni pont, nf pont
number of the body, start number and
end number of panels above waterline
The ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure 4.4 exempliﬁes the input ﬁle for hslec considering also the part
of the body above waterline.
PROJECT: SHIP
USER: BV
NBBODY 1
SYMMETRY BODY 1 1
NUMFHULL 1 1 2105
NUMFPONT 1 2106 3758
COORDINATES TYPE 0
1 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
2 8.140500 0.000000 11.444000
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
3918 5.490700 0.000000 10.874000
3919 5.577100 0.000000 6.665400
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0
2 3 37 36
3 4 38 37
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
3433 3434 3908 3907
3434 3435 3909 3908
ENDPANEL
ENDFILE
Figure 4.4: Example considering the part of the body above waterline
In the ﬁle above, the part of the hull below waterline is deﬁned by the panels from 1 to
2105 identiﬁed by the keyword NUMFHULL, while the part of the hull above the waterline is
deﬁned by the panels from 2106 to 3758 that can be identiﬁed by the keyword NUMFPONT.
In this case all the coordinates of nodes and panels are deﬁned together, although the user
can clearly observe that the data can divided in two blocks. Another possibility is to repeat
the keywords COORDINATES & ENDCOORDINATES and PANELS & ENDPANELS to deﬁne as
many blocks of data as wanted.
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–7
4.3 Input ﬁle for multi bodies
Any number of bodies can be modelled in HydroStar . The user has to deﬁne the number of
bodies and the ﬁrst and last identiﬁcation numbers of the panels associated to each body. The
coordinates and panels of each body can be deﬁned separately, however in the same ﬁle.
The symmetry property is not used in the case of multibody mesh. The whole hull should be
modelled.
It’s important to remark that the identiﬁcation numbers of the nodes shall be unique. It
means that, in principal, there should be only one node with a certain identiﬁcation number.
However, in case of multibody it’s normally the case that the meshes are prepared separately
and the nodes number may be repeated for the two meshes. In order to solve this problem,
the keyword NODE0 is used after the keywords COORDINATES and PANELS to shift the nodes
numbers by the value deﬁned after NODE0 and to guarantee that there’s no other node with
the same number.
Another useful possibility is to translate (in x and y direction) and rotate the mesh (in the
horizontal plane) by using the keywords TRANS and ROTA after the keyword COORDINATES.
The reference systems are centered on the reference point of each body, but the axis remain
parallel to the global mesh reference system.
The ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure 4.5 gives an example of input ﬁle for hslec .
4–8 Hydrostar User Manual
Mesh by AMG from input ﬁle :
NBBODY 2
NUMPANEL 1 1 728
NUMPANEL 2 2537 4942
NUMFPONT 1 729 2536
NUMFPONT 2 4943 7304
COORDINATES TYPE 0
1 0.83862E+01 0.00000E+00 0.43537E+01
2 0.83862E+01 0.64438E+00 0.37057E+01
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
6889 0.23743E+03 0.00000E+00 0.18145E+02
6890 0.23743E+03 0.00000E+00 0.18145E+02
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0
1 2 21 20
2 3 22 21
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
6851 6808 6807 6850
6852 6809 6808 6851
ENDPANEL
COORDINATES TYPE 0 TRANS 0.0 50.0 ROTA 0.2 NODE0 10000
1 0.66550E+01 0.00000E+00 0.15991E+02
2 0.57373E+01 0.00000E+00 0.13585E+02
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
15565 0.27322E+03 0.00000E+00 0.59000E+01
15566 0.27322E+03 0.00000E+00 0.59000E+01
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0 NODE0 10000
1 2 23 22
2 3 24 23
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
15502 15435 15434 15501
15503 15436 15435 15502
ENDPANEL
ENDFILE
Figure 4.5: Example of input ﬁle for multi bodies
In the example ﬁle in ﬁgure 4.5, the command TRANS is used to translate the nodes
coordinates of the second body by 0.0m in the longitudinal direction and by −50.0m in the
transverse direction. The keyword ROTA is used to rotate the mesh by a angle of 0.2deg in the
horizontal plane. Thus, the nodes coordinates given in the input ﬁle are modiﬁed as follows:
x no = x no cos(θ) −y no sin(θ) +trans x
y no = y no sin(θ) +y no cos(θ) +trans y
Also, it should be noticed that the nodes numbers given for the two bodies are repeated.
In this case, the keyword NODE0 has been used to shift the nodes numbers of the second
body by a value of 10000 which has been considered suﬃciently big to avoid having two
nodes with the same number. In fact the nodes numbers of the second body will be equal
to no node=no node+no NODE0
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–9
The mesh described in ﬁgure 4.6 can be obtained.
Figure 4.6: Two bodies’ meshes
4.4 Input ﬁle including dissipation zone
In a conﬁned zone, such like moonpool or gap between two ships in sidebyside conﬁgura
tion, the hydrodynamic interaction may create violent wave kinematics at certain frequencies.
Within the framework of the potential theory there’s no limit in predicting resonant wave
elevation while in reality the resonant motion is largely damped by diﬀerent mechanisms of
dissipation. In HydroStar , it’s possible to include a dissipation term in the ﬂuid in order to
simulate the eﬀects of viscous damping. This dissipation parameter is artiﬁcial and should be
calibrated against measurements. In addition, the use of this term requires the meshing of the
free surface at the region where wave kinematics are most important.
The mesh of the damping zone is made by HydroStar. It can have rectangular or circular
shape. The following keywords should by included in the input ﬁle for hslec :
4–10 Hydrostar User Manual
ZONEDAMPING xmin xmax dltx ymin ymax dlty epslon
where:
xmin is the minimum xcoordinate of the rectangular damping zone
xmax is the maximum xcoordinate of the rectangular damping zone
dltx is the length of the panels of the damping zone mesh
ymin is the minimum ycoordinate of the rectangular damping zone
ymax is the maximum ycoordinate of the rectangular damping zone
dlty is the width of the panels of the damping zone mesh
epsilon is the dissipation parameter
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–11
Figure 4.7: Rectangular dissipation zone
And the circular damping zone:
ZONEDAMPING rmin rmax dltr θmin θmax dltθ epslon CTR xctr yctr
where:
rmin is the minimum radius value of the circular damping zone
rmax is the maximum radius value of the circular damping zone
dltr is the length of the panels of the damping zone mesh in the radial direction
θmin is the minimum angle in degrees of the circular zone damping
θmax is the maximum angle in degrees of the circular zone damping
dltθ is the delta angle of for the panels deﬁnition of the circular damping zone mesh
4–12 Hydrostar User Manual
epsilon is the dissipation parameter
CTR xctr yctr Coordinates of the centre of the circular zone
The ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure 4.8 gives an example of input ﬁle for hslec including a circular
damping zone. The user may include several damping zones by repeating the command line
ZONEDAMPING.
PROJECT MONOCOLUMN
ZONEDAMPING 0.0 34.5 3.45 0.0 90.0 7.50 0.10 CTR 0.0 0.0
SYMMETRY BODY 1 2
NUMPANEL 1 1 468
ZFSURFACE 38.0
COORDINATES TYPE 0
1 47.50000 0.00000 0.00000
2 47.09363 6.19999 0.00000
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
1727 5.22105 39.65779 50.00000
1728 0.00000 40.00000 50.00000
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0
1 2 21 20
2 3 22 21
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
1723 1724 1726 1725
1725 1726 1728 1727
ENDPANEL
ENDFILE
Figure 4.8: Example of input ﬁle including zone damping
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–13
4.5 Input ﬁle including tanks
In case the user wants to solve the coupled sloshingseakeeping problem, the tanks walls up to
the ﬁlling level need to be meshed and included into the input ﬁle of hslec .
In addition to the keywords used to described in the above sections, the following keywords
should be included to the input ﬁle for hslec with the aim of deﬁning the mesh of the tank(s):
NBTANK nb tanks Number of tanks meshed
SYMMTANK id tk sym deﬁne the symmetry of a deﬁned tank
id tk : identiﬁcation number of the tank
sym = 0 (no symmetry)
sym = 1 (symmetry around XZ plan)
NUMTANK id tk ﬁrst panel last panel z fsf where:
id tk: identiﬁcation number of the tank
ﬁrst panel: number of the ﬁrst panel that de
ﬁnes the tank mesh
last panel: number of the last panel that de
ﬁnes the tank mesh
z fsf: zcoordinate of the tank free surface
with respect to the local system
REFPTANK id tk x ref y ref z ref rho where:
id tk: identiﬁcation number of the tank
x ref , y ref , z ref: coordinates of the origin
of the tank mesh with respect to the origin
of the hull mesh
rho: density of liquid in the tank in kg/m
3
The coordinates and panels of the tanks are deﬁned in the same way as for the hull mesh.
The normal vectors of the panels used to describe the tanks are deﬁned towards the ﬂuid inside
the tank. The tanks meshes may be deﬁned with respect to any point. By default the origin of
the tank mesh reference system is assumed to be at the free surface of the tank, otherwise the
value z fsf should be provided in order to deﬁne the position of the free surface with respect
to the origin chosen to describe the tank mesh. The REFPTANK deﬁnes the coordinates of the
origin of the tank mesh in the hull mesh reference system.
For the deﬁnition of the panels of the tanks another value can be deﬁned at the end of the
command line as below:
4–14 Hydrostar User Manual
.
PANEL TYPE itype NODE0 node0
[id panel] node1 node2 node3 node4 epsilon where:
id panel: deﬁned when itype=1
node1 node2 node3 node4 : identiﬁcation
numbers of the four nodes that compose the
panels.
epsilon: dissipation parameter associated to
the panel (typically around 0.01)
ENDPANEL
It should be mentioned that for the radiation problem inside the tanks, no damping is obtained.
However, in reality the energy is dissipated by viscous eﬀects. The dissipation parameter ep
silon is used to simulate the eﬀects of the viscousity within the assumptions of the potential
theory. It’s in fact an artiﬁcial damping and the epsilon parameter needs to be calibrated
against model tests. In addition, in this method, all the dissipation is assumed to occur at the
tanks walls.
The ﬁgure 4.9 presents an example of input ﬁle for hslec including two tanks. In this example
the origin of the tanks reference systems is located in the aft bulkhead and at the bottom of
each tank. In this way the value z fsf deﬁnes the zcoordinate of the free surface of the tank
with respect to its bottom. Also in this example the REFPTANK coordinates are in fact the
coordinates of a point located at the centreline of the tank, at the aft bulkhead and at the
bottom of the tank expressed in the global system.
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–15
PROJECT TANKS
USER BV
SYMMETRY BODY 1 1
NUMPANEL 1 1 1210
NBTANK 1
SYMMTANK 1 2
NUMTANK 1 1211 2366 1.42
REFPTANK 1 168.0 0.0 0.0 1025.0
COORDINATES TYPE 0
1 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00
2 0.81405E+01 0.00000E+00 0.11444E+02
...
...
3918 0.54907E+01 0.00000E+00 0.10874E+02
3919 0.55771E+01 0.00000E+00 0.66654E+01
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0
2 3 37 36
3 4 38 37
...
...
3433 3434 3908 3907
3434 3435 3909 3908
ENDPANEL
COORDINATES TYPE 0 NODE0 10000
1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
2 0.00000 0.98577 0.00000
...
...
233 10.91600 9.97858 1.33572
234 10.91600 10.51600 1.87200
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 0 NODE0 10000
1 2 11 10 0.01000
2 3 12 11 0.01000
...
...
232 233 229 228 0.01000
233 234 230 229 0.01000
ENDPANEL
ENDFILE
Figure 4.9: Example of input ﬁle including tanks
4–16 Hydrostar User Manual
4.6 Input ﬁle of hybrid model
Hybrid model is the one composed by panels and beams mixed in the same model. HydroStar
uses the potential theory for the panels and Morison formulation for the beams.
To model the beams, the user shall deﬁne its coordinates, properties and number of segments
through the following commands:
PROPBEAM
no prop, beam type, properties
ENDPROPBEAM
where:
no prop is the number of the beams group that owns the same properties
beam type deﬁnes the shape of the beam and the commands RECT or CIRC
shall be used
If beam type = RECT
then properties shall be deﬁned by: width, Cmz, Cdz, height, Cmy,Cdy, water density.
If beam type = CIRC
then properties shall be deﬁned by: diameter, Cm, Cd, water density.
BEAM TYPE itype
[no beam], n1 beam, n2 beam, no prop, no seg
ENDBEAM
where:
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–17
itype
= 0 where no beam is not given
= 1 where no beam is given
no prop = is the number of the beams group that owns the same properties
no seg = is the number of segments in which the beam shall be
The user may make use of ﬁctitious beams to model elements that are already modelled through
panels. Fictitious beams are the ones without mass (Cm = 0) but with damping coeﬃcient
diﬀerent than zero (Cd > 0). This way the additional drag eﬀorts will be added in the damping
matrix, without changing the inertia matrix.
The input ﬁle in ﬁg 4.10) exempliﬁes the hybrid model input ﬁle exempliﬁes for hslec. The
example corresponds to a semisubmersible, in which the pontoons and columns are modelled
by ﬁctitious beams with Cm = 0.
The mesh obtained is displayed in ﬁgure 4.11.
4.7 Reading the input ﬁle
Considering that the mesh ﬁle (e.g. shiplec.don) is stored in one work directory, e.g. ”c:/hydro/study”,
the user has to execute the following steps in order to perform the reading of the mesh input
ﬁle:
• Go to the work directory where the ﬁle is stored (see item 1.3 for information);
Before reading the mesh, the user needs to create a project. the project name chosen is
used to name all the binary ﬁles generated by HydroStar and used as input ﬁles for the
various modules as well as the control ﬁles that give intermediate results of the calcula
tions.
• To create a new project for which the results are stored (if the project is not created, the
default name used by HydroStar is ”PRO”):
Hstar>>proj ship
Hstar>ship>
If other projects already exist in the working directory, the user may list all the ex
isting projects by typing:
4–18 Hydrostar User Manual
PROJECT SEMISUB
USER BV
SYMMETRY BODY1 1
PROPBEAM
1 RECT 14.0 0.0 1.2 6.1 0.0 0.7 1025.0
2 CIRC 9.4 0.0 0.8 1025
3 CIRC 2.0 1.0 0.8 1025
4 CIRC 1.8 1.0 0.8 1025
5 CIRC 1.6 1.0 0.8 1025
ENDPROPBEAM
BEAM TYPE 1
1 5007 5001 5 5
2 5010 5004 5 5
.. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. ..
20 5039 5040 2 15
ENDBEAM
COORDINATES TYPE 0
# Node for beam deﬁnition
5001 33.50000 14.28100 0.00000
5002 33.50000 14.28100 0.00000
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
5040 33.50000 27.50000 15.50000
# Nodes for panel deﬁnitons
1 3.95000E+01 3.42500E+01 2.14000E+01
2 3.95000E+01 3.45000E+01 2.09500E+01
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
441 0.00000E+00 3.22000E+01 1.55000E+00
ENDCOORDINATES
PANEL TYPE 1
1 4 36 48 47
2 36 174 175 48
.. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. ..
414 439 441 368 377
ENDPANEL
ENDFILE
Figure 4.10: Example of input ﬁle for hybrid model
Hstar>>lsproj
• To read the input ﬁle using ”hslec name ﬁle” command:
Hstar>ship>hslec shiplec.don
• It will appear, in HydroStar window, the values used as input data, the reference point of
incident wave and the positions of the reference point and the centre of buoyancy.
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–19
Figure 4.11: Hybrid model of a Semi
4.8 Getting information about the mesh
After reading the mesh, the user may get some information about it by typing:
Hstar>proj>hsinf g
The following information are displayed at the screen:
• Xmin, Xmax and Length of the mesh;
• Ymin, Ymax and Breadth of the mesh;
• Zmin, Zmax and Depth of the mesh;
• Number of symmetries;
• Number of panels;
• Body surface;
• Average panel surface;
• Average panel length;
4–20 Hydrostar User Manual
• Body’s volume;
• Centre of buoyancy
4.9 Preliminary veriﬁcaton of the mesh
After the execution of the above steps, the user has to perform a preliminary check of the mesh
by simply typing the command ”hschk ” (see ﬁg 4.12):
Hstar>proj>hschk
The following veriﬁcations will be performed:
• Consistency of the normal vector orientation;
• Panels with null area;
• Panels over the free surface;
• Panels at free surface;
• Overlapped panels;
• Holes (neighborabsences);
hschk
hsrdf
hslec
Figure 4.12: hschk
A report is printed on the screen giving the number of panels presenting any inconsistency.
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–21
4.10 Checking the hydrostatic properties
The computation of the hydrostatic properties is very useful to check the correspondence of the
model with the real vessel characteristics. To run this computation and display the results on
the screen the user has only to type the command ”hstat ”:
Hstar>proj>hstat
hschk
hsrdf
hstat
Figure 4.13: hstat
The following properties are then calculated:
• Hull Volume;
• Wetted Hull Surface;
• Waterplane Area;
• Waterplane Inertia;
• Distances between the centre of buoyance and the metacentre (BM).
4.11 Visualization of the mesh
The visualization of the mesh is performed by VISU4D by just typing the command “hvisu” in
HydroStar window (see ﬁg 4.15):
Hstar>proj>hvisu
Another window will be opened for VISU4D with the mesh read by HydroStar (see ﬁg 4.16).
4–22 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure 4.14:
hschk
hsrdf
hvisu
Figure 4.15: hvisu
In order to visualize the upper part of the mesh and the waterplane mesh given in input
ﬁle, the user has to type the command:
Hstar>proj>hvisu t
And then obtain a picture of the complete mesh (see ﬁg 4.18).
In case tanks are included in the input ﬁle for hslec, the user may visualize the hull mesh
(ﬁgure 4.17) together with the tanks by typing:
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–23
Figure 4.16:
Hstar>proj>hvisu T
NOTE: The command hvisu T with T in capital letter (for the visualization of tanks) should
not be confused with the command hvisu t (for the visualization of upper part of hull and mesh
for elimination of irregular frequencies).
4–24 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure 4.17:
There’s also the possibility of visualizing only a part of the mesh by typing:
Hstar>proj>hvisu c
Then, the point where the user wants to cut the mesh will be required:
Type xcut, ycut or zcut and Value
Through VISU4D, the user is able to change the visualization mode, the point of view, to
zoom in and out and rotate the mesh in a very userfriendly interface.
Please refer to appendix C in order to get more details about the use of VISU4D.
Chapter 4. Reading the Mesh 4–25
Figure 4.18:
4–26 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 5
Diﬀraction radiation computation
The radiation solutions are the potential ﬂow around the vessel when the vessel moves in the
otherwise quiescent ﬂuid. The addedmass is deﬁned by the load on the vessel due to its unit
acceleration while the radiation damping is the ratio between the load and vessel’s velocity.
The matrices of addedmass and radiation damping are of 6 x 6 dimensions for a single body
and 6N x 6N dimensions for multibody, where N is the number of bodies.
The diﬀraction solutions are the potential ﬂow around the vessel remaining immobile in in
coming waves. The wave excitation loads are obtained by integrating the dynamic pressure on
the ﬁxed vessel in incoming waves.
The module hsrdf of HydroStar solves the problem of diﬀraction and radiation around ﬁxed
and ﬂoating bodies and it’s based on the following:
• First and second order potential theory of free surface ﬂow;
• Integral equations / boundary element method;
• Eﬃcient evaluation of associated Green functions;
• Elimination of irregular frequencies;
• Independency of the mechanic properties of the system.
The module hsrdf can be run after the module hslec.
In case of seakeepingsloshing coupled analysis, in addition to the module hsrdf for the
exterior problem, the module hstnk is used after hsrdf to solve the radiation problem inside the
tanks.
5–1
5–2 Hydrostar User Manual
5.1 Input ﬁle
The following data have to be provided to perform radiation and diﬀraction computation:
• Extension of the ﬁle that will store the results;
• Wave frequencies (rad/s);
• Wave headings (deg);
• Water depth (m) or inﬁnity water depth.
The following data may be inputted as optional parameters:
• Reference length;
• Acceleration due to gravity;
• Water mass density.
Chapter 5. Diﬀraction radiation computation 5–3
The following keywords shall be used in the input ﬁle for hsrdf execution:
FILENAME ﬁle name extension of the ﬁle to identify the
run
FREQUENCY TYPE itype start line to give wave frequencies
frequency lines
ENDFREQUENCY end line to give wave frequencies
If itype = 0,
frequency lines = no freq, freq1 one frequency per line with iden
tiﬁcation
number
If itype = 1,
frequency lines = freq1, freq2, freq3... several frequencies at the same
line
without identiﬁcation number
If itype = 2,
frequency lines =
WMIN min freq minimum frequency
WMAX max freq maximum frequency
WSTP step freq Step of wave frequency
HEADING TYPE itype start line to give wave headings
heading lines
ENDHEADING end line to give wave headings
If itype = 0,
heading lines = no head, head1 one heading per line with identi
ﬁcation number
If itype = 1,
heading lines = head1, head2,head3... several headings at the same line
without identiﬁcation number
If itype = 2,
heading lines =
HMIN min freq minimum heading
HMAX max freq maximum heading
HSTP step freq step of wave headings
ENDFILE to end the hsrdf ﬁle
5–4 Hydrostar User Manual
The following keywords are optional:
NBFREQUENCY no freq total number of wave frequencies
NBHEADING no head total number of wave headings
WATERDEPTH value depth water depth value or inﬁnite (default = inf)
or inf
REFPOINT BODY x ref, y ref, z ref reference point of the body (COB;0)
REFWAVE x wave, y wave reference point for incoming waves (COB;0)
ELIMIRREG YES or NO option of eliminating irregular frequencies
(default=YES)
SPEED start line to give speed
1 speed speed of the body (only one speed per project)
ENDSPEED end line for the deﬁnition of speed
SIDEWALL WIDTH w DEPTH d width of the channel and depth of the channel
for computations including sidewall eﬀects
The picture displayed in ﬁgure 5.1 presents an example of input ﬁle for hsrdf module:
FILENAME w26
NBFREQUENCY 15
NBHEADING 5
NBSPEED 1
FREQUENCY TYPE 2
WMIN 0.05
WMAX 1.45
WSTP 0.10
ENDFREQUENCY
HEADINGS TYPE 1
180.0 225.0 270.0 315.0 360.0
ENDHEADINGS
SPEEDS TYPE 0
1 0.0
ENDSPEEDS
WATERDEPTH inﬁnity
REFPOINT BODY 1 137.020 0.0 0.0
REFWAVE 137.020 0.0
ENDFILE
Figure 5.1: Input ﬁle for hsrdf
Chapter 5. Diﬀraction radiation computation 5–5
5.2 Elimination of irregular frequencies
The lowest irregular frequency for a parallelepiped is:
ω
irr
=
_
gk/ tanh kT with k = π
_
1/B
2
+ 1/L
2
(5.1)
where (L,B,T) are length, width and draft of the box.
For a ship, the lowest irregular frequency is close to that estimated by above formula using
ship’s length, width and draught.
For a body of arbitrary geometry, the lowest irregular frequency is larger than that for a
box which can surround the body.
The irregular frequencies are eliminated in HydroStar by generating a mesh on the vessel’s
waterplane (that not necessarily covers all the waterplane area), and modifying the original
integral equation by extending the singularity support to the internal waterplane.
The user has the possibility of changing the ratio between the panel size of the mesh and
the panel size of the waterplane by inputting a value for COEFZ0 in the hull mesh input ﬁle
in order to get better accuracy of results for high frequency values, if desired (see ﬁg 5.2).
Figure 5.2: Waterplane mesh
5–6 Hydrostar User Manual
5.3 Encounter frequency approximation
In order to take into accound the forward speed, the socalled ”encounterfrequency” approx
imation is implemented in HydroStar (module hsrdf) based on the use of the Green function
associated to the encounter frequency.
The encounter frequency is deﬁned as:
ω
enc
= ω [1 −cosβ (ωV/g)] (5.2)
with wave frequency ω, headingβ and speed V .
In the following sea (β < π/2), ω can be close to zero. To avoid the singularity, special
treatments are provided in hsmec (keyword ZEROENCFREQ). The boundary condition on ship
hull is linearized over uniform ﬂow.
5.4 Sidewall Eﬀects
In the version 6.0 of HydroStar, the user has the possibility of accounting for sidewall eﬀects.
This feature can be applied to verify the eﬀects of the walls of a channel or of a wave tank on
the behaviour of body. It’s known, for example, that some results from model tests performed
at wave tanks exhibit some scattering comparing to the expected results in open sea condition.
This can be explained by the reﬂections at the sidewalls of the tank. It’s then worthwhile to
perform numerical computations in order to obtain verify the adequacy of the wave tank for a
speciﬁed test or to limit the test duration in order to reduce the eﬀects of wave reﬂections.
In the source panel method we use the Tank Green Function (TGF) which satisﬁes the lin
earized free surface conditions as well as the conditions at the tank bottom and walls. In fact
the TGF may be written as a formal sum of Green Functions in open sea representing the
inﬁnity images of the singularity with respect to the side walls.
G(M, M
) =
∞
n=−∞
G
0
(M, M
n
) (5.3)
where G
0
(M, M
n
) is the open sea Green Function representing the potential at M due to the
n
th
image of the source at M
n
.
However, the convergence of the direct computation of the inﬁnite series is very slow. A
more eﬃcient method consists to decompose the ﬁnite water depth TGF into two parts: a
ﬁnite series of the open sea Green Functions and an asymptotic part which may be regarded as
the remaining terms of the inﬁnite series and expressed by two single integrals whose kernels
Chapter 5. Diﬀraction radiation computation 5–7
decrease exponentially with the integral variable.
G =
2N+1
n=−2N−1
G
0
n
+
∞
n=N+1
G
0
2n
+G
0
2n+1
+G
0
−2n
+G
0
−2n−1
(5.4)
The main advantage of the above decomposition is the rapid convergence of the asymptotic
part.
5.5 Diﬀraction and radiation computation
After the preparation of the input ﬁle, the user is ready to start the computation by just typing
“hsrdf name ﬁle” in HydroStar window:
Hstar>proj>hsrdf projrdf.don
The user has the possibility of running several times hsrdf in order to compute the wave diﬀrac
tion and radiation for additional frequencies that may be necessary just changing the extension
of results ﬁle in the input ﬁle and the deﬁnition of the wave frequencies. For example, from
looking at the RAO ﬁles, the user may notice some complementary frequencies, e.g. on the
resonance region, to perform a new run. Diﬀerent runs of hsrdf can be combined at the input
ﬁle for hsmec.
5.6 Radiation/Diﬀraction interpolation : HSpln module
As the Radiation/diﬀraction is the most time consuming part of the calculations, the frequency
step is not always as ﬁne as desired. Instead of interpolating RAOs that sometimes present
sharp resonance, it is better to interpolate the radiation/diﬀraction results which are much
smoother.
The following keywords shall be used in the input ﬁle for hspln execution:
FILENAME ﬁle name extension used in HSrdf calculations
FREQUENCY TYPE itype Wave frequencies. Same as for HSrdf
frequency lines
ENDFREQUENCY
INTERPOLTYPE LINEAR Linear interpolation
NATURAL Natural cubic spline (continuous second order derivates)
OVERHAUSER Overhauser cubici spline (Also named ”CatmulRom”)
HERMITE ”Hermite” cubic spline interpolation
FILENAME OUT extension o f the output ﬁle
ENDFILE to end the hspln ﬁle
5–8 Hydrostar User Manual
Several interpolation are available, the Overhauser spline is recommended. However, for
particular case where the hydrodynamic coeﬃcients present sharp peaks, ”Hermite” interpola
tion can be more robust. (The required derivatives are evaluated so that the resulting Hermit
spline does not overshoot the original data.)
5.7 Radiation computation inside tanks
When the tanks are included in the input ﬁle of hslec, the radiation problem inside the tanks
can be solved. In HydroStar, the exterior problem (for the body) and the interior problem
(for the tank) are solved separately using two diﬀerent modules. For the exterior problem, the
module hsrdf is used, and for the problem inside the tank the module hstnk is used. The same
input ﬁle described in item 5.1 is used for both modules.
After running hsrdf, the user needs to run hstnk by typing:
Hstar>proj>hstnk projrdf.don
The results obtained from hsrdf and hstnk will be combined when the motion computation
will be done.
Chapter 6
Motion Computation
The Newton’s Second law was applied to describe the motions of ﬂoating bodies and the
following motion equation was derived and it:
([M] + [M
A
])
¨
U + [B]
˙
U + [K]U = F (6.1)
where:
· [M] is the inertia matrix of the body;
· [M
A
] is the additional mass matrix coming from radiation problem solution;
· [B] is the damping matrix coming from the radiation problem solution and additional
damping deﬁned by the user;
· [K] is the stiﬀness matrix coming from the hydrostatic properties of the body or additional
stiﬀness due to mooring system or liquid in tanks;
· [U] is the motion vector of the body;
· [F] is the excitation load of incident wave coming from the FroudeKrylov and diﬀraction
problem solution.
6.1 Input data
In order to solve the equation above described, the user shall deﬁne the position of the centre
of gravity, the inertia matrix, additional stiﬀness matrix and the additional damping matrix.
6.2 Input ﬁle
The following keywords shall be used in the input ﬁle for hsmec execution:
6–1
6–2 Hydrostar User Manual
.
FILENAME ﬁle name extension of ﬁle used
in hsrdf computations
MASS BODY no body, mass mass of the body
GYRADIUS BODY no body, R
44
, R
55
, R
66
, R
45
, R
46
, R
56
gyration radius of the
body
COGPOINT BODY no body, (X
G
, Y
G
, Z
G
) centre of gravity of the
body in the mesh ref
erence
or
INERTIAL MATRIX TYPE itype BODY no body start line of inertial
matrix deﬁnition
Inertia lines
ENDINERTIAL MATRIX end line of inertial ma
trix deﬁnition
_
If itype = 0: the full inertia matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, M
jk
ENDFILE end of the input ﬁle
The following keywords are optional:
REFPOINT BODY no body, x
ref
, y
ref
, z
ref
reference point of computations
(default=COG)
RHO ρ ﬂuid density
(default=1025kg/m3)
GRAVITY g gravity acceleration
(default=9.81m/s2)
REFWAVE x
wav
, y
wav
reference point of incoming waves
(default=0;0)
REFLENGTH ref length reference length
(default=1.0)
ZFSURFACE zfs coordinate of the freesurface in the
user reference system (see item 2.2)
ZEROENCFRQ no zero encf number of zeroencounter frequencies
_
¸
_
¸
_
if no zero encf =0: No treatment
if no zero encf =1: treatment in the range −0.1 < ω < 0.1
if no zero encf =2: treatment in the range −0.2 < ω < 0.2
Chapter 6. Motion Computation 6–3
LINVISCOUSDAMPING no body, %B
44crit
linear roll viscous damping,
in percentage of
critical damping
DAMPING MATRIX TYPE itype BODY no body start line of linear damping
matrix deﬁnition
Damping lines
ENDDAMPING MATRIX end line of linear damping
matrix deﬁnition
_
¸
_
¸
_
If itype = 0: the full damping matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, B
jk
If itype = 2: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, %B
jk
QDAMPING MATRIX TYPE itype BODY no body start line of quadratic
damping matrix deﬁnition
Quadratic damping lines
ENDQDAMPING MATRIX end line of quadratic damp
ing matrix deﬁnition
_
If itype = 0: the full quadratic damping matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, B
Q
jk
STIFFNESS MATRIX TYPE itype BODY no bodyi no bodyj start line of stiﬀness matrix
deﬁnition
Stiﬀness lines
ENDSTIFFNESS MATRIX end line of stiﬀness matrix
deﬁnition
_
If itype = 0: the full stiﬀness matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, K
jk
NOTANKS not to include tanks (in case
tanks hstnk has been run)
6–4 Hydrostar User Manual
WAVEAMPLITUDE value wave amp wave amplitude only for the calculation of the
quadratic damping purpose (default =1.0)
ITMAX max iter maximum number of iterations for the
quadratic damping linearization (default =
1000)
CONVERGENCE ERR convergence criteria (default = 0.001)
The picture 6.1 presents an example of input ﬁle for hsmec module:
FILENAME w26
MASS BODY 1 1.13253E+08
COGPOINT BODY 1 137.081 0.000 3.136
GYRADIUS BODY 1 13.462 67.602 68.776 0.000 4.632 0.000
REFLENGTH 1.00
RHO 1025.0
REFWAVE 0.000 0.000
LINVISCOUSDAMPING 1 5.0 %
ENDFILE
Figure 6.1: Input ﬁle for hsmec
In case of single body the keyword BODY may be omitted. However, in case of multibody it’s
necessary to include it. If it’s not included all the values given are atributed to BODY 1 by
default. Special attention should be paid to the stiﬀness matrices in case of multibody, where
the numbers of the two bodies have to be given after the keyword BODY.
IMPORTANT: In case of seakeepingsloshing coupled analysis, diﬀerently from the previous
versions where the mechanical properties are given in the input ﬁle should excluding the liquid
in tanks, in version 6.0 the user must give the mechanical properties (mass, centre of gravity
and gyration radii) including the liquid inside the tanks.
6.2.1 Centre of Gravity
The longitudinal, transversal and vertical positions of the centre of gravity with respect to the
origin of the reference system must be given.
6.2.2 Gyration Radius
The gyration radius in HydroStar should be always deﬁned with respect to the centre of gravity
of each body.
Chapter 6. Motion Computation 6–5
6.2.3 Inertia Matrix
The 6 x 6 inertia matrix can be given by the user. In this case, the shape of the matrix may
be arbitrary and its values shall be deﬁned with respect to the reference point (if not given, by
default it’s taken at the centre of gravity).
In case the user deﬁnes the mass of the body, gyration radius, centre of gravity and refer
ence point, the inertia matrix calculated by HydroStar has the following shape:
[M] =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
M 0 0 0 M.Z
GC
−M.Y
GC
0 M 0 −M.Z
GC
0 M.X
GC
0 0 M M.Y
GC
−M.X
GC
0
0 −M.Z
GC
M.Y
GC
I
44
I
45
I
46
M.Z
GC
0 −M.X
GC
I
54
I
55
I
56
−M.Y
GC
M.X
GC
0 I
64
I
65
I
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
where:
· M is the mass of the body;
· X
GC
= X
G
−X
Cal
;
· Y
GC
= Y
G
−Y
Cal
;
· Z
GC
= Z
G
−Z
Cal
;
with:
+ X
G
, Y
G
and Z
G
being the position of the centre of gravity in the mesh reference;
+ X
Cal
, Y
Cal
and Z
Cal
being the position of the calculation point.
· I
44
=
_
M
_
(y −Y
Cal
)
2
+ (z −Z
Cal
)
2
_
dm = M
_
R
2
44
+Z
2
GC
+Y
2
GC
_
· I
55
=
_
M
_
(z −Z
Cal
)
2
+ (x −X
Cal
)
2
_
dm = M
_
R
2
55
+Z
2
GC
+X
2
GC
_
· I
66
=
_
M
_
(x −X
Cal
)
2
+ (y −Y
Cal
)
2
_
dm = M
_
R
2
66
+X
2
GC
+Y
2
GC
_
· I
45
= I
54
= −
_
M
(x −X
Cal
) (y −Y
Cal
) dm = M
_
R
2
54
+X
GC
×Y
GC
_
· I
46
= I
64
= −
_
M
(x −X
Cal
) (z −Z
Cal
) dm = M
_
R
2
64
+X
GC
×Z
GC
_
· I
56
= I
65
= −
_
M
(y −Y
Cal
) (z −Z
Cal
) dm = M
_
R
2
56
+Y
GC
×Z
GC
_
6–6 Hydrostar User Manual
The user can input the full Inertia matrix or choose to input the following data:
· The mass of the body: M;
· The position of the centre of gravity: (X
G
, Y
G
, Z
G
);
· The gyration radius: R
44
, R
55
, R
66
, R
45
, R
46
, R
56
where:
+ R
ii
=
_
I
ii
M
with respect to the COG
+ R
ij
= sign(I
ij
)
_
I
ij

M
with respect to the COG
6.2.4 Stiﬀness Matrix
The hydrostatic stiﬀness is computed by HydroStar. Nevertheless, an additionnal stiﬀness ma
trix may be added by the user, for example to take into account for mooring systems. The user
has the possibility of inputting the complete stiﬀness matrix, or only the nonzero terms.
In the case of a single body the matrix has the dimension 6x6. However in case of multi
body the full stiﬀness matrix has the size 6Nx6N, where N is the number of bodies. In order
to simplify the input of data, the matrix in case of multibody is divided in NxN submatrices
in the following way:
K BODY 1 1 K BODY 1 2 ... K BODY 1 N
K BODY 2 1 K BODY 2 2 ... K BODY 2 N
... ... ... ...
K BODY N 1 K BODY N 2 ... K BODY N N
In the above matrix, the submatrices [K BODY i i] with (i= 1, .., N), represent the stiﬀness of
the bodyi due to the motions of the body i itself. The submatrices [K BODY i j] represent the
stiﬀness of the body i due to the motions of the body j. And ﬁnally the submatrices [K BODY
j i] represent the stiﬀness of the body j due to the motions of the body i.
In summary, when specifying the stiﬀness matrix in case of multibody, the user needs to
deﬁne two bodies numbers after the keyword BODY. In the case of single body this keyword
can be omitted as by default HydroStar assumes BODY 1.
As an example, in case there are two bodies connected to each other the user may deﬁne
four stiﬀness matrices as below:
Chapter 6. Motion Computation 6–7
STIFFNESS MATRIX TYPE 1 BODY 1 1
1 1 1.0E+04
2 2 1.0E+06
6 6 1.0E+10
ENDSTIFFNESS MATRIX
STIFFNESS MATRIX TYPE 1 BODY 1 2
1 1 1.0E+04
2 2 1.0E+06
6 6 1.0E+10
ENDSTIFFNESS MATRIX
STIFFNESS MATRIX TYPE 1 BODY 2 1
1 1 1.0E+04
2 2 1.0E+06
6 6 1.0E+10
ENDSTIFFNESS MATRIX
STIFFNESS MATRIX TYPE 1 BODY 2 2
1 1 1.0E+04
2 2 1.0E+06
6 6 1.0E+10
ENDSTIFFNESS MATRIX
6.2.5 Damping Matrix
The damping due to radiation is computed by HydroStar in the hsrdf module. However, in
addition to the radiation damping, there are other sources of damping acting on the ﬂoating
bodies such as the ﬂuid viscosity and the mooring and risers systems damping. The eﬀects
of viscosity on the hull and on the appendages on roll damping are generally higher than the
radiation damping, a special paragraph below explain the diﬀerent ways to take these eﬀects
into account. The additional damping can be inputted by the four following ways:
· Linear damping in absolute values:
The damping matrix is updated adding the damping values inputted.
· Quadratic damping in absolute values:
The quadratic damping is so called because it varies with the square of the response
amplitude. Knowing that the response amplitude depends on the quantity of damping,
it can be deduced that the value of the quadratic damping is computed by iterative
procedure. The quadratic damping is also very dependent on the wave amplitude and its
eﬀect is more important at the resonance region.
HydroStar then linearize the quadratic damping according to : B
L
=
8
3π
ω x B
Q
(where ω
is the frequence and x the motion amplitude).
6–8 Hydrostar User Manual
· Linear damping in percentage of the critical damping:
The absolute value of damping is calculated from the critical damping value and the
damping matrix is updated adding these values.
· Linear and quadratic damping with Ikeada, Tanaka, Himeno (ITH) formulation for roll
motion:
The absolute values of damping are calculated from the geometry of the hull and of the
appendages and the damping matrix is updated adding these values.
Roll Damping
As it is written above, the appendages are generally not modellized in HydroStar mesh. More
over, the ﬂuid model used in HydroStar is the perfect ﬂow model without viscosity. But viscosity
and appendages increase the damping for roll motion in such an extent that it can’t be neglicted.
We suggest to use one of the following approximations to have a more realistic roll damping:
· Linear damping in percentage of the critical damping is mostly used because it is certainly
the easiest way for ships and the one that need the less computation. We suggest these
approximation for ships:
+ Tanker, Bulk Carriers: 4%  8% of critical damping;
+ LNG Carriers: 5%  8% of critical damping;
+ Containership 3%  5% of critical damping.
· Quadratic damping in absolute value for barges. Molin suggests:
+ B
Q
=
1
2
ρ C
D
B
4
L
where:
 ρ is the ﬂuid density;
 B is the ship width;
 L is the ship length;
 C
D
is a coeﬃcient from 0.04 to 0.1.
· ITH formulation should be used when the user have any geometrical informations about
the appendages. The ITH formulation is a semiempirical formula. It separates the several
sources of roll damping according to :
B
T
= B
F
+B
E
+B
L
+B
W
+B
BKN
+B
BKH
+B
BKW
+B
SK
Chapter 6. Motion Computation 6–9
where:
+ B
F
is the frictional dampings caused by the skin friction stress on the hull in roll
motions;
+ B
E
is the eddy making damping caused by the ﬂow separation on the bottom of the
ship hull near the stem and stern and near the bilge circle at the midship portion;
+ B
L
is the lift damping corresponding to the linear part of the lifting eﬀects on the
hull in roll motion when the ship has forward speed;
+ B
W
is the wave radiation damping, which is generated by the motions of the ship.
This parcel of damping is linear and is computed in the module hsrdf in HydroStar
4;
+ B
BKN
is the normal force on the bilge keels;
+ B
BKH
is the component representing the pressure changes on the hull due to the
presence of the bilge keels;
+ B
BKW
is the wave making damping caused by the bilge keels;
+ B
SK
is the normal force on skeg.
The input data required for the use of this formulation are the dimensions of the bilge keel and
skeg (if any) according to the ﬁgure 6.2.
x
y
z
xbk1
xbk2
span
SKEG
BILGE
KEEL
height
length
Figure 6.2:
One should always compare its inputs with model tests, if one has some available. They
are still the most reliable method for the evaluation of the damping for roll motion.
A new module has been implemented in HydroStar which performs the estimation of the roll
6–10 Hydrostar User Manual
damping by using the ITH formulation. This module is called hsdmp and the results obtained
are the critical damping as it’s a reference value, the estimated linear and quadratic damping
to be used as input for hsmec.
The input ﬁle has the same format as the one for hsmec with the addition of the following
keywords:
ITHDAMPING start line of ITH formulation for roll damping
bk, span, xbk1, xbk2 bilge keels dimensions (if any) according to the ﬁgure above
sk, length, height skeg dimensions (if any) according to the ﬁgure above
ENDITHDAMPING end line of ITH formulation for roll damping
The module hsdmp is used before hsmec and to run it the user only needs to type:
Hstar>proj>hsdmp inputfile
After obtaining the estimation for linear and quadratic damping, the user needs to modify
the input ﬁle for hsmec in order to include those values.
6.3 Computing the vessel’s motions
After preparing the input ﬁle with the mechanical properties of the vessel, the user is able to
start the computation of the motions just typing hsmec name ﬁle in HydroStar window:
Hstar>proj>hsmec inputfile
Chapter 7
Global wave eﬀorts computation
The global wave eﬀorts are computed by HydroStar by using the hswld module. To compute
these eﬀorts, the user has to know, a priori, the longitudinal mass distribution of the loading
condition in case of a ship, and the inertia matrix of in two sections (longitudinal or transversal)
in case of any other body.
7.1 Global wave loads for ships
As the length of a ship is normally the predominant dimension comparing to the beam and
depth dimensions, we assume that she behaviours like a beam. This way, the longitudinal mass
distribution for a determined loading condition is required. In addition, the user has to deﬁne
the sections where the eﬀorts shall be computed.
The following key words shall be used in the input ﬁle with the mass distribution:
ZFSURFACE zcoordinate of the waterline in the reference
system used to deﬁne mass distribution
DISMASS TYPE 0 to start the input of mass distribution
nb, Description, Mass, x
1
, x
2
, x
G
, y
r
, z
G
ENDDISMASS to end the input of mass distribution
7–1
7–2 Hydrostar User Manual
where:
type nb = 0 to input the half value of mass (in tons)
= 1 to input the entire value of mass (in kg)
nb sequential number of the mass item
Mass mass item value
x
1
position of the begin of the mass item
x
2
position of the end of the mass item
x
G
longitudinal position of gravity centre of the mass item
y
r
gyration radius of the mass item around longitudinal axis in the centreline
of the vessel and with zcoordinate equal to the vertical centre of gravity
of the mass item
z
G
vertical position of gravity centre of the mass item
SECTION TYPE type nb to start the input of sections to compute the loads
[nb sec] x
s
, y
s
, z
s
to end the deﬁnition of sections
ENDSECTION
ENDFILE to end the input ﬁle
where:
type nb = 0 if the sequential number of the sections is given
xs, ys, zs = position of the section
Note: On each segment, the linear density is considered constant, centered on Xg.
Figure 7.1: y
r
deﬁnition
The ﬁle which exempliﬁes the mass distribution ﬁle is displayed in ﬁgure 7.2.
With the above ﬁle hstat generates the input ﬁle for hswld which consists on the inertia matrix
Chapter 7. Global wave eﬀorts computation 7–3
ZFSURFACE 27.47 m
DISMASS TYPE 0
1 Hull fore part 1152.55 146.00 158.22 151.05 18.02 17.56
2 Hull middle part 16341.00 91.80 146.00 27.10 18.02 17.56
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
102 TCBB8 5389.87 101.38 71.88 86.63 18.02 16.44
103 Sloptk 4214.00 108.88 101.38 105.13 18.02 16.44
ENDDISMASS
SECTION TYPE 0
1 165.15 0 0
2 165 0 0
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
34 155 0 0
35 165 0 0
ENDSECTION
ENDFILE
Figure 7.2: Example of input ﬁle for Mass distribution
for each deﬁned section.
Hstar>proj>hstat projmassdis.don
HydroStar will perform the calculation of hydrostatic properties and compare with the results
previously gotten previously from the mesh. It’s up to the user decide to keep the old results
or to substitute them by the ones calculated through the mass distribution.
Then, the ﬁle proj wld.don will be created in the user’s work directory.
The user is able to check the ﬁle generated by typing ”hschk proj wld.don”:
Hstar>proj>hschk projwld.don
Then the mesh can be visualized:
Hstar>proj>hvisu
An example of visualization is given in ﬁgure 7.3.
The loads can be computed using hswld module by typing ”hswld proj wld.don”.
Hstar>proj>hswld projwld.don
7–4 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure 7.3:
7.2 Global wave loads for non slender bodies
For non slender bodies, HydroStar does not automatically generate the input ﬁle for hswld. This
way, the user shall previously generate the input ﬁle.
The following key words shall be used in the input ﬁle for hswld:
MASS BODY nb body, mass body number of the body, mass of
body
COGPOINT BODY nb body, x
G
, y
G
, z
G
number of the body, centre
of gravity
GYRADIUS BODY nb body, r
xx
, r
yy
, r
zz
, r
xy
, r
xz
, r
yz
number of the body, gyra
tion radius
To compute the eﬀorts on the longitudinal sections:
Chapter 7. Global wave eﬀorts computation 7–5
YSECTION No no section start input longitudinal sec
tion data
REFPOINT x
REF
, y
REF
, z
REF
reference point of the sec
tion
COGFROMSB x
G
, y
G
, z
G
gravity centre of the section
VIS44PC visc damp viscous damping coeﬃcient
for roll
INERTMATRIX inertia matrix to start the input of inertia
matrix
ENDSECTION to end the input of section
data
To compute the eﬀorts on the transversal sections:
7–6 Hydrostar User Manual
.
SECTION No no section start input transversal sec
tion data
REFPOINT x
REF
, y
REF
, z
REF
reference point of the sec
tion
COGFROMAP x
G
, y
G
, z
G
gravity centre of the section
VIS44PC visc damp viscous damping coeﬃcient
for roll
INERTMATRIX inertia matrix to start the input of inertia
matrix
ENDSECTION to end the input of section
data
ENDFILE to end the input ﬁle
NOTE: The inertia matrix should be deﬁned in accordance with the matrix deﬁned in item
6.2, where the calculation point is located in the section and the centre of gravity is the centre
of gravity of the loading condition.
The picture, displayed in ﬁgure 7.4, gives an example of the input ﬁle for hswld.
To compute the loads using hswld module by typing hswld proj wld.don”.
Chapter 7. Global wave eﬀorts computation 7–7
# Project : SemiSub
# User : BV
#
MASS BODY 1 2.2643E+07
COGPOINT BODY1 0.0 0.0 4.63
GYRADIUS BODY1 28.81 28.75 33.46 0.00 0.00 0.00
YSECTION No 1
REFPOINT 0.0000 0.0000 4.63
COGFROMSB 0.22947 21.000 4.63
VIS44PC 0.00000E+00
INERTMATRIX
0.11647E+08 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.53926E+08 0.24499E+09
0.00000E+00 0.11647E+08 0.00000E+00 0.53926E+08 0.00000E+00 0.26726E+07
0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.11647E+08 0.24499E+09 0.26726E+07 0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00 0.53926E+08 0.24499E+09 0.47231E+10 0.23747E+09 0.58046E+09
0.53926E+08 0.00000E+00 0.26726E+07 0.23747E+09 0.10017E+11 0.15830E+10
0.24499E+09 0.26726E+07 0.00000E+00 0.58046E+09 0.15830E+10 0.74257E+10
ENDSECTION
YSECTION No 2
REFPOINT 0.0000 0.0000 4.63
COGFROMSB 0.0000 0.0000 4.63
VIS44PC 0.00000E+00
INERTMATRIX
0.22643E+08 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.10484E+09 0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00 0.22643E+08 0.00000E+00 0.10484E+09 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.22643E+08 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00
0.00000E+00 0.10484E+09 0.00000E+00 0.18787E+11 0.11268E+09 0.52149E+09
0.10484E+09 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.11268E+09 0.18711E+11 0.29881E+09
0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.52149E+09 0.29881E+09 0.25348E+11
ENDSECTION
ENDFILE
Figure 7.4: Example of input ﬁle for hswld
7–8 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 8
Waves visualization
The module hswav of HydroStar generates the ﬁles for the visualization of waves by the program
BVVSHIP, that can be included as optional software in HydroStar package.
hswav is used to construct the ﬁles containing:
• Vessel’s motions;
• Pressures on the hull;
• Waves on the free surface around the ship.
The constructed ﬁles are used by BVVSHIPto show:
• Animations of vessel’s motions;
• Animation of pressures on the hull;
• Animation of waves on the free surface around the ship;
• Multibodies : ships/oﬀshore platforms;
• Regular waves;
• Irregular waves of a given wave spectrum.
The following key words shall be used in the input ﬁle for hswav:
VSHIP FILE ﬁleroot ﬁleroot is used to the root part of output ﬁles
8–1
8–2 Hydrostar User Manual
To generate the mesh on the free surface:
XMIN xmin Minimum xcoordinate of the rectangular area
XMAX xmax Maximum xcoordinate of the rectangular area
DLTX dltx Step value in the xdirection
YMIN ymin Minimum ycoordinate of the rectangular area
YMIN ymax Maximum ycoordinate of the rectangular area
DLTY dlty Step value in the ydirection
or
RMIN rmin Minimum Rcoordinate of the circular area
RMAX rmax Maximum Rcoordinate of the circular area
DLTR dltr Step value in the Rdirection
TMIN tmin Minimum thetacoordinate of the circular area
TMAX tmin Maximum thetacoordinate of the circular area
DLTT dltt Step value in the thetadirection
ENDFILE
Having the mesh already generated on the free surface, the user can obtain the diﬀerent com
ponents of wave diﬀraction and radiation using the following keywords:
NOTE: the command WAVEDECOMPOSITION should also be included in the input ﬁle for
hsmec.
WAVEDECOMPOSITION To generate ﬁles containing diﬀerent components of wave
diﬀraction and radiation such as:
Total Total components
Diﬀraction Diﬀraction waves for each heading
Surge Radiation component in Surge unit motion
Sway Radiation component in Sway unit motion
Heave Radiation component in Heave unit motion
Roll Radiation component in Roll (0.1rad motion)
Pitch Radiation component in Pitch (0.1 rad motion)
Yaw Radiation component in Yaw (0.1 rad motion)
Chapter 8. Waves visualization 8–3
The total wave with diﬀerent combination factors can be visualized using the following key
words:
COEFINCM coefincm coeﬃcient multiplying the incoming wave component
COEFDIFF coefdiﬀ coeﬃcient multiplying the diﬀraction component
COEFRAD1 coefrad1 coeﬃcient multiplying the surge radiation component
COEFRAD2 coefrad2 coeﬃcient multiplying the sway radiation component
COEFRAD3 coefrad3 coeﬃcient multiplying the heave radiation component
COEFRAD4 coefrad4 coeﬃcient multiplying the roll radiation component
COEFRAD5 coefrad5 coeﬃcient multiplying the pitch radiation component
COEFRAD6 coefrad6 coeﬃcient multiplying the yaw radiation component
or
AMPLINCM ampincm amplitude of the incoming wave component
AMPLDIFF ampdiﬀ amplitude of the diﬀraction component
AMPLRAD1 amprad1 amplitude of the surge radiation component
AMPLRAD2 amprad2 amplitude of the sway radiation component
AMPLRAD3 amprad3 amplitude of the heave radiation component
AMPLRAD4 amprad4 amplitude of the roll radiation component
AMPLRAD5 amprad5 amplitude of the pitch radiation component
AMPLRAD6 amprad6 amplitude of the yaw radiation component
The input ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure 8.1 gives an example for hswav.
The hswav can only be performed after the calculation of the motions by hsmec.
Hstar>proj>hswav projwav.don
HydroStar will generate a folder named “.../wav” in the work directory, in which the follow
ing output ﬁles are stored:
8–4 Hydrostar User Manual
VSHIP FILE toto
XMIN 200.0
XMAX 500.0
DLTX 10.0
YMIN 100.0
YMAX 100.0
DLTY 5.0
COEFINCM 0.0
COEFDIFF 1.0
COEFRAD1 0.0
COEFRAD2 0.0
COEFRAD3 0.0
COEFRAD4 0.0
COEFRAD5 0.0
COEFRAD6 0.0
Figure 8.1: Example of input ﬁle for hswav
Fileroot.bvh ﬁle (ASCII) Vship project ﬁle
Fileroot.vsh ﬁle (ASCII) containing Vship hull mesh
Fileroot.vws ﬁle (ASCII) containing Vship mesh on the free surface
Fileroot Total.vwr ﬁle (Binary) containing Vship wave RAOs
Fileroot Total.vsm ﬁle (Binary) containing Vship motion RAOs
Fileroot Total.vsp ﬁle (Binary) containing Vship pressure RAOs
If the option “wave components” is used, the set of binary ﬁles is:
Fileroot Diﬀraction diﬀractions
Fileroot Surge surge radiation
Fileroot Sway sway radiation
Fileroot Heave heave radiation
Fileroot Roll roll radiation
Fileroot Pitch pitch radiation
Fileroot Yaw yaw radiation
The ﬁle Fileroot.bvh shall be openned using BVVSHIPin order to obtain the requested vi
sualization.
The picture displayed in ﬁgure 8.2, contains an example of the ﬁle Fileroot.bvh.
For further details about BVVSHIP, please refer to the Vship Visualizer User’s Guide.
Chapter 8. Waves visualization 8–5
BVVShipProject {
components [ Total ]
waveRAOFileName ”d:/temp/larbihst/wav/toto Total.vwr”
waveSurfaceFileName ”d:/temp/larbihst/wav/toto.vws”
waterDepth 500.00000
waveOrigin 136.97000 0.00000
showSeaBottom FALSE
speeds [ 0.00000 ]
headings [ 180.00000
...
270.00000
]
frequencies [0.30000
0.40000
...
0.80000
]
children [
DEF Body 1 BVVShipHullForm {
localCoordSystemOﬀset 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
heading 0.00000
centerOfRotation 136.97000 0.00000 3.00000
motionRAOFileName ”d:/temp/larbihst/wav/toto Body 1 Total.vsm”
pressureRAOFileName ”d:/temp/larbihst/wav/toto Body 1 Total.vsp”
hullSurfaceFileName ”d:/temp/larbihst/wav/toto Body 1.vsh”
}
] }
Figure 8.2: Example of the Fileroot.bvh ﬁle
8–6 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 9
Pressure and wave elevation
computation
The pressure (relative wave elevation) and the wave elevation are calculated using the module
hsprs after the calculation of the motions.
The user shall deﬁne the points to calculate the pressure/wave elevation by making use of
the following keywords in the input data:
ZFSURFACE free surface coordinate as deﬁned in item 2.2 (default = 0)
WAVEDECOMPOSITION to obtain the diﬀerent components of wave diﬀraction
and radiation
POINTS to start the input of the points coordinates
nb, x
p
, y
p
, z
p
number of the point, coordinates of the point
ENDPTS to end the input of the points coordinates
COEFINC coeﬃcient applied to the incident wave from 0.0 to 1.0
COEFRDF coeﬃcient applied to the wave diﬀraction and radiation
from 0.0 to 1.0
COEFHDS coeﬃcient applied to the vessel’s motions (if =0.0, only
the absolute wave elevation is computed)
The ﬁgure 9.1 contains an example of input ﬁle for hsprs.
In order to run hsprs, the user can enter the command:
9–1
9–2 Hydrostar User Manual
ZFSURFACE 11.000 m
POINTS
1 200.00 0.00 11.0
2 190.00 0.00 11.0
3 180.00 0.00 11.0
4 170.00 0.00 11.0
ENDPTS
COEFINC 1.0
COEFRDF 1.0
COEFHDS 0.0
ENDFILE
Figure 9.1: Example of input ﬁle for hsprs
Hstar>proj>hsprs projprs.don
The user is able to check the ﬁle generated by typing “hschk projprs.don”:
Hstar>proj>hschk projprs.don
Then the points at which the pressure will be calculated can be visualized together with the
mesh:
Hstar>proj>hvisu p
Chapter 10
Second order computation
The lowfrequency loads can be described as being the quadratic function of the bichromatic
incident and diﬀraction/radiation wave ﬁelds. The QTF (Quadratic Transfer Function) of low
frequency loads needs the solution of the second order problem except for the diagonal terms
equal to the mean drift loads which can be directly obtained from the ﬁrst order results.
The complete lowfrequency loads are composed of two parts: one depending on the quadratic
products of the ﬁrstorder wave ﬁelds, and the second depending on the second order potentials
which can be represented by two Haskind integrals on the body surface, in addition to the
second order FroudeKrylov forces. Thus, we may write the jth component of the QTF as:
F
−
j
(ω
j
, ω
k
) = F
21
+F
20
+F
2H
+ (F
2F
) (10.1)
Further more, the QTF F
−
j
(ω
j
, ω
k
) is assumed to be regular function of (ω
j
, ω
k
) and a Taylor
expansion with respect ∆ = (ω
j
−ω
k
) to can be developed:
F
−
j
(ω
j
, ω
k
) = F
0
(ω
j
) +F
1
(ω
j
)∆ω +F
2
(ω
j
)(∆ω)
2
/2 +... (10.2)
As the free surface Haskind integral is of order O[(∆ω)
2
] or higher, an approximation of the
lowfrequency QTF is proposed.
The approximation proposed by Newman (1974), which consists of using only the drift loads
is qualiﬁed by zerothorder approximation. The approximation considering all terms except of
the free surface integral is of order O(∆ω), one order higher than Newman’s approximation.
There are two classical formulations to solve the second order low frequency loads problem.
The near ﬁeld formulation needs the evaluation of ﬁrstorder wave ﬁeld around the hull and
along the waterline, as well as the ﬁrstorder motions. Another formulation based on the
10–1
10–2 Hydrostar User Manual
momentum theorem for the horizontal drift forces has been developed by Maruo (1960) and
extended to the moment around the vertical axis by Newman (1967). This formulation in
volving ﬁrstorder wave ﬁeld in the far ﬁeld is often called farﬁeld formulation and preferable
in practice thanks to its better convergence and stability. However, the far ﬁeld formulation
can not provide the vertical drift loads which can be important in shal low water case, and the
lowfrequency loads (QTF) which are critically important in shal low water.
The recent work (Chen, 2004) unblocks this situation by developing a new formulation for
the calculation of the second order low frequency loads. Starting with the most general near
ﬁeld formulation, and then obtaining a near ﬁeld formulation by making use of two variants
of Stokes theorems, the analysis in a ﬁnite volume limited by the hull and a control surface
surrounding the body yields new middleﬁeld formulation. This formulation combines the ad
vantages of both near ﬁeld and far ﬁeld formulation, providing good numerical precision and
possibility of accessing to all components of drift loads and low frequency loads (QTF) as the
near ﬁeld formulation.
HydroStar provides the possibility of computing the second order wave loads by making use
of any of the three formulation that were brieﬂy described above and also to consider the
O[(∆ω)] for the integral over the free surface. In the versions 5.0 and above of HydroStar the
formulations for the computation of second order wave loads in unidirectional waves have been
extended to the case of multidirectional waves (cross waves). Both the classical nearﬁeld
formulation and the new middleﬁeld formulation can be used used.
10.1 Mean drift loads in unidirectional waves
The mean drift loads are the secondorder loads that are only function of quadratic product of
the ﬁrstorder wave ﬁeld and responses.
For the computation of the mean drift loads in unidirectional waves, we use the module hsdft.
The user can choose between three formulations: near ﬁeld, far ﬁeld and middleﬁeld. When
the middleﬁeld formulation is chosen, the user needs to deﬁne a control surface mesh.
NOTE: Although the middle ﬁeld formulation is general, only the horizontal load components
can be calculated using the module hsdft, for HydroStar versions up to 6.10.
10.1.1 Input ﬁle for hsdft
The input ﬁle for hsdft is only necessary to select the formulation to be used and to provide the
necessary data to generate the control surface in case the middle ﬁeld formulation is selected.
By default HydroStar performs the computation by using the nearﬁeld and farﬁeld formula
tions without any input ﬁle.
Chapter 10. Second order computation 10–3
The following information shall be provided in the input ﬁle:
• Choice of formulation;
• Control surface deﬁnition (only when middle ﬁeld is chosen).
The following keywords shall be used:
NFORMULE Yes/No By default = Yes
FFORMULE Yes/No By default = Yes
MFORMULE Yes/No By default = No
If MFORMULE = Yes, the control surface shall be provided:
The control surface mesh to be used for hsdft is to be opened at the free surface (open box).
In order to deﬁne a box the following keywords should be used:
NBBOITE nb Nb of control surfaces = Nb
of bodies
XCSURFACE ib, xmin, xmax, dltx No control surface and
min/max/step of
xcoordinates
YCSURFACE ib, ymin, ymax, dlty No control surface and
min/max/step of
ycoordinates
ZCSURFACE ib, zmin, zmax, dltz No control surface and
min/max/step of
zcoordinates. zmax needs
to be equal to 0.0 (free sur
face)
OPTFOND Yes/No including the bottom of
control surface
(by default=Y)
NOTE: The automatic control surface mesh generated by HydroStar is not to be used for
hsdft.
10–4 Hydrostar User Manual
The ﬁgure 10.1 exempliﬁes the input ﬁle above described.
NFORMULE YES
FFORMULE YES
MFORMULE YES
NBBOITE 1
XCSURFACE 1 5.0 5.0 0.1
YCSURFACE 1 1.0 1.0 0.1
ZCSURFACE 1 2.0 0.0 0.1
ENDFILE
Figure 10.1: Example of input ﬁle for hsdft
10.1.2 Checking and visualizing the control surface
The user is able to check the mesh of the control surface before running hsdft by just typing
“hschk” followed by the name of the input ﬁle for drift loads:
Hstar>proj>hschk projdft.don
After checking the control surface mesh, the user is able to visualize it just typing “hvisu 
b:
Hstar>proj>hvisu b
Then, VISU4D window will be opened and both the hull mesh and the control surface mesh
can be visualized (see ﬁg 10.2).
Figure 10.2:
Chapter 10. Second order computation 10–5
10.1.3 Running hsdft
After running “hsmec”, the user is able to start the second order mean drift computation with
or without the input ﬁle.
• Without the input ﬁle: Just type “hsdft” in HydroStar window:
Hstar>proj>hsdft
• With input ﬁle: Type “hsdft” followed by the input ﬁle name:
Hstar>proj>hsdft projdft.don
10.2 Mean drift loads in bidirectional waves
The mean drift loads computation in bidrectional waves is made by the module hsmdf. The
user may choose between two formulations: the near ﬁeld and the middle ﬁeld. Diﬀerently from
the module hsdft, the module hsmdf only allows the computation for one formulation per time.
10.2.1 Input ﬁle for hsmdf
The input ﬁle for hsmdf module is the same as used for hsdft. Only the keyword
MULTIDIRECTIONELLE should be added to the ﬁle described in item 9.1.1 as in ﬁg
ure 10.3:
NFORMULE No
FFORMULE No
MFORMULE YES
NBBOITE 1
XCSURFACE 1 5.0 5.0 0.1
YCSURFACE 1 1.0 1.0 0.1
ZCSURFACE 1 2.0 0.0 0.1
MULTIDIRECTIONELLE
ENDFILE
Figure 10.3: Example of input ﬁle for hsmdf
NOTE: As explained above, only one formulation can be used per time. In case several
formulations are chosen, the last one given in the input ﬁle will be used.
10–6 Hydrostar User Manual
10.2.2 Running hsmdf
After running “hsmec”, the user is able to launch the mean drift computation in cross waves
Type “hsmdf” followed by the input ﬁle name:
Hstar>proj>hsdft projmdf.don
10.3 Full QTF computation in uni and bidirectional
waves
The full QTF (Quadratic Transfer Function) calculation requires the solution of the second
order potential. Two modules are used to perform the calculation: one is hsamg which is a
preprocessor for the other hsqtf.
10.3.1 Input ﬁle for hsamg and hsqtf
The same input ﬁle may be used for both modules hsamg and hsqtf.
The following information should be given in the input ﬁle for full QTF computation:
• Choice of formulation (nearﬁeld or middle ﬁeld). Only one formulation can be chosen;
• Diﬀerencefrequencies for the calculation (∆ω);
• Wave frequencies;
• Control surface deﬁnition in case middleﬁeld is chosen.
NOTE: It’s important to note that the diﬀractionradiation computations (hsrdf should be
performed not only for the wave frequencies but also for the diﬀerencefrequencies
The control surface mesh for the modules hsamg and hsqtf is diﬀerent than the one used for
hsdft as it is to be closed at the free surface between the control surface envelope mesh and the
hull mesh. An adequate control surface mesh is automatically generated by HydroStar.
Chapter 10. Second order computation 10–7
The following keywords shall be used:
TYPEFORMULE NEARFIELD or MIDDLEFIELD
DIFFREQUENCE ∆ω
min
∆ω
max
∆ω
step
WAVFREQUENCE ω
min
ω
max
ω
step
NBBOITE nb
CSFILE AUTO BODY ib z
min
, z
max
, dz, optional parameters
MULTIDIRECTIONELLE (in case of bidirectional waves)
*The optional parameters mentioned above refer to:
zbias , xratio , yratio , nbtop
where:
zbias is the parameter for the discretization of the control surface
mesh the vertical direction. By default zbias = 1.0
xratio is the scaling factor in the xdirection.
By default xratio = 1.0
yratio is the scaling factor in the ydirection.
By default yratio = 1.0
nbtop is the number of panels at the free surface.
By default nbtop = 5
NOTE: In case middleﬁeld formulation is chosen, we recommend that z
max
(maximum z
coordinate of the control surface) is set to 0.0 (free surface level) in the input ﬁle, in order to
obtain better convergence.
The ﬁgure 10.4 exempliﬁes the input ﬁle for the QTF computation.
10.3.2 Running HydroStar
After running “hsmec”, the user is able to launch the lowfrequency loads computation
First type hsamg followed by the input ﬁle name:
Hstar>proj>hsamg projqtf.don
10–8 Hydrostar User Manual
DIFFREQUENCE 0.000 0.20 0.025
WAVFREQUENCE 0.10 2.50 0.025
TYPEFORMULE MIDDLEFIELD
NBBOITE 1
CSFILE AUTO BODY 1 20.0 0.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 5
MULTIDIRECTIONELLE
ENDFILE
Figure 10.4: Example of input ﬁle for hsamg and hsqtf
Then type hsqtf followed by the same input ﬁle:
Hstar>proj>hsqtf projqtf.don
10.3.3 O(∆ω) Approximation
Since the application of lowfrequency QTF concerns generally the computation of excitation
loading to a moored system whose resonant frequencies are often less than 0.05 rad/s while wave
frequencies ω are generally larger than 0.30 rad/s, the dynamic behavior of mooring systems is
sensitive only to the lowfrequency QTF at small values of (ω
1
−ω
2
).
By assuming ∆ω 1, the quadratic transfer function (QTF) is developed as an expansion :
F(ω
1
, ω
2
) = F
0
(ω, ω) + ∆ω F
1
(ω, ω) +O[(∆ω)
2
] (10.3)
with the zerothorder term contributed by the quadratic products of ﬁrstorder wave ﬁelds and
the O(∆ω) term contributed by both, the quadratic products of ﬁrstorder wave ﬁelds and the
secondorder potential.
The usual approximation proposed by Newman (1974) largely used in practice is based on
the use of F
0
so that it is O(1) approximation.
This approximation is proven to be very eﬃcient for mooring systems with resonance up to
0.06rad/s, and at any water depth. It presents a very good alternative to the use of the fullQTF
in cases where Newman approximation can not be applied (e.g., shallow water). For further
information can be found in ref. [10].
When the user chooses to use this formulation, only one oﬀdiagonal term of the QTF (smallest
∆ω) needs to be computed in hsamg / hsqtf.
The transfer functions of F
0
and F
1
can be constructed by HydroStar for unidirectional waves.
Please refer to item 12.1 of this User Manual.
Chapter 11
FEM model interface
After the hydrodynamics calculations, HydroStar can generate the wave pressures to be consid
ered in the structural analysis using the module hsfem. The wave pressures are transferred to
the FEM model in order to obtain the RAOs of stresses for the structure at any point of interest.
11.1 Input ﬁles
In order to run “hsfem” module, two input ﬁles, containing the FEM model and the wave pres
sure transfer information, must be generated.
11.1.1 FEM model input ﬁle
HydroStar has an interface with the software NASTRAN and the examples of input ﬁles pre
sented below are directly obtained from that software.
There are ﬁve diﬀerent ways to transfer the pressures from HydroStar to the FE model:
1. Calculation of the pressure at the centre of the element (LOADTYPE 2):
This option is the most used one. By using this option the user has to provide in the
input ﬁle all the elements connectivity and the coordinates of each node of the FE mesh.
HydroStar will make the interpolation in order to ﬁnd the centroid of each element.
The ﬁgure 11.1 shows an example of input ﬁle.
2. Calculation of the pressure at any node of the structure (LOADTYPE 1):
11–1
11–2 Hydrostar User Manual
$Element
CQUAD4 1 1 2 1 10 11
CQUAD4 2 1 3 2 11 12
CQUAD4 3 1 4 3 12 13
...
CQUAD4 2511 1 2514 1285 1284 2513
CQUAD4 2512 1 2298 1057 1285 2514
$ Nb elements: 2512
$ Nb nodes : 2514
GRID 1 0 5.00E+01 0.00E+00 5.00E+00
GRID 2 0 5.00E+01 1.25E+00 5.00E+00
GRID 3 0 5.00E+01 2.50E+00 5.00E+00
...
GRID 2513 0 2.63E+00 7.50E+00 5.00E+00
GRID 2514 0 2.63E+00 8.75E+00 5.00E+00
ENDDATA
Figure 11.1: Example of input ﬁle for LOADTYPE 2
By using this option the user has to provide only the coordinates of the nodes where he
wants the pressure to be computed.
The ﬁgure 11.2 shows an example of input ﬁle.
$ Nb nodes : 2512
GRID 1 0 48.7 0.625 5
GRID 2 0 48.7 1.875 5
GRID 3 0 48.7 3.125 5
...
GRID 2511 0 1.315 8.125 5
GRID 2512 0 1.315 9.375 5
ENDDATA
Figure 11.2: Example of input ﬁle for LOADTYPE 1
3. Calculation of the pressure at the nodes of the elements (LOADTYPE 4):
The input ﬁle for this option is exactly the same as for the option 1. However, instead of
the pressure for the centroid of the element, the pressure at each node of an element will
be calculated.
4. Calculation of the pressure at the centre of the element (LOADTYPE 3):
By using this option the user has to input the centroid of the elements by GRID. The
input ﬁle follows the same format as for the the option 2.
5. Pressure at the centre of the elements from hydro mesh (LOADTYPE 0):
As the pressure is calculated at the centroid of the elements from the hydro mesh, the
user does not need to deﬁne any input ﬁle containing the FE mesh. Only the information
Chapter 11. FEM model interface 11–3
for the pressure transfer should be provided.
 Getting the ship surface mesh from the whole ship FE model in PATRAN
After the building of the FE model, the user has to include all the nodes and elements
located at the surface of the ship into a same group.
Then, transfer the ship surface group to a “*.bdf” ﬁle in PATRAN by using the following
functions:
Analyze/Entire Model/Analysis Deck.
Give the name of ship surface mesh.
Click Translation Parameters; change Bulk Data Format to “small”
(see ﬁg 11.3).
Figure 11.3:
11–4 Hydrostar User Manual
Then click “apply” to generate the “*.bdf” ﬁle.
Open the “*.bdf” ﬁle, add one card “FORMAT FIXED 8” at the beginning of this ﬁle, like
in the example displayed in ﬁgure 11.4.
FORMAT FIXED 8
$ NASTRAN input ﬁle created by the MSC MSC.Nastran input ﬁle
$ translator (MSC.Patran 13.0.057) on july 11,2006 at 17:19:14
$ Direct Text Input for Nastran System Cell Section
$ Direct Text Input for File Management Section
$ Linear Static Analysis, Database
SOL 101
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
SEALL = ALL
SUPER = ALL
ECHO = NONE
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE = Default
DISPLACEMENT (SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
PARAM POST 1
PARAM AUTOSPC YES
PARAM PRTMAXIM YES
Figure 11.4: Example of bdf ﬁle
11.1.2 Input ﬁle with the pressure transfer information
This input ﬁle contains the information for the wave pressure transfer. The following data have
to be provided:
• Name of the input ﬁle containing the surface mesh of the FEM model;
• Option for calculation of the pressure as described above;
• Output loadcase information, such as wave amplitude, frequency, heading and speed.
The following keywords are used:
ZFSURFACE free surface level
NASFILE ﬁlename name of the ﬁle containing the FE mesh
LOADTYPE itype type of pressure transfer
Chapter 11. FEM model interface 11–5
where:
itype = 0 pressure at the centre of the element from hydro mesh
itype = 1 pressure at any node of the structure
itype = 2 pressure at centre of element (the centre of the
element is calculated by HydroStar
itype = 3 pressure at centre of element (the element centroid is
given by GRID)
itype = 4 pressures at nodes of the elements
NASTRAN iload number of the loadcase for the FE model
(iload=1,2,...,n)
AMPL wave amplitude (usually 1.0m)
FREQ wave frequency
HEAD wave heading
SPED speed of the vessel
OPCOS output ﬁle for real part of the pressures
OPSIN output ﬁle for imaginary part of the pressures
ENDNAS iload
The ﬁgure 11.5 shows an example for the input ﬁle described before.
# Maillage BARGE
ZFSURFACE 0.0
NASFILE stru.bdf (not necessary for LOADTYPE 0)
LOADTYPE 1
NASTRAN 1
AMPL 1.00 m
FREQ 0.4 rad/s
HEAD 90.0 deg
SPED 0.0 Kn
OPCOS 90.COS 1
OPSIN 90.SIN 2
ENDNAS 1
NASTRAN 2
AMPL 1.00 m
FREQ 0.4 rad/s
HEAD 180.0 deg
SPED 0.0 Kn
OPCOS 180.COS 3
OPSIN 180.SIN 4
ENDNAS 2
Figure 11.5: Example of input ﬁle containing pressure transfer information
11–6 Hydrostar User Manual
11.2 Running hsfem
After deﬁning the two input ﬁles as described above, the user is already able to perform the
pressure calculations for the structural analysis by just typing the command:
Hstar>proj>hsfem filename
where the filename is the name of the ﬁle containing the information for the pressure transfer
deﬁned according to the instructions in item 11.1.2.
After running, a new folder named \fem will be generated. The output ﬁles correspond
ing to each loadcase (frequency and heading) will be saved inside that folder.
11.2.1 Reading the pressures by NASTRAN
In order to read the pressures for every load case, the user may create one ﬁle named “alload
cases.bdf” and then combine all the wave pressure ﬁles into this one.
Open NASTRAN and import the ﬁle containing all the wave pressures according to the in
structions below:
File / Import / Model / MSC.Nastran Input
Select wave pressure ﬁle “allloadcases.bdf”
(see ﬁg 11.6).
Chapter 11. FEM model interface 11–7
Figure 11.6:
11–8 Hydrostar User Manual
Chapter 12
Construction of the transfer functions
After performing the calculations, the user is able to construct the following transfer functions
by using the command “hsrao”:
• Motion, velocity and acceleration RAOs;
• Reading the added mass and damping matrices;
• Reading the wave diﬀraction loads;
• Wave kinematics at a point around ship;
• Drift loads;
• QTFs.
12.1 Input File
The following commands may be used in the input ﬁle for hsrao:
Radiation Coeﬃcients (obtained after running hsmec)
CM keywords Addedmass coeﬃcients at the reference point
CA keywords Radiation damping coeﬃcients at the reference point
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
BETA β Heading value (in case of forward speed)
TERM n1, n2... Terms of matrix (ex: 11 for surge, 22 for sway, etc)
12–9
12–10 Hydrostar User Manual
NOTE: In case of foward speed the added mass and damping coeﬃcients depend on the
heading. In those cases, the user needs to deﬁne the heading to output the results (keyword
BETA). Otherwise the ﬁrst heading used in the calculations will be taken by default.
Radiation Coeﬃcients in tanks (obtained after running hsmec with tanks)
CMTANK keywords Addedmass coeﬃcients in tank
CATANK keywords Radiation damping coeﬃcients in tank
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
TANK no tank Give the identify number of the tank (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
BETA β Heading value (in case of forward speed)
TERM n1, n2... Terms of matrix (ex: 11 for surge, 22 for sway, etc)
First order excitation loads (obtained after running hsmec)
FXF1ST keywords FK and diﬀraction loads Fx at the reference point
FYF1ST keywords FK and diﬀraction loads Fy at the reference point
FZF1ST keywords FK and diﬀraction loads Fz at the reference point
MXF1ST keywords FK and diﬀraction loads Mx at the reference point
MYF1ST keywords FK and diﬀraction loads My at the reference point
MZF1ST keywords FK and diﬀraction loads Mz at the reference point
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
AMP Amplitude (by default)
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
Chapter 12. Construction of the transfer functions 12–11
RAOs at the Reference Point (obtained after running hsmec)
GSURGE keywords Surge RAO
GSWAY keywords Sway RAO
GHEAVE keywords Heave RAO
GROLL keywords Roll RAO
GPITCH keywords Pitch RAO
GYAW keywords Yaw RAO
VSURGE keywords Surge velocity RAO
VSWAY keywords Sway velocity RAO
VHEAVE keywords Heave velocity RAO
VROLL keywords Roll velocity RAO
VPITCH keywords Pitch velocity RAO
VYAW keywords Yaw velocity RAO
ASURGE keywords Surge acceleration RAO
ASWAY keywords Sway acceleration RAO
AHEAVE keywords Heave acceleration RAO
AROLL keywords Roll acceleration RAO
APITCH keywords Pitch acceleration RAO
AYAW keywords Yaw acceleration RAO
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
AMP Amplitude (by default)
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
12–12 Hydrostar User Manual
RAOs at any point of the body (after running hsmec)
MSURGE keywords Motion RAO in X direction at a given point
MSWAY keywords Motion RAO in Y direction at a given point
MHEAVE keywords Motion RAO in Z direction at a given point
ACCX keywords Acceleration RAO in X direction at a given point
including g*pitch
ACCY keywords Acceleration RAO in Y direction at a given point
including +g*roll
ACCZ keywords Acceleration RAO in Z direction at a given point
= AHEAVE
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
AT x, y, z Give the coordinates of point (default = reference point)
AMP Amplitude (by default)
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
Relative motions between two vessels (after running hsmec)
RELMX BODY 1 AT x
1
, y
1
, z
1
BODY 2 AT x
2
, y
2
, z
2
keywords longitudinal relative
motions of two vessels
RELMY BODY 1 AT x
1
, y
1
, z
1
BODY 2 AT x
2
, y
2
, z
2
keywords transverse relative
motions of two vessels
RELMZ BODY 1 AT x
1
, y
1
, z
1
BODY 2 AT x
2
, y
2
, z
2
keywords vertical relative
motions of two vessels
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
FILE file name Gives the output ﬁle name
AMP Amplitude (by default)
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
Pressure and relative wave elevation (after running hsprs)
Chapter 12. Construction of the transfer functions 12–13
PRESSURE keywords Dynamic pressure at a given point or a frequency
RWE keywords Relative wave elevation at a given point or a frequency
RWEVX keywords Relative velocity Vx at a given point or a frequency
RWEVY keywords Relative velocity Vy at a given point or a frequency
RWEVZ keywords Relative velocity Vz at a given point or a frequency
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Gives the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Gives the output ﬁle name
POINT no point identify number of points
FREQ freq value frequency value (to obtain rwe along the ship’s length)
AMP Amplitude (by default)
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
Wave loads (after running hswld)
SECTFX keywords Wave loads Fx at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTFY keywords Wave loads Fy at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTFZ keywords Wave loads Fz at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTMX keywords Wave loads Mx at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTMY keywords Wave loads My at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTMZ keywords Wave loads Mz at a given section or a wave frequency
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Gives the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Gives the output ﬁle name
SECT no section identiﬁcation number of section
FREQ freq value frequency value (to obtain loads along the ship’s length)
AMP Amplitude (by default)
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
12–14 Hydrostar User Manual
Mean drift loads in uni and bidirectional waves (after running hsdft or hsmdf)
DRIFTFX keywords Wave drift load Fx at the reference point
DRIFTFY keywords Wave drift load Fy at the reference point
DRIFTFZ keywords Wave drift load Fz at the reference point
DRIFTMX keywords Wave drift load Mx at the reference point
DRIFTMY keywords Wave drift load My at the reference point
DRIFTMZ keywords Wave drift load Mz at the reference point
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
BETA β
1
Main incident direction between the two waves
(for bidirectional waves only)
PRE Drift loads by using pressure integrations
(Near Field)
MOM Drift loads by using the momentum formulation
(Far Field)
CSF Drift loads by using the controlsurface
(Middle Field)
AMP Amplitude
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
Chapter 12. Construction of the transfer functions 12–15
QTF in unidirectional waves (after running hsqtf)
QTFFX keywords Lowfrequency load Fx at the reference point
QTFFY keywords Lowfrequency load Fy at the reference point
QTFFZ keywords Lowfrequency load Fz at the reference point
QTFMX keywords Lowfrequency load Mx at the reference point
QTFMY keywords Lowfrequency load My at the reference point
QTFMZ keywords Lowfrequency load Mz at the reference point
QTFFX1 keywords F1 term of Fx load of O(∆ω) approximation
QTFFY1 keywords F1 term of Fy load of O(∆ω)approximation
QTFFZ1 keywords F1 term of Fz load of O(∆ω) approximation
QTFMX1 keywords F1 term of Mx load of O(∆ω) approximation
QTFMY1 keywords F1 term of My load of O(∆ω) approximation
QTFMZ1 keywords F1 term of Mz load of O(∆ω) approximation
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
BETA β Gives the QTF for all diﬀerencefrequencies and
for a certain incidence
DIFF ∆ω Gives the QTF for all incidences and
for a certain diﬀerencefrequency
PRE Drift loads by using pressure integrations
(Near Field)
CSF Drift loads by using the controlsurface
(Middle Field)
AMP Amplitude
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
12–16 Hydrostar User Manual
QTF in bidirectional waves (after running hsqtf)
MQTFFX keywords Lowfrequency load Fx at the reference point
MQTFFY keywords Lowfrequency load Fy at the reference point
MQTFFZ keywords Lowfrequency load Fz at the reference point
MQTFMX keywords Lowfrequency load Mx at the reference point
MQTFMY keywords Lowfrequency load My at the reference point
MQTFMZ keywords Lowfrequency load Mz at the reference point
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
BETA β
1
Gives the dominant incidence for the QTF construction
DIFF ∆ω Gives the diﬀerencefrequence for the QTF construction
PRE Drift loads by using pressure integrations (Near Field)
CSF Drift loads by using the controlsurface (Middle Field)
AMP Amplitude
PHASE Phase
COS Component cos (real part)
SIN Component sin (imaginary part)
NOTE: For the QTF construction in unidirectional waves only one of the keywords BETA or
DIFF should be given while for the QTF in bidirectional waves both values should be provided
Ariane v6.3 ﬁles
ARIANERAO keywords To generate RAO.DAT ﬁle for ARIANE applications
ARIANEQTF keywords To generate QTF.DAT ﬁle for ARIANE applications
using far ﬁeld formulation only.
ARIANEADM keywords To generate Added Mass.DAT ﬁle for ARIANE
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
Chapter 12. Construction of the transfer functions 12–17
Ariane v7 ﬁles
ARIANE7N keywords To generate input ﬁle for Newman approximation
(only diagonal terms of QTF)
ARIANE7C keywords To generate input ﬁle for full QTF computation
ARIANE7A keywords To generate input ﬁle for O(∆ω) computation
(terms F0 and F1)
The keywords mentioned above refer to:
BODY no body Give the identify number of body (default=1)
FILE file name Give the output ﬁle name
12–18 Hydrostar User Manual
General keywords
OMEGAMIN value Minimum value of wave frequency for RAOs output
OMEGAMAX value Maximum value of wave frequency for RAOs output
ENDFILE To ﬁnish the input ﬁle
The ﬁgure 12.1 exempliﬁes the input ﬁle for hsrao.
GSURGE FILE surgeA.rao AMP
GSWAY BODY 1 FILE sway.rao
GHEAVE BODY 1 FILE heave.rao
GROLL BODY 1 FILE rollS.rao
GPITCH BODY 1 FILE pitch.rao
GYAW BODY 1 FILE yaw.rao
DRIFTFX FILE DriftFx.rao PRE
DRIFTFY FILE DriftFy.rao PRE
DRIFTFZ FILE DriftFz.rao PRE
DRIFTMX FILE DriftMx.rao PRE
DRIFTMY FILE DriftMy.rao PRE
DRIFTMZ FILE DriftMz.rao PRE
DRIFTFX FILE DriftFxFF.rao MOM
DRIFTFY FILE DriftFyFF.rao MOM
DRIFTMZ FILE DriftMzFF.rao MOM
DRIFTFX FILE DriftFxMF.rao CSF
DRIFTFY FILE DriftFyMF.rao CSF
DRIFTMZ FILE DriftMzMF.rao CSF
CM FILE AddedMass.rao TERM
11,12,13,14,15,16,21,22,23,24,25,26,31,32,33,34,35,36,41,42,43,44,45,
46,51,52,53,54,55,56,61,62,63,64,65,66
FXF1ST FILE fxf1st.rao
FYF1ST FILE fyf1st.rao
FZF1ST FILE fzf1st.rao
MXF1ST FILE mxf1st.rao
MYF1ST FILE myf1st.rao
MZF1ST FILE mzf1st.rao
FX FILE Fx cos0.rao COS COEF 1.0D6
CM BODY 11 FILE adms123.rao TERM 11 22 33COEF 1.0D6
Figure 12.1: Example of input ﬁle for hsrao
12.2 Running hsrao
To run hsrao, the user has only to type “hsrao” followed by the name of input ﬁle:
Hstar>proj>hsrao projrao.don
HydroStar will create a folder named “rao” in the working directory with the output ﬁles re
quired by the user.
Chapter 12. Construction of the transfer functions 12–19
The output ﬁles have the following format (see ﬁg 12.2):
• Each line for one wave frequency (or wave period);
• Each column for RAO value at diﬀerent wave heading;
• Informative lines starting with # including;
• Project name, user name, constants used in computations;
• Number of wave headings and forward speed;
• Coordinates of the reference point or computation point;
• The output ﬁle can be used by most plotting software.
# Project : LNG CARRIER  Full Loaded case T=12.350m
# User : Rina & Anne
# File : rao1\Mys54.rao
#
# Constants used in computations
# Reference length : 1.0000
# Water density (rho) : 1025.0000
# Gravity acceleration : 9.8100
# Waterdepth : Inf.
# Ref.pt incident wave : ( 0.0000 0.0000)
#
# Section No 54 at X sect : 134.810
# AMPLITUDE ∗ Coef. : 1.00000E+00
# 7 headings from : 180.00 to 360.00
# Forward speed : 10.8000 m/s
#
# w/beta= 180.000 210.00 240.00 270.00
#——————————————————
0.100 3.0564E+06 2.1228E+06 2.2245E+05 8.5358E+05
0.150 1.6955E+07 1.2474E+07 3.3255E+06 1.7112E+06
0.200 5.0887E+07 3.8292E+07 1.2110E+07 2.5152E+06
... ... ... ... ...
1.500 7.6762E+07 6.5612E+07 7.2303E+07 6.2483E+07
#——————————————————
#ENDFILE
Figure 12.2: Example of output ﬁle for hsrao
At the end of RAO ﬁles’ generation by hsrao, a ﬁle named “project name.gnu” is created. This
ﬁle contains the macros to make curves of RAOs by using the software  gnuplot*, that is
provided in the same package as HydroStar.
To plot the curves of RAOs, just type “hsplt” or hsplt project name.gnu:
Hstar>proj>hsplt
–20 Hydrostar User Manual
or
Hstar>proj>hsplt rao/project name.gnu
Then, a series of graphics including the same number of RAOs curves as that of wave headings
in the motion computation will be obtained.
NOTE: The automatic display of the graphics may not work if the user does not deﬁne a
project name in the beginning of the job.
* c gnuplot dated 19861993, 1998, 1999 is attributed to Thomas Wil liam, Kolin Kel ley and
many others.
Appendix A
Examples
A.1 Example 1
Considering a ﬂoating cylinder with the following geometric properties:
• Radius (R) = 12.5 m
• Height (H)= 3*R = 37.5m
• Water Depth = 5*H = 187.5m
Provide the ﬁrst order and the second order loads on the body:
1st Step: Go to the work directory
Hstar>>cd c:/hydro/study
Hstar>>pwd
c:/hydro/study
2nd Step: Create a job
Hstar>>proj cylinder
Hstar>cylinder>
3rd Step: For easy geometry, as a cylinder
it’s possible to generate the mesh using HydroStar (see item 4.2):
Hstar>cylinder>hsmsh cs2
R,H,ntheta(0>PI/2),nH,nR(fond)=: 12.5 37.5 20 30 10
A–1
A–2 Hydrostar User Manual
Output mesh file name : cyls2.dat
To open the ﬁle, type “ed ﬁle name”:
Hstar>cylinder>ed cyls2.dat
Then, a notepad window will be opened with the mesh generated (see ﬁg A.1):
Figure A.1:
4rd Step: Read the mesh
Appendix A. Examples A–3
Hstar>cylinder>hslec cyls2.dat
===========∗ ∗ ∗∗Hydrostar For Experts V6.00∗ ∗ ∗∗===========
(c)BV/DR 19912009
HSlec  Reading geometrical data
PROJECT: Cylinder radius x height 12.5 x 37.5
USER: Bureau Veritas
Nb of bodies to be analysed 1
Nb of symmetry of hull geometry 2
Nb of panels on hull 790
Nb segments along waterline 20
Nb panels on the waterplanes 41
Nb panels over the free surface 0
Nb hull panels over the waterline 0
Reference length 1.000000
Gravity acceleration 9.810000
Reference point of incident wave ( 0.000000, 0.000000)
Body 1: reference point x= 0.000000 center of buoyancy x= 0.000000
y= 0.000000 y= 0.000000
z= 0.000000 z=18.750000
CPU time of operation was 0.62 seconds
5th Step: Check the mesh
Hstar>cylinder>hschk
===========∗ ∗ ∗∗Hydrostar For Experts V6.00∗ ∗ ∗∗===========
(c)BV/DR 19912009
HSchk  Checking the input data
CPU time of operation was 0.43 seconds
6th Step: Visualize the mesh
Hstar>cylinder>hvisu
===========∗ ∗ ∗∗Hydrostar For Experts V6.00∗ ∗ ∗∗===========
(c)BV/DR 19912009
Hvisu  Mesh illustrations and
Animations of ship motion and ship waves.
ahsuni:
3364 points renumerotes => 3201 points
ahsuni:voir points en double
CPU time of operation was 0.27 seconds
A–4 Hydrostar User Manual
The window of VISU4D will be opened with the visualization of the mesh (see ﬁg A.2):
Figure A.2:
Appendix A. Examples A–5
7th Step: Compute diﬀraction and radiation
An input ﬁle is necessary to perform the diﬀraction and radiation computation (see ﬁg A.3).
Figure A.3:
Then, the user is able to start the calculation (see ﬁg A.4).
A–6 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.4:
Appendix A. Examples A–7
8th Step: Compute the body’s motion
For this module another input ﬁle is necessary containing the mechanical properties of the
body. As the goal of the analysis described in the beginning of this item 9 is to calculate the
ﬁrst and second order loads on the body, the properties of mass and inertia considered in the
example input ﬁle (see ﬁg A.5) are big enough in order to ﬁx the body.
Figure A.5:
Then, the user is able to compute the body’s motions (see ﬁg A.6):
A–8 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.6:
Appendix A. Examples A–9
9th Step: Compute the second order loads
The computation of the second order loads is only possible after the computation of the
body’s motions; an input ﬁle is only necessary in case the user wants to make use of middle
ﬁeld formulation. In this case, an input ﬁle shall be provided (see ﬁg A.7).
Figure A.7:
In case that a control surface is inputted for the computation by middle ﬁeld, the user has
the possibility of checking (see ﬁg A.8) and visualising (see ﬁg A.9) the mesh before starting
the calculation.
A–10 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.8:
Then a VISU4D window will appear with both the body and the control surface meshes
(see ﬁg A.9).
The second order computation is then performed (see ﬁg A.10).
Appendix A. Examples A–11
Figure A.9:
NOTE: The user may choose between checking the control surface mesh before or after the
second order computation.
A–12 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.10:
10th Step: Constructing the transfer functions
The user has to deﬁne, in an input ﬁle, which transfer functions he wants to construct. In
this speciﬁc example, the ﬁrst order and second order loads were required. This way, the input
ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure A.11 was elaborated
With the input ﬁle, the computation can start (see ﬁg A.12).
Appendix A. Examples A–13
Figure A.11:
Figure A.12:
A–14 Hydrostar User Manual
HydroStar generates a folder named “\rao” to store the requested ﬁles.
HydroStar is also able to plot the RAOs:
Hstar>cylinder>hsplt
or
Hstar>cylinder>hsplt cylinder.gnu
The gnuplot window will appear with a series of graphic containing all the requested RAOs
(see ﬁg A.13).
Figure A.13:
The example presented in ﬁgure A.13 has semianalytical solution available in the litera
ture, in case the user wants to compare with the numerical results obtained.
Appendix A. Examples A–15
A.2 Example 2
Considering a ship in deep water depth, the following transfer functions and coeﬃcients are
required:
1. Amplitude of ship’s motions (surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw);
2. Added Mass and Radiation Damping Coeﬃcients;
3. First Order Loads;
4. Second Order Loads Fx, Fy and Mz using near ﬁeld and middle ﬁeld formulations.
1st Step: Go to the work directory
Hstar>>cd c:/hydro/study
Hstar>>pwd
c:/hydro/study
2nd Step: Create a job
Hstar>>proj ship
Hstar>ship>
3rd Step: Reading the mesh
For complex geometries like a ship, the user has to generate the mesh using a mesh gener
ator and then create a ﬁle in the format requested by HydroStar (see ﬁg A.14)
A–16 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.14:
Hstar>ship>hslec ship.hst
===========
****
Hydrostar For Experts V6.00
****
===========
(c)BV/DR 19912009
HSlec  Reading geometrical data
PROJECT: Ship
USER: Bureau Veritas
Nb of bodies to be analysed 1
Nb of symmetry of hull geometry 1
Nb of panels on hull 2105
Nb segments along waterline 118
Nb panels on the waterplanes 413
Nb panels over the free surface 0
Nb hull panels over the waterline 1653
Reference length 1.000000
Gravity acceleration 9.810000
Reference point of incident wave ( 123.154982, 0.000000)
Body 1: reference point x=123.154982 center of buoyancy x=123.154982
y= 0.000000 y= 0.000000
z= 5.562518 z= 5.562518
CPU time of operation was 1.86 seconds
Appendix A. Examples A–17
4th Step: Check the mesh
Hstar>ship>hschk
===========
****
Hydrostar For Experts V6.00
****
===========
(c)BV/DR 19912009
HSchk  Checking the input data
CPU time of operation was 1.10 seconds
5th Step: Visualize the mesh
Hstar>ship>hvisu
===========
****
Hydrostar For Experts V6.00
****
===========
(c)BV/DR 19912009
Hvisu  Mesh illustrations and
Animations of ship motion and ship waves.
ahsuni:
4492 points renumerotes => 4347 points
ahsuni:voir points en double
CPU time of operation was 0.31 seconds
The window of VISU4D will be opened with the visualization of the mesh:
Figure A.15:
A–18 Hydrostar User Manual
6th Step: Compute diﬀraction and radiation
The input data displayed in ﬁgure A.16 was prepared.
Figure A.16:
Computing the diﬀraction radiation (see ﬁg A.17).
Appendix A. Examples A–19
Figure A.17:
7th Step: Compute the body’s motion
The input ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure A.18 was elaborated.
Then the computation can start (see ﬁg A.19).
A–20 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.18:
Figure A.19:
Appendix A. Examples A–21
8th Step: Compute the second order loads
The input ﬁle displayed in ﬁgure A.20 was elaborated, as the middle ﬁeld computation was
requested.
Figure A.20:
Computing the second order loads (see ﬁg A.21).
Figure A.21:
A–22 Hydrostar User Manual
9th Step: Checking and visualising the control surface
As explained in the previous example, the control surface can be checked (see ﬁg A.22) and
visualized (see ﬁg A.23) before or after the second order computation.
Figure A.22:
Appendix A. Examples A–23
Figure A.23:
10th Step: Constructing the transfer functions
The following input ﬁle was elaborated according to the requirements in the description in
ﬁgure A.24.
A–24 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.24:
Then, the computation can start (see ﬁg A.25).
Appendix A. Examples A–25
Figure A.25:
11th Step: Plotting the results
(see ﬁg A.26).
Hstar>ship>hsplt
A–26 Hydrostar User Manual
Figure A.26:
Appendix B
Index of commands
This appendix provides an index of commands that are used in HydroStar.
• hslec
COORDINATES start line of node deﬁnition
ENDCOORDINATES end line of node deﬁnition
PANEL start line of panel deﬁnition
ENDPANEL end line of panel deﬁnition
PROJECT project title (default= project)
USER user’s name (default= anonym)
REFLENGTH reference length (default= 1.0m)
GRAVITY gravity acceleration constant (default= 9.81m/s2)
RHO ﬂuid mass density (default= 1025kg/m3)
NBNODES number of nodes (default= no of lines on the
nodes deﬁnition)
NBPANEL number of panels (default= no of lines on the
panels deﬁnition)
NBBODY number of bodies (default= 1)
NFHULL number of panels above (default= NBPANEL)
the body’s hul l
SYMMETRY number of symmetry (default=0)
NUMPANEL start number and end (default= 1 to NBPANEL)
number of panels
NFSWATER number, start number (default= 0; 0; 0)
and end number over
the interior waterplane
B–1
B–2 Hydrostar User Manual
NBTANKS no tnks number of tanks included in the model
SYMMTANK id tk ﬁrst panel last panel symmetry condition of the tank mesh
NUMTANK id tk ﬁrst panel last panel ﬁrst and last panel of the tank mesh
REFPTANK id tk x ref y ref z ref rho reference point of the tank in the
global reference system
NFREESURFACE number, start number and (default= 0; 0; 0)
end number of panels over
the free surface
ZFSURFACE coordinate of the freesurface (default= 0)
COEFZo ratio of the panel size of the (default=1.5)
mesh and the the size of the
water plane planel.
• hsrdf
FREQUENCY TYPE itype start line to give wave frequencies
frequency lines
ENDFREQUENCY end line to give wave frequencies
If itype = 0,
frequency lines = no freq, freq1 one frequency per line with identiﬁcation
number
If itype = 1,
frequency lines = freq1, freq2, freq3... several frequencies at the same line without
identiﬁcation number
If itype = 2,
frequency lines =
WMIN min freq minimum frequency
WMAX max freq maximum frequency
WSTP step freq Step of wave frequency
Appendix B. Index of commands B–3
HEADING TYPE itype start line to give wave headings
heading lines
ENDHEADING end line to give wave headings
If itype = 0,
heading lines = no head, head1 one heading per line with identiﬁcation
number
If itype = 1,
heading lines = head1, head2,head3... several headings at the same line without
identiﬁcation number
If itype = 2,
heading lines =
HMIN min freq minimum heading
HMAX max freq maximum heading
HSTP step freq step of wave headings
NBFREQUENCY no freq total number of wave frequencies
NBHEADING no head total number of wave headings
WATERDEPTH value depth water depth value or inﬁnite (default = inf)
or inf
REFPOINT BODY no body x ref, y ref, z ref reference point of the body (default=CoB)
REFWAVE x wave, y wave reference point for incoming waves
(default=CoB)
ELIMIRREG YES or NO option of eliminating irregular frequencies
(default=YES)
• hsmec
FILENAME ﬁle name extension of ﬁle used in hsrdf computations
MASS BODY no body, mass mass of the body
GYRADIUS BODY no body, R
44
, R
55
, R
66
, R
45
, R
46
, R
56
gyration radius of the body
COGPOINT BODY no body, (X
G
, Y
G
, Z
G
) centre of gravity of the
body in the mesh reference
INERTIAL MATRIX TYPE itype start line of inertial matrix deﬁnition
Inertia lines
ENDINERTIAL MATRIX end line of inertial matrix deﬁnition
_
If itype = 0: the full inertia matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, M
jk
B–4 Hydrostar User Manual
ENDFILE end of the input ﬁle
The following key words are optional:
REFPOINT no body, x
ref
, y
ref
, z
ref
reference point of computations
(default=COB)
RHO ρ ﬂuid density
(default=1025kg/m3)
GRAVITY g gravity acceleration
(default=9.81m/s2)
REFWAVE x
wav
, y
wav
reference point of incoming waves
(default=0;0)
REFLENGTH ref length reference length
(default=1.0)
ZEROENCFRQ no zero encf number of zeroencounter frequencies
_
¸
_
¸
_
if no zero encf =0: No treatment
if no zero encf =1: treatment in the range −0.1 < ω < 0.1
if no zero encf =2: treatment in the range −0.2 < ω < 0.2
LINVISCOUSDAMPING no body, %B
44
linear roll viscous damping, in percentage of
critical damping
ITHDAMPING start line of ITH formulation for roll damping
bk, span, xbk1, xbk2 bilge keels dimensions (if any) according to the ﬁgure above
sk, length, height skeg dimensions (if any) according to the ﬁgure above
ENDITHDAMPING end line of ITH formulation for roll damping
DAMPING MATRIX TYPE itype start line of linear damping matrix deﬁnition
Damping lines
ENDDAMPING MATRIX end line of linear damping matrix deﬁnition
_
¸
_
¸
_
If itype = 0: the full damping matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, B
jk
If itype = 2: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, %B
jk
QDAMPING MATRIX TYPE itype start line of quadratic damping matrix deﬁnition
Quadratic damping lines
ENDQDAMPING MATRIX end line of quadraticdamping matrix deﬁnition
_
If itype = 0: the full quadratic damping matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, B
Q
jk
Appendix B. Index of commands B–5
STIFFNESS MATRIX TYPE itype start line of stiﬀness matrix deﬁnition
Stiﬀness lines
ENDSTIFFNESS MATRIX end line of stiﬀness matrix deﬁnition
_
If itype = 0: the full stiﬀness matrix shall be given
If itype = 1: only the non zero values shall be given j, k, K
jk
WAVEAMPLITUDE value wave amp wave amplitude only for the calculation
of the quadratic damping purpose
(default =1.0)
ITMAX max iter maximum number of iterations for the
quadratic damping computation
(default = 1000)
CONVERGENCE ERR convergence criteria (default = 0.001)
• hswav
XMIN xmin Minimum xcoordinate of the rectangular area
XMAX xmax Maximum xcoordinate of the rectangular area
DLTX dltx Step value in the xdirection
YMIN ymin Minimum ycoordinate of the rectangular area
YMIN ymax Maximum ycoordinate of the rectangular area
DLTY dlty Step value in the ydirection
RMIN rmin Minimum Rcoordinate of the circular area
RMAX rmax Maximum Rcoordinate of the circular area
DLTR dltr Step value in the Rdirection
TMIN tmin Minimum thetacoordinate of the circular area
TMAX tmin Maximum thetacoordinate of the circular area
DLTT dltt Step value in the thetadirection
B–6 Hydrostar User Manual
WAVEDECOMPOSITION To generate ﬁles containing diﬀerent components of wave
diﬀraction and radiation such as:
Total Total components
Diﬀraction Diﬀraction waves for each heading
Surge Radiation component in Surge unit motion
Sway Radiation component in Sway unit motion
Heave Radiation component in Heave unit motion
Rol l Radiation component in Roll (0.1rad motion)
Pitch Radiation component in Pitch (0.1 rad motion)
Yaw Radiation component in Yaw (0.1 rad motion)
COEFINCM coefincm coeﬃcient multiplying the incoming wave component
COEFDIFF coefdiﬀ coeﬃcient multiplying the diﬀraction component
COEFRAD1 coefrad1 coeﬃcient multiplying the surge radiation component
COEFRAD2 coefrad2 coeﬃcient multiplying the sway radiation component
COEFRAD3 coefrad3 coeﬃcient multiplying the heave radiation component
COEFRAD4 coefrad4 coeﬃcient multiplying the roll radiation component
COEFRAD5 coefrad5 coeﬃcient multiplying the pitch radiation component
COEFRAD6 coefrad6 coeﬃcient multiplying the yaw radiation component
AMPLINCM ampincm amplitude of the incoming wave component
AMPLDIFF ampdiﬀ amplitude of the diﬀraction component
AMPLRAD1 amprad1 amplitude of the surge radiation component
AMPLRAD2 amprad2 amplitude of the sway radiation component
AMPLRAD3 amprad3 amplitude of the heave radiation component
AMPLRAD4 amprad4 amplitude of the roll radiation component
AMPLRAD5 amprad5 amplitude of the pitch radiation component
AMPLRAD6 amprad6 amplitude of the yaw radiation component
• hsprs
ZFSURFACE free surface coordinate (default = 0)
WAVEDECOMPOSITION to obtain the diﬀerent components of wave diﬀraction
and radiation
POINTS to start the input of the points coordinates
nb, x
p
, y
p
, z
p
number of the point, coordinates of the point
ENDPTS to end the input of the points coordinates
COEFINC coeﬃcient applied to the incident wave from 0.0 to 1.0
COEFRDF coeﬃcient applied to the wave diﬀraction and radiation
from 0.0 to 1.0
Appendix B. Index of commands B–7
COEFHDS coeﬃcient applied to the vessel’s motions (if =0.0, only
the absolute wave elevation is computed)
• hsdft
NFORMULE Yes/No By default = Yes
FFORMULE Yes/No By default = Yes
MFORMULE Yes/No By default = Yes
If MFORMULE = Yes, the control surface shall be provided:
one way to give the control surface deﬁning a box:
NBBOITE nb Nb of control surfaces = Nb of bodies
XCSUR ib, xmin, xmax, dltx No control surface and min/max/step of
xcoordinates
YCSURF ib, ymin, ymax, dlty No control surface and min/max/step of
ycoordinates
ZCSURF ib, zmin, zmax, dltz No control surface and min/max/step of
zcoordinates
OPTFOND Yes/No including the bottom of control surface
(by default=Y)
or deﬁne the control surface of arbitrary geometry through an external ﬁle
with the same format as the hull mesh ﬁle:
CSFILE ib, ﬁlename Mesh ﬁle of ibth control surface
• hsrao
B–8 Hydrostar User Manual
GSURGE key −words Surge RAO at the reference point
GSWAY key −words Sway RAO at the reference point
GHEAVE key −words Heave RAO at the reference point
GROLL key −words Roll RAO at the reference point
GPITCH key −words Pitch RAO at the reference point
GYAW key −words Yaw RAO at the reference
MSURGE key −words Motion RAO at a given point in X direction
MSWAY key −words Motion RAO at a given point in Y direction
MHEAVE key −words Motion RAO at a given point in Z direction
VSURGE key −words Velocity RAO at a given point in X direction
VSWAY key −words Velocity RAO at a given point in Y direction
VHEAVE key −words Velocity RAO at a given point in Z direction
ASURGE key −words Acceleration RAO at a given point in X direction
ASWAY key −words Acceleration RAO at a given point in Y direction
AHEAVE key −words Acceleration RAO at a given point in Z direction
ACCX key −words Acceleration RAO at a given point in X direction including
g*pitch
ACCY key −words Acceleration RAO at a given point in Y direction including
+g*roll
ACCZ key −words Acceleration RAO at a given point in Z direction = AHEAVE
FXF1ST key −words FK and diﬀraction loads Fx at the reference point
FYF1ST key −words FK and diﬀraction loads Fy at the reference point
FZF1ST key −words FK and diﬀraction loads Fz at the reference point
MXF1ST key −words FK and diﬀraction loads Mx at the reference point
MYF1ST key −words FK and diﬀraction loads My at the reference point
MZF1ST key −words FK and diﬀraction loads Mz at the reference point
CM key −words Addedmass coeﬃcients at the reference point
CA key −words Radiation damping coeﬃcients at the reference point
DRIFTFX key −words Wave drift load Fx at the reference point
DRIFTFY key −words Wave drift load Fy at the reference point
DRIFTFZ key −words Wave drift load Fz at the reference point
DRIFTMX key −words Wave drift load Mx at the reference point
DRIFTMY key −words Wave drift load My at the reference point
DRIFTMZ key −words Wave drift load Mz at the reference point
ARIANERAO key −words To generate RAO.DAT ﬁle for ARIANE applications
ARIANEQTF key −words To generate QTF.DAT ﬁle for ARIANE applications using
far ﬁeld formulation only.
ARIANEADM key −words To generate Added Mass.DAT ﬁle for ARIANE applications
Appendix B. Index of commands B–9
RELMX BODY 1 AT x
1
, y
1
, z
1
BODY 2 AT x
2
, y
2
, z
2
keywords longitudinal relative
motions of two vessels
RELMY BODY 1 AT x
1
, y
1
, z
1
BODY 2 AT x
2
, y
2
, z
2
keywords transverse relative
motions of two vessels
RELMZ BODY 1 AT x
1
, y
1
, z
1
BODY 2 AT x
2
, y
2
, z
2
keywords vertical relative
motions of two vessels
B–10 Hydrostar User Manual
ARIANE7N key −words Ariane7 ﬁle for Newman approximation
ARIANE7C key −words Ariane7 ﬁle including full QTF
SECTFX key −words Wave loads Fx at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTFY key −words Wave loads Fy at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTFZ key −words Wave loads Fz at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTMX key −words Wave loads Mx at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTMY key −words Wave loads My at a given section or a wave frequency
SECTMZ key −words Wave loads Mz at a given section or a wave frequency
PRESSURE key −words Dynamic pressure at a given point or a wave frequency
RELMX key −words Relative motion in X at a point of multibodies
RELMY key −words Relative motion in Y at a point of multibodies
RELMZ key −words Relative motion in Z at a point of multibodies
CONNFZ key −words Vertical connection force at the connection point of multi
bodies
RWE key −words Relative wave elevation at a given point or frequency
RWEVX key −words Relative velocity Vx at a given point or frequency
RWEVY key −words Relative velocity Vy at a given point or frequency
RWEVZ key −words Relative velocity Vz at a given point or frequency
BODY no body Give the identify number of body
FILE file name Give the ﬁle name of RAOs
AT x, y, z Give the coordinates of point
FREQ no freq Give the identify number of wave frequency
SECT no sect Give the identify number of ship section
POINT no point Given the identify number of points
COEF value
c
oef Coeﬃcient multiplying RAOs
TERM n1, n2... Terms of addedmass or damping matrix
TITLE “title
Title of RAO ﬁgure using Gnuplot
AMP Amplitude of RAO
COS Component cos of RAO
SIN Component SIN of RAO
PHASE Phase of RAO
PRE Drift loads by using pressure integrations
MOM Drift loads by using the momentum formulation
inFREQUENCY RAO given in order of increasing wave frequency
inPERIOD RAO given in order of increasing wave period
inWAVENUMBER RAO given in order of increasing wavenumber ∗ REFL
inWAVELENGTH RAO given in order of increasing wavelength/REFL
OMEGAMIN value Minimum value of wave frequencies
OMEGAMAX value Maximum value of wave frequencies
Appendix C
VISU4D interface
VISU4D was developed by Bureau Veritas and provide the visualization of HydroStar meshing
by typing hvisu on HydroStar window.
The following options are available in VISU4D:
• Changing the mode of visualisation
White panels mode provide the visualisation of the panels in white colour (see ﬁg C.1);
Figure C.1: White panels mode
C–1
C–2 Hydrostar User Manual
Wireframe mode provides the visualisation of only the borders of the panels (see ﬁg C.2);
Figure C.2: Wireframe mode
Appendix C. VISU4D interface C–3
Normals mode provides the visualisation of the normal orientation by means of two dif
ferent colours (see ﬁg C.3);
Figure C.3: Normals mode
C–4 Hydrostar User Manual
Standard view mode provides the visualisation of the mesh through a standard render
mode (see ﬁg C.4).
Figure C.4: Standard view
When using the commands “hvisu t” for visualising the upper part of the body and/or
also the panels over the waterplane (see ﬁg C.5), or “hvisu b” for visualising the con
trol surface (see ﬁg C.6), the new mode of visualisation “´ecustomized view” is activated.
Through this mode the user can visualise the mesh of the hull like in normals mode and
the upper part or the control surface like in wireframe mode (see ﬁg C.5).
Appendix C. VISU4D interface C–5
Figure C.5: Ecustomized view with “hvisu t”
Figure C.6: Ecustomized view with “hvisu b”
C–6 Hydrostar User Manual
• Selecting the point of view
There are two ways of changing the point of view with VISU4D: using the “point of view
window” (see ﬁg C.7) and selecting the desired angles of visualisation.
Figure C.7: Point of view window
Or by using the arrows in the keyboard: the right / left arrows change the phi angle, and
the up / down arrows change the theta angles.
Appendix C. VISU4D interface C–7
Also, it’s possible to select directly the planes of visualization, like in the example dis
played in ﬁgure C.8.
Figure C.8: Planes selection
C–8 Hydrostar User Manual
• Making a zoom:
To zoom it’s necessary to select the region of the mesh to zoom by drawing a window
using the left button of the mouse (see ﬁg C.9).
Figure C.9: Zoom by drawing a window
The user is also able to unzoom and reproduce the zoom, by clicking on menubar buttons:
–
to unzoom;
–
to reproduce the zoom.
Appendix D
References
D–1
D–2 Hydrostar User Manual
Bibliography
[1] Chen X.B. (2004) Hydrodynamics in oﬀshore and naval applications  Part I Keynote
lecture of 6th Intl. Conf. HydroDynamics, Perth (Australia)
[2] Gu´ evel P. (1982) Le probl`eme de diﬀractionradiation  Premi`ere partie : Th´eor`emes
fondamentaux, ENSM, Univ. Nantes.
[3] Chen X.B. (1988) Etude des r´eponses du second ordre d’une structure soumise `a une
houle al´eatoire, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Nantes, ENSM.
[4] Chen X.B. (1993) Evaluation de la fonction de Green du probl`eme de diﬀraction/radiation
en profondeur d’eau ﬁnie
[5] Molin B. (2002) Hydrodynamique des structures oﬀshore Editions Technip.
[6] Malenica
ˇ
S. & Chen X.B. (1998) On the irregular frequencies appearing in wave
diﬀractionradiation solutions, Intl J. Oﬀshore Polar Engg, 8 2, 11014.
[7] Shaheen H. , Duan W.Y. and Chen X.B. Hydrodynamic interaction for large multiple
submerged bodies in shallow water ISOPE Pacoms2006, Dalian (China), September 2006
[8] Chen X.B. (1994) Approximation on the quadratic transfer function of lowfrequency
loads, Proc. 7th Intl Conf. Behaviour Oﬀ. Structures, BOSS’94, 2, 289302.
[9] Chen X.B. Middleﬁeld formulation for the computation of wavedrift loads. Journal of
Engineering Mathematics, October 2006
[10] Chen X.B. & Rezende F. (2008) Computations of lowfrequency wave loading
IWWWFB 2008, April 2008, Jeju Island  Korea
[11] Chen X.B. & Duan W.Y. Formulation of lowfrequency QTF by O(∆ω) approximation
22nd International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, April 2007. Plitvice
(Croatia)
[12] Chen X.B., Molin B. & Petitjean F. (1995) Numerical evaluation of the springing
loads on tension leg platforms, Marine Structures, 8, 50124.
[13] Malenica
ˇ
S., Zalar M. & Chen X.B. (2003) Dynamic coupling of seakeeping and
sloshing, Proc. ISOPE’2003, Honolulu.
[14] Malenica
ˇ
S., Zalar M., Orozco J.M., Le Gallo B. & Chen X.B. (2004) Lin
ear and nonlinear eﬀects of sloshing on ship motions, Oral presentation at OMAE’2004,
Vancouver.
D–3
D–4 Hydrostar User Manual
[15] deHauteclocque G., Rezende F., Chen X.B. (2008) Diﬀraction and radiation with
the eﬀect of bathymetric variations ICHD 2008, October 2008, NantesFrance
[16] Chen X.B. (1994) On the side wall efects upon bodies of arbitrary geometry in wave
tanks Applied Ocean Research 16  pp.337345