CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY &

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS
Aspects of Industrial Chemical
Processes
• Products
• Types of process
• Flowsheets
• Mass balances
• Energy balances
• Heat transfer and heat exchangers
• Reactor design and operation
• Separation and purification processes
Aspects of chemical processes cont.
• Process instrumentation and process control
• Materials handling
• Process economics
• Safety and environmental issues
• Quality etc.
Classification of chemical products
• Bulk chemicals e.g. sulphuric acid
• Fine chemicals e.g. ‘ibuprofen’
• Speciality chemicals e.g. adhesives
• Inorganic/organic

Classification of chemical products Contd.
Bulk chemicals are characterised by a combination
of two parameters – large volume production,
which is supported by market demand, and lower
unit costs, where the principle of economy of
scale is important.
Classification of chemical products contd.
Fine chemicals are produced on a relatively
smaller scale in more versatile (less dedicated
generally) production units using batch
operations. Product specifications may be more
exacting and unit cost is relatively higher. Fine
chemicals may be used as ingredients in
formulations or as intermediates in the
production of more complex chemicals. Eg., bulk
pharmaceuticals.


• Speciality chemicals are chemically
formulated products manufactured from basic
chemicals which are used by industry and
domestic consumers for specific purposes. For
example: coatings, adhesives, pharmaceutical
products, pesticides, cosmetics, disinfectants
etc.
Classification of chemical products Contd.
Process flowsheet
• Symbols
• Stream information
• Layout

SCHEMATIC/BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM
SYMBOLS FOR PFD
SYMBOLS FOR PFD
PFD of a typical amine treating process
Stream information
P and I Diagram
• Equipment details and arrangement (item no.,
name, dimensions, materials of construction, rate
or capacity, occupation time, T, P, materials
handled, heat duty, power)
• Pipe details
• Valves
• Ancillary fittings
• Pumps
• Instrumentation and control loops
• Services (utilities)
• Symbols
• Layout