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1: How was the voyage of the Beluga Skysails different than traditional industrial

ship voyages?
- the Beluga Skysail did not use a set of fixed masts with traditional sails that had to be
monitored repeatedly.

2: Fossil fuels supply approximately 90 % of the energy consumed by people

3: What are the two types of non-renewable alternative energy sources? Why are
they considered to be non-renewable?
- The 2 types of non-renewable alternative energy sources are nuclear and deep-earth
geothermal. They are nonrenewable because it is used more rapidly than the time needed
to be replenished. Plus, it requires mineral fuel from earth.

4: What is low-density, near-surface geothermal energy?
- Low-density, near-surface geothermal energy is a type of renewable energy.

5: What are biofuels made from?
- Biofuels are made of biomass (crops, wood, etc.).

6: What is the definition of renewable energy?
- Renewable energy is energy from a source that is not depleted when used, like wind and
solar power.

7: How much solar energy is equal to the energy stored in a all known reserves of
coal, oil and natural gas on Earth?
- 10 weeks

8: What are passive solar energy systems? Give an example.
- Systems that do not use mechanical pumps or other active devices to move air or water.
An example is architectural designs that enhance absorption of solar energy.

9: What are active solar energy systems? Give an example.
- Active solar energy systems require mechanical power to circulate air, water or other
fluids. An example is an electric pump.

10: What are solar collectors? What are they used for? How do they work?
- Collectors that provide space heating and are glass-covered plates that is circulated
through tubes. The radiation enters the glass and is absorbed by the black background.
Heat is emitted which heats up the fluid.

11: What are photovoltaics? What are they made out of? Explain how they work.
- Photovoltaics convert sunlight directly into electricity. They are made of photovoltaic
cells. When sunlight hits the cells, thin layers of a semiconductor produce an electric

12: What are solar thermal generators? How do they work?
- Solar thermal generators focus sunlight onto water-holding containers. It boils the water
and is used to run machines.

13: What are some of the environmental concerns of solar energy?
- Metals, glass, plastics and fluid. The substances may cause environmental problems
through production and accidental release.

14: What are fuel cells? How are they created?
- Fuel cells are highly efficient power-generating systems that produce electricity by
combining fuel and oxygen in an electrochemical reaction. They are created by electrodes,
platinum membranes and: H2, H2O and O2.

15: Water power has been around since when?
- The Roman Empire.

16: How much power in the United States is currently powered by hydroelectricity?
- 80,000 MW currently powers the United States by hydroelectricity.

17: What is microhydropower? Where is this helpful?
- Small scale hydropower systems. It is helpful in homes.

18: What are the environmental benefits of hydroelectricity?
- Reducing high cost of importing electricity and can help small operations become

19: What are the environmental consequences of hydroelectricity?
- Freshwater ecosystems, take away landscape beauty and changes downstream flow.

20: Explain how we can harness tidal power.
-We can harness tidal power by building dams that entrance to a bay or estuary. As tides
rises, water is prevented from entering the bay. When there is enough water to run
turbines, the dam is opened and water flows, which runs the turbines.

21: What are some of the environmental impacts of tidal power?
- Changing hydrology of a bay or estuary, which can affect vegetation and wildlife.

22: What is the major problem with using wind power?
- Wind tends to be highly variable in time, place and intensity.

23: How are winds produced?
*Winds are produced when differential heating of Earth's surface creates air mass with
differing heat contents and densities.

24: How does topography influence winds? Explain.
*Topography affects the wind's direction, velocity and duration because of things blocking
wind like mountains and hills.

25: Which regions in the United States have the greatest potential for wind
power development?
- The Pacific Northwest coastal area and the coastal region of the northeastern United

26: Which country has the largest wind energy capacity installed?
- The United States

27: Modern wind turbines are big- as much as _70_ m high, as tall as
a _23_ story building, and have a generating capacity of more than ___1 million___
watts. This is enough electricity for __500__ modern U.S. homes.

28: What are the disadvantages to wind power for the environment?
- Wind turbines kill birds and can degrade area scenery.

29: What is the future outlook for wind energy generation?
- It can be a major supplier.

30: What are the 3 categories of biofuels?
- Firewood, organic wastes and crops grown to be converted into liquid fuels.

31: How many people worldwide still use wood as their primary source for energy?
- 1 billion people

32: What are some of the benefits of using biofuels?
- Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and releases fewer pollutants.

33: What are the environmental concerns with the using of biofuels?
- It requires fertilizers and pesticides, pollutes and degrades land.

34: What are the two types of geothermal energy and how do they differ?
- Deep-earth high-density and shallow-earth low-density. Deep-earth uses energy within
earth and shallow-earth uses solar energy.

35: How many people worldwide depend on geothermal as their energy source?
- 40 million people

36: What type of location is ideal for high-density geothermal energy? Give an
- Hot water transfers. An example is the Geysers Geothermal Field north of San Francisco.

37: Where is low-density geothermal energy mostly found? Why?
* The groundwater because groundwater is usually cool.

38: What are the PROS and CONS of using geothermal energy?
- PRO- renewable, doesn't require large scale transportation, doesn't produce atmospheric
- CON- Thermal pollution, site noise, emission of gases, disturbance of land

39: What types of government incentives might encourage use of alternative energy
sources? Would their widespread use affect our economic and social environment?
- Paying them to use the energy sources or less taxes. Their widespread use would affect
our economic and social environment. The economy would improve and people's lives
would be more healthier.

1: How much of the worlds electricity do nuclear power plant provide?
- 17%

2: In the United States, nuclear power plants produce about _20_% of the
countrys electricity and about __ 8__% of the total energy used.

3: The nuclear power plants in France provide __80__% of the countrys total energy

4: What is nuclear energy?
* Energy contained in an atom's nucleus.

5: What is the difference between fission and fusion?
*Fission splits the atom and fusion combines atom.

6: Nuclear reactors use (fusion or fission?) and which product as a source
of radioactivity?
- Uranium oxide.

7: Which type of Uranium is used for nuclear power plants?
- Uranium-235

8: What does it mean that the Uranium is enriched?
- Increased in concentration.

9: What is a nuclear meltdown?
- A nuclear meltdown refers to a nuclear accident in which the coolant system fails.

10: Reactors that use ordinary water as the coolant are called:__moderators___

11: Label a diagram below to explain the nuclear power plant set-up:

12: What is a radioisotope?
- A form of a chemical element that spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay.

13: What is radioactive decay?
- When the radioisotope changes from one isotope to another and emits one or more kinds
of radiation.

14: What is a half-life? What is the half-life of Uranium 235?
- The time required for half of the isotope to decay. The half life of Uranium-235 is 700
million years.

15: Define the following types of nuclear radiation: (Explain the safety measures
needed when using each)
- Alpha Particle: two protons and neutrons and has greatest mass. Safety is to be far away
from this particle.
- Beta Particle: electrons that travel further through air, but can be blocked by shielding
like sheet metal.
- Gamma Rays: Most penetrating type of radiation. Requires thick shielding when being

16: Uranium goes through a radioactive decay chain to finally become which
- Lead-206

17: What are the major problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle?
*Exposes miners to radiation, radioactive waste must be carefully handled, site selection is
controversial, waste disposal controversy

18: How does nuclear radiation effect ecosystems? Explain and give an example.
- By entering pathways of mineral cycling and ecological foodchains, because the
radioactive particles are moved around by winds. An example is the Atomic fallout in 1950s
and 1960s when the U.S were testing nuclear weapons.

19: Radiation is found naturally in what kind of materials? Give 2 examples.
- In soils and rocks. Examples: are granite & shale.

20: Where in the United States are background radiation levels higher?
- Florida

21: In what ways are people exposed to radiation in their every day lives?
- Through x-rays, flying planes and cosmic rays.

22: What is the commonly used unit for radioactive decay? Who is it named after?
- Curie, named after Marie Curie.

23: What is the SI unit for radioactive decay?

24: When dealing with the environmental effects of radiation, we are most interested
in the actual dose of radiation delivered by radioactivity. This dose is commonly
measured in terms of _rads__ and __rems__. In the international system (SI), the units
are __grays___ and __sieverts__.

25: For gamma rays, the unit commonly used is the __roentgen__ or in SI units,

26: What is the LD50 dose of radiation in humans?
- 5 sieverts.

27: What happened to the women who worked in the watch factories in the early
- The women died of anemia or bone cancer from radium.

28: What are the health effects for workers in uranium mines?
- High rates of lung cancer.

29: What is the current risk of a nuclear meltdown in the U.S. according to the U.S.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission?
- One in ten thousand.

30: When did the event on Three-Mile Island occur?
- In March 28, 1979.

31: Where is Three-Mile Island located?
- Near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

32: What were some of the societal issues associated with the incident at Three-Mile
- Fear of another meltdown, revealed problems to nuclear power.

33: Summarize the events at Chernobyl, Soviet Union
- In April 28,1986 a power plant at Chernobyl had high levels of radiation. The cooling
system for the Chernobyl reactor failed, causing temperatures to rise to 3000 degrees
Celsius. It caused an explosion and release clouds of radioactive particles. 237 people had
acute radiation sickness and 31 people died. 3 million people in the Northern Hemisphere
received high amounts of radiation from Chernobyl.

34: How many people died and how many people were diagnosed with acute
radiation sickness?
- 237 people were diagnosed with acute radiation and 31 died.

35: How many people were exposed to radiation in the days following the accident?
- 3 million people

36: What was the most common type of illness that resulted from the Japanese A-
bomb survivors?
- Leukemia.

37: What was the most common type of illness that resulted from the Chernobyl
- Thyroid cancer.

38: What happened to the ecosystem around the affected area following the
- The vegetation within 7 km had been killed or damaged and pine trees had extensive
tissue damage and contained radioactivity.

39: What is low-level radioactive waste? Where it is stored?
- Contains radioactivity in low concentrations that doesn't give environmental hazards. It
is stored in near-surface burial areas.

40: What is transuranic waste? How is it created?
- Waste contaminated by man-made radioactive elements that created when industrial
trash has been contaminated.
41: What is high-level radioactive waste? Where is it stored?
- Consists of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel. It is stored in more than a hundred
sites in 40 states of the U.S. 72 sites are commercial nuclear reactors.

42: What and where is Yucca Mountain? What was the plan with it?
- Yucca Mountain was a place that was planned to bury nuclear waste in Nevada. The plan
was to dispose the waste deep underground in Yucca Mountain.

43: What are the safety hazards associated with using Yucca Mountain to store
nuclear waste?
- The probability of earthquakes. explosions, and changes in storage environments.

44: How much Uranium stores do we have left?
- 104

45: What are the PROS and CONS of using Nuclear Power?
- PRO- Good for the environment because it doesn't contribute to global warming, doesn't
emit gases, and would greatly increase availability of fuel.
- CON- Nuclear power unlikely to have real impact on environmental problems, can be used
for weapons, uranium ore to fuel conventional nuclear reactors limited.

46: What are breeder reactors?
- Producing new nuclear fuel by transforming waste or lower-grade uranium into
fissionable material.