A Project Report on Stress Management in Sony

India
Submitted to the XXXXXXXXXXX
By Guided By
XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX
Ty. B.B.A. XXXXXXXXX
Roll No
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1
Preface
The study of human resource management is one of the
major criteria in the corporate sector. Human resource is the heart of
the organization. By this research project we will be able to know to
reduce the stress level of the employees working in the bank. By this
way the productivity of the employee increases.
Now a day the corporate sector is booming in a high speed
that the people have to work for prolonged hours to maintain the
standard of living and achieve their basic needs. So is the condition in
the hospitals colleges B!"#s and lots of other places. $n spit of
having the modern technologies and facilities people are feeling
themselves to be work loaded and stressed. Stress arises because of
many reasons which are discussed in the following project. The
project report also contain techni%ues how to reduce the stress and
overcome such problems.
To identify the level of stress among the people who work $
have tried to survey the people working in hospitals B!"#s and other
industries as well as institutes. Stress arises because of unfulfilled
wants lack of job satisfaction etc. before starting the topic of stress&
let#s first understand the importance of human resource.
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
To carry out this research work $ have got the help from my
parents who have given full support to carry out this research work.
They are the one who motivated and helped for the completion of this
project report.
'urther $ would like to thank (r. ))))))) *Branch
(anager Sony +entre ,aranasi- and their employees who have
given full supported and co operated with me to carry out this
research work.
$ am also thankful to the employees of Sony centre who
have supported me The Branch (anager of Sony +entre and their
employees who have helped me for the project work by filling the
%uestionnaire.
3
Executie Summe!y
This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the
definition of stress is been defined. 'or more detailed study the types of the
stress is also defined. By looking at the starting of the project you will find.
o $ntroduction to Human resource
o $ntroduction and /efinition of stress
o Stress in biological terms
o 0hat is stress1
o +oping with stress at work place.
o Stress management
o 0orkplace stress
o 2educing of stress.
3fter the theoretical part $ have included the research part. (y
research work includes two %uestionnaires.
o Burn out test
o Stress analysis 4uestionnaire
(y research includes the research methodology which contains the
information as follows.
o 2esearch objectives
o Sampling *types and methods of sampling-
o 2esearch instrument
o /ata analysis and interpretation
o 5mployee#s opinion to reduce stress.
o 2esearch flowchart
o Time consideration
o 6imitation of survey
o 3dvantages and disadvantages of written
%uestionnaire
4
o 'inding
"NDEX
No Co#te#t $%&e #o
' Co#ce(tu%l )!%me*o!+ '
7.7 $ntroduction to H2 7
7.8 +oncept of stress 9
7.8.7 $ntroduction to stress 9
7.8.8 Stress in Biological terms :
7.8.9 0hat is stress ;
7.8.< +oping with stress at workplace 77
7.8.= Stress (anagement 7=
7.8.> 0orkplace stress 7:
7.8.? 2educe your stress 88
, COM$AN- $RO)"LE ,.
8.7 3bout Sony 8?
8.8 History 8;
8.9 Sony $ndia 98
9. ,ision
< (ission
=.
Re/e%!ch Methodolo&y
9>
=.7 2esearch objective
=.8 Sampling
=.9 2esearch instrument
=.< 2esearch @ /ata 3nalysis
=.= 5mployees opinion about how to reduce stress <:
=.> 2esearch flowchart =A
=.? Time consideration =7
=.: 6imitation of the survey =8
=.:.7 3dvantages of 0ritten 4uestionnaires =8
=.:.8 /isadvantages of 0ritten 4uestionnaires =9
=.; 'indings ==
0 Biblio&!%(hy 12
. A##exu!e 13
1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
4'.'5 "NTROD6CT"ON TO 7R
5
Human 2esource (anagement is an art of managing people at
work in such a manner that they give their best to the organization. $n
simple word human resource management refers to the %uantitative
aspects of employees working in an organization.
Human 2esource (anagement is also a management function
concerned with hiring motivating and maintains people in an organization. $t
focuses on people in organization.
"rganizations are not mere bricks mortar machineries or inventories.
They are people. $t is the who staff and manage organizations.
H2( involves the application of management functions and principles.
The functions and principles are applied to ac%uisitioning developing maintain
and remunerating employees in organizations.
/ecisions relating to employees must be integrated. /ecision on
different aspect of employees must be consistent with other human resource
decisions.
/ecision made must influence the effectiveness of organization.
5ffectiveness of an organization must result in betterment of services to
customers in the form of highB%uality product supplied at reasonable costs.
H2( function s is not confined to business establishment only. They
are applicable to nonBbusiness organizations too such as education health care
recreation etc.
6
The scope of H2( is indeed vast. 3ll major activities in the working life
of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leavesBcome under the
previews of H2(.specifically the activities included are H2 planning job
analysis and be sign recruitment and selection orientation and placement
training and development performance appraisal and job evaluation employee
and eCecutive remuneration motivation and communication welfare safety and
health industrial relations and the like.
H2( is a broad concept !ersonnel management and human resource
development is a part of H2(.
Before we define DHuman 2esource (anagementE it seems good
to first define heterogeneous in the sense that they differ in personality
perception emotions values attitudes motives and modes of thoughts.
Human resource management plays an important role in the
development process of modern economy. $n fact it is said that all the
development comes from the human mind.
D Human 2esource (anagement is a process of producing
development maintaining and controlling human resources for effective
achievement of organization goals.E
4'.,5 CONCE$T O) STRESS
4'.,.'5 "NTROD6CT"ON TO STRESS
7
3 lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred
years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted& others are
still being researched and debated. /uring this time there seems to have been
something approaching open warfare between competing theories and
definitions. ,iews have been passionately held and aggressively defended.
0hat complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what
stress is as it is something we have all eCperienced. 3 definition should therefore
be obviousFeCcept that it is not.
De8i#itio#9
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His
view in 7;=> was that Dstress is not necessarily something bad G it all depends
on how you take it. The stress of eChilarating creative successful work is
beneficial while that of failure humiliation or infection is detrimental.E Selye
believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be eCperienced irrespective
of whether the situation was positive or negative.
Since then a great deal of further research has been conducted and
ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a Hbad thingH with a range of
harmful biochemical and longBterm effects. These effects have rarely been
observed in positive situations.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress *mainly attributed to
2ichard S 6azarus- is that /t!e// i/ % co#ditio# o! 8eeli#& ex(e!ie#ced *he#
% (e!/o# (e!ceie/ th%t :dem%#d/ exceed the (e!/o#%l %#d /oci%l
!e/ou!ce/ the i#diidu%l i/ %ble to mobili;e.< $n short itIs what we feel when
we think weIve lost control of events.
This is the main definition used by this section of (ind Tools although
we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to
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uneCpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and
part to do with the way we think.
The types of stress are as follows
Mech%#ic%l
• Stress *physics- the average amount of force eCerted per unit area.
• Jield stress the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically.
• +ompressive stress the stress applied to materials resulting in their
compaction.
Biolo&ic%l
• Stress *biological- physiological or psychological stress& some types
include.
o +hronic stress persistent stress which can lead to illness and
mental disorder
o 5ustress positive stress that can lead to improved longBterm
functioning
o 0orkplace stress stress caused by employment
Mu/ic
• 3ccent *music-.
• Stress *band- an early I:As melodic rock band from San /iego.
• Stress *punk band- an early I:As punk rock band from 3thens.
• Stress *NeoB!sychedelic band- from the late 7;:AIs.
• Stress a song by the 'rench band Kustice on their debut album
Othe!
• Stress *game- card game
• Stress *linguistics- phonological use of prominence in language
9
St!e// 4(hy/ic/5= the %e!%&e %mou#t o8 8o!ce exe!ted (e! u#it %!e%.
St!e// is a measure of the average amount of force eCerted per unit area. $t
is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body
across imaginary internal surfaces as a reaction to eCternal applied forces
and body forces. $t was introduced into the theory of elasticity by +auchy
around 7:88. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum.
$n general stress is eCpressed as
0here
$s the average stress also called e#&i#ee!i#& or #omi#%l /t!e// and
$s the force acting over the area .
Ch!o#ic St!e//
Ch!o#ic /t!e// is stress that lasts a long time or occurs fre%uently. +hronic
stress is potentially damaging.
Symptoms of chronic stress can be.
• upset stomach
• headache
• backache
• insomnia
• anCiety
• depression
• anger
10
$n the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder.
There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress including eCercise
healthy diet stress management relaCation techni%ues ade%uate rest and
relaCing hobbies.
5nsuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate
stress in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a
magnesium deficiency. +hronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency
which can be a factor in continued chronic stress and a whole host of other
negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency.
$t has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who
suffer from this condition. 3 very large number of these new cases suffer from
insomnia.
$n a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and
disease the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening
depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of
H$,L3$/S.
Com(!e//ie /t!e//9
Com(!e//ie /t!e// is the stress applied to materials resulting in their
compaction *decrease of volume-. 0hen a material is subjected to compressive
stress then this material is under compression. Msually compressive stress
applied to bars columns etc. leads to shortening.
6oading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress
until the reach of compressive strength. 3ccording to the properties of the
material failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior *most
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metals some soils and plastics- or as rupture for brittle behavior *geometries
cast iron glass etc-.
$n long slender structural elements BB such as columns or truss bars BB an
increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at
lower stress than the compressive strength.
+ompressive stress has stress units *force per unit area- usually with negative
values to indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering
compressive stress is represented with positive values.
4'.,.,5 St!e// i# Biolo&ic%l te!m/9
12
St!e// is a biological term which refers to the conse%uences of the failure of a
human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats
to the organism whether actual or imagined. $t includes a state of alarm and
adrenaline production shortBterm resistance as a coping mechanism and
eChaustion. $t refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond.
+ommon stress symptoms include irritability muscular tension inability to
concentrate and a variety of physical reactions such as headaches and
accelerated heart rate.
The term HstressH was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 7;9As
to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and
popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans
trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. $n SelyeIs terminology HstressH
refers to the reaction of the organism and HstressorH to the perceived threat.
Stress in certain circumstances may be eCperienced positively. 5ustress for
eCample can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal
resources to meet challenges and achieve goals.
The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or
biological sense as a catchBall for any perceived difficulties in life. $t also became
a euphemism a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without
being eCplicitly confessional just Hstressed outH. $t covers a huge range of
phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in
a real breakdown of health. $n popular usage almost any event or situation
between these eCtremes could be described as stressful.
4'.,.>5 *h%t i/ St!e//?
13
Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our eCternal environment and
us leading to emotional and physical pressure. $n our fast paced world it is
impossible to live without stress whether you are a student or a working adult.
There is both positive and negative stress depending on each individual#s uni%ue
perception of the tension between the two forces. Not all stress is bad. 'or
eCample positive stress also known as eustress can help an individual to
function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency.
Hence it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and
vibrancy to our lives. The presence of a deadline for eCample can push us to
make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. $t is important to keep
this in mind as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage and
not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives.
"n the other hand negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The
individual will eCperience symptoms such as tensions headaches irritability and
in eCtreme cases heart palpitations. Hence whilst some stress may be seen as
a motivating force it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have
an adverse impact on your health and relationships.
!art of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect
you emotionally and physically as well as how to identify if you are performing at
your optimal stress level *"S6- or if you are eCperiencing negative stress. This
knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break or perhaps
seek professional help. $t is also your first step towards developing techni%ues to
managing your stress levels.
(odern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs or emotional frictions.
+ompetition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of
stress. How do you identify if you are suffering from eCcessive stress1
!sychological symptoms commonly eCperienced include insomnia headaches
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and an inability to focus. !hysical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations
breathlessness eCcessive sweating and stomachaches.
0hat causes stress1 There are many different causes of stress and that which
causes stress is also known as a stressor. +ommon lifestyle stressors include
performance threat and bereavement stressors to name a few. !erformance
stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels
a need to eCcel. This could be during performance appraisals lunch with the
boss or giving a speech. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation
poses a dangerous threat such as an economic downturn or from an accident.
6astly bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the
death of a loved one or a prized possession.
Thus there are various stressors and even more varied methods and
techni%ues of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. $n order to do
so we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative
stress.
Good /t!e// @/ B%d /t!e//9
Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative with few people
acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. $n our everyday
lives stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable& hence our emphasis
should be on differentiating between what is good stress and what is bad. This
will help us to learn to cope with negative stress and harness the power of
positive stress to help us achieve more.
There are < main categories of stress namely eustress distress hyper stress
and hypo stress. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological
problems whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. Here#s how we
differentiate between them.
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Eu/t!e//9
this is a positive form of stress which prepares your mind and body for the
imminent challenges that it has perceived. 5ustress is a natural physical reaction
by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles resulting in a higher
heart rate. 3thletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major
presentation would do well with eustress allowing them to derive the inspiration
and strength that is needed.
Di/t!e//
0e are familiar with this word and know that it is a negative form of stress. This
occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes and usually
occurs when there are deviations from the norm. They can be categorized into
acute stress and chronic stress. 3cute stress is intense but does not last for
long. "n the other hand chronic stress persists over a long period of time.
Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the
person is unable to handle or cope with.
7y(e! /t!e//
This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable
to cope with the workload. 5Camples include highly stressful jobs which re%uire
longer working hours than the individual can handle. $f you suspect that you are
suffering from hyper stress you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns
over insignificant issues the proverbial straws that broke the camel#s back. $t is
important for you to recognize that your body needs a break or you may end up
with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions.
16
7y(o /t!e//
6astly hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and
feels constantly bored and unmotivated. This is due to an insufficient amount of
stress& hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. +ompanies should
avoid having workers who eCperience hypo stress as this will cause productivity
and mindfulness to fall. $f the job scope is boring and repetitive it would be a
good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always
something new to learn.
The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Di/t!e// is the
most commonlyBreferred to type of stress having negative implications whereas
eu/t!e// is a positive form of stress usually related to desirable events in
personIs life. Both can be e%ually taCing on the body and are cumulative in
nature depending on a personIs way of adapting to a change that has caused it.
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4'.,.A5 Co(i#& *ith St!e// %t Wo!+ (l%ce
0ith the rapid advancement of technology the stresses faced at work have also
increased. (any people dread going to work hence the term D(onday BluesE.
0hat is the reason for this1 There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad
times leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain.
Mndoubtedly occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors
faced by people all over the world.
Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in
psychological and physical reactions. 0hilst some stress is good for motivation
and increasing efficiency too much stress can result in negative impacts such as
reduced effectiveness and efficiency. (ore and more people are feeling isolated
and disrespected at work and this has led to greater occupational stress. (any
companies have taken to consulting eCperts and professionals on ways to
increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.
Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at
work. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure
at their jobs translating into greater productivity. However not all companies
have such measures in place and some have not gotten it %uite right. Hence it
is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace and
use it to help you work better. Here are 9 simple steps to help you with coping
with stress in the workplace.
Ste( '9 R%i/i#& A*%!e#e//
Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress tipping the
scales from positive to negative. This is important as being able to identify signs
of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall %uality of
life does not drop. $f left unacknowledged the problem will only snowball leading
to disastrous conse%uences to your health and overall wellbeing.
18
Jou can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical
or psychological reactions such as eCcessive sweating or heart palpitations or
the onset of headaches irritability or the need to escape. $f you eCperience any
of these reactions identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative
emotions and if you are constantly worried.
Ste( ,9 "de#ti8y the C%u/e
Jou need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise
in stress. These stressors can be eCternal and internal. 5Cternal stressors refer
to things beyond your control such as the environment or your colleagues at
work. $nternal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. "ften we only
start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together
eCceeds our ability to cope.
Neep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative
emotions or that are likely stressors. This will help you to identify the causes of
your stress. 0hilst it is not always possible to eradicate them we can change the
way that we cope with it.
Ste( >9 Co(i#& *ith St!e//
$n order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress you need to calm
your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive
way. This can be through different methods such as taking time off. $f a situation
is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down remove yourself from
it. Oo outside and take a walk to calm down. 3lternatively you can try
implementing relaCation techni%ues such as deep breathing. $f it is an internal
stressor stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically.
The key to making these 9 steps work for you is to practice them. These are not
instantaneous solutions and you need to condition your mind and practice them
so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed.
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4'.,.15 St!e// M%#%&eme#t
Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go
beyond a stress situation life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and
plaguing us with anCiety attacks. (oreover be it our anCiety mindBbody
eChaustion or our erring attitudes we tend to overlook causes of stress and the
conditions triggered by those. $n such unsettling moments we often forget that
stressors if not escapable are fairly manageable and treatable.
Stress either %uick or constant can induce risky bodyBmind disorders.
$mmediate disorders such as dizzy spells anCiety attacks tension
sleeplessness nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health
problems. They may also affect our immune cardiovascular and nervous
systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions which are interBlinked with
stress.
6ike Hstress reactionsH HrelaCation responsesH and stress management
techni%ues are some of the bodyIs important builtBin response systems. 3s a
relaCation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Some
hormones released during the Ifight or flightI situation prompt the body to replace
the lost carbohydrates and fats and restore the energy level. The knotted
nerves tightened muscles and an eChausted mind crave for looseness.
Mnfortunately today we donIt get relaCing and soothing situations without
asking. To be relaCed we have to strive to create such situations.
20
Reco&#i;i#& % /t!e//o!9
$t is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. (any times
even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to
it internally as well as eCternally we fail to realize that we are reacting under
stress. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for
us to get habituated to them. The body constantly tries to tell us through
symptoms such as rapid palpitation dizzy spells tight muscles or various body
aches that something is wrong. $t is important to remain attentive to such
symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations.
0e cope better with stressful situation when we encounter them voluntarily. $n
cases of relocation promotion or layoff adventurous sports or having a baby we
tend to respond positively under stress. But when we are compelled into such
situations against our will or knowledge more often than not we wilt at the face
of unknown and imagined threats. 'or instance stress may mount when one is
coerced into undertaking some work against oneIs will.
L%u&hte!:
3dopting a humorous view towards lifeIs situations can take the edge off
everyday stressors. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps
maintain the e%uanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. Being able to laugh
stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects.
3 sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of
life and provides moments of delight. The emotions we eCperience directly affect
our immune system. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes
that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress.
/uring stress the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids which are converted to
cortical in the blood stream. These have an immunosuppressive effect. /r. 6ee
21
Berk and fellow researcher /r. Stanley Tan at 6oma 6inda Mniversity School of
(edicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the eCperience
of laughter lowers serum cortical levels increases the amount and activity of T
lymphocytesPthe natural killer cells. 6aughter also increases the number of T
cells that have suppresser receptors.
0hat 6aughter +an /o 3gainst Stress 3nd $ts 5ffects 1
Q 6aughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension.
Q $t provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to
perform physical eCercise.
Q 2educes stress hormones *studies shows laughter induces reduction of at
least four of neuroendocrine hormonesPepinephrine cortical dopac and growth
hormone associated with stress response-.
Q 6aughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it
empties more air than it takes in. $t is beneficial for patients suffering from
emphysema and other respiratory ailments.
Q $t increases muscle fleCion relaCation and fluent blood circulation in body.
Q Boosts immune function by raising levels of infectionBfighting TBcells diseaseB
fighting proteins called OammaBinterferon and diseaseBdestroying antibodies
called BBcells.
Q 6aughter triggers the release of endorphinsPbodyIs natural painkillers.
Q !roduces a general sense of wellBbeing.
22
4'.,.05 Wo!+(l%ce St!e//
Wo!+(l%ce /t!e// is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs
when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities
resources or needs of the worker. StressBrelated disorders encompass a broad
array of conditions including psychological disorders *e.g. depression anCiety
postBtraumatic stress disorder- and other types of emotional strain *e.g.
dissatisfaction fatigue tension etc.- maladaptive behaviors *e.g. aggression
substance abuse- and cognitive impairment *e.g. concentration and memory
problems-. $n turn these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even
injury. Kob stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may
lead ultimately to compromised health such as cardiovascular disease.
Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in todayIs workplace. 3bout oneBthird of
workers report high levels of stress. "neB%uarter of employees view their jobs as
the number one stressor in their lives. ThreeB%uarters of employees believe the
worker has more onBtheBjob stress than a generation ago. 5vidence also
suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations.
7e%lth %#d 7e%lthc%!e 6tili;%tio#
!roblems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are
any other life stressorBmore so than even financial problems or family problems.
(any studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees
little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
"n the basis of research by the National $nstitute for "ccupational Safety and
Health and many other organizations it is widely believed that job stress
increases the risk for development of back and upperBeCtremity musculoskeletal
disorders. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in
health service utilization. 0orkers who report eCperiencing stress at work also
show eCcessive health care utilization. $n a 7;;: study of <>AAA workers health
care costs were nearly =AR greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in
23
comparison to Dlow riskE workers. The increment rose to nearly 7=AR an
increase of more than S7?AA per person annually for workers reporting high
levels of both stress and depression. 3dditionally periods of disability due to job
stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational
injuries and illnesses.
C%u/e/ o8 Wo!+(l%ce St!e//
Kob stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work.
,iews differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working
conditions as the primary cause of job stress. The differing viewpoints suggest
different ways to prevent stress at work. 3ccording to one school of thought
differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are
most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stressBin
other words what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone
else. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and
ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. 3lthough the importance
of individual differences cannot be ignored scientific evidence suggests that
certain working conditions are stressful to most people. Such evidence argues for
a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress and for
job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. !ersonal interview surveys of
working conditions including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress
were conducted in (ember States of the 5uropean Mnion in 7;;A 7;;= and
8AAA. 2esults showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing
work intensity. $n 7;;A the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at
high speeds at least oneBfourth of their working time was <:R increasing to =<R
in 7;;= and to =>R in 8AAA. Similarly =AR of workers reported they work
against tight deadlines at least oneBfourth of their working time in 7;;A
increasing to =>R in 7;;= and >A R in 8AAA. However no change was noted in
the period 7;;=G8AAA *data not collected in 7;;A- in the percentage of workers
reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. 3 substantial percentage of
3mericans work very long hours. By one estimate more than 8>R of men and
24
more than 77R of women worked =A hours per week or more in 8AAA. These
figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades
especially for women. 3ccording to the /epartment of 6abor there has been an
upward trend in hours worked among employed women an increase in eCtended
work weeks *T<A hours- by men and a considerable increase in combined
working hours among working couples particularly couples with young children.
Si&#/ o8 Wo!+(l%ce St!e//
(ood and sleep disturbances upset stomach and headache and disturbed
relationships with family& friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are eCamples of
stressBrelated problems. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more
difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be
influenced by many factors other than stress. Nonetheless evidence is rapidly
accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of
chronic health problemsBespecially cardiovascular disease musculoskeletal
disorders and psychological disorders.
$!ee#tio#
3 combination of organizational change and stress management is often the
most useful approach for preventing stress at work.
How to +hange the "rganization to !revent Kob Stress
• 5nsure that the workload is in line with workersI capabilities and
resources.
• /esign jobs to provide meaning stimulation and opportunities for workers
to use their skills.
• +learly define workersI roles and responsibilities.
• Oive workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting
their jobs.
25
• $mprove communicationsBreduce uncertainty about career development
and future employment prospects.
• !rovide opportunities for social interaction among workers.
• 5stablish work schedules that are compatible with demands and
responsibilities outside the job.
• /iscrimination inside the workplace. *e.g. nationality and language -
St. !aul 'ire and (arine $nsurance +ompany conducted several studies on the
effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. !rogram activities
included *7- employee and management education on job stress *8- changes in
hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress and
*9- establishment of employee assistance programs. $n one study the fre%uency
of medication errors declined by =AR after prevention activities was implemented
in a ?AABbed hospital. $n a second study there was a ?AR reduction in
malpractice claims in 88 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities.
$n contrast there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 88 hospitals
that did not implement stress prevention activities.
26
4'.,..5 Reduce you! /t!e//
7. Bob %#%ly/i/9 C 0e have all eCperienced that appalling sense of having far too
much work to do and too little time to do it in. 0e can choose to ignore this and
work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. The risks here are
that we become eChausted that we have so much to do that we do a poor %uality
job and that we neglect other areas of our life. 5ach of these can lead to intense
stress.
The alternative is to work more intelligently by focusing on the things that are
important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks.
Kob 3nalysis is the first step in doing this.
The first of the actionBoriented skills that we look at is Kob 3nalysis. Kob 3nalysis
is a key techni%ue for managing job overload G an important source of stress.
To do an eCcellent job you need to fully understand what is eCpected of you.
0hile this may seem obvious in the hurlyBburly of a new fastBmoving highB
pressure role it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook.
By understanding the priorities in your job and what constitutes success within it
you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as
possible. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do and keep
your workload under control.
Kob 3nalysis is a useful techni%ue for getting a firm grip on what really is
important in your job so that you are able to perform eCcellently. $t helps you to
cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do.
8. R%tio#%l D (o/itie thi#+i#&9 C
Jou are thinking negatively when you fear the future put yourself down criticize
yourself for errors doubt your abilities or eCpect failure. Negative thinking
damages confidence harms performance and paralyzes mental skills.
27
Mnfortunately negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness do their
damage and flit back out again with their significance having barely been
noticed. Since we barely realize that they were there we do not challenge them
properly which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong.
Thought 3wareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and
become aware of what is going through your head.
"ne approach to it is to observe your Hstream of consciousnessH as you think
about the thing youIre trying to achieve which is stressful. /o not suppress any
thoughts. $nstead just let them run their course while you watch them and write
them down on our free worksheet as they occur. Then let them go.
3nother more general approach to Thought 3wareness comes with logging
stress in your Stress /iary. 0hen you analyze your diary at the end of the period
you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts.
Tackle these as a priority using the techni%ues below.
Here are some typical negative thoughts you might eCperience when preparing to
give a major presentation.
• 'ear about the %uality of your performance or of problems that may
interfere with it&
• 0orry about how the audience *especially important people in it like your
boss- or the press may react to you&
• /welling on the negative conse%uences of a poor performance& or
• SelfBcriticism over a lessBthanBperfect rehearsal.
Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative
thoughts as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of.
R%tio#%l Thi#+i#&
The neCt step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative
thoughts that you identified using the Thought 3wareness techni%ue. 6ook at
28
every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. 3sk yourself whether
the thought is reasonable. 0hat evidence is there for and against the thought1
0ould your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it1
6ooking at the eCamples the following challenges could be made to the negative
thoughts we identified earlier.
• )eeli#&/ o8 i#%deEu%cy9 Have you trained yourself as well as you
reasonably should have1 /o you have the eCperience and resources you
need to make the presentation1 Have you planned prepared and
rehearsed enough1 $f you have done all of these youIve done as much as
you can to give a good performance.
• Wo!!ie/ %bout (e!8o!m%#ce du!i#& !ehe%!/%l9 $f some of your practice
was less than perfect then remind yourself that the purpose of the
practice is to identify areas for improvement so that these can be sorted
out before the performance.
• $!oblem/ *ith i//ue/ out/ide you! co#t!ol9 Have you identified the
risks of these things happening and have you taken steps to reduce the
likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do1 0hat will you do if
they occur1 3nd what do you need others to do for you1
• Wo!!y %bout othe! (eo(leF/ !e%ctio#/9 $f you have prepared well and
you do the best you can then you should be satisfied. $f you perform as
well as you reasonably can then fair people are likely to respond well. $f
people are not fair the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise
above them.
Ti(9
/onIt make the mistake of generalizing a single incident. "N you made a
mistake at work but that doesnIt mean youIre bad at your job.
Similarly make sure you take the long view about incidents that youIre finding
29
stressful. Kust because youIre finding these new responsibilities stressful now
doesnIt mean that they will 3603JS be so for you in the future.
Ti(9
$f you find it difficult to look at your negative thoughts objectively imagine that
you are your best friend or a respected coach or mentor. 6ook at the list of
negative thoughts and imagine the negative thoughts were written by someone
you were giving objective advice to. Then think how you would challenge these
thoughts.
0hen you challenge negative thoughts rationally you should be able to see
%uickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to
them. 0here there is some substance take appropriate action. However make
sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals
and donIt just reflect a lack of eCperience which everyone has to go through at
some stage.
$o/itie Thi#+i#& D O((o!tu#ity See+i#&
By now you should already be feeling more positive. The final step is to prepare
rational positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. $t
can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful
opportunities that are offered by it.
By basing your affirmations on the clear rational assessments of facts that you
made using 2ational Thinking you can use them to undo the damage that
negative thinking may have done to your selfBconfidence.
Ti(9
Jour affirmations will be strongest if they are specific are eCpressed in the
present tense and have strong emotional content.
30
+ontinuing the eCamples above positive affirmations might be.
• $!oblem/ du!i#& (!%ctice9 H$ have learned from my rehearsals. This has
put me in a position where $ can deliver a great performance. $ am going to
perform well and enjoy the event.H
• Wo!!ie/ %bout (e!8o!m%#ce9 H$ have prepared well and rehearsed
thoroughly. $ am well positioned to give an eCcellent performance.H
• $!oblem/ i//ue/ out/ide you! co#t!ol9 H$ have thought through
everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how $ can
handle all likely contingencies. $ am very well placed to react fleCibly to
events.H
• Wo!!y %bout othe! (eo(leF/ !e%ctio#9 H'air people will react well to a
good performance. $ will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and
professional way.H
$f appropriate write these affirmations down on your worksheet so that you can
use them when you need them.
3s well as allowing you to structure useful affirmations part of !ositive Thinking
is to look at opportunities that the situation might offer to you. $n the eCamples
above successfully overcoming the situations causing the original negative
thinking will open up opportunities. Jou will ac%uire new skills you will be seen
as someone who can handle difficult challenges and you may open up new
career opportunities.
(ake sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of
your positive thinking.
2.COMPANY PROFILE:- SONY
31
"ne of the most recognized brand names in the world today Sony
+orporation Kapan established its $ndia operations in November 7;;< focusing
on the sales and marketing of Sony products in the country. $n a span of 7>
years Sony $ndia has eCemplified the %uest for eCcellence in the world of digital
lifestyle becoming the country#s foremost consumer electronics brand. 0ith
relentless commitment to %uality consistent dedication to customer satisfaction
and unparalleled standards of service Sony $ndia is recognized as a benchmark
for new age technology superior %uality digital concepts and personalized
service that has ensured loyal customers and nationwide acclaim in the industry.
0ith brands names such as B23,$3 ,3$" Tablet HandycamU +yberB
shot 0alkmanU)plodV Sony hiBfi (emory stickU and !layStat ionU Sony has
established itself as a value leader across its various product categories of
3udioL,isual 5ntertainment products $nformation and +ommunications
2ecording (edia Business and !rofessional products.
H$ST"2J
,.'E/t%bli/hme#t
'3A0
• (ay
Tokyo Tsushin Nogyo N.N. *Tokyo Telecommunications 5ngineering
+orporation- also known as Totsuko established in Nihonbashi Tokyo with
startBup capital of 7;AAAA yen for the research and manufacture of
telecommunications and measuring e%uipment.
'3A.
32

Kan B +ompany head office and factory relocated to Shinagawa Tokyo.
• "ct.B Successful commercialization and sales launch of SonyIs Dpower
megaphone.E
'3A3
• Sep.B +ompletion of first magnetic tape recorder prototype.
'31G
• (ar.B KapanIs first magnetiteBcoated paperBbased recording tape DSoniB
TapeE launched.
(ay .B KapanIs first magnetic tape recorder the GCTy(e order launched.
'31A
33
• (ay .B Sendai plant established in Tagajo near Sendai (iyagi !refecture. *in
3pril 7;;8 it was renamed Sendai Technology +enter.-
• Kul.B 3nnouncement of KapanIs first !N! alloyBtype transistor and germanium
diode.
'311

'eb.B /ecision made to use S"NJ logo on Totsuko products.
3ug.B Totsuko listed on the "T+ *overBtheBcounter- market of the Tokyo Stock
5Cchange *TS5-.

Sep.B KapanIs first transistor radio the TRC11 launched.
34
'312
• Kan.B +ompany name changed to Sony +orporation.
• /ec.B Sony listed on the TS5.
'313
• Kun.B'ormal announcement of research results leading to the negativeB
resistance D5saki /iodeE prototype.
'30G
• 'eb.BSony +orporation of 3merica *S"N3(- established in the Mnited States.
(ay.B 0orldIs first directBview portable T, the TH2C>G' launched.
Nov.B 3tsugi plant established in 3tsugi Nanagawa !refecture *renamed 3tsugi
Technology +enter in 3ugust 7;:;-.
• /ec.BSony "verseas S.3. established near Wurich Switzerland.
35
'30'
• (ar.B KapanIs first allBtransistor amp tape recorderTCC... launched.
Kun.B Sony became the first Kapanese company to offer shares in the Mnited States
in the form of 3merican /epositary 2eceipts *3/2s- on the "T+ market of the New
Jork Stock 5Cchange.
'30,

(ay.B The worldIs smallest and lightest allBtransistor T, TH1C>G> launched.
Nov. B Sony +orporation of Hong Nong 6td. established.
'30>
• Kul.B0orldIs first compact transistor ,T2 the $HC'GG launched.
'30A
• 3ug.B Sales launch of the DSonyB"B(aticE TCC>1. a tape recorder featuring
automatic recording adjustment.
36
• Sep.B "saki plant established in Shinagawa Tokyo *renamed "saki 0est
Technology +enter in Kune 7;;=-.
'301
• (ay .B Sales launch of the +hromatronBtype 7;Binch color T, '3CC.G.

3ug .B 0orldIs first homeBuse openBreel ,T2 the CHC,GGG launched.
• "ct.BKapanIs first allBsilicon transistor stereo amplifier the TAC'',G launched.
'300

3pr.BSony Building in Oinza Tokyo opened.
• Nov
37
Sales launch of SonyIs first cassette tape recorder the D(agazineBmatic
7AAE TCC'GG.
'30.
• (ar
Sales launch of the worldIs first $+ radio the "CRC'GG.
'302
• (ar
+BSLSony 2ecords $nc. a =AB=A joint venture with +BS $nc. of the MS
established. $t was renamed +BS Sony $nc. in 3ugust 7;?9 and +BSLSony
Oroup $nc. in 3ugust 7;:9. $t became a whollyBowned Sony subsidiary in
Kanuary 7;:: and renamed Sony (usic 5ntertainment $nc. in 3pril 7;;7.
• (ay
Sony *M.N.- 6td. 5stablished in the Mnited Ningdom *reorganized as Sony Mnited
Ningdom 6td. $n 3pril 7;;9-.

"ct
DTrinitronE color T, the KHC'>'G launched.
38
'303
• Sep
Shibaura plant established in (inato Tokyo *renamed Shibaura Technology
+enter in 3ugust 7;:;-.
• Nov
Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor $nc. established to assemble semiconductor
products *in Shiroishi (iyagi !refecture-.
• /ec
$nazawa !lant *currently $nazawa Technology +enter- established to produce
cathodeBray tubes *in $nazawa 3ichi !refecture-.
'3.G
• (ay.B $chinomiya !lant *currently $chinomiya Technology +enter- established
to assemble color T,s *in $chinomiya 3ichi !refecture-.
Kun
Sony O.m.b.H. established in +ologne Oermany *renamed Sony /eutschland
O.m.b.H in Kune 7;:A-.
Sep
39
Sony shares listed on the New Jork Stock 5Cchange.
'3.'
• "ct
9L<Binch uBmatic color video cassette player the H$C''GG launched.
'3.,
• (ar
MBmatic video cassette recorder HOC'.GG launched.
3ug
"perations commenced at color T, assembly plant in San /iego +alifornia.
• /ec
Sony Noda $nc. *currently Noda Technology +enter- established to manufacture
homeBvideo products *in NotaBcho 3ichi !refecture-.
'3.>
40
• Kan
Hispano Sony established in Barcelona Spain.
• 'eb
Sony 'rance S.3. established in !aris 'rance

(ay
Sony receives the first 5mmy ever awarded to a Kapanese company for
developing the Trinitron color T, system.
'3.A
• Kun
41
"perations commenced at color T, assembly plant in Bridgend 0ales in the
M.N.

3ug
"perations commenced at cathode ray tube *+2T- plant in San /iego the first
ever integrated color T, production facility to be established by a Kapanese
company overseas.
'3.1
• (ay
HomeBuse 7L8Binch DBetamaCE ,+2 the SLC0>GG launched.
'3.3
42

Kul
Sales launch of the T$SCL, the first stereo cassette player D0alkman.E
• 3ug
Sony !rudential 6ife $nsurance +o. 6td. a =AB=A joint venture with !rudential
$nsurance +o. of 3merica established. $t was renamed Sony !ruco 6ife
$nsurance +o. 6td. in September 7;:? and Sony 6ife $nsurance +o. 6td. in 3pril
7;;7.
'32G C
'32'
• 3ug
Technology announcement related to SonyIs magnetic video camera based the
D(avicaE magnetic recording standard.
43
'32,

"ct
0orldIs first +/ player the CD$C'G' launched.
• Nov
$nitial delivery to NHN of the DBetacamE BHWC' a 7L8BinchBtape combined
cameraL,T2 for broadcast use.
'32>
• 3pr
New DdivisionBbasedE corporate organization model introduced.
44
'32A
• 3pr
High definition video system *H/,S- launched.
• Nov
!ortable +/ player *later called D/iscmanE- the DC1G launched.
'321

Kan
:mm camcorder the CCDCH2 launched.
45
'320
• Nov
Sony 5urope O.m.b.H. established in +ologne Oermany. "perations
commenced at Sony 'rance audio and video products assembly and device
plant in +olmar 3lsace 'rance.
'322
• Kan
+BS 2ecords $nc. the records group of +BS ac%uired. $t was renamed Sony
(usic 5ntertainment $nc. in Kanuary 7;;7.
• Sep
6aunch of the consumerBuse still camera D(avicaE MHCCC'.
46
'323
• Kun
+ompact and lightweight passportBsized :mm camcorder DHandycamE CCDC
TR11 launched.
• Nov
+olumbia !ictures 5ntertainment $nc. ac%uired. $t was renamed Sony !ictures
5ntertainment $nc. in 3ugust 7;;7.
'33G C
'33G
• /ec
6aunch of the H/Be%uipped 7>.; wide aspect ratio 9>Binch consumerBuse
television the KWC>0GG7D.
'33,
47

Nov
(/ system launched.
'33>

Kul
0orldIs first continuousBwave roomBtemperature operation of blue semiconductor
lasers successfully developed.
• Nov
Sony +omputer 5ntertainment $nc. established.
48
'33A
• 3pr
New company structure introduced at Sony +orporation.
• Kul
0orldIs first highBbrightness green lightBemitting diode successfully developed.
'331
• Sep
D/igital HandycamE first consumerBuse digital video camcorder DCRC
HX'GGGLDCRCHX.GGlaunched.
• Nov
Sony +ommunication Network +orporation established.
49
• /ec
Basic specifications of new industry format for highBdensity optical disc finalized
including new format name D/,/.E
'330
• "ct
Sony +hina established.

"ct
Sales launch of the digital still camera D+ybershotE DSCC)'.
50
'33.
• 3pr
Sony (arketing +o. 6td. 5stablished.
• (ay
/evelopment of D/igital 2eality +reationE technology to create highlyBrealistic <C
picture resolution based on standard television signals using SonyIs eCclusive
digital signal processing algorithm.
• Kun
$ntroduction of +orporate 5Cecutive "fficer System.

Kul
HomeBuse !+ D,3$"E series launched
51
• Kul
'lat +2T D05O3E series launched
• "ct
Sales launch of the worldIs first broadcastBuse H/ camcorder 7DWC.GG.
'333
• (ay
Sales launch of Super 3udio +/ players SCDC'.

Kun
52
Sales launch of the entertainment robot D3$B"E ERSC''G.
,GGG C
,GGG

Kun
Sony +enter am !otsdamer !latz Berlin opened.
• Nov
Small Biped 5ntertainment 2obot SDRC>X announced.
• /ec
Sales launch of the personal $T television D3irboardE "DTCL)'.
53
,GG'
• 'eb
Sony develops worldIs largest *79 inch- full color organic 56 display.
• 3pr
Sony Bank established in Kapan.
• 3pr
Sony 5(+S established.
• "ct
Sony 5ricsson (obile +ommunications established.
54
,GG,
• "ct
Sony absorbs 3$03 by merger.
• Nov
Sales launch of the D+o+oonE channel server CSHCE...
,GG>

3pr
Sales launch of the worldIs first neCtBgeneration high capacity optical disc DBluB
ray /iscE recorder BDICS...
55
• Kun
'irst D4M36$3E products launched.
• Kun
+orporate shift to DcommitteeBbasedE organizational model.

"ct
DS/2E a compact bipedal entertainment robot began activity as Sony groupIs
Dcorporate ambassadorE under the new nickname D42$".E
,GGA
• Kan
56
'eli+a Networks $nc. established.
• 3pr
Sony +omputer 5ntertainment $nc. *S+5- becomes wholly owned subsidiary via
eCchange of shares.
• 3pr
Sony 'inancial Holdings $nc. established.
• (ay
Sony develops new <N S)2/ highBresolution 6+/ panel the industryIs first 6+/
device to meet advanced digital cinema /+$Brecommended specifications of <N
*<;A>H C 87>A,- setting the global standard for digital cinema projectors.
• 3ug
57
Sony B(O (usic 5ntertainment established.

Sep
/evelopment and commercial production of worldIs first mercuryBfree buttonB
shaped silverBoCide battery.
• "ct
Sales launch of 7DRC)X' the worldIs first consumer use digital H/ video
camera recorder conforming to H/, standard 7A:Ai.
,GG1
• 3pr
+onsortium including Sony completes ac%uisition of (etroBOoldwyn (ayer
*(O(- of the MS.
58
• Kul
Sales launch of the DHi /efinition HandycamE 7DRC7C' the worldIs smallest
digital H/ video camera recorder.
• Sep
Sales launch of new DB23,$3E brand H/T,Bcompatible flatBscreen T,s.
• "ct
New organizational model introduced replacing Dinternal companiesE system with
one centering on Dbusiness groups.E
• /ec
Sony +ommunication Network +orporation delists as a subsidiary tracking stock.
Sony +ommunication Network +orporation *renamed SoBnet 5ntertainment
59
+orporation in "ct. 8AA> SoBnet +orporation in Kul. 8A79- listed on the (others
(arket of the Tokyo Stock 5Cchange.
,GG0
• Kan
0orldIsBfirst signalBprocessing circuit technology compatible with HCvJ++H format
developedBBBsupporting a far wider gamut for color reproduction.
• 3pr
Sony and Samsung reach agreement on manufacturing :th generation
amorphous T'T 6+/ panels at their joint venture SB6+/ +orporation.
• Kun
0orldIs first BluBray /isc drive Notebook !+ *,3$" type3- released.
60
• Kul
/igital S62 camera X7AA */S62B37AA- released.
,GG.
• 'eb
Sony relocates head%uarters to new building called HSony +ity.H
• 3ug
HBio BatteryH which generates electricity from glucose developed.

Spt
Sound 5ntertainment !layer H2ollyH released.
61
• "ct
Sony 'inancial Holdings lists on the Tokyo Stock 5Cchange.
• /ec
Sony establishes inBhouse recycling of flameBretardant polystyrene.

/ec
0orldIs first "65/ T, released.
,GG2
• Kan
62
SoBnet 5ntertainment *renamed SoBnet +orporation in Kul. 8A79- lists on the first
section of the Tokyo Stock 5Cchange.
• Kan
Sony develops new close proCimity wireless transfer technology HTransfer Ket.H
• 3pr
Sony releases worldIs smallest full H/ H HandycamH H/2BTO7.
• Kul
Sony releases new HB23,$3H K57 series *N/6B98K57- featuring industryIs
highest level of energy efficiency for 98Binch digital 6+/ T,s.
• "ct
Sony B(O becomes wholly owned subsidiary of Sony +orporation of 3merica.
63
• "ct
Sony releases digital S62 +amera HX;AAH with 8<.:7 effective megapiCel +("S
image sensor H5CmorH
,GG3
• 'eb
+ompact highBspeed highBaccuracy finger vein authentication technology
dubbed HmofiriaH developed
• 'eb
H/2B)2=8A, and H/2B=AA, HandycamBBB0orldIs first camcorder with new
backBilluminated +("S image sensor BBB released
• 3pr
64
Sony /3/+ Kapan $nc. established
• Kul
Sharp and Sony enter into definitive agreement regarding joint venture to
produce and sell largeBsized 6+/ panels and modules

Sep
Sony Oroup unveils new brand message Hmake.believeH
• "ct
High frameBrate single lens 9/ camera technology developed
65
• "ct
HighlyBefficient wireless powerBtransfer system based on magnetic resonance
developed

"ct
(ercuryBfree alkaline button battery *62- that reduces environmental impact
launched
• /ec
Sony and '$'3 announce agreement for selected media rights for the worldIs first
9/ '$'3 0orld +up
,G'G
66
• Kan
Sony opens DSony 9/ Technology +enterE located at Sony !ictures Studios in
+ulver +ity +alifornia.
• 'eb
Sony introduces +yberBshotV the worldIs first digital still camera with full H/
progressive video.
• 'eb
Sony develops worldIs first millimeterBwave wireless intraBconnection technology
for internal high speed data transfer within electronics products.
• Kun
3s an official partner of the 8A7A '$'3 0orld +upV Sony hosts HSony 9/
0orldH events in several countries where visitors are able to eCperience SonyIs
9/ 0orld.
67
• Kun
Sony launches DN5) seriesE the worldIs smallest and lightest interchangeable
lens digital still camera series.
• Kul
Tohoku Mniversity and Sony jointly develop the worldIs first blueBviolet ultrafast
pulsed semiconductor laser with 7AA watt output.
• Sep
Sony introduces the worldIs first consumer interchangeable lens H/ camcorder
Handycam N5)B,O7A5.

68
"ct
Sony commercializes worldIs first 7>.<7 megapiCel H5Cmor 2H backBilluminated
+("S image sensor for mobile phones.
• "ct
Sony introduces Sony $nternet T, powered by Ooogle T, Phe worldIs first
television with Ooogle T, platform.
• /ec
Sony introduces eBbook reader.
• /ec
Sony launches new digital music serviceBBBH(usic Mnlimited powered by
4riocityVH
8.9 S"NJ $N/$3
So#y "#di% $t Ltd 4/o#y5
69
Sony is a name synonymous with technological revolutions. "ver the last =9 years
the company has evolved into a luminous brand with a uni%ue selling proposition B
technology innovation %uality and premium.$n the last =A years the company had
already established itself in the field of hiBtech entertainment. Today Sony has gone
further by becoming a preferred choice for professional re%uirements as well
whether it is broadcast media or color monitors. The companyIs leadership position
in the world today is a reiteration of its ability to connect with the customerIs mental
space.
Sony is not new to $ndia. 0hether it was the television or the walkman a Sony
always remained a must on the wish list of any $ndian returning home. This love for
the brand culminated in a new relationship when inspired by a reform friendly $ndian
business environment Sony +orporation decided to set up a 7AAR subsidiary called
Sony $ndia on 7>th Kanuary 7;;=.
$n a fiercely competitive $ndian consumer durables market Sony $ndiaIs mission is to
Hmake a difference in the lifestyles and introduce new dimension to enjoyment. "ffer
new age technology and digital concepts& work hand in hand with the domestic
industry to produce and sell eCcellence and come closer to the $ndian customers
through committed service.H
Since its inception in 7;;= Sony decided to have sales and distribution channels
which are eCclusive to Sony $ndia. The business partners are country managers in
their own areas.Sony $ndia today has about 99 distributors and 7<?= dealers. $n all
the metros the +ompany has direct sales operations. The company also has about
79 eCclusive Sony outlets which showcase products ranging from analog to digital
throughout the country.
Contact Details:
M. T%m%&%*%
(anaging /irector
7:9 (ohan +oBoperative $nd. 5state (adhura 2oad
7:9 (ohan +oBoperative $nd. 5state
(adhura 2oad
New /elhiB77AA<<
/elhi
Tel. A77 >>AA>>AA
http.LLwww.sony.co.in
70

>. H"S"ON
This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the
employees of the retail centres are with the eCample of the other stores in
addition to Sony $ndia and how do their stress affect their work life social life
output etc. so a sample of 7< to 7= employees are selected from all the three
centres Sony Samsung and mobile Store for the research of stress among them.
<. ($SS$"N
1. Detailed study of the Sony Centre industry in ndia
2. !nalysis of Stress in the Sony cntres "ith co#$arin% the other centres in
the country.
3. !naly&in% their "or'in% ca$acity "hen in stress( ho" their life chan%es
"ith the stress as li#itin% factor.
71
5. Research Meth!"#$
41.'5 Re/e%!ch ObJectie9 C
Stress is a dynamic condition in witch an individual is confronted with an
opportunity demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for
which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a
complicated definition.
Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. 3lthough stress is typically
discussed in a negative conteCt it also has a positive value. $t#s an opportunity
when it offers potential gain. +onsider for eCample the superior performance that
an athlete or stage performer gives in DclutchE situations. Such individuals often
use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their
maCimum. Similarly many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads
and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the %uality of their work and
the satisfaction the get from their job.
But it is different in the case of employees of the retail sector especially
the Showrooms like Sony $ndia. These employees are the people who also have
to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the
employees remain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple
table work also have to face the problem of stress. /ue to recession the banking
72
sector is also facing the problem of employee cutBoffs and so the work load of the
eCisting employees increases and the feel stressed.
The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Di/t!e// is the
most commonlyBreferred to type of stress having negative implications whereas
eu/t!e// is a positive form of stress usually related to desirable events in
personIs life. Both can be e%ually taCing on the body and are cumulative in
nature depending on a personIs way of adapting to a change that has caused it.
Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a
stress situation life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us
with anCiety attacks. (oreover be it our anCiety mindBbody eChaustion or our
erring attitudes we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered
by those. $n such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors if not
escapable are fairly manageable and treatable.
Stress either %uick or constant can induce risky bodyBmind disorders.
$mmediate disorders such as dizzy spells anCiety attacks tension
sleeplessness nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health
problems. They may also affect our immune cardiovascular and nervous
systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions which are interBlinked with
stress.
6ike Hstress reactionsH HrelaCation responsesH and stress management
techni%ues are some of the bodyIs important builtBin response systems. 3s a
relaCation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Some
hormones released during the Ifight or flightI situation prompt the body to replace
the lost carbohydrates and fats and restore the energy level. The knotted
nerves tightened muscles and an eChausted mind crave for looseness.
Mnfortunately today we donIt get relaCing and soothing situations without
asking. To be relaCed we have to strive to create such situations.
73
This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the
employees of the banks are and how do their stress affect their work life social
life output etc. so a sample of 7< to 7= employees are selected from all the three
Sony centres for the research of stress among them.
41.,5 S%m(li#&
S%m(le9 $ have taken the sample of 9= employees from three different Sony
+entres of ,aranasi. 3ll the employees were of the same designations.
Re%/o#9 3s we find the employees of the bank to be more stressful as more and
more employees are taking ,2S and are dismissed because of inflation. $ have
selected only those three centres which are affiliated to the public and are
specialized in consumer needs fulfillment.
$t is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target
population. There are no strict rules to follow and the researcher must rely on
logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of
the study.
Sometimes the entire population will be sufficiently small and the
researcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is
called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the
population.
Msually the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to
survey all of its members. 3 small but carefully chosen sample can be used to
74
represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the
population from which it is drawn.
Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non
probability. $n probability samples each member of the population has a known
non-zero probability of being selected. !robability methods include random
sampling systematic sampling and stratified sampling. $n non probability
sampling members are selected from the population in some nonrandom
manner. These include convenience sampling judgment sampling %uota
sampling and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that
sampling error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample
might differ from the population. 0hen inferring to the population results are
reported plus or minus the sampling error. $n non probability sampling the
degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown.
 R%#dom /%m(li#& is the purest form of probability sampling. 5ach
member of the population has an e%ual and known chance of being
selected. 0hen there are very large populations it is often difficult or
impossible to identify every member of the population so the pool of
available subjects becomes biased.
 Sy/tem%tic /%m(li#& is often used instead of random sampling. $t is
also called an N
th
name selection techni%ue. 3fter the re%uired
sample size has been calculated every N
th
record is selected from a
list of population members. 3s long as the list does not contain any
hidden order this sampling method is as good as the random
sampling method. $ts only advantage over the random sampling
techni%ue is simplicity. Systematic sampling is fre%uently used to
select a specified number of records from a computer file.
75
 St!%ti8ied /%m(li#& is commonly used probability method that is
superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. 3
stratum is a subset of the population that shares at least one
common characteristic. The researcher first identifies the relevant
stratums and their actual representation in the population. 2andom
sampling is then used to select subjects from each stratum until the
number of subjects in that stratum is proportional to its fre%uency in
the population. Stratified sampling is often used when one or more of
the stratums in the population have a low incidence relative to the
other stratums.
 Co#e#ie#ce /%m(li#& is used in eCploratory research where the
researcher is interested in getting an ineCpensive approCimation of
the truth. 3s the name implies the sample is selected because they
are convenient. This nonBprobability method is often used during
preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results
without incurring the cost or time re%uired to select a random sample.
 Bud&me#t /%m(li#& is a common nonBprobability method. The
researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually
and eCtension of convenience sampling. 'or eCample a researcher
may decide to draw the entire sample from one HrepresentativeH city
even though the population includes all cities. 0hen using this
method the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is
truly representative of the entire population.
 Kuot% /%m(li#& is the nonBprobability e%uivalent of stratified
sampling. 6ike stratified sampling the researcher first identifies the
stratums and their proportions as they are represented in the
population. Then convenience or judgment sampling is used to select
the re%uired number of subjects from each stratum. This differs from
76
stratified sampling where the stratums are filled by random
sampling.
 S#o*b%ll /%m(li#& is a special nonBprobability method used when
the desired sample characteristic is rare. $t may be eCtremely difficult
or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. Snowball
sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional
subjects. 0hile this techni%ue can dramatically lower search costs it
comes at the eCpense of introducing bias because the techni%ue
itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good
cross section from the population.
41.>5 Re/e%!ch "#/t!ume#t9 C
Checking Yourself for Burnout
Burnout occurs when passionate committed people become deeply disillusioned
with a job or career from which they have previously derived much of their
identity and meaning. $t comes as the things that inspire passion and enthusiasm
are stripped away and tedious or unpleasant things crowd in. This tool can help
you check yourself for burnout.
"#t!oductio#9
This tool can help you check yourself for burnout. $t helps you look at the way
you feel about your job and your eCperiences at work so that you can get a feel
for whether you are at risk of burnout.
6/i#& the Tool9
• 0ork through the table on paper and calculate values manually.
• 'ill in values appropriately on the sheet. This will automatically calculate
scores for you and interpret these scores showing the score and
interpretation in row 9A.
$f you choose to use the manual method then calculate the total of the scores as
described in the instructions *note that this uses a slightly different scoring
method from the spreadsheet-. 3pply the score to the scoring table underneath
to get the interpretation.
77
+hecking Jourself for Burnout
Kue/tio##%i!e
78
No 4uestions Not at
all
2arely Sometimes "fte
n
,ery
often
7 /o you feel run down and
drained of physical or
emotional energy1
8 /o you find that you are
prone to negative thinking
about your job1
9 /o you find that you are
harder and less
sympathetic with people
than perhaps they deserve1
< /o you find yourself getting
easily irritated by small
problems or by your coB
workers and team1
= /o you feel misunderstood
or unappreciated by your
coBworkers1
> /o you feel that you have
noBone to talk to1
? /o you feel that you are
achieving less than you
should1
: /o you feel under an
unpleasant level of
pressure to succeed1
; /o you feel that you are not
getting what you want out of
your job1
7A /o you feel that you are in
the wrong organization or
the wrong profession1
77 3re you becoming
frustrated with parts of your
job1
78 /o you feel that
organizational politics or
bureaucracy frustrate your
ability to do a good job1
79 /o you feel that there is
more work to do than you
practically have the ability
to do1
7< /o you feel that you do not
have time to do many of the
things that are important to
doing a good %uality job1
7= /o you find that you do not
have time to plan as much
as you would like to1
Total
79
$nstructions. 'or each %uestion put an I)I in the column that most applies. !ut
one I)I only in each row.
!lease write the total number of YC# at the space given at the bottom of each
column
N Kue/tio#/ -e/ No
' 3re you satisfied with the performance you give at your work1
, /o you think that you are suffering from depression1
> /o you worry about your colleagueIs opinion about you1
3nswer Number 0eight 0eighted Total
Not at all A
2arely 7
Sometimes 8
"ften 9
,ery often <
TZ
B7 No sign of burnout here[
= 6ittle sign of burnout here unless some factors are particularly severe
7: Be careful B you may be at risk of burnout particularly if several scores are
high
9= Jou are at severe risk of burnout B do something about this urgently
<= Jou are at very severe risk of burnout B do something about this urgently
80
A
/o you discuss your problem with your spouse or friend or
any other close to you1
1
/o you work more than : hours1
0
Jou have an important function at your home and your boss
asks to give a < hour over time what will be your response1
.
/o you regularly spend time for entertainment1
2
$s your social life balanced1
3 /o you plan your work before doing1
'G
/o you fear about the %uality of your performance1
''
3re you a heart patient1
', /o you get tensed at your non achievement of your target1
'>
/o you feeling stress some times1
$f the answer of the above %uestion is Jes then answer the
following.
%5
$s the reason of your stress your work load1
b5 3re you stressed because of your family problems1
c5 /o you get stressed when your boss scolds Jou1
d5 /o you try to find any solution for the problem of your stress1
e5
*$' J5S- /o you practice yoga or any other ayurvedic therapy
for reducing stress1
To m%+e the /u!ey !e(o!t mo!e cle%! the %boe Eue/tio##%i!e *%/ %l/o
8illed. A/ % !e/ult the em(loyee/ h%e &ie# (!o(e! !e/(o#/e %#d the
!e(o!t o8 the Eue/tio##%i!e i/ (!e/e#ted i# the (!oJect.
81
*= .A5 D%t% %#%ly/i/ %#d "#te!(!et%tio#
The (!oJect !e(o!t /ho*/ the i#8o!m%tio# o8 the leel o8 /t!e//
*hich the em(loyee/ %!e 8%ci#& %/ the (e!iod o8 !ece//io# i/ &oi#& the
em(loyee cutCo88 %#d tu!#oe! !%tio/ %!e 8ou#d to be hi&h /o the *o!+lo%d
8o! the exi/ti#& em(loyee/ %!e hi&h. So they %!e 8%ci#& the (!oblem o8 *o!+
oe!lo%d %#d thu/ they &et /t!e//ed.
LetL/ h%e % *%tch o# the b%/ic d%t% o8 the /u!ey9
The !e(o!t o8 % b%#+
TZ response
B7 No sign of burnout here[ A
= 6ittle sign of burnout here unless some factors are particularly
severe
>
7: Be careful B you may be at risk of burnout particularly if several
scores are high
:
9= Jou are at severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
<= Jou are at very severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
82
#o /i&# o8 bu!# out
little /i&# o8 bu!#out
Be c%!e8ul
/ee!e !i/+
He!y hi&h
The 2eport of a So#y "#di% ce#t!e
TZ response
B7 No sign of burnout here[ A
= 6ittle sign of burnout here unless some factors are particularly
severe
9
7: Be careful B you may be at risk of burnout particularly if several
scores are high
7A
9= Jou are at severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
<= Jou are at very severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
No /i&#
Little /i&#
Be c%!e8ul
See!e !i/+
He!y hi&h
The !e(o!t o8 % So#y "#di% ce#t!e
TZ response
B7 No sign of burnout here[ A
= 6ittle sign of burnout here unless some factors are particularly
severe
=
7: Be careful B you may be at risk of burnout particularly if several
scores are high
9
9= Jou are at severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
<= Jou are at very severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
83
No /i&#
little /i&#
be c%!e8ul
See!e !i/+
He!y hi&h
$t is seen from the above data that the employees working in the banks are at the
risk of two levels that is Da little sign of burn outE and Dbe carefulE. Taking a look
on the data of all the three banks it is seen that the employees working in Sony
centre are found less stressed out compared to other outlets. This can be
because it#s a private sector. $f all the graphs are compared it is seen that the
ratio of stressed employees in Sony +entre banks is less as compared to all the
other outletss.
6et#s have a look on the overall result of the survey
TZ response
B7 No sign of burnout here[ A
= 6ittle sign of burnout here unless some factors are particularly
severe
7<
7: Be careful B you may be at risk of burnout particularly if several
scores are high
87
9= Jou are at severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
<= Jou are at very severe risk of burnout B do something about this
urgently
A
'rom the above graph it can be seen that maCimum employees of all the private
companies are at a moderate level of risk of burnout while the employees who
were found with a little sign of burnout is less. So the ratio of little sign of burnout
and moderate level of burnout is 8.9.
84
#o /i&#
little /i&#
Be c%!e8ull
/ee!e !i/+
He!y hi&h
'. A!e you /%ti/8ied *ith the (e!8o!m%#ce you &ie %t you! *o!+?
'rom the diagram it is clear that ?? R of the employees are satisfied with the
performance they give in the work while 89 R of the employees are not satisfied.
,. Do you thi#+ th%t you %!e /u88e!i#& 8!om de(!e//io#?
Jes No No response
8? : A
Jes No No response
? 8: A
85
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
8A R of the employee feel that they are suffering from depression while :A R of
the employee feel that that they are free from the depression
>. Do you *o!!y %bout you! colle%&ueF/ o(i#io# %bout you?
Jes No No response
; 8> A
8>R of the employees worry about their colleague#s opinion about them while
?<R of the employees are not concern with the opinion about their colleague.
A. Do you di/cu// you! (!oblem *ith you! /(ou/e o! 8!ie#d o! %#y othe!
clo/e to you?
Jes No No response
98 9 A
86
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
;7R of the employees of the bank discuss their problem and share their feelings
with their spouse or friends or others while ; R of the employee is not concerned
with it.
1. Do you *o!+ mo!e th%# 2 hou!/?
:;R of the employees work for more than : hours which is the starting point of
the stress while 77 R of the employees don#t work for more than : hours.
0. -ou h%e %# im(o!t%#t 8u#ctio# %t you! home %#d you! bo// %/+/ to &ie
% A hou! oe! time= *h%t *ill be you! !e/(o#/e?
Jes No No response
7< 7; 8
Jes No No response
97 < A
87
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
<A R of the employees are proved to be work dedicated and they are ready to
miss the important function at their house while =< R of the employees said no
and > R of the employee did not gave any answer.
.. Do you !e&ul%!ly /(e#d time 8o! e#te!t%i#me#t?
=?R of the employee spent regular time on entertainment which helps us to
remain stress free while <9 R of the employees don#t do that.
2. "/ you! /oci%l li8e b%l%#ced?
Jes No No response
8A 7= A
Jes No No response
7; 7< 8
88
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
=< R of the employees find their social life to be balanced while <A R of the
employees don#t have their social life balanced. >R of the employees remain
silent.
3. Do you (l%# you! *o!+ be8o!e doi#&?
$t
is
a
good habit to plan the work you do. :; R of the employees plan their work before
doing while 77 R of the employees don#t plan their work.
'G. Do you 8e%! %bout the Eu%lity o8 you! (e!8o!m%#ce?
Jes No No response
97 < A
Jes No No response
88 79 A
89
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
>9R of the employees fear the %uality of performance which they give while 9? R
of the employees don#t fear the %uality of their work.
''. A!e you % he%!t (%tie#t?
Here 9 R of the employees are heart patient which is partially the result of stress.
',. Do you &et te#/ed %t you! #o# %chieeme#t o8 you! t%!&et?
Jes No No response
Jes No No response
7 9< A
90
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
8= 7A A
?7R of the employees get tensed at the non achievement of the target while 8;
R of the employees work casually.
'>. Do you 8eeli#& /t!e// /ome time/?
Jes No No response
8: > 7
:AR of the employees feel stressed sometimes while 7? R of the employees are
not feeling stressed. 9 R of the employees did not respond.
"8 the %#/*e! o8 the %boe Eue/tio# i/ M-e/L the# %#/*e! the 8ollo*i#&9
91
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
%5 "/ the !e%/o# o8 you! /t!e// you! *o!+ lo%d?
=?R of the employees find themselves to be stressed by their work over load. 8>
R of the employees are not stressed because of the work overload. 7? R of the
employees did not answer.
b5 A!e you /t!e//ed bec%u/e o8 you! 8%mily (!oblem/?
<A R of the employees are stressed because of their family problems <AR by
other problems while 8AR of the employees did not responded.
Jes No No response
8A ; >
Jes No No response
7< 7< ?
92
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
c5 Do you &et /t!e//ed *he# you! bo// /cold/ you?
8AR of the employee did not responded when they were asked weather their get
stressed because of the scolding of their boss. =7R of the employees don#t get
stress because of the scolding of their boss. 8; R of the employees get stressed
because of the scolding of their boss.
d5 Do you t!y to 8i#d %#y /olutio# 8o! the (!oblem o8 you! /t!e//?
Jes No No response
8< > =
>; R of the employees try to find the solution of their stress.
Jes No No response
7A 7: ?
93
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
e5 4") -ES5 Do you (!%ctice yo&% o! %#y othe! %yu!edic the!%(y 8o!
!educi#& /t!e//?
Jes No No response
77 7: >
97R of the employees try the yoga and other ayurvedic techni%ues to reduce
their stress while =7 R of the employees use other techni%ues to reduce
stress.
41.15 Em(loyeeL/ o(i#io# %bout ho* to !educe
/t!e//
This project consist of the information about the employees undergoing
from stress who working in the banks. So considering this factor this topic
becomes one of the most important part of the project as it consists of the
opinion of the employees who work in the banks. $n short it was a direct interview
of the employees who gave their opinion about how to reduce stress. The
response of employees in the major banks of Bhavnagar like State Bank of
Saurashtra The 3)$S Bank and The H/'+ bank was marvelous and they have
94
-e/
No
No !e/(o#/e
given their valuable opinion about reducing stress as a result of the last %uestion
included in the %uestionnaire 8. So the opinion if the employees were as follows.
 “Just smile away” 3n employeeB H/'+ Bank
 “Just believe in your self an !ust o what your heart wants” 3n employeeB
H/'+ Bank
 -“Talking to family members" - #atching T$ or listening goo music" -
%oing for a walk or long rive” 3n employeeB H/'+ Bank
 “&elieve in %o” 3n employeeB H/'+ Bank
 “'espect yourself an give time to yourself” 3n employeeB H/'+ Bank
 “#orking in environment welfares" lot of positive attitue. (ositive attitue
is only that reuces stress an achieves success. )ost of the people
frustrate ue to lack of positivity an stress level climbs up ue to that. *o
get positive attitue about work" about life" an forget the stress” 3n
employeeB 3)$S Bank
 “#e shoul o such activities from which we get happiness an also
make others happy. (ass your time with your close friens an relatives.”
3n employeeB 3)$S Bank
 “(lay an watch cricket” 3n employeeB 3)$S Bank
 “+isten music an spen time with family” 3n employeeB SBS Bank
 “%et a!uste with others" Fin an spen time for prayer" *tuy the
scriptures" *ee oneness in all" ,ll are manifeste of the supreme %-.” 3n
employeeB SBS Bank
These opinions are seemed to be valuable and effective as one of the
effective things has been noticed that the employees who have got less than 7:
marks in the Burnout test have given their opinions about reducing the stress.
$t is also noticed that in the Sony +entre ,aranasi in the time of
afternoon slow instrumental music are been played so that the employees can
95
work stress free. This is one of the positive things which are seen in the
organization who is caring for their employees. This will help the organization to
boost up the productivity.
'rom the certain sample of employees selected for the research only
7A employees have given their opinion how to reduce stress. So we can
understand that how overloaded the employees of the companies are.
41.05 Re/e%!ch )lo*ch%!t
4uestionnaire research design proceeds in an orderly and specific
manner. 5ach item in the flow chart depends upon the successful completion of
all the previous items. Therefore it is important not to skip a single step. Notice
that there are two feedback loops in the flow chart to allow revisions to the
methodology and instruments.
/esign (ethodology

/etermine 'easibility

96
/evelop $nstruments

Select Sample

+onduct !ilot Test

2evise $nstruments

+onduct 2esearch

3nalyze /ata

!repare 2eport
41..5 Time Co#/ide!%tio#/
(any researchers underestimate the time re%uired to complete a
research project. The following form may be used as an initial checklist in
developing time estimates. The best advice is to be generous with your time
estimates. Things almost always take longer than we think they should.
This checklist contains two time estimates for each task. The first one
*Hours- is your best estimate of the actual number of hours re%uired to complete
the task. The second one */uration- is the amount of time that will pass until the
97
task is completed. Sometimes these are the same and sometimes they are
different. (ost researchers and businessBpeople have to divide their time among
many projects. They simply cannot give all their time to any one project. 'or
eCample my estimate of goal clarification may be four hours but other
commitments allow me to spend only two hours a day on this study. (y HhoursH
estimate is four hours and my HdurationH estimate is two days.
To arrive at your final time estimates add the individual estimates. The
hours estimate is used for budget planning and the duration estimate is used to
develop a project time line.
41.25 Limit%tio# o8 the /u!ey
 The %uestionnaires were filled be 9= employees working in the three major
outlets of ,aranasi i.e. Sony +entre Samsung and (obile Store. So the scope
of sample findings was less.
 The %uestionnaire was filled by 9= employees of different designations. So the
point of view of employees differs as per their designations.
98
 The employees from whom the %uestionnaires are filled are in a heavy
workload so some of the %uestionnaires filled by the employees who are in
stress cannot be called reasonable.
 The responses of the employees cannot be accurate as the problem of
language and understanding arises. *These problems are not in all cases.-
 "ne of the other problems of %uestionnaire is the cost. Some times it may be
possible that even by spending so much the result may not be reasonable.
 (any a times the employees may not be really conscious or may not be
bothered about the %uestionnaire. This may create a problem in the research.
41.2.'5 Ad%#t%&e/ o8 W!itte# Kue/tio##%i!e/
 4uestionnaires are very cost effective when compared to faceBtoB
face interviews. This is especially true for studies involving large
sample sizes and large geographic areas. 0ritten %uestionnaires
become even more cost effective as the number of research
%uestions increases.
 4uestionnaires are easy to analyze. /ata entry and tabulation for
nearly all surveys can be easily done with many computer software
packages.
 4uestionnaires are familiar to most people. Nearly everyone has
had some eCperience completing %uestionnaires and they generally
do not make people apprehensive.
 4uestionnaires reduce bias. There is uniform %uestion presentation
and no middleBman bias. The researcherIs own opinions will not
99
influence the respondent to answer %uestions in a certain manner.
There are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent.
 4uestionnaires are less intrusive than telephone or faceBtoBface
surveys. 0hen a respondent receives a %uestionnaire in the mail he
is free to complete the %uestionnaire on his own timeBtable. Mnlike
other research methods the respondent is not interrupted by the
research instrument.
41.2.,5 Di/%d%#t%&e/ o8 W!itte# Kue/tio##%i!e/
 "ne major disadvantage of written %uestionnaires is the possibility
of low response rates. 6ow response is the curse of statistical
analysis. $t can dramatically lower our confidence in the results.
2esponse rates vary widely from one %uestionnaire to another
*7AR B ;AR- however wellBdesigned studies consistently produce
high response rates.
 3nother disadvantage of %uestionnaires is the inability to probe
responses. 4uestionnaires are structured instruments. They allow
little fleCibility to the respondent with respect to response format. $n
essence they often lose the Hflavor of the responseH *i.e.
respondents often want to %ualify their answers-. By allowing
fre%uent space for comments the researcher can partially
overcome this disadvantage. +omments are among the most
helpful of all the information on the %uestionnaire and they usually
provide insightful information that would have otherwise been lost.
 Nearly ninety percent of all communication is visual. Oestures and
other visual cues are not available with written %uestionnaires. The
lack of personal contact will have different effects depending on the
100
type of information being re%uested. 3 %uestionnaire re%uesting
factual information will probably not be affected by the lack of
personal contact. 3 %uestionnaire probing sensitive issues or
attitudes may be severely affected.
 0hen returned %uestionnaires arrive in the mail itIs natural to
assume that the respondent is the same person you sent the
%uestionnaire to. This may not actually be the case. (any times
business %uestionnaires get handed to other employees for
completion. Housewives sometimes respond for their husbands.
Nids respond as a prank. 'or a variety of reasons the respondent
may not be who you think it is. $t is a confounding error inherent in
%uestionnaires.
 'inally %uestionnaires are simply not suited for some people. 'or
eCample a written survey to a group of poorly educated people
might not work because of reading skill problems. (ore fre%uently
people are turned off by written %uestionnaires because of misuse.
41.35 )i#di#&/
$t is analyzed from the %uestionnaire filled by the employees that the
employees who have scored more than 8A marks in the burnout test are not
satisfied with the performance which they give in the organization. Thus it is
101
proved that the employees who are desired to give better performance than their
original performance are found more stressful than the others. 0hile at the same
time the employ that have scored less than 8A marks in the burnout test are
satisfied with the performance. 'rom the sample of 9= bank employees who have
been surveyed one is found to be a heart patient. This can be because of high
level of stress.
,ery rare of the employee are to be found suffering from depression.
$t is proved from the survey that the employees who have scored more than 8=
marks in the burnout test are concern about the opinion of their colleagues. 3nd
the employees who got less than 8= marks do not mind about their colleague#s
opinion. Thus it is proved that the colleagues opinion also play a lead role in the
increase and decrease of the stress level. Those who mind about their
colleague#s opinion are found to be more stressful.
The employees who have scored 8:B8; marks in the burnout test
don#t believe in sharing their problems with their spouse or friend or any closed
one. Thus we can say that sharing your problems with your spouse or close
friends is a better idea to reduce stress.
$n the second %uestionnaire one of the %uestion was DJou have an
important function at your home and your boss asks to give a < hour over time
what will be your response YJes or No#1E the employees have given their opinion
as per their mood.
0hile considering the point of view of entertainment it depends upon
the mood of the employees. The entertainment is considered one of the most
ultimate solutions to reduce stress. (ost of the employees do not spend regular
time in entertainment. This may be because they may not be getting time for
entertainment or they may not be interested in the same.
102
"ne of the %uestions was asked that were their social life balanced1
$t is observed that the employees who have scored above 8A marks in the
burnout test did not have their social life balanced. Thus we can conclude that
the employees who are above 8A don#t have their social life balanced. Thus it is
proved that stress may affect our social life also.
The employees were asked weather they plan their work or not
moderate answers were given. The employees scoring more than 8= marks were
not found their work planned. Thus the employees who plan their work have
scored below 8= marks in the burnout test eCcept some cases as there are
always some drawbacks in making plan. 'ailure of a plan may also lead a person
to stress. Thus we can conclude that planning of the work may help to reduce
stress level.
(ost of the employees who have scored more than 8A marks fear
about their %uality of work they give. This aspect is not dependent of the burnout
level. This aspect depends upon the dedication of work. So it is meaningless to
compare this %uestion with the burnout test.
3 %uestion was asked that weather you get stressed at the nonB
achievement of their target1 3ll the employees have responded positively. But
this is not concern with the burnout score. 'rom this we can conclude that all the
employees are given achievable target and naturally by the nonBachievement of
the target all the employees may get stressed. "ne of the other possibilities is
that the employees have responded positively to show themselves to be good.
The employees having more than 7A marks in the burnout test says
that they are under stress. "ut of 9= employees of the sample 8A of the
employees accepted that the reason for their stress is workload. 7A employees
are not stressed because of the workload but because of their family problem. =
of the employees are not suffering from stress. 7< employees out of 9A
103
employees who are stressed feel stressful when their boss scolds them while 7>
employees refused that they are not stressed because their boss scolds them. 3ll
the 9A employees have accepted that they try to find the solution of their stress.
7A employees out of 9A employees practice yoga to reduce their stress and the
other 8A employees don#t practice yoga. The burnout scores of the employees
who practice yoga are either more than 8= or less than 8A. Thus we can
conclude that the employees have reduced their stress by yoga therapy and
other employees have just started the yoga because of high level of burnout
The above analysis is done by the data received from the
%uestionnaire. So the accuracy of data depends upon the response of the
employees.
%. &I&ILIO'RAP(Y
104
o www.mindtool.com
o "rganizational Behavior D*tephen (. 'obbinsE
o Burn "ut tool G 4uestionnaire
o Self analysis of %uestionnaire
). ANNE*URE
Kue/tio##%i!e
105
No 4uestions Not at
all
2arely Sometimes "fte
n
,ery
often
7 /o you feel run down and
drained of physical or
emotional energy1
8 /o you find that you are
prone to negative thinking
about your job1
9 /o you find that you are
harder and less
sympathetic with people
than perhaps they deserve1
< /o you find yourself getting
easily irritated by small
problems or by your coB
workers and team1
= /o you feel misunderstood
or unappreciated by your
coBworkers1
> /o you feel that you have
noBone to talk to1
? /o you feel that you are
achieving less than you
should1
: /o you feel under an
unpleasant level of
pressure to succeed1
; /o you feel that you are not
getting what you want out of
your job1
7A /o you feel that you are in
the wrong organization or
the wrong profession1
77 3re you becoming
frustrated with parts of your
job1
78 /o you feel that
organizational politics or
bureaucracy frustrate your
ability to do a good job1
79 /o you feel that there is
more work to do than you
practically have the ability
to do1
7< /o you feel that you do not
have time to do many of the
things that are important to
doing a good %uality job1
7= /o you find that you do not
have time to plan as much
as you would like to1
Total
106
$nstructions. 'or each %uestion put an I)I in the column that most applies. !ut
one I)I only in each row.
!lease write the total number of YC# at the space given at the bottom of each
column
3nswer Number 0eight 0eighted Total
Not at all A
2arely 7
Sometimes 8
"ften 9
,ery often <
TZ
B7 No sign of burnout here[
= 6ittle sign of burnout here unless some factors are particularly severe
7: Be careful B you may be at risk of burnout particularly if several scores are
high
9= Jou are at severe risk of burnout B do something about this urgently
<= Jou are at very severe risk of burnout B do something about this urgently
107
N Kue/tio#/ -e/ No
' 3re you satisfied with the performance you give at your work1
, /o you think that you are suffering from depression1
> /o you worry about your colleagueIs opinion about you1
A
/o you discuss your problem with your spouse or friend or
any other close to you1
1
/o you work more than : hours1
0
Jou have an important function at your home and your boss
asks to give a < hour over time what will be your response1
.
/o you regularly spend time for entertainment1
2
$s your social life balanced1
3 /o you plan your work before doing1
'G
/o you fear about the %uality of your performance1
''
3re you a heart patient1
', /o you get tensed at your non achievement of your target1
'>
/o you feeling stress some times1
$f the answer of the above %uestion is Jes then answer the
following.
%5
$s the reason of your stress your work load1
b5 3re you stressed because of your family problems1
c5 /o you get stressed when your boss scolds Jou1
d5 /o you try to find any solution for the problem of your stress1
e5
*$' J5S- /o you practice yoga or any other ayurvedic therapy
for reducing stress1
108