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**Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 1 Revised May 2nd, 2014
**

Physics Applications

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators

PAa: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design,

including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop

solutions.

Indicator Essential Understandings Assessment Guidelines

PAa.l: Generate

hypotheses on the

basis of credible,

accurate, and relevant

sources of scientific

information

Key Concepts:

hypotheses,

sources of scientific information

It is essential for students to

Know that a hypothesis is a reasonable explanation of an observation or

experimental result or a possible answer to a scientific question that can be tested.

The hypothesis may or may not be supported by the experimental results. It is

often stated in terms of an independent and a dependent variable—or a “cause-

effect relationship.” Examples of hypotheses might include:

If an object has greater surface area, then the rate at which it falls through the

air decreases.

As the volume of an object increases, the rate at which it fall through air

decreases.

With a constant force, an object with a smaller mass will accelerate more than

an object with a larger mass.

If I make a paper airplane with larger wings, then the airplane will glide farther,

because the additional surface area of the wing will produce more lift.

Know that the results of an experiment cannot prove that a hypothesis is correct.

Rather, the results support or do not support the hypothesis. Valuable information

is gained even when the hypothesis is not supported by the results. For example, it

would be an important discovery to find that the wing size is not related to how far

an airplane glides. When hypotheses are tested over and over again and not

contradicted, they may become known as laws or principles.

Use credible (trustworthy), accurate (correct – based on supported data), and

relevant (applicable, related to the topic of the investigation) sources of scientific

information in preparation for generating a hypothesis. These sources could be

previous scientific investigations science journals, textbooks, or other credible

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Generate hypotheses on the basis

of credible, accurate, and relevant

sources of scientific information

Formulate a credible hypothesis

for an investigation

Understand the relationship

between the independent and

dependent variables

Identify the variables involved in a

hypothesis

Use data to determine

whether a hypothesis was

supported or not supported by that

data;

Summarize the criteria by which

scientific information would be

used to help generate the

hypothesis;

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 2 Revised May 2nd, 2014

sources, such as scientifically reliable internet sites.

Note:

Some sources of information are not based on credible scientific research and may

contain information that is not accurate. Credible science investigations are

published in journals that are reviewed by a panel of respected research scientists

active in the field of science being studied. Teachers could help students identify

credible sources of scientific information that may help them with background

information for their hypotheses. Teachers must also caution students to be

skeptical of website information and journal articles that are not referenced to

credible sources of scientific research.

It is not essential for students to

Reference research from outside sources for every hypothesis written, but if

scientific information is needed for generating a hypothesis, it must be credible,

accurate, and reliable;

Name specific journals or websites, but the understanding of what makes a source

credible and reliable is part of this indicator;

Understand the concept of the null hypothesis.

PAa.2: Use

appropriate laboratory

apparatuses,

technology, and

techniques safely and

accurately when

conducting a scientific

investigation.

Key Concepts

laboratory apparatus

laboratory technology

laboratory techniques

scientific investigation

It is essential for students to

Use appropriately and identify the following laboratory apparatuses and materials:

Apparatuses and materials appropriate for investigations:

Compasses Motors, simple electric

Diffraction grating Protractors

Dry cells (or other voltage source) Resistors

Electroscopes Slinky springs

Flashlights Spectroscope

Generators (hand-held) Spring scales

Hand lenses (magnifiers) Switches, knife

Lenses (convex and concave) Timers

Light bulb and holders Tuning forks

Magnets Weights

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Use appropriate laboratory

apparatuses, technology,

&techniques safely and

accurately,

Determine the proper use of the

apparatuses, technology,

&techniques for scientific

investigations.

Show understanding of how the

apparatuses are used safely and

accurately.

Identify an apparatus from a

description or illustration;

Recognize appropriate laboratory

apparatuses, technology, and

techniques for given procedures.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 3 Revised May 2nd, 2014

Mirrors, plane rectangular

Motion carts (or toy cars)

Wire, insulated copper

Measuring tools: Metric rulers, Meter sticks, and meter tapes

Ammeters and voltmeters (or multimeters)

Use the identified laboratory apparatuses in an investigation safely and accurately

with

o Associated technology, such as

computers, calculators and other devices, for data collection, graphing, and

analyzing data, or

probeware and meters to gather data;

o Appropriate techniques that are useful for understanding concepts, such as

measuring, heating, filtering, timing, and

setting up circuits, electrostatics, or wave behavior.

Recognize safety guidelines

associated with use of laboratory

apparatuses, technology, and

techniques.

Exemplify appropriate

apparatuses, technology, and

techniques needed for a scientific

investigation.

Infer which laboratory

apparatuses, technology, and

techniques are appropriate for

given procedures and that will

produce accurate results.

It is not essential for students to

Cut or bend glass tubing or insert it in rubber stoppers;

Understand how probeware from a specific manufacturer functions.

PAa.3: Use scientific

instruments to record

measurement data in

appropriate metric units

that reflect the

precision and accuracy

of each particular

instrument.

Key Concepts

Reading scientific measuring instruments:

graduated cylinders,

balances,

spring scales,

thermometers,

rulers

Measurement data

Metric units

Precision and accuracy

It is essential for students to read

Read scientific instruments such as graduated cylinders, balances, spring scales,

thermometers, rulers, meter sticks, ammeters, voltmeters (or multimeters), and

stopwatches using the correct number of decimals to record the measurements in

appropriate metric units.

The measurement scale on the instrument should be read with the last digit of the

recorded measurement being estimated.

Record data using appropriate metric units (SI units). They should be able to use

prefixes; milli, centi, kilo. (Conversions should be made using dimensional analysis

see PAa.5)

Understand that the more decimals in the recorded measurement, the greater the

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Use scientific instruments to

record measurement data in

appropriate metric units reflecting

the precision and accuracy of

each instrument.

Apply proper procedures to using

instruments and recording data

accurately.

Exemplify the most precise and/or

accurate measurement;

Compare precise vs. accurate

measurement data;

Summarize accuracy and

precision with specific scientific

instruments in making

measurements;

Infer that measurements vary in

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 4 Revised May 2nd, 2014

precision of the instrument.

An instrument that can be read to the hundredths place is more precise than

an instrument that can be read to the tenths place.

A 100 mL graduated cylinder that is marked in 1 mL increments can be read

exactly to the ones place with the tenths place being estimated in the recorded

measurement.

A 10 mL graduated cylinder that is marked in 0.1 mL increments can be read

exactly to the tenths place with the hundredths place being estimated in the

recorded measurement.

The 10 mL graduated cylinder, therefore, is more precise than the 100 mL

graduated cylinder.

Understand that the terms precision and accuracy are widely used in any scientific

work where quantitative measurements are made.

Precision is a measure of the degree to which measurements made in the

same way agree with one another.

The accuracy of a result is the degree to which the experimental value agrees

with the true or accepted value.

It is possible to have a high degree of precision with poor accuracy. This

occurs if the same error is involved in repeated trials of the experiment.

precision and accuracy.

Identify the appropriate

instrument that meets the

measurement need and

appropriate precision for the

designated experiment

It is not essential for students to

to identify the number of significant figures in measurements or

to understand their use in calculations;

to understand the difference between systematic and random measurement errors,

or to define the degree of uncertainty of measurements.

PAa.4: Design a

scientific investigation

with appropriate

methods of control to

test a hypothesis

(including independent

and dependent

variables), and

evaluate the designs of

sample investigations

Key Concepts:

Scientific investigation:

Hypothesis

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Methods of control:

Controlled variable

Control group

It is essential for students to

Design a controlled scientific investigation in which one variable at a time is

deliberately changed and the effect on another variable is observed while holding

all other variables constant.

The steps in designing an investigation include:

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Demonstrate understanding of the

components of a properly

designed scientific investigation.

Classify the types of variables

and constants in a controlled

investigation;

Summarize the components of a

controlled scientific investigation.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 5 Revised May 2nd, 2014

o Stating the purpose in the form of a testable question or problem statement

o Researching information related to the investigation

o Stating the hypothesis

o Describing the experimental process

Planning for independent and dependent variables with repeated trials

Planning for factors that should be held constant (controlled variables)

Setting up the sequence of steps to be followed

Listing materials

Planning for recording, organizing and analyzing data

o Planning for a conclusion statement that will support or not support the

hypothesis

Understand that scientific investigations are designed to answer a question about

the relationship between two variables in a predicted “cause-effect relationship.”

Understand that the statement that predicts the relationship between an

independent and dependent variable is called a hypothesis.

Understand that the independent variable is the variable that the experimenter

deliberately changes or manipulates in an investigation.

Understand that the dependent variable is the variable that changes in an

investigation in response to changes in the independent variable.

Understand that the independent variable is the “cause” and the dependent

variable is the “effect” in the “cause-effect” relationship that is predicted.

Understand that all the other possible variables in the investigation should be held

constant so that only one variable (the independent) is tested at a time. The

variables which are held constant are called controlled variables.

Understand that the investigator should conduct repeated trials to limit random

error in measurements.

Understand that, when appropriate, a control group is set up as a basis of

comparison to test whether the effects on the dependent variable came from the

independent variable or from some other source.

It is also essential for students to

Evaluate the design of an experiment by assessing whether the steps of the

investigation are presented.

Evaluate the methods by which the investigation was conducted to determine:

o Whether independent and dependent variables are appropriate for testing the

hypothesis;

o Whether only one variable is changed at a time by the investigator;

o Which variables are, or should have been, controlled;

o Whether data was collected with adequate repeated trials, organized and

analyzed properly;

evaluate the designs of sample

investigation

Interpret the data to infer a

relationship between the variables

predicted by the hypothesis;

Interpret the data to determine if

the conclusion is valid.

Check the investigation results to

support the hypothesis,

Relate the hypothesis to an

appropriate scientific

investigation,

Identify the components of a

scientific investigation.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 6 Revised May 2nd, 2014

o Whether the conclusion is logical based on the analysis of collected data.

Note:

Many science laboratory activities simply give students procedures to follow, data to

collect and graph, and questions to answer that verify their learning of the concepts.

Science learning can be more interesting to students if they are given the

opportunity to explore and wonder “why” more often. If students conduct an

investigation in which something unexpected or unusual happens and then are

asked to predict why it happened, they feel more involved in the learning. Then, if

they are asked to design an experiment to see if their prediction is correct, they will

feel empowered by the activity. These activities are often called “Open Inquiry” or

“Guided Inquiry” depending on how much instruction is provided. Teachers should

encourage students to be curious and wonder why things happen. Science fair

projects can be a perfect opportunity for students to conduct these kinds of activities.

Instruction and guidance should be provided to insure that proper investigative

procedures are followed.

It is not essential for students to

Understand the null hypothesis process.

Perform statistical analysis on the data to evaluate the experimental design.

PAa.5: Organize and

interpret the data from

a controlled scientific

investigation by using

mathematics (including

formulas and

dimensional analysis),

graphs, models, and/or

technology.

Key Concepts:

Data

Graphs

Controlled scientific investigation

Direct and Inverse variations (proportion)

It is essential for students to

Organize data which is collected from a controlled scientific investigation.

Data should be organized in charts which list the values for the independent

variable in the first column and list the values for the dependent variable in a

column to the right of the independent variable.

Example Charts: Independent Variable Dependent Variable

(or)

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Use formulas, graphs, charts,

tables or models to organize data

into a structure that illustrates the

relationship between the

variables.

interpret data from a controlled

scientific investigation,

change one form of data

representation into another

meaningful representation.

Illustrate the relationship between

two variables in a scientific

investigation;

Interpret variable relationships

using formulas, graphs, models,

or technology.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 7 Revised May 2nd, 2014

Use graphs to organize data from controlled investigations.

Data should be recorded on a graph with the independent variable plotted on the

“X” axis and the dependent variable plotted on the “Y” axis.

Choose scales for both the horizontal axis and the vertical axis.

There should be two data points more than is needed on the vertical axis.

The horizontal axis should be long enough for all of the data points to fit.

The intervals on each axis should be marked in equal increments.

o Label each axis with the name of the variable and the unit of measure.

o Title the graph.

Use the graphs to analyze and interpret data to determine a relationship between

the dependent and independent variables.

o A line graph is used for continuous quantitative data.

o A bar graph is used for non-continuous data which is usually categorical.

o A circle graph shows a relationship among parts of a whole. Circle graphs

often involve percentage data.

Recognize the implications of various graphs

○ A direct variation (or proportion) is one in which, one variable increases as

the other increases or as one variable decreases the other decreases. A

straight line with a positive slope indicates a direct relationship that changes at

a constant rate. A greater slope indicates an increased rate of change.

Use the procedure of dimensional

analysis to change the units of

measurement.

Force vs Acceleration

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Force (N)

A

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

(

m

/

s

/

s

)

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

First value

Second value

Third value

(other values)

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 8 Revised May 2nd, 2014

○ An inverse variation (or proportion) is one in which the product of two

quantities is a constant. For example the product of the frequency and the

wavelength is equal to the velocity of a wave (v = f λ). Frequency and

wavelength are inversely proportional. As one quantity increases the other

quantity decreases.

Use a formula to solve for one variable if given the value for the other variables.

Use dimensional analysis to change the units of the measurement determined,

not the value of the measurement itself.

o It is very important in science to express all numbers with units of

measurement when appropriate, not just the number as is sometimes done in

purely mathematical problems.

o To change a measurement from liters to milliliters, or grams to kilograms, for

example, the measurement can be multiplied by a “conversion factor” that

expresses the relationship between the given and asked- for value.

o This conversion factor is a fraction equal to one and, therefore, the value of the

original measurement does not change---only the unit changes.

Understand that a scientific model is an idealized description of how phenomena

occur and how data or events are related. A scientific model is simply an idea

Wavelength vs. Frequency

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Wavelength (m)

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

(

1

/

s

)

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 9 Revised May 2nd, 2014

that allows us to create explanations of how we think some part of the world works.

Models are used to represent a concept or system so that the concept may be

more easily understood and predictions can be made.

o The model of the atom helps us understand the composition, structure, and

behavior of atoms. Models for the atom can change as new information and

theories explain the atom more completely.

o No model is ever a perfect representation of the actual concept or system.

Models may change over time as scientific knowledge advances.

Understand that technology (tools/machines or processes) can be used to

develop better understanding of the science concepts studied. As technology

improves, science concepts are studied more completely and more accurately.

Understand how to organize and analyze data using technology such as graphing

calculators or computers.

It is not essential that students memorize formulas for relationships between

dependent and independent variables studied.

PAa.6: Evaluate the

results of a controlled

scientific investigation

in terms of whether

they refute or verify the

hypothesis.

Key Concepts:

controlled scientific investigation

hypothesis

It is essential for students to

Understand that in a controlled scientific investigation the hypothesis is a prediction

about the relationship between an independent and dependent variable with all

other variables being held constant.

Understand that results of a controlled investigation will either refute the hypothesis

or verify by supporting the hypothesis.

After the hypothesis has been tested and data is gathered, the experimental

data is reviewed using data tables, charts, or graphical analysis.

If the data is consistent with the prediction in the hypothesis, the hypothesis is

supported.

If the data is not consistent with the prediction in the hypothesis, the

hypothesis is refuted.

Understand that the shape of a graph can show the relationship between the

variables in the hypothesis. (See graph shapes in PAa.5)

Understand that if the data does support the relationship, the hypothesis is still alway

tentative and subject to further investigation. Scientists repeat investigations and do

different investigations to test the same hypothesis because the hypothesis is always

tentative, and another investigation could refute the relationship predicted.

Understand that scientific laws express principles in science that have been tested

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

evaluate results of a controlled

scientific investigation,

check data from the results of an

investigation to determine if the

results support the relationship

predicted between variables in

the hypothesis

Infer that a hypothesis is verified

or refuted by the results of the

investigation

Compare data that refutes or

supports a hypothesis

Explain why the results of an

investigation support or refute a

hypothesis

Analyze the data from an

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 10 Revised May 2nd, 2014

and tested and always shown to support the same hypothesis. Even these laws,

however, can be shown to need revision as new scientific evidence is found with

improved technology, advanced scientific knowledge, and more controlled scientific

investigations based on these.

investigation to see if it supports

or refutes the hypothesis

It is not essential that students

• Develop new hypotheses if the results have refuted the tested hypothesis;

• Carry out statistical analysis on the collected data.

PAa.7: Evaluate a

technological design or

product on the basis of

designated criteria

(including cost, time,

and materials).

Key Concepts:

Technological design or product

Criteria: cost, time, materials

It is essential for students to

Understand that technological designs or products are produced by the application

of scientific knowledge to meet specific needs of humans. The field of engineering

focuses on these processes.

Understand that there are four stages of technological design:

o Problem identification

o Solution design (a process or a product)

o Implementation

o Evaluation

Understand that common requirements within the solution design stage of all

technological designs or products include:

o Cost effectiveness or lowest cost for production;

o Time effectiveness or the least amount of time required for production, and

o Materials that meet specific criteria, such as:

Solves the problem

Reasonably priced

Availability

Durability

Not harmful to users or to the environment

Qualities matching requirements for product or solution

Manufacturing process matches characteristics of the material

Understand that benefits need to exceed the risk.

Understand that there are tradeoffs among the various criteria. For example, the

best material for a specific purpose may be too expensive.

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Evaluate a technological design

or product on the basis of

designated criteria

Critique a technological design or

product to determine if it meets

designated criteria.

Exemplify (give an example of)the

best product based on given

criteria

Analyze the best product or

design from a given set based on

given criteria

Compare given products or

designs on the basis of criteria in

order to select the best

Summarize the qualities of the

best product or design based on

given criteria

Infer from given criteria and

qualities which product or design

matches best.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 11 Revised May 2nd, 2014

It is not essential for students to

Recognize which field of engineering is involved with specific products or designs.

Match specific materials that would be best for specific technological designs or

products without being given characteristics of the given materials.

PAa.8: Compare the

processes of scientific

investigation and

technological design.

Key Concepts:

Science, Technology

Scientific investigation

Technological design

It is essential for students to

Understand that science is a process of inquiry that searches for relationships that

explain and predict the physical, living and designed world.

Understand that technology is the application of scientific discoveries to meet

human needs and goals through the development of products and processes.

Understand that the processes of scientific investigation are followed to

determine the relationship between an independent and dependent variable

described by a hypothesis. The results of scientific investigations can advance

science knowledge.

Understand that the processes of technological design are followed to design

products or processes to meet specified needs. The results of technological

designs can advance standard of living in societies.

Understand that, in general, the field of engineering is responsible for technological

designs or products by applying science to make products or design processes

that meet specific needs of mankind.

The process of controlled scientific investigations:

o Asks questions about the natural world;

o Forms hypotheses to suggest a relationship between dependent and

independent variables;

o Investigates the relationships between the dependent and independent

variables;

o Analyzes the data from investigations and draws conclusions as to whether or

not the hypothesis was supported.

The technological design process is used to design products and processes that

people can use. The process may involve:

o A problem or need is identified

o A solution is designed to meet the need or solve the problem identified.

o The solution or product is developed and tested.

o The results of the implementation are analyzed to determine how well the

solution or product successfully solved the problem or met the need.

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Compare the processes of

scientific investigation and

technological design

Detect the similarities and

differences in the processes of

controlled scientific investigation

and technological design

Exemplify the processes of

scientific investigation and

technological design

Classify a process as either part

of a scientific investigation or

technological design given a

description of the steps

Summarize steps that may be

part of each process

Illustrate the processes of

scientific investigation and/or

technological design in words,

diagrams or pictures

Recognize each process based

on whether it advances scientific

knowledge or designs products or

processes that meet specific

needs of mankind.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 12 Revised May 2nd, 2014

Some ways that the two processes might be compared:

Scientific Investigation Technological Design

Identifies a problem – asks a question Identifies a problem or need

Researches related information Researches related information

Designs an investigation or experiment Designs a process or a product

Conducts the investigation or experiment –

repeated trials

Implements the design or the process –

repeated testing

Analyzes the results Analyzes the results

Evaluates the conclusion – did the results

refute or verify the hypothesis

Evaluates the process or product – did it

meet the criteria

Communicates the findings Communicates the product or process

It is not essential that students

Distinguish which field of engineering is associated with specific technological

designs.

PAa.9: Use

appropriate safety

procedures when

conducting

investigations

Key Concepts:

Safety procedures

Investigations

It is essential for students to

Practice the safety procedures stated in every scientific investigation and

technological design problem conducted in the laboratory and classroom. Follow

safety procedures regarding

o Personal safety – follow only the designated lab procedures; be sure to

understand the meaning of any safety symbols shown, wear proper clothing

and shoes for the lab, use protective equipment (goggles, aprons,…), tie back

loose hair, never eat or drink in lab room, use proper technique for touching or

smelling materials.

o Work area safety – use only designated chemicals or equipment, keep work

area clear and uncluttered, do not point heated containers at yourself or

anyone else, be sure all burners or hot plates are turned off when the lab is

finished, know the location and use of the fire extinguisher, safety blanket,

eyewash station, safety shower, and first aid kit, disconnect electrical devices,

follow clean-up procedures as designated by the teacher.

Safely and accurately practice appropriate techniques associated with the

equipment and materials used in the activities conducted in the laboratory and

classroom (see PAa.2 materials lists).

Abide by the safety rules in the course safety contract.

Report any laboratory safety incidents (spills, accidents, or injuries) to the teacher.

To demonstrate mastery of this

indictor the student should be

able to:

Use and practice appropriate

safety procedures

Understand which procedures are

not appropriate for conducting

investigations safely.

Recognize appropriate safety

procedures for conducting

investigations

Exemplify appropriate safety

procedures for conducting

investigations

Classify a procedure as an

appropriate or not appropriate

safety procedure

Illustrate appropriate safety

procedures for conducting

investigations

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 13 Revised May 2nd, 2014

PAb: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and properties of an atom.

Indicator Essential Understandings Assessment Guidelines:

PAb.1: Compare the

subatomic particles

(protons, neutrons,

electrons) of an atom

with regard to mass,

location, and charge,

and explain how these

particles affect the

properties of an atom

(including identity,

mass, volume, and

reactivity).

Key Concepts

Sub-atomic particles: proton, neutron, electron

Energy level

Electron Cloud

Nucleus

It is essential for students to compare subatomic particles by:

Particle type:

Know that the atom is composed of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons,

and electrons) that affect the properties of an atom.

Particle mass:

Understand that protons and neutrons have about the same mass.

Understand that the mass of an electron is much less than the mass of protons

and neutrons

(It is not necessary for students to know the exact mass of the particles).

Particle charge:

Understand that protons have a positive charge; know that neutrons have no

charge.

Understand that the net charge of the nucleus is positive and equal to the

number of protons.

Understand that electrons have a negative charge.

Understand that there is an attractive force between negative electrons and

positive protons (unlike charges attract).

Understand that there is a repulsive force between electrons and electrons,

and between protons and protons (like charges repel).

Understand that atoms are neutrally charged when the number of electrons is

the same as the number of protons.

Particle location:

Understand that protons and neutrons are tightly bound in a tiny nucleus.

Understand that the nucleus is located in the center of the atom with the

electrons moving in complicated patterns in the space around the nucleus.

Understand that the electrons have energy and that as the level of energy (the

energy level) of an electron increases, the electron is likely to (will probably)

spend more time further from the nucleus.

Understand that the total region in space where electrons are likely to be found

The first objective of the indicator

is to compare the three primary

subatomic particles with regard to

mass, charge and location; the

primary focus of assessment

should be to detect

correspondences between and

among these particles with regard

to these three properties.

In addition to compare, students

should be able to:

Illustrate with drawings or

diagrams that depict the charge,

and mass of the three particles;

Classify the three particles based

on the characteristics of mass,

location, and charge;

Summarize the characteristics of

the subatomic particles

Recognize the role that each

particle has in the characteristics

of an atom.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 14 Revised May 2nd, 2014

around the nucleus of an atom is often called the ‘electron cloud’.

Understand that as the energy levels of electrons increase, the regions of

space where the electrons are likely to be found are at increasing distances

from the nucleus.

Electrons with more energy occupy higher energy levels and are likely to be

found further from the nucleus.

There are a maximum number of electrons that can occupy each energy level

and that number increases the further the energy level is from the nucleus.

PAb.2: Illustrate the

fact that the atoms of

elements exist as

stable or unstable

isotopes

Key Concepts

atomic number

nuclear decay

mass number

radiation

isotope

atomic mass

It is essential for students to understand

Atomic Number:

The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons. The

atomic number is always the same for a given element.

The atomic number of an element can be found on the periodic table. It is a

whole number since it is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of the

atom and is, therefore, the same for all atoms of that element.

Mass Number:

Atoms of the same element may have different numbers of neutrons.

The mass number of a particular atom is the sum of that atom’s protons and

neutrons.

The mass number cannot be found on the periodic table. (The mass number is

not the same asatomic mass and cannot be found by rounding off the atomic

mass. The mass number must be given through words or a symbol.)

Isotopes:

Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons will have

different mass numbers.

Isotopes are defined as two or more atoms of the same element having the

same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons (and therefore

different masses)

Atomic Mass:

The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the masses of the

naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

The objective of this indicator is to

illustrate that atoms exist as stable

or unstable isotopes; the primary

focus of assessment should be to

give or use illustrations

(descriptions, diagrams, or

symbols) of these concepts to

show understanding of isotopes.

Assessments should test the

student’s ability to apply this

concept to any element, not be

restricted to memorized examples.

Students should know that some

isotopes have nuclei that are

“unstable” should have an

understanding of nuclear decay as

a result of an unstable nucleus, and

understand that radiation is a result

of nuclear decay.

In addition to illustrate, students

should be able to:

Understand that some isotopes

have nuclei that are “unstable”

Understanding of nuclear

decay as a result of an unstable

nucleus, and understand that

radiation is a result of nuclear

decay.

Interpret (change from one form

of representation to another), for

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The atomic mass of an element can be found on the periodic table. Since the

atomic mass of an element is an average, it is usually not a whole number.

Students must be able to

Illustrate isotopes (or recognize illustrations of isotopes) with diagrams, symbols, or

with words; in each case, the illustration must indicate that isotopes are atoms with

the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.

The following are two widely accepted examples of symbols used to illustrate

one isotope of carbon:

Understand isotopes with unstable nuclei:

In order for a nucleus to be stable, a correct ratio of neutrons and protons

should be present in the nucleus.

An isotope with an unstable nucleus is radioactive.

Due to the unstable condition of the nucleus, radioactive isotopes undergo

nuclear decay.

Nuclear decay is a nuclear reaction that involves emission of energy and/or

particles from the nucleus, resulting in a more stable nuclear environment.

Radiation is the term used to describe the particles and/or energy that are

emitted during nuclear decay. (Three types are alpha and beta particles, and

gamma rays)

Nuclear decay occurs naturally in many elements that are common on earth

and there is always some radiation present in every environment.

Use a periodic table to apply these concepts to describe any atom given enough

information. For example, given the symbol of an element, with mass number and

atomic number, the student should be able to give the number of each of the basic

particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) in the neutral atom of any element.

instance, read a written

description of an isotope and

produce an illustration in the form

of a symbol or a diagram;

Compare stable and unstable

isotopes;

Recognize isotopes of the same

element.

PAb.3: Compare

fission and fusion

(including the basic

Key Concepts

Nuclear fission: chain reaction, critical mass

Nuclear fusion

The objective of this indicator is to

compare fission and fusion, the

major focus of the assessment

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processes and the fact

that both fission and

fusion convert a

fraction of the mass of

interacting particles

into energy and release

a great amount of

energy).

It is essential for students to understand

Understand that nuclear reactions involve the particles in the nucleus of the atom

(as opposed to chemical reactions, which involve the electrons in an atom and

where the nucleus remains intact).

Understand that there is a great deal more energy change involved in nuclear

reactions than in chemical reactions.

Nuclear fission

Understand the processes of nuclear fission.

Nuclear fission occurs when a heavy nucleus, such as the U-235 nucleus, splits

into two or more parts; a large amount of energy is released.

The absorption of a neutron by a large nucleus (such as U-235) is one way to

initiate a fission reaction.

When an atom with a large nucleus undergoes fission, atoms that have smaller

nuclei result. In the process smaller particles, such as neutrons, may be ejected

from the splitting nucleus.

If one or more ejected neutrons strike another U-235 nucleus, another fission

reaction may occur. The continuation of this process is called a chain reaction.

There must be a certain minimum amount of mass, called a critical mass, of

fissionable material in close proximity for a chain reaction to occur.

than the amount of energy required to produce the reaction.

Using fusion for nuclear power plants is still in the developmental stage.

A hydrogen bomb, also called a thermonuclear bomb, utilizes nuclear fusion.

Understand that fission is the type of nuclear reaction that occurs in nuclear power

plants and other nuclear applications (atomic bombs, nuclear-powered submarines

and satellites).

Understand that the mass of the products of a fission reaction is less than the

mass of the reactants.

This lost mass (m) is converted into energy (E). The equation E = mc2 shows the

relationship of this “lost mass” to the energy released. (It is not essential for

students to use this equation.)

The conversion of mass to energy during a nuclear reaction involves far more

energy than the amount of energy involved in a chemical reaction.

Nuclear fusion

Understand the processes of nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion occurs when light nuclei (such as hydrogen) fuse, or combine, to

form a larger single nucleus (such as helium).

As in fission reactions, in fusion reactions the mass of the products is less than the

mass of the reactants and the “lost mass” is converted to energy.

should be to identify the similarities

and differences in fission and

fusion, the consequences, and the

applications of the two processes.

In addition to compare, students

should be able to:

Exemplify relevant uses of each

process;

Classify a process as either

fission or fusion;

Summarize major points about

the steps in each process;

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Fusion is the type of nuclear reaction that occurs on the sun (and other stars).

Forcing small nuclei to fuse requires huge amounts of energy; however, when

fusion reactions occur on the sun, more energy is released

PAb.4: Compare the

properties of the four

states of matter—solid,

liquid, gas, and

plasma—in terms of

the arrangement and

movement of particles.

Key Concepts

States of Matter:

1. solid,

2. liquid,

3. gas,

4. plasma

It is essential for students to understand

Understand the characteristics of solids, liquids, gases, and plasma

Solids

The particles of solids are closely packed together because there is an

attractive force holding them together

The particles of solids are constantly vibrating, but they do not readily slip past

one another.

Because the particles vibrate in place and do not readily slip past one another,

a solid has a definite shape.

Liquids

The particles of liquids are in contact with each other because there is an

attractive force holding them together.

The particles of liquids have enough energy to partially overcome the attractive

force of the surrounding particles. Liquid particles can slip past surrounding

particles and slide over one another. Because the particles slip past one

another, a liquid does not have a definite shape and so takes the shape of the

container. A sample of a liquid can be poured.

Gases

The particles of gases are not in contact with each other because they have

enough energy to completely overcome the attractive force between or among

the particles.

The particles of gases are moving randomly, in straight lines until they bump

into other particles or into the wall of the container. When a particle hits

another particle or the container, it bounces off and continues to move.

Because gas particles move independently, the particles move throughout the

entire container. The forces between the particles are not strong enough to

prevent the particles from spreading to fill the container in which the gas is

located.

The objective of this indicator is to

compare fission and fusion, the

major focus of the assessment

should be to identify the similarities

and differences in fission and

fusion, the consequences, and the

applications of the two processes.

In addition to compare, students

should be able to:

Illustrate with words, pictures, or

diagrams particle motion and

arrangement in a solid, liquid,

gas, or plasma;

Classify a substance as a solid,

liquid, gas, or plasma based on a

description of the particle

arrangement and motion;

Summarize the characteristics of

the particle motion in solids,

liquids, gas, and plasma;

Recognize the four states of

matter by their characteristics.

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Plasma

Plasma is matter consisting of positively and negatively charged particles.

A substance is converted to the plasma phase at very high temperatures, such

as those in stars (such as the sun). High temperature means that the particles

of a substance are moving at high speeds. At these speeds, collisions

between particles result in electrons being stripped from atoms.

Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe, found not only in

stars, but also in lightning bolts, neon and fluorescent light tubes and auroras

PAc: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of forces and motion.

Indicator Essential Understandings Assessment Guidelines:

PAc.1: Explain the

relationship among

distance, time,

direction, and the

velocity of an object.

Key Concepts

Distance, Direction, Displacement

Speed:

Average speed

Instantaneous speed

Initial speed

Final speed

Velocity:

Average velocity

Instantaneous velocity

Initial velocity

Final velocity

Rate

It is essential for students to

Understand Distance and Displacement:

Distance is a measure of how far an object has moved and is independent of

direction.

o If a person travels 40m due east, turns and travels 30m due west, the distance

traveled is70m.

Displacement has both magnitude (measure of the distance) and direction. It is a

change of position in a particular direction.

o For example: 40m east is a displacement.

Total or final displacement refers to both the distance and direction of an object’s

change in position from the starting point or origin. Displacement only depends on

the starting and stopping point. Displacement does not depend on the path taken.

The objective of this indicator is to

explain the relationship among

distance, time, direction, and the

velocity of an object, the major

primary focus of assessment

should be to construct a cause

and effect models relating how

each variable affects the motion of

the object, as well as the effect of

combinations of variables on

motion.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Exemplify how each variable

influences the motion of an

object;

Compare distance to

displacement and velocity to

speed;

Summarize the effect of each

variable separately or in

combination on the motion of an

object;

(speed, velocity, time, distance,

or displacement)

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 19 Revised May 2nd, 2014

o If a person travels 40m due east, turns and travels 30m due west, the total

displacement of the person is 10m east.

o If a person travels 40m east and then travels another 50m east the total

displacement is 90m east.

Understand Speed:

Speed is how fast something is going. It is a measure of the distance covered per

unit of time and is always measured in units of distance divided by units of time.

(The term “per” means “divided by”)

Speed is a rate as it is a change (change in distance) over a certain period of time

Speed is independent of direction.

The speed of an object can be described two ways

Instantaneous speed is “the speed at a specific instant”. Initial speed and final

speed are examples of instantaneous speed. A speedometer measures

instantaneous speed.

Average speed is “the total distance covered in a particular time period”

If an object is traveling at a constant speed, the instantaneous speed at each point

will be equal to the average speed.

If an object is traveling with varying speeds, the average speed is the total distance

covered divided by the total time.

Understand Velocity:

Velocity refers to both the speed of an object and the direction of its motion.

A velocity value should have both speed units and direction units, such as: m/sec

north, km/h south, cm/s left, or km/min down.

Velocity is a rate because it is a change in displacement over a certain period of

time.

The velocity of an object can be changed in two ways:

The speed of the object can change (it can slow down or speed up).

The direction of an object can change. (A racecar on a circular track moving at a

constant speed of 100 km/h has a constantly changing velocity because of a

changing direction of travel.)

The velocity of an object can be described two ways:

o Instantaneous velocity is the velocity at a specific instant. Initial velocity and

final velocity are examples of instantaneous velocity.

o Average velocity is the total (final) displacement in a particular time

Infer from experimental data the

relative speed or velocity of an

object (faster vs. slower);

Illustrate in words pictures or

diagrams the effect of these

variables on the motion of an

object.

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PAc.2: Use the

formula v = d/t to solve

problems related to

average speed or

velocity.

Key Concepts:

Average speed (v) Average velocity (v)

Distance (d) Displacement (d)

Elapsed time (t)

It is essential for students to

Understand the correct context for the variables in the word problem when using

the equation v = d/t.

In the equation, “v” can represent either velocity or speed and “d” can

represent either displacement or distance, depending on the context of the

problem.

The term “speed” or “velocity” refers to average speed or velocity.

Students must determine the “given” information in a problem using the

correct units.

See sample table:

Use the formula, v = d/t.

Students must be able to calculate average speed.

When calculating average speed using v = d/t: the average speed for the trip

equals the total distance divided by the total time. Ignore the direction of the

motion.

Students must be able to calculate average velocity.

When calculating average velocity using v = d/t: the average velocity equals

the total displacement divided by the total time.

When indicating the average velocity, direction must be given and the average

velocity will have the same direction as the total displacement.

The total displacement is the (straight line or shortest) distance and direction

Variable Abbreviation Units Direction

Required?

Examples

Speed v Distance/time No direction m/s 22

cm/yr

Velocity v Distance/time With m/s north 36 km/h

west

Distance d Distance No direction 15 m 30.0 km

Displacement d Distance With 546 km down 24.9

west

Time t Time NA 15 s 32 days

The objective of this indicator is to

use the formula v=d/t to solve

problems, the primary focus of

assessment should be to apply the

velocity equation to a novel word

problem or set of laboratory data,

not just repeat problems that are

familiar.

In addition to use, students should

be able to:

Apply procedures for

manipulating the velocity

equation

Recall the differences between

speed and velocity as to whether

a direction is needed;

Identify the units needed in the

solution to a problem.

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from the starting point.

If the direction of the motion is changing, the velocity will not be constant even

if the speed is constant.

Students must be able to rearrange the equation to solve for any of the

variables. Example: d = vt, or t = d/v

The instantaneous velocity at any point will not necessarily be the same as the

average velocity.

PAc.3: Explain how

changes in velocity and

time affect the

acceleration of an

object.

Key Concepts

Acceleration

It is essential for students to understand

Constant Velocity or Zero Acceleration: The first motion diagram shown below

is for an object moving at a constant speed toward the right. The motion diagram

might represent the changing position of a car moving at constant speed along a

straight highway. Each dot indicates the position of the object at a different time.

The dots are separated by equal time intervals. Because the object moves at a

constant speed, the displacements from one dot to the next are of equal length.

The velocity of the object at each position is represented by an arrow. The velocity

arrows are of equal length (the velocity is constant).

The acceleration in the diagram below is zero because the velocity does not

change.

Below is a data table which shows an example of what instantaneous velocities

might be if measured at equal time intervals for zero acceleration. Notice the

velocity is the same each time.

The objective of this indicator is to

explain how changes in velocity or

time affect the acceleration of

an object, the primary focus of

assessment should be to a

construct a cause and effect model

showing how changes in speed,

direction, or time affect the

acceleration of an object.

In addition to explain, assessments

students should be able to:

Exemplify how each variable

influences the acceleration of an

object;

Compare negative and positive

acceleration;

Summarize the effect of each

variable on the acceleration of an

object;

Infer from experimental data the

relative acceleration (greater rate

of acceleration vs. lesser rate of

acceleration) of two objects;

Interpret accelerated motion on a

motion diagram;

Illustrate accelerated motion

using motion diagrams

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Constant Positive Acceleration (speeding up): This motion diagram represents

an object that undergoes constant acceleration toward the right in the same

direction as the initial velocity. This occurs when the car speeds up to pass another

car. Once again the dots represent, schematically, the position of the object at

equal time intervals. Because the object accelerates toward the right, its velocity

arrows increase in length toward the right as time passes. The distance between

adjacent positions increases as the object moves right because the object moves

faster as it travels right.

The acceleration in the diagram below is positive because the object is speeding up.

Below is a data table which shows an example of what instantaneous velocities

might be if measured at equal time intervals for positive acceleration. Notice the

velocity is greater each time.

Note: Sometimes the direction is defined as the positive direction. (Students do not

need to know this).

Constant Negative Acceleration (slowing down): This type of motion occurs

when a car slows down. The dots represent schematically the position of the

object at equal time intervals. Because the acceleration is opposite the

motion, the object's velocity arrows decrease by the same amount from one

position to the next. Because the object moves slower as it travels, it covers

less distance during each consecutive time interval, so the distance between

adjacent positions decreases as the object moves right.

The acceleration in the diagram below is negative because the object is slowing

down.

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Below is a data table which shows an example of what instantaneous velocities

might be if measured at equal time intervals for negative acceleration. Notice the

velocity is smaller each time.

Note: Sometimes the direction is defined as the positive direction or negative

direction. (Students do not need to know this)

o Acceleration due to a change in direction:

Students should understand that the velocity of the object above is changing

because the direction is changing. The speed of the object remains constant.

o Because the velocity of the object is changing, it is accelerating;

o Students need only say that the object is accelerating because the direction

(and therefore the velocity) of the object is changing. Students need not

consider the rate of acceleration for an object that is changing direction.

It is essential for the students to understand

That acceleration is a measure of the change in velocity (final velocity - initial

velocity) per unit of time. When the velocity of an object is changing, it is

accelerating.

o That if the object slows down, the change in velocity (vf - vi) is negative so the

acceleration is negative and conversely when the object is speeding up the

acceleration is positive.

o That both the change in velocity and the time it takes for that change to occur

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are important when considering the acceleration of an object.

o When comparing the acceleration of two objects that have the same change in

velocity, the one that undergoes the change in the least amount of time has

the greatest acceleration.

o When comparing the acceleration of two objects that accelerate over the same

interval of time, the one that undergoes the greatest change in velocity

accelerates the most.

o That acceleration is always measured in velocity (distance/time) units divided

by time units.

Example: Acceleration is change in velocity divided by time. The unit for

velocity is m/s and the unit for time is second so the unit for acceleration

is m/s/s or m/s

2

. This is derived from velocity (m/s) divided by time (s).

Students should understand acceleration units conceptually as “change in

velocity over time” rather than “distance over time squared”.

The most common acceleration units in the metric system are m/s/s or

m/s

2

.

The time units may be different in the velocity part of the equation and

denominator such as km/hr per second.

The velocity of an object can change two ways, so an object can accelerate in two

ways:

o The speed can increase or decrease

o The direction can change.

PAc.4: Use the

formula a = (vf-vi)/t to

determine the

acceleration of an

object.

Key Concepts

Acceleration

Initial velocity

Final velocity

Elapsed time

It is essential for students to

Interpret a word problem, or laboratory data, involving the motion of an object that

is accelerating in one direction and determine the “given” information:

Differentiate velocity from speed if the direction is given. If velocity is given,

students should record the direction.

Differentiate initial velocity (speed) from final velocity (speed) from the context of

the problem.

NOTE: As this is an introduction to the mathematical application of the concept of

acceleration, the units given to students should be consistent. (The units for initial

and final velocity should be the same.)

The objective of this indicator is to

use the acceleration formula to

determine acceleration of an

object, the primary focus of

assessment should be to apply the

acceleration formula to a novel

word problem or set of

experimental data, not just

problems that are familiar.

In addition to use,

Students should be able to:

Recognize when the formula

should be applied;

Identify the appropriate units for

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Students need to list the given variables using the correct units:

It is essential for students to

Use the equation a = (v

f

-v

i

)/t to solve for acceleration only, not for v

f

or v

i

.

Substitute the correct values into the equation, including the correct units.

Mathematically solve the problem, using dimensional analysis to derive the units of

the answer.

Check to make sure that the units calculated from the dimensional analysis match

the appropriate units for the acceleration (distance/time divided by time or distance

divided by time-squared).

Understand that negative acceleration means that velocity is decreasing.

the solution to the problem;

Compare data using the formula.

PAc.5: Explain how

acceleration due to

gravity affects the

velocity of an object as

it falls.

Key Vocabulary

Acceleration due to gravity: a

g

It is essential for students to understand

All objects accelerate as they fall because Earth continually exerts a force

(gravitational force) on them.

o The diagram depicts the position of an object freefall at regular time intervals.

The fact that the distance which the ball travels every interval of time is

increasing is a sure sign that the ball is speeding up as it falls downward. If an

object travels downward and speeds up, then it accelerates downward.

When an object is released it accelerates.

The direction of the gravitational force is always downward.

The acceleration is in the direction of the force, so the direction of the acceleration

is downward as well.

When an object is dropped from rest, it has an initial velocity of 0.0 m/s.

The object will accelerate at a constant rate of 9.8m/s

2

or m/s/s.

o This means that the object will speed up at a constant rate of 9.8 m/sec every

The objective of this indicator is to

explain how acceleration due to

gravity affects the velocity of an

object as it falls; the primary focus

of assessment should be to

construct a cause and effect model

showing how acceleration due to

gravity affects the velocity and

displacement of an object in

freefall.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Illustrate in words, pictures, or

diagrams how velocity and

displacement change as an

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 26 Revised May 2nd, 2014

second it is falling in the absence of air resistance.

The value, 9.8m/s per s, is called the acceleration of gravity and has the symbol a

g

.

Since the object is accelerating because of the gravitational force that is attracting

Earth and the object, the velocity of the object continues to increase in speed and

continues to fall in a downward direction until it hits the ground.

Students must understand the meaning of the values on the chart in terms

changing velocity.

object falls;

Summarize how velocity and

displacement change as an

object falls;

Interpret diagrams of objects in

freefall.

PAc.6: Represent the

linear motion of objects

on distance-time

graphs.

Key Concepts

It is essential for students to

Construct distance/time graphs from data showing the distance traveled over time

for selected types of motion (rest, constant velocity, acceleration).

Compare the shape of these three types of graphs and recognize the type of

motion from the shape of the graph.

Discuss in words the significance of the shapes of the graphs in terms of the

motion of the objects.

(1) An object at rest

Example:

Distance/time graphs Linear motion

Displacement/time graphs Story graph

The objective of this indicator is to

represent linear motion of an

object on distance-time graphs, the

primary focus of assessment

should be to represent

distance/time or displacement/time

data in graph form or interpret

distance/time or displacement/time

graphs. The type of motion is

restricted to rest, constant velocity,

or constant acceleration. Students

should apply their knowledge of

graphical analysis of motion to any

new set of data, verbal description,

or graphical representation.

In addition to represent, students

should be able to:

Exemplify by finding a specific

example of a type of graph which

is appropriate for a given data set

or verbal description of motion;

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The shape of the graph is flat, because between the 1st and 6th second there is no

change in distance.

The shape of the graph is a diagonal straight line. The object covers the same

amount of distance in each time period. As the time increases, the distance

increases at a constant rate.

(3a) An accelerating object (positive acceleration or speeding up)

The shape of the graph is a curve getting steeper because as time goes by, the

object covers more distance each second than it did in the previous second so the

amount that the graph goes up each second gets more and more.

Classify the type of motion (rest,

constant speed, or acceleration)

by the shape of a distance time

graph;

Summarize the shapes of graphs

which represent specific types of

motion;

Compare the motion of two

objects from graphical

representations of their motion;

Interpret distance/time and

displacement/time graphs.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 28 Revised May 2nd, 2014

(3b) A negatively accelerating object (an object slowing down)

Example:

The shape of the graph is a curve getting flatter because as time goes by, the object

covers less distance each second than it did in the previous second, so the amount

that the graph goes up each second gets less and less.

It is essential for students to

Construct distance time graphs from data that compare the motion of objects.

Discuss the significance of the shapes of the graphs in terms of the relative motion

of the objects.

(1) A comparison of two objects traveling at different speeds

Example:

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Both objects are traveling at a constant speed, but the object represented by the top

line is traveling faster than the lower one. You can tell this because the amount that

the graph goes up each second (which represents the amount of distance traveled)

is more for the top line than for the bottom one. (The top line has a greater slope.)

(2) A comparison of two objects accelerating at different rates

Example:

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Both of the objects are accelerating, but the Series 2 object (top curve) is

accelerating at a greater rate than the Series 1 object (bottom curve). Both objects

cover more distance each second than they did during the previous second, but the

amount of increase for series 2 is more than the amount of increase for (series 1).

(2) A comparison of two objects traveling in different directions at a constant

speed (to show this, a displacement-time graph is required)

Example:

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These are displacement-time graphs (displacement/location has distance and

direction), so it shows how far each object is from the starting point after each hour.

Object 1 gets farther and farther away. At the 3rd hour, object 2 turns around and

comes back toward the start. The speed of each object is the same.

It is essential for a student to infer a possible story given a graph similar to this

example.

Possible explanation.

From 0 to 3 seconds the object is traveling at a constant velocity away from the

starting point.

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From 3 seconds to 5 seconds the object is not moving relative to the starting

point.

From 5 seconds to 8 seconds the object is moving at a constant velocity toward

the starting point.

From 8 seconds to 13 seconds the object is moving at a constant velocity away

from the starting point, at a velocity slower than the motion from 0 to 3 seconds.

From 13 to 15 seconds the object is not moving relative to the starting point.

From 15 to 21 seconds the object is accelerating (speeding up) as it moves away

from the starting point.

PAc.7: Explain the

motion of objects on

the basis of Newton’s

three laws of motion:

inertia; the relationship

among force, mass,

and acceleration; and

action and reaction

forces.

Key Concepts:

Newton’s 1st Law:

Law of Inertia, net force, newton (N), inertia, friction

Newton’s 2nd Law:

applied force

Newton’s 3rd Law:

Law of Action and Reaction, action force, reaction force

It is essential for students to understand

That a force is a push or a pull that one object exerts on another object and that in

the metric system, force is measured in units called newtons (N).

That a net force is an unbalanced force. It is necessary to find the net force when

one object has more than one force exerted on it.

Newton’s First Law of Motion

Newton’s First Law that states that the velocity of an object will remain constant

unless a net force acts on it. This law is often called the Law of Inertia.

If an object is moving, it will continue moving with a constant velocity (in a

straight line and with a constant speed) unless a net force acts on it. If an

object is at rest, it will stay at rest unless a net force acts on it.

Inertia is the tendency of the motion of an object to remain constant in terms of

both speed and direction.

That the amount of inertia that an object has is dependent on the object’s

mass. The more mass an object has the more inertia it has.

That if an object has a large amount of inertia (due to a large mass):

It will be hard to slow it down or speed it up if it is moving.

It will be hard to make it start moving if it is at rest.

It will be hard to make it change direction.

The objective of this indicator is to

explain the motion of objects

based on Newton’s laws of motion,

the primary focus of assessment

should be to construct a cause and

effect model that explains the

motion of objects in terms of

inertia; force, mass, and

acceleration; and action and

reaction forces.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Exemplify Newton’s Laws of

Motion;

Compare the inertia of different

objects of different mass;

Compare the rate of acceleration

of objects with different masses

or the rate of acceleration of an

object when subjected to different

forces (in terms of magnitude and

direction);

Compare action and reaction

forces in terms of magnitude,

direction, source of force (which

object) and recipient of the force

(which object);

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That inertia does not depend on gravitational force. Objects would still have

inertia even if there were no gravitational force acting on them.

The behavior of stationary objects in terms of the effect of inertia.

Examples might include:

A ball which is sitting still will not start moving unless a force acts on it.

A ball with a larger mass will be more difficult to move from rest than a smaller one.

It is more difficult to roll a bowling ball than a golf ball.

The behavior of moving objects in terms of the effect of inertia.

Examples might include:

People involved in a car stopping suddenly:

If a net force (braking force) is exerted on the car in a direction opposite to the

motion, the car will slow down or stop.

If the people in the car are not wearing their seat belts, because of their inertia,

they keep going forward until something exerts an opposite force on them.

The people will continue to move until the windshield (or other object) exerts a

force on them.

If the people have their seatbelts on when the braking occurs, the seatbelt can

exert a force to stop the forward motion of the person, passenger in a turning car:

Consider a person who is a passenger in a car that is moving in a straight path.

The passenger in the car is also moving in a straight path.

If the car suddenly turns left, the inertia of the passenger causes him to continue to

move in the same straight path even though the car under him has turned to the

left.

The passenger feels as if he has been thrown against the side of the car, but in

fact, the car has been pushed against the passenger.

If a rowboat and a cruise ship are moving at the same speed, it is more difficult to

turn the cruise ship because it has more mass and therefore more inertia.

The reason that objects often do not keep moving in our everyday experience is

because there is often a net force acting on them.

Students need to explain how friction as a net force slows or stops a variety of

everyday objects.

If a ball were thrown in distant outer space away from forces, such as friction, it

would continue to move at a constant velocity until an outside force acts on it.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Newton’s Second Law that states, “When a net force acts on an object the object

Summarize the principles of

Newton’s Laws of Motion;

Illustrate Newton’s Laws of

Motion with pictures, words, or

diagrams.

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will accelerate in the direction of the net force”.

The larger the net force, the greater the acceleration. (It is sometimes stated that

the acceleration is directly proportional to the net force.)

The larger the mass of the object, the smaller the acceleration. (It is sometimes

stated that the acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.)

In mathematical terms Newton’s Second Law states that the net force equals the

mass times the resulting acceleration. (F = ma)

Friction and air resistance will often be ignored in discussions and problems, but

students should be aware of their role in determining the net force.

The motion of objects in terms of force, mass and acceleration.

The effects of force:

Force magnitude: If the mass of an object remains constant, the greater the net

force the greater the rate of acceleration.

Forces and Motion

Force direction:

If the force is applied to an object at rest, the object will accelerate in the

direction of the force, and the raft puts a force on the diver (reaction force)

pushing her in the opposite direction.

A person pushes against a wall (action force), and the wall exerts an equal

and opposite force against the person (reaction force).

PAc.8: Use the

formula F = ma to

solve problems related

to force.

Key Concepts:

Applied force

Frictional force

Net force

It is essential for students to

Understand the correct context for the variables in a word problem.

Understand that a newton is defined as the amount of force necessary to

accelerate a 1.0 kg object at a rate of 1 meter/second/second. force =

(mass)(acceleration)

The newton is a derived unit, so when you multiply mass times acceleration, to

use the formula F = ma to solve problems related to force and to understand the

units associated with force.

Mass is in kilograms and acceleration is in m/s/s, you have the proper units for

newtons (kgm/s/s or kgm/s

2

).

The objective of this indicator

is to use the formula, F=ma, to

solve problems related to force,

the primary focus of

assessment should be to apply

the mathematical formula, F =

ma to novel word problems or

new sets of data, not just

problems that are familiar.

In addition to use, students

should be able to:

Apply procedures for

manipulating the formula for

Newton’s Second Law to solve

for any of the variables when

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Mathematically solve problems for force, mass, or acceleration, using dimensional

analysis to identify the units of the answer.

(See dimensional analysis PAa.5)

Determine the “given” information using the correct units,

Mass should be given in kilograms (kg),

Acceleration in (m/s/s, or m/s

2

), and

Force in newtons. (N)

Solve problems for any of the variable in the formula, F = ma. For example, the

problem may give net force and mass and the student must find the acceleration (a

= F/m).

given the other two;

Recognize each of the variables;

Summarize the interrelationships

among the variables.

PAc.9: Explain the

relationship between

mass and weight by

using the formula F

W

=

ma

g

.

Key Concepts:

Force-weight (F

w

)

It is essential for students to understand

The weight of an object is the force that gravity exerts on that object.

The weight of an object depends on its mass.

Given the mass of an object, its weight can be calculated using Newton’s

Second Law.

When an object is dropped, it accelerates at 9.8m/s

2

. Because there is

acceleration, there must be a force.

The force is equal to the mass times the acceleration. (Fw =ma

g

)

The force called weight is equal to an object’s mass times the acceleration

due to gravity. (9.8m/s

2

)

It is essential for students to

Solve problems involving the relationship among the weight and mass of objects

and the acceleration of gravity using the formula Fw =ma

g.

(This formula is

sometimes written, w = m

g

.)

The objective of this indicator is to

explain the relationship between

mass and weight, the

primary focus of assessment

should be to construct a cause and

effect model of the relationship

between mass and weight, using

the formula (F

w

=ma

g

) as a basis for

that relationship. A second focus

should be to apply the formula F

w

=mag to novel word problems or a

new set of data.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Apply the formula F

w

=ma

g

to

novel word problems or a new set

of data

Apply procedures for

manipulating the formula Fw=ma

g

Summarize the relationship

between the mass and the weight

of an object;

Compare the quantities of mass

and weight in terms of the value

each is measuring, the units for

each, and the relationship

between the two.

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PAc.10: Explain how

the gravitational force

between two objects is

affected by the mass of

each object and the

distance between

them.

Key Concepts:

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

It is essential for students to understand

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation states that there is a force of attraction

between all objects in the universe.

The Law of Universal Gravitation applies to all objects.

The size of the gravitational force of attraction between two objects depends on the

mass of both objects and the distance between objects.

The force is greater when the mass of either of the two objects is greater.

Earth, with its huge mass, has a relatively large attractive force with all of the

objects near its surface.

The moon has less mass than Earth, so the moon has less attraction for

objects on its surface than Earth does. (Objects on the surface of the moon

weigh less than on Earth because the gravitational force between the object

and the moon is less than the gravitational force between the object and the

Earth.)

The reason the attraction is not noticed between ordinary sized objects that

are on earth is that the force that Earth exerts on objects is so great relative to

the force of attraction between other objects. (Negligible relative to the

attraction of the object to Earth).

The closer the two objects are, the greater the force.

When an object, such as a space vehicle, moves away from Earth, the

gravitational attraction between Earth and the vehicle becomes less and less.

That if the force acting on a falling object is the same as the force acting on Earth,

the object accelerates toward Earth while Earth doesn’t seem to accelerate at all.

This is because the mass of Earth is so huge; the force causes only a very tiny

acceleration, one that is undetectable by humans.

The objective of this indicator is

the verb for this indicator:

Explain the major focus of

assessment will be for students to

“construct a cause and effect

model” about gravitational force.

PAc.11: Investigates

stress and strain in

static materials subject

to compression or

tension.

Key Concepts:

• Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion

• Forces

• Stress

• Strain

• Young’s Modulus

It is essential for students to understand

The external force applied to a material can result in changes to the shape of the

The objective of this indicator is to

explain the relationship between

stress and strain in static materials,

the primary focus of assessment

should be to explain the forces of

stress and strain as related to

compression and tension.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

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material. The type of force acting upon the material, the shape of the material and

how the material is used can influence the behavior of a structure. The work done in

changing the shape of a material can result in energy being stored in the material

under strain (strain energy), or it can result in the destruction of the material.

Stress

Stress is a measure of force divided by the cross-sectional area that the force acts

on

Stress = Force / Area

The Greek Letter sigma () is used to represent stress

The SI units of stress ar N/m

2

= Pascals (Pa)

Calculate Young’s Modulus from

stress-strain plots

Identify how forces create stress

in objects, and to calculate stress

in an object

Identify different types of external

forces such as compression,

tension and shear, that can act

on a body, including gravitational

forces

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Strain

Strain is a measure of how much a material elongates under an applied force

Strain = (L

f

– L

i

) / L

i

The Greek letter epsilon ( ) is used to represent strain

The SI unit of strain is unit-less or length/length

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Young’s Modulus

Young’s Modulus is a measure of a materials stiffness

Nearly all materials can be measured comparing stress and strain on a single plot

Young Modulus has the physics code E, and is written as:

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The Stress-Strain graph of the mateirals below:

Curve A shows a brittle material. This material is also strong because there is

little strain for a high stress. The fracture of a brittle material is sudden and

catastrophic, with little or no plastic deformation. Brittle materials crack under

tension and the stress increases around the cracks. Cracks propagate less under

compression.

Curve B is a strong material which is not ductile. Steel wires stretch very little,

and break suddenly. There can be a lot of elastic strain energy in a steel wire

under tension and it will “whiplash” if it breaks. The ends are razor sharp and such

a failure is very dangerous indeed.

Curve C is a ductile material

Curve D is a plastic material. Notice a very large strain for a small stress. The

material will not go back to its original length.

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PAd: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature, conversation, and transformation of

energy.

Indicator Essential Understandings Assessment Guidelines

PAd.1: Explain how

the law of conservation

of energy applies to the

transformation of

various forms of

energy (including

mechanical energy,

electrical energy,

chemical energy, light

energy, sound energy,

and thermal energy).

Key Concepts

Law of conservation of energy

Work

Energy/Energy forms: Mechanical energy, Electrical energy, Chemical energy,

Light energy,

Sound energy, Thermal energy

Energy transformation

It is essential for students to understand

The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or

destroyed. Energy can be transformed from one form to another, but the total

amount of energy never changes.

Energy is the property of an object or a system that enables it to do work.

Work is done when a force is applied to an object, and the object moves some

distance in response to the force in the direction of the force.

Work is the product of the force applied to an object and the distance the

object is moved in the direction of the force (displacement)

If you consider a system in its entirety, the total amount of energy never changes.

There are many different kinds of energy.

Mechanical energy is energy due to the position of something or the movement of

something. Mechanical energy can be potential, kinetic, or the sum of the two.

Chemical energy is a type of energy associated with atoms, ions, and molecules

and the bonds they form. Chemical energy will change to another form of energy

when a chemical reaction occurs.

Electrical energy is energy associated with current and voltage.

Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion and arrangement

of the particles of a material.

Light energy is energy that associated with electromagnetic waves.

Sound energy is energy associated longitudinal mechanical waves.

These different kinds of energy can change from one form to another (energy

The objective of this indicator is to

explain how the law of

conservation of energy applies to

energy transformations, the

primary focus of assessment

should be to construct a cause and

effect model showing that energy is

conserved as it continually

transforms from one type to

another. Assessments should

require that students understand

transformation of different types of

energy and the relationship of this

transformation to the conservation

of energy.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Exemplify energy

transformations;

Compare the forms of energy;

Infer the transformations of

different types of energy within

given situations;

Summarize major points about

energy transformations;

Recall the forms of energy.

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transformation) without changing the total amount of energy.

Examples might include:

Example 1

Explain conservation of energy in terms of energy transformation in an electric

circuit with a battery and a light bulb burning.

Chemical energy changes to electrical energy.

The electrical energy flows through the light bulb and turns electrical

energy to light and thermal energy.

The total of the energy from the chemical reaction in the battery is equal

to the total energy that it transforms into.

Example 2

Explain conservation of energy in terms of energy transformation when a

baseball is thrown to another ball player.

A ballplayer converts chemical energy from the food he/she has eaten to

mechanical energy when he/she moves his/her arm to throw the ball.

The work done on the ball converts the energy of the arm movement to

kinetic mechanical energy of the moving ball.

As the ball moves through the air, it has both kinetic and potential

mechanical energy.

When a second player catches the ball, the ball does work on the player’s

hand and glove giving them some mechanical energy.

The ball also moves the molecules in the glove moving them faster and

thus heating the glove.

The player that catches the ball absorbs the energy of the ball, and this

energy turns to heat.

The total heat produced is equal to the energy used to throw the ball.

Most energy transformations are not 100% efficient. When energy changes from

one form to another, some of the original energy dissipates in the form of energy

that is not usable. Usually it dissipates as heat.

PAd.2: Explain the

factors that determine

potential and kinetic

energy and the

transformation of one

Key Concepts

Potential energy

Gravitational potential energy

Kinetic energy

Transformations

It is essential for students to understand

The objective of this indicator is to

explain factors that determine

kinetic and potential energy and

the transformation from one to

another, the primary focus of

assessment should be to construct

a cause and effect model of how

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to the other.

Transformations of potential and kinetic mechanical energy.

Mechanical energy is energy due to the position of an object or the movement

of an object.

Mechanical energy can be potential or kinetic or the sum of the two.

That potential energy is energy that is stored because of the arrangement of the

system. Factors that affect gravitational potential energy are height and weight

(mass times acceleration due to gravity, or Fw=m

g)

.

Gravitational potential energy is greater when the height of an object is

greater.

Gravitational potential energy is greater when the weight of the object is

greater.

Gravitational potential energy of an object at some height is equal to the work

required to lift the object to that height. Work is equal to force times distance

W = Fd.

That kinetic energy is energy of motion. Factors that affect kinetic energy are

mass and speed.

Kinetic energy is greater when the speed of an object is greater.

Kinetic energy is greater when the mass of a moving object is greater.

Transformations can occur between gravitational potential energy and kinetic

energy.

Examples might include:

Example 1

Lifting an object and dropping it

An object is on the ground. It has zero potential energy with respect to the

ground.

It is lifted to some height. It now has potential energy equal to the work it took

to lift it to that height. Its potential energy depends on its weight and height

above the ground.

When the object is dropped, it is attracted by gravity and begins to speed up.

Some of the energy turns to kinetic.

On the way down some of the energy is kinetic and some is potential, but the

total remains the same.

Just before the object hits the ground most of the energy has turned to kinetic.

It loses its potential energy because its height has gone to zero.

When the object hits the ground some of the energy turns to sound and some

turns to heat because it speeds up molecules when it hits the ground.

changes in height affect potential

energy and changes in velocity

affect kinetic energy and how these

types of energy can transform one

to the other. Assessments should

require that students understand

the relationships of height and

weight on potential energy and

speed and mass to changes in

kinetic energy.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Compare kinetic and gravitational

potential energy;

Infer effects of changes in height

and speed with gravitational

potential energy and kinetic

energy;

Exemplify kinetic and

gravitational potential energy and

transformations between them;

Summarize major points about

kinetic and gravitational potential

energy and transformations

between them;

Classify kinetic and gravitational

potential energy.

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Example 2

A swinging pendulum

When a mass on a pendulum swings, it has mechanical energy. At the top of

the swing all of its mechanical energy is potential energy that depends on its

height and weight of the pendulum mass.

The kinetic energy is greatest at the bottom of the swing because the speed of

the mass is greatest. Potential energy is zero at the bottom of the swing

because the height of the mass is zero.

Between the top of the swing and the bottom of the swing the mass has both

potential and kinetic energy because it has both height and movement (velocity).

Eventually the pendulum will stop. It stops because of friction.

The friction transforms the energy that was originally mechanical energy in the

swinging pendulum into heat.

PAd.3: Explain work

in terms of the

relationship among the

force applied to an

object, the

displacement of the

object, and the energy

transferred to the

object.

Key Concepts

Work: Force, Displacement

Energy, Joule

It is essential for students to understand

Work is the product of the force applied to an object and the distance the object is

moved in the direction of the force (displacement).

Force and displacement are quantities that have magnitude (an amount or size)

and direction. In order to do work on an object these conditions must apply:

A force is applied to the object.

The object must move in the direction of the force.

When work is done on an object, energy is transferred to that object.

Work is equal to change in energy.

When a net force is applied to an object and the object moves, the work is

transformed to kinetic energy.

If a greater force is added, or if the force is applied over a greater distance, then

the kinetic energy will be greater.

If an object is lifted to some height, it gains gravitational potential energy equal to

the work done against gravity in lifting the object.

The work done against gravity is the same whether the object was lifted straight up

or rolled up a ramp.

The greater the height, the more gravitational potential energy the object has.

The unit of measure for work and energy is the joule.

The objective of this indicator is to

explain work, the focus should be

to construct a cause and effect

model that shows how a force

applied in terms of direction, and

distance, and size affects work and

energy transformation. Students

should understand the relationships

among force, distance, and energy

change for gravitational potential

energy as well as kinetic energy.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Infer energy change when work is

done on an object;

Summarize work and energy

change;

Exemplify work done and

resulting energy change;

Illustrate situations where work is

or is not done;

Explain reasons why work is or is

not done;

Recall the definition of work.

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PAd.4: Use the

formula, W = FD, to

solve problems related

to work done on an

object.

Key Concepts

Work: Force, Displacement

Joule

It is essential for students to understand

Solve problems for any variables in the equation, W = FD, (i.e. F=W/d or d=W/F)

using data.

Use dimensional analysis to determine the proper units using the SI system:

Force should be given in newtons;

Distance should be given in meters;

Work will be newton-meters or joules.

The displacement should be in the direction of the force.

The objective of this indicator is to

use the formula W = FD to solve

problems related to work, the

primary focus of assessment is to

apply the correct procedure to

mathematically determine the one

of the variables in the formula W

=FD in situations involving work

In addition to use, students should

be able to:

Recognize the proper units for

force, distance (displacement),

and work;

Apply dimensional analysis to

determine the proper SI units for

work.

PAe: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of mechanical and

electromagnetic waves.

Indicator Essential Understandings Assessment Guidelines:

PAe.1: Illustrate ways

that the energy of

waves transfer by

interaction with matter

(including transverse

and longitudinal /

compressional waves).

Key Vocabulary

Wave, Transverse wave, Longitudinal/Compressional wave

Medium

Energy transfer

It is essential for students to understand

Understand that a wave is a repeating disturbance that transfers energy through

matter or space.

Wave motion always transfers energy, but not matter from one place to another.

When a wave moves through matter, the matter is disturbed so that it moves back

and forth, but after the wave passes, the matter will be in about the same position

that it was before the wave passed.

Give general examples of various waves, illustrating, with diagrams or

descriptions, the direction of the disturbance and the motion of the particles of the

The objective of this indicator is to

illustrate ways that the energy of

waves is transferred, the primary

focus of assessment should be to

find specific illustrations (drawings,

diagrams, or word descriptions) or

use illustrations that show that the

energy is being transferred in a

variety of waves, transverse and

longitudinal/compressional, and

how the transfer of energy is

different from the displacement of

particles in the medium.

In addition to illustrate, students

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medium in each. Each illustration should:

Describe the energy (light, sound, mechanical disturbance, etc);

Describe the direction and the path that the energy takes;

Identify the medium, if any;

Describe the direction that the particles of the medium are disturbed as the wave

passes;

Describe the position of the particles of the medium before and after the wave

passes.

Examples of illustrations may include:

“ Slinky” waves - transverse and/or longitudinal A wave in a “slinky” spring

illustrates a mechanical disturbance caused by a force displacing one of the spring

coils.

The energy of a wave in a “slinky” spring will pass from the point on the spring

where a coil has been displaced to the end of the slinky.

The medium consists of the slinky coils.

The coils either move back and forth parallel to the length of the spring, or back

and forth perpendicular to the length of the spring.

After the wave passes, the coils return to approximately the position where they

were before the wave passed.

Sound waves:

The energy of the wave transmits from the tuning fork out in all directions. The

shape of the wave will approximate the shape of concentric spheres.

should be able to:

Identify transverse and

longitudinal waves from

illustrations;

Compare transverse and

longitudinal wave particle motion

and energy transfer direction;

Summarize the characteristics of

longitudinal/transverse waves.

Exemplify transverse and

longitudinal waves.

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A sound wave requires a medium through which it travels.

A sound wave is a longitudinal mechanical disturbance caused by a force

displacing molecules in the medium through which it passes.

A sound wave's energy travels out in all directions from a vibrating object.

A sound wave travels through the medium. The particles of the medium remain

where they were originally, but the wave energy moves from one place to another.

The particles of the medium move back and forth, parallel to the direction of the

wave.

After a sound wave passes, the particles of the medium continue moving in

approximately the same area where they were before the wave passed.

Light waves

Light waves do not need a medium through which to travel.

Light waves are transverse waves.

Light waves (or other electromagnetic waves) are energy that can be transmitted

without mechanical disturbance of the particles of a medium

Light waves (and other electromagnetic waves) travel in straight lines in all

directions from the source of the light as long as the medium does not change.

Light waves can transmit energy through empty space as from the Sun or stars.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 48 Revised May 2nd, 2014

The energy of the light wave travels from one place to another, but the particles of

the medium, if there is one, remain in approximately the same area where they

were before the wave passed.

PAe.2: Compare the

nature and properties

of transverse and

longitudinal /

compressional

mechanical waves.

Key Concepts

Mechanical waves: Transverse waves, Longitudinal/Compressional

waves

Wave properties: Crest, Trough; Compression, Rarefaction

It is essential for students to understand

Understand that there are two types of waves, electromagnetic and mechanical.

Electromagnetic waves may travel through a medium but do not need a

medium for transmission. Electromagnetic waves transfer energy through a

medium or space.

Mechanical waves must have a medium through which to move.

Mechanical waves transfer energy through the particles of a medium.

The particles of the medium move back and forth, but the wave (energy)

itself is transmitted progressively from one place to another.

Understand the nature of transverse and longitudinal mechanical waves.

In a transverse wave, as the wave (energy) moves through the medium, the

direction of the back and forth motion of the particles is perpendicular to the

direction that the wave is moving.

Examples of transverse mechanical waves might include: Some “slinky”

spring waves,secondary earthquake waves, and waves in the string of

stringed instruments such as a guitar.

In a longitudinal wave (also called compressional), as the wave (energy)

moves through the medium, the direction of the back and forth motion of the

particles is parallel to the direction that the wave is moving.

Examples of longitudinal mechanical waves might include: Some “slinky”

spring waves, sound waves, primary earthquake waves, shock waves

from a sonic boom or explosion, and ultrasonic waves.

Understand the wave properties of transverse waves - crests and troughs, and of

longitudinal waves - compressions and rarefactions.

In a transverse wave the point of maximum displacement of the particles in a

medium from the equilibrium position is called a crest or trough.

In a longitudinal wave the particles of the medium are pushed closer

The objective of this indicator is to

compare the nature and properties

of transverse and longitudinal

waves, therefore, the primary focus

of assessment should be to give

similarities and differences

between these waves with regard

to the movement of the particles in

the medium, the direction that the

wave moves, and the properties of

the waves.

In addition to compare, students

should be able to:

Exemplify or Illustrate transverse

and longitudinal waves - give

examples or draw or label

illustrations which depict the

motion of particles and the motion

of the wave;

Classify waves by determining

which of the two types of waves

(transverse or longitudinal) is

being described based on the

motion of particles and the motion

of the wave;

Summarize transverse and

longitudinal mechanical waves by

giving major points about the

characteristics of these waves.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 49 Revised May 2nd, 2014

together to form a high pressure area called a compression and spread out to

form a lower pressure area with fewer particles called a rarefaction.

Understand that some waves cannot be classified as transverse or longitudinal

waves

The motion of the particles in some waves can be described as circular. Surface

water waves fall into this category.

In torsion waves the motion of the particles is a twisting motion.

PAe.3: Summarize

characteristics of

waves (including

displacement,

frequency, period,

amplitude, wavelength,

and velocity as well as

the relationship-among

these characteristics).

Key Concepts

Displacement of particles

Frequency: Hertz

Period

Amplitude

Wavelength

Velocity - meaning speed

It is essential for students to understand

Understand characteristics of waves can be explained in terms of how the particles

in the medium behave.

Amplitude

The amplitude is the greatest displacement of the particles in a wave from their

equilibrium (rest) position.

In a transverse wave amplitude is measured from the equilibrium or rest position of

the medium to a crest or trough.

Displacement

Displacement with respect to waves will refer to the displacement of the particles in

the medium.

This quantity has magnitude and direction.

It is the distance of a vibrating particle from the midpoint of its vibration.

(Displacement is used in discussing amplitude and interference of mechanical

waves.)

Frequency

The frequency of the wave is the number of complete cycles (or vibrations) the

particles go through per second or the number of waves that pass a point per

second.

The objective of this indicator is to

summarize the characteristics of

waves, therefore, the primary focus

of assessment should be to give

major points about each

characteristic of a wave and the

relationships among these

characteristics.

In addition to summarize, students

should be able to:

Compare the characteristics of

different types of waves;

Exemplify and illustrate

characteristics of different types

of waves;

Identify wave characteristics from

a description or diagram;

Interpret diagrams to determine

wave characteristics

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The unit for frequency is Hertz, which is one vibration per second or one cycle per

second or one wave per second.

The frequency and the wavelength are inversely related. When the frequency gets

higher the wavelength gets shorter.

Period

The period of a wave is the time for one cycle (or vibration) or the time for one

complete wave to pass a point.

The period is usually measured in seconds.

The period and the frequency are inversely related. An increase in frequency

would result in a decrease in period.

Wavelength

Wavelength of a wave is distance between a point in a wave and the next similar

(in phase) point.

In a transverse wave the wavelength can be measured from a crest to the next

crest or from a trough to the next trough.

In a longitudinal wave the wavelength can be measured from point in the

compression to a similar point in the next compression or from a rarefaction to a

similar point in the next rarefaction.

Note: Since most longitudinal waves (such as sound waves) are not visible, the

wavelength often measured by indirect means.

Velocity/Speed

The velocity/speed of the wave is a function of the medium and the type of wave

and will not change unless the characteristics of the medium or type of wave

changes.

Changes in frequency or wavelength do not affect the velocity/speed (of

mechanical waves). When one of these increases the other decreases and the

product of the two is a constant, which is the velocity/speed.

When the medium changes, the speed of waves changes.

Examples may include: Sound travels faster in steel than in air. Sound travels

faster in warm air than cooler air. Light travels faster in air than in glass.

Transverse waves travel slower in a heavy rope than in a light rope

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PAe.4: Use the

formulas v = f and

v = d/t to solve

problems related to the

velocity of waves.

Key Concepts

Speed of Light

frequency

wavelength

It is essential for students to understand

The speed of an object refers to how fast an object is moving and is usually

expressed as the distance traveled per time of travel. In the case of a wave, the

speed is the distance traveled by a given point on the wave (such as a crest) in a

given interval of time.

The Speed of Light

The speed of any wave (v) is defined as the distance traveled (d) per time of travel

(t) and is described by the following equation:

v = d / t

Thus, the distance traveled by a wave is related to the time required for it to travel

that distance.

The speed of light, like the speed of any wave, is dependent upon the properties of

the medium through which it is moving. For the problems in this problem set, the

light waves are always moving through air or a vacuum

Unless told otherwise, a value of 2.998x10

8

m/s should be used for the speed of

light.

Frequency-Wavelength-Speed Relationship

Several questions in this problem set target your ability to analyze physical

situations involving the wavelength-frequency-speed relationship. Any wave,

whether a mechanical wave or a light wave, will have a wavelength-frequency-

speed relationship which follows the wave equation:

v = f • λ

Where v represents the speed (or velocity) of the wave, f represents the frequency

of the wave, and λ represents the wavelength of the wave.

As mentioned above, a value of 2.998x10

8

m/s should be used for the speed of

light unless told otherwise.

The objective of this indicator is to

use the formulas v = f λ and

v = d/t to solve problems,

therefore, the primary focus of

assessment should be to apply the

correct procedure to

mathematically determine one of

the variables in the formulas

v = f λ and v = d/t.

In addition to use, students should

be able to:

Use dimensional analysis to

determine correct units;

Recognize symbols and units for

wave velocity formulas.

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PAe.5: Summarize

the characteristics of

the electromagnetic

spectrum (including

range of wavelengths,

frequency, energy, and

propagation without a

medium).

Key Concepts

Electromagnetic spectrum

Visible spectrum

Propagation without a medium

It is essential for students to understand

That there is a wide range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic

waves.

The entire range of frequencies is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

The relative positions of the different types of electromagnetic waves on the

spectrum.

Students should know the order of electromagnetic waves from low frequency to

high frequency: radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light (red,

orange, yellow, green, blue, violet), ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Understand that the energy of electromagnetic waves is directly proportional

to the frequency.

When listed in order from lowest energy to highest energy, the list is the same as

when listed from lowest frequency to highest.

Electromagnetic waves with higher frequencies than visible light also have more

energy. This is why ultraviolet light can burn your skin, and X-rays and gamma can

damage tissues.

Electromagnetic waves with lower frequencies than visible light and have less

energy than visible light.

Understand that the higher frequency electromagnetic waves have shorter

wavelengths.

Understand that wavelengths vary greatly from very long wavelengths (many

meters) to very short wavelengths (the size of atomic nuclei).

Understand that electromagnetic waves travel in space with no medium or may

travel through a transparent medium.

All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum.

Electromagnetic waves slow down when they move from a vacuum to a

transparent medium.

Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.

The objective of this indicator is to

summarize the characteristics of

the electromagnetic spectrum , the

primary focus of assessment

should be to give major points

about the wavelengths, frequency,

energy, and propagation without a

medium for the different types of

electromagnetic radiation.

In addition to summarize, students

should be able to:

Compare the frequency,

wavelength, and energy of

different types of electromagnetic

radiation;

Infer characteristics of a type of

electromagnetic radiation from its

position in the spectrum;

Exemplify characteristics

and types of electromagnetic

radiation;

Illustrate or use illustration to

show characteristics of waves at

different positions on the

electromagnetic spectrum.

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PAe.6: Summarize

reflection and

interference of both

sound and light waves

and the refraction and

diffraction of light

waves.

Key Concepts

Wave behaviors: Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction

Constructive interference, Destructive interference

Concave lens, Convex lens

Law of reflection, Plane mirrors

It is essential for students to

Understand that waves can interfere with each other when they pass through a

medium simultaneously. The result of the combination of the waves when they

pass through the medium simultaneously can show constructive and/or destructive

interference.

Interference may be constructive:

A crest will interfere with another crest constructively to produce a larger crest and

a trough will interfere with another trough to produce a larger trough.

Compressions interfere constructively with each other as do rarefactions.

Interference may be destructive:

A crest will interfere with a trough to lessen or cancel the displacement of each.

Compressions interfere with rarefactions to lessen or cancel the displacement of

each

The individual waves are not affected by the interference and will continue on as if

nothing has happened.

Sound waves

Understand that sound is a longitudinal mechanical wave, requires a medium, and

can be produced by vibrating objects.

Understand that sound, like other waves, reflects (bounces off a surface it cannot

go through).

Sound produces echoes when it bounces off hard surfaces.

Understand that sound waves interfere with each other changing what you hear.

Destructive interference makes sounds quieter; constructive interference makes

sounds louder. This is because amplitude of a wave is what is affected by

interference and a sound wave’s amplitude is heard as loudness.

Sound waves reflect in tubes or some musical instruments to produce standing

waves which reinforce sound through constructive interference to make the sound

louder

The objective of this indicator is to

explain how the law of

conservation of energy applies to

energy transformations, therefore,

the primary focus of assessment

should be to construct a cause and

effect model showing that energy is

conserved as it continually

transforms from one type to

another. Students understand

transformation of different types of

energy and the relationship of this

transformation to the conservation

of energy.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Exemplify energy

transformations;

Compare the forms of energy;

Infer the transformations of

different types of energy within

given situations;

Summarize major points about

energy transformations;

Recall the forms of energy.

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PAe.7: Explain the

Doppler Effect

conceptually in terms

of the frequency of the

waves and the pitch of

the sound.

Key Concepts

Doppler Effect

Frequency, Wavelength, Pitch

It is essential for students to understand

Understand that the Doppler effect is an apparent frequency shift due to the

relative motion of an observer and a wave source.

Understand the relative motion of a wave source and an observer.

A Doppler shift occurs when a wave source is moving toward an observer or away

from the observer.

A Doppler shift also occurs when the observer is moving toward or away from the

wave source.

There is no shift when the source and observer are not moving toward or away

from each other.

The example above shows a wave source and observers that are not moving

relative to one another. If the wave source in the example is a sound wave, observer

A and observer B would hear the same pitch (frequency) that the source is

producing.

The objective of this indicator is to

explain how the law of

conservation of energy applies to

energy transformations, the

primary focus of assessment

should be to construct a cause and

effect model showing that energy is

conserved as it continually

transforms from one type to

another. Assessments should

require that students understand

transformation of different types of

energy and the relationship of this

transformation to the conservation

of energy.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Exemplify energy

transformations;

Compare the forms of energy;

Infer the transformations of

different types of energy within

given situations;

Summarize major points about

energy transformations;

Recall the forms of energy.

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The example above shows a wave source that is moving toward observer B. If the

wave source in the example is a sound wave then observer B will hear a higher

pitch (frequency) and observer A will hear a lower pitch (frequency) than the source

is actually producing.

Situation – wave source moving toward or away from an observer:

As a wave source approaches an observer, the observer perceives a higher

frequency than the source is producing. Wavelengths are shorter and the

frequency is higher in front of a moving source.

The source of the wave is catching up with the wave in front of it. When it produces

the next pulse the resulting wavelength is shorter. A shorter wavelength means

that there will be a higher frequency

If the wave is a sound wave, the observer will perceive a pitch that is higher than

the pitch produced by the source.

When the wave source is moving away from the observer, he/she will perceive a

lower frequency in the case of sound waves.

PAf: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of electricity and magnetism.

Indicator Essential Understandings Assessment Guidelines:

PAf.1: Explain the

relationship of

magnetism to the

movement of electric

charges in

Key Concepts

Electromagnet Core

Motor Armature

Generator Electromagnetic induction

The objective of this indicator is to

explain the relationship of

magnetism to the movement of

electric charges, the primary focus

of assessment should be to

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electromagnets, simple

motors, and

generators.

It is essential for students to understand

Electromagnets:

Electric currents in wires produce magnetic fields around the wire.

The magnetic field can be concentrated and thus strengthened in several ways:

Wrapping the wire in a coil will strengthen the electromagnet. The greater the

number of turns in the coil, the greater the increase in strength.

Adding a core (like iron) will concentrate the magnetic field and strengthen the

electromagnet.

Increasing the current in the coil will strengthen the electromagnet.

Motors:

Electric motors change electrical energy to mechanical energy.

Motors contain an electromagnet called an armature. When an electric

current runs through the wire in the armature it becomes magnetized.

The armature spins because other magnets in the motor push and pull the

armature and cause it to spin.

Motors use the magnetic force from magnets to spin an armature (magnetized

by an electric current) and thus change electric energy to mechanical energy.

Generators:

A generator changes mechanical energy into electric energy.

Generators use electromagnetic induction to produce an electric current.

When a wire or a coil of wire moves relative to a magnetic field an electric

current can be produced. This process is called electromagnetic induction.

In a generator at a power plant some other type of energy such as the energy

in stream is used to turn a turbine which spins a magnet in a generator. The

magnet spins past a coil of wire. This moving magnetic field pushes electrons

through the wire.

A generator is similar to an electric motor. (A generator is an electric motor

working in reverse.)

Generators produce AC current

construct a cause and effect model

that shows the relationship of

electricity and magnetism within

electromagnets, motors, and

generators.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Compare motors and generators;

Summarize major points about

electric motors, generators, and

electromagnets;

Summarize electromagnetic

induction.

Identify electromagnets, motors,

and generators from illustrations.

PAf.2: Explain how

objects can acquire a

static electric charge

through friction,

induction, and

conduction.

Key Concepts

Static charge:

Electron, Proton

Charging by

friction, induction, conduction

It is essential for students to understand that

Particles in atoms are electrically charged.

The objective of this indicator is to

explain how objects can acquire a

static charge; the primary focus of

assessment should be to construct

a cause and effect model relating

how friction, conduction, and

induction cause static charge.

In addition to explain, students

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 57 Revised May 2nd, 2014

The protons, which are tightly held in the nucleus, are positively charged.

The electrons, which move around outside the nucleus, are negatively charged.

Atoms normally have the same number positive charges that they do negative

charges. The effects of these charges cancel out and the object will have no net

charge.

Static electric charge is the result of transfer of electrons. The electrons in the

atoms can been removed from the atom and moved onto something else.

When an object loses electrons, it will have more protons than electrons and

will have a net positive charge.

When an object gains electrons, it will have more electrons than protons and

will have a net negative charge.

Like charges repel each other. Positives charges repel other positives charges,

and negative charges repel other negative charges.

Opposite charges attract. Negative and positive charges exert an attractive force

on each other.

Objects can be charged by:

Friction:

When one object is rubbed against another, sometimes electrons leave one object

and stick to the other leaving both objects charged.

The object that loses electrons will get or have a net positive charge, and the

object that gains electrons will get or have a net negative charge.

Conduction:

Electrons can be transferred from one object to another by touching.

When a charged object touches another object some charge will transfer to the

other object.

If the charged object is negative, some of the electrons will leave the

negatively charged object and travel to the neutral object leaving both

objects with a negative charge.

If the charged object is positive, some of the electrons will leave the neutral object

and travel to the positively charged object leaving both objects with a positive

charge.

Only the electrons are transferred in solid objects.

Objects charged by conduction will have the same charge as the object charging it

and therefore will repel it.

Induction:

Objects can be charged by bringing a charged object near a neutral object.

should be able to:

Compare how objects become

positively and negatively charged;

Infer effects of interactions of

charges and charged objects;

Summarize major points about

how objects acquire static charge;

Exemplify situations involving

charged objects and how they are

charged;

Recall that static electric charge

is the result of transfer of

electrons.

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If a charged object is brought near a neutral object the charged object will attract

unlike charges in the neutral object and repel like charges in the neutral object.

Electrons will move in the neutral object and leave the side nearest the charged

object charged with a charge that is opposite the charging object. (Only electrons

can move in a solid object.)

If the charged object is negative, the electrons in the neutral object will be

repelled leaving the side nearest the charged object with a positive charge. If the

neutral object is grounded, electrons are repelled into the ground. If the ground is

removed the previously neutral object will be left with a residual positive charge.

If the charged object is positive, the electrons in the neutral object will be

attracted and move towards the positive charge leaving the side nearest the

charged object with a negative charge. If the neutral object is grounded electrons

are pulled from the ground. If the ground is removed, the previously neutral object

will be left with a residual negative charge.

After an object is charged by induction, it will have the opposite charge of the

charging object and will attract it.

PAf.3: Explain the

relationships among

voltage, resistance,

and current in Ohm’s

law.

Key Concepts

Voltage Volt

Resistance Ohm

Current Ampere

Ohms law

It is essential for students to understand

Voltage is electric potential energy per charge. It provides the energy that pushes

and pulls electrons through the circuit.

Voltage is measured in volts. The symbol is (V).

Voltage is created by:

a chemical cell when it changes chemical energy to electrical energy, or

by a generator when it changes mechanical energy to electrical energy, or

by a solar cell when it changes light energy to electrical energy.

When a wire connects the terminals of a battery or generators, then the voltage will

push and pull electrons through a conductor.

One terminal has extra electrons thus a negative charge. The other terminal

has a deficit of electrons and thus a positive charge.

Electrons in the wire are pushed by the negative terminal and pulled by the

positive terminal through the wire.

The indicator is to explain the

relationship among voltage,

resistance, and current in Ohm’s

law, the primary focus of

assessment should be to construct

cause and effect models showing

these relationships.

In addition to explain, students

should be able to:

Compare the concepts of voltage,

current, and resistance;

Summarize major points about

voltage, current and resistance;

Infer what will happen when one

of the variables changes.

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Electric current is the flow of charge through a conductor.

The electric current in a wire is the flow of electrons.

Electric current is measured in amperes or amps. The symbol is (A).

Electric resistance opposes the flow of charge through a conductor. All conductors

have some resistance to an electric current with the exception of some

superconducting materials at very low temperatures.

In wires, resistance occurs when the electrons flowing through the wire

continually run into metal atoms and bounce around. These collisions impede

the flow of the electric current and change some of the electrical energy to

thermal and/or light energy.

Resistance is measured in ohms. The symbol is ( ).

Resistance will reduce the flow of current because it is harder for the current

to get through the conductor.

When an electric current encounters resistance heat is produced.

Wires that have a larger diameter have less resistance.

Longer wires have greater resistance.

In many materials an increase in temperature will increase resistance

AFf.4: Use the

formula V = IR to solve

problems related to

electric circuits.

Key Concepts

Law of conservation of energy Chemical energy

Work Light energy

Energy/Energy forms Sound energy

Mechanical energy Thermal energy

Electrical energy Energy transformation

It is essential for students to understand

The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or

destroyed. Energy can be transformed from one form to another, but the total

amount of energy never changes.

Energy is the property of an object or a system that enables it to do work.

Work is done when a force is applied to an object, and the object moves some

distance in response to the force in the direction of the force.

Work is the product of the force applied to an object and the distance the

object is moved in the direction of the force (displacement)

If you consider a system in its entirety, the total amount of energy never changes.

There are many different kinds of energy.

Mechanical energy is energy due to the position of something or the

movement of something. Mechanical energy can be potential, kinetic, or the

The objective of this indicator is to

use the formula V = IR to solve

problems related to electric circuits,

the primary focus of assessment

should be to apply the correct

procedure to mathematically

determine one of the variables in

the formula, V = I R, for situations

involving any simple circuit.

In addition to use, students should

be able to:

Recognize the symbols and units

for voltage, current, and

resistance.

Enhanced DoDEA Science Indicators (Physics Applications) Page 60 Revised May 2nd, 2014

sum of the two.

Chemical energy is a type of energy associated with atoms, ions, and

molecules and the bonds they form. Chemical energy will change to another

form of energy when a chemical reaction occurs.

Electrical energy is energy associated with current and voltage.

Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion and

arrangement of the particles of a material.

Light energy is energy that associated with electromagnetic waves.

Sound energy is energy associated longitudinal mechanical waves.

AFf.5: Represent an

electric circuit by

drawing a circuit

diagram that includes

the symbols for a

resistor, switch, and

voltage source.

Key Concepts

Circuits:

parallel circuit series circuit

Circuit components:

resistor switch wire light bulb

Voltage sources:

chemical cell battery with cells in series

generator battery with cells in parallel

It is essential for students to

Understand the components that can be used in an electric circuit;

Be able to represent the components of a complete circuit with symbols:

Wires Resistors

Light Bulbs Switches

Chemical Cell AC Source

Battery circuit with 2 cells wired in series

Battery circuit with 2 cells wired in parallel

It is also essential for students to

Represent a circuit with resistors or light bulbs wired in parallel.

Represent circuits by drawing a circuit diagram from a circuit which is pictured or

described.

Draw an open and a closed circuit.

Examples:

Closed circuit with a battery and a resistor Open circuit with a battery and a resistor

The objective of this indicator is to

represent an electric circuit by

drawing a circuit diagram including

symbols for resistor, switch, and

voltage source, the primary focus

of assessment should be to draw

an electric circuit utilizing symbols

for the major components of the

circuit.

In addition to represent, students

should be able to:

Interpret diagrams of electric

circuits utilizing symbols for the

components of the circuit;

Illustrate circuit diagrams;

Exemplify symbols and diagrams.

AFf.6: Compare the

functioning of simple

series and parallel

Key Concepts

Resistors wired in series

Resistors wired in parallel

The objective of this indicator is to

compare the functioning of parallel

and series circuits, the primary

focus of assessment should be to

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electrical circuits Batteries made from cells wired in series

Batteries made from cells wired in parallel

It is essential for students to recognize and understand

Series Circuits:

In a series circuit there is a single path for electrons.

When another resistor is wired in series with the resistors in a circuit, the total

resistance increases because all of the current must go through each resistor and

encounters the resistance of each.

The current in the circuit decreases when additional resistors are added.

o When another light bulb is added to lights wired in series, the lights will dim.

o The current will be the same in each resistor.

When light bulbs are wired in series and one is removed or burns out all of the

lights in the circuit go out. When the light bulb is removed from the circuit, it opens

the circuit and current cannot flow.

Parallel circuits:

When resistors are wired in parallel, there is more than one path that the electrons

can travel.

The voltage in each path is the same.

When another resistor is wired in parallel, then the total resistance is reduced.

The total current in the circuit will increase when another path is added.

If light bulbs are wired in parallel and one bulb burns out or is removed, the other

bulbs keep burning because the circuit is still complete.

Chemical cells in series and parallel:

Chemical cells can be wired in series to make a battery.

o Cells wired in series will increase the voltage of the battery.

Chemical cells can be wired in parallel to make a battery.

o Cells wired in parallel do not change the voltage of the battery.

o Cells are wired in parallel to make the battery last longer.

The cells are wired in series or parallel.

show similarities and differences

between these circuits with regard

to their structure and how these

circuits function in different

situations.

In addition to compare, students

should be able to:

Illustrate series and parallel

circuits;

Classify circuits as series or

parallel;

Summarize major points about

series and parallel circuits;

Infer the effects of changes in

series and parallel circuits;

Recognize series and parallel

circuits.

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