TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lesson Description Page

Course Overview 5

1 Switchgear Construction 7

2 Circuit Breaker Types 25

3 Switchgear Rating and Safety Operation 47

4 Principles of Safety Rules & Minimizing The Risks 69

5 Safe Testing and Maintenance of Breakers and Switchgear 93

6 SF6 Safety 123

LESSON - 1
SWITCHGEAR
CONSTRUCTION
We can say that the role of switchgear is that of:
a) Electrical protection.
b) Safe isolation from live parts.
c) Local or remote switching.
1.Busbar
2.Diconnector
3.Maintenance Earthing Switch
4.Current Transformer
5.Circuit Breaker
6.Current Transformer
7.Maintenance Earthing Switch
8.Diconnector
9.Earthing Switch
10.Voltage Transformer
11.Bushing
PRINCIPLES OF CIRCUIT BREAKING
a. When breaker open a spark occur.
b. This spark, or arc, is created by the current trying to bridge the air gap as the contacts first operate.
c. The air between the contacts gets hot and thus becomes a conductor.
This arc can be extinguished by:
a. By increasing the distance between the contacts as rapidly as possible.
b. By providing some means of forced - cooling the arc.
EFFECT OF THE ARC
1. Creates bits on the surface of the contacts which make bad contact.
2. This increases the power loss and may damage the contacts.
3. Makes the gap between the contacts conducting while the breaker is in the
off position which could be very dangerous.
National Electrical Code covers the Standard Ampere Ratings for Fuses and Circuit Breakers as
follows:
1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250,
300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 1000, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000
amperes.
ISOLATORS
Isolators in high voltage GIS operate at SF6 pressures of 0.38 MPa to 0.45 MPa. The
operating speed of the isolator moving contact ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 m/sec. The design
of electrostatic shields on two fixed contacts and the earth side of the drive insula- tor
plays an important role in ensuring the satisfactory performance of a gas insulated
isolator.
GROUNDING SWITCH
Grounding Switch
High Speed Grounding Switch
 The maintenance earth switch uses a simple mechanical
linkage for operation in contrast with a regular circuit breaker
mechanism used for the fast earth switch.
 The important make operation in a fast earth switch is
accomplished in less than 50 ms to achieve the desired
protection of the instrument voltage transformer during line
isolation.
 The fast earth switch returns to its original (OFF) position
before the line is restored.
BUSBARS
Power feeds into the bus-bar from the turbine generator, and power goes out of the
bus-bar to the load.
TYPES OF BUSBARS

1. Open Bus-bar: It is the one which does not
have protective cover.
2. Enclosed Bus-bar: This bus-bar is enclosed in
a duct or a cover of any material.
3. Compound Immersed Bus-bars:
Enclosed bus-bar immersed in solid or semi-
solid insulating materials.
4. Oil Immersed Bus-bars.
5. Compressed Gas Insulated Bus-bars:
Enclosed in enclosures filled with gas at a
pressure above atmospheric pressure
INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
Instrument transformers are used to protect personnel and apparatus from high voltage and to
allow reasonable insulation levels and current carrying capacity in relays, meters and
instruments.
Instrument transformers include current transformers (CT) and voltage transformer (VT).
VTs are also called potential transformers.
Current Transformer
Voltage Transformer
Protective Relays

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