Analysis&Design of truss for Indoor stadium at Palakol

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Analysis&Design of truss for Indoor stadium at Palakol

© All Rights Reserved

- ROOF TRUSS
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- truss design Fundamentals
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- Case Studies OF SPORTS STADIUMS AND COMPLEXES

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Plan depth of the building w = 16.00m

Height of the building excluding pitched roof h = 12.00m

Dead weight of AC sheets = 0.13KN/sqm

Dead weight of purlins,fixtures and false roofing system = 0.45KN/sqm

Span of the truss = 16.00m

Height of the truss = 3.00m

Spacing of trusses = 3.832m

Live load on pitched roof (For pitched roof having slope 20.56

0

) = 0.54KN/sqm

Distance between the nodal points(purlin locations) on top rafter = 1.709m

Wind coefficients upto 10m height :-

k1 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) = 1.00

k2 (assuming terrain category 2&Class of structure A ) = 1.00

k3 = 1.0 (topography factor) 1.00

Basic wind speed V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Internal wind pressure coefficient C

pi

(Buildings with low permeability) = 0.20

Slope of the pitched roof in degrees = 20.56

Wind coefficients upto 15m height :-

k1 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) = 1.00

k2 (assuming terrain category 2&Class of structure A ) = 1.05

k3 = 1.0 (topography factor) 1.00

Basic wind speed V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Internal wind pressure coefficient C

pi

(Buildings with low permeability 0.20

with openings less than 5%) =

Slope of the pitched roof in degrees = 20.56

Over hang = 0.50m

Analysis of Roof truss

The plan and elevation of the shed are as shown below:-

Load Calculations:-

Dead Load of roof = 0.58KN/sqm

Dead load/m run on rafter = 2.223KN/m

Live Load = 0.54KN/sqm

Live load/m run on rafter = 2.065KN/m

Calculation of Wind Load:-

Upto 10m height:-

Assuming the building is situated in Vijayawada, the basic wind speed is = 50.00m/sec

Design wind speed, V

z

= k

1

k

2

k

3

V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Design wind pressure, P

d

= 0.6*Vz

2

= 1.50KN/sqm

In between 10 to 15m height:-

Assuming the building is situated in Vijayawada, the basic wind speed is = 50.00m/sec

Design wind speed, V

z

= k

1

k

2

k

3

V

b

= 52.50m/sec

Design wind pressure, P

d

= 0.6*Vz

2

= 1.65KN/sqm

For simplicity adopt uniform wind pressure upto 15m height,which is 1.65KN/sqm

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

Wind Load on Roofs:-

h/w = 0.75

Exposed area of each slope of roof, per frame is 32.74sqm

From table 5 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

in degrees Windward Leeward Windward Leeward Windward Leeward

-0.700 -0.5 0.20 -0.9 -0.7 -48.729398 -37.9006425

-0.700 -0.5 -0.20 -0.5 -0.3 -27.071888 -16.2431325

-0.8 -0.8 0.20 -1 -1 -54.143775 -54.143775

-0.6 -0.6 -0.20 -0.4 -0.4 -21.65751 -21.65751

As per the preliminary dimensions assumed,the shape of the truss is as given below:-

Total wind load in KN

0

90

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

)

16.00

OVER ALL WIND PRESSURE ON ROOF

1

.6

5

1

.6

5

12.00

WIND

3.00

20.56

1.600

1.709

3.000

2.400

1.800

1.200

0.600

20.56

1.600

1.709

3.000

2.400

1.800

1.200

0.600

Concentrated loads on nodes :-

Dead load at intermediate node points = 3.56KN

(corresponding to purlin locations)

Dead load at eaves& end points = 1.78

Superimposed load at intermediate node points = 3.30KN

(corresponding to purlin locations)

Dead load at eaves& end points = 1.65

Wind load at intermediate node points on windward side = -10.83KN

Wind load at intermediate node points on leeward side = -10.83KN

Vertical component of wind load on windward side@ = -10.14KN

intermediate nodal points

Vertical component of wind load on leeward side@ = -10.14KN

intermediate nodal points

Vertical component of wind load @ at ridge = -10.14KN

Horizontal component of wind load on windward side@ = -3.80KN

intermediate nodal points

Horizontal component of wind load on leeward side@ = -3.80KN

intermediate nodal points

Horizontal component of wind load @ at ridge = 0.00KN

As per the table 4 of IS 800-2007,the following load combinations are to be considered:-

i)1.5DL + 1.5LL

ii)0.9DL + 1.5WL

Seismic loads are not considered,because the effect of wind load is much more pronounced than

that of siesmic activity.

Load combinations :-

i) 1.5DL + 1.5LL

Vertical load windward = 10.29KN

Vertical load leeward = 10.29KN

Vertical load at ridge = 10.29KN

ii) 0.9DL + 1.5WL

Vertical load windward = -12.01KN

Vertical load leeward = -12.01KN

Vertical load at ridge = -12.01KN

Horizontal load windward = -3.80KN

Horizontal load leeward = -3.80KN

Horizontal load at ridge = 0.00KN (Windward side)

The results of analysis using STADD.Pro.2007 along with steel design are enclosed.

Analysis of Roof truss

20.56

1.600

1.709

3.000

2.400

1.800

1.200

0.600

20.56

1.600

1.709

3.000

2.400

1.800

1.200

0.600

#DIV/0!

Design Data:-

Plan length of the building l = 19.00m

Plan depth of the building w = 16.00m

Height of the building excluding pitched roof h = 12.00m

Span of the truss = 16.00m

Height of the truss = 3.00m

Spacing of trusses = 3.832m

Height of each bay = 2.750m

Column spacing for cross wall(Gable) = 3.172m

Wind coefficients upto 10m height :-

k1 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) = 1.00

k2 (assuming terrain category 2&Class of structure A ) = 1.00

k3 = 1.0 (topography factor) 1.00

Basic wind speed V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Internal wind pressure coefficient C

pi

(Buildings with low permeability) = 0.20

Wind coefficients upto 15m height :-

k1 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) = 1.00

k2 (assuming terrain category 2&Class of structure A ) = 1.05

k3 = 1.0 (topography factor) 1.00

Basic wind speed V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Internal wind pressure coefficient C

pi

(Buildings with low permeability 0.20

with openings less than 5%) =

Over hang = 0.50m

The plan and elevation of the shed are as shown below:-

Wind load calculations on RCC Structure

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

Calculation of Wind Load:-

Upto 10m height:-

Assuming the building is situated in Vijayawada, the basic wind speed is = 50.00m/sec

Design wind speed, V

z

= k

1

k

2

k

3

V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Design wind pressure, P

d

= 0.6*Vz

2

= 1.50KN/sqm

In between 10 to 15m height:-

Assuming the building is situated in Vijayawada, the basic wind speed is = 50.00m/sec

Design wind speed, V

z

= k

1

k

2

k

3

V

b

= 52.50m/sec

Design wind pressure, P

d

= 0.6*Vz

2

= 1.65KN/sqm

For simplicity adopt uniform wind pressure upto 15m height,which is 1.65KN/sqm

Wind Load on walls transferred to nodal points:-

i)Longitudinal walls:-

The wind load, W

L

acting normal to the individual surfaces is given by

W

L

= (C

pe

C

pi

) A*P

d

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

a)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at plinth beam level&top beam level, A = 5.27sqm

(Intermediate nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face A Face B Face A Face B Face A Face B

0.7 -0.25 0.20 0.5 -0.45 4.35763125 -3.921868125

0.7 -0.25 -0.20 0.9 -0.05 7.84373625 -0.435763125

b)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at plinth beam level&top beam level, A = 2.64sqm

(End nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face A Face B Face A Face B Face A Face B

0.7 -0.25 0.20 0.5 -0.45 2.178815625 -1.960934063

0.7 -0.25 -0.20 0.9 -0.05 3.921868125 -0.217881563

c)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at intermediate level, A = 10.54sqm

(Intermediate nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face A Face B Face A Face B Face A Face B

0.7 -0.25 0.20 0.5 -0.45 8.7152625 -7.84373625

0.7 -0.25 -0.20 0.9 -0.05 15.6874725 -0.87152625

Long walls

Long walls

Total wind load in KN

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

) Total wind load in KN

Long walls

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

)

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

) Total wind load in KN

d)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at intermediate level, A = 5.27sqm

(End nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face A Face B Face A Face B Face A Face B

0.7 -0.25 0.20 0.5 -0.45 4.35763125 -3.921868125

0.7 -0.25 -0.20 0.90 -0.05 7.84373625 -0.435763125

ii)Cross walls:-

The wind load, W

L

acting normal to the individual surfaces is given by

W

L

= (C

pe

C

pi

) A*P

d

a)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at plinth beam level&top beam level, A = 4.36sqm

(Intermediate nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face C Face D Face C Face D Face C Face D

-0.6 -0.6 0.20 -0.8 -0.8 -5.76828 -5.76828

-0.6 -0.6 -0.20 -0.4 -0.4 -2.88414 -2.88414

b)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at plinth beam level&top beam level, A = 2.18sqm

(End nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Long walls

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

) Total wind load in KN

Cross walls

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

) Total wind load in KN

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face C Face D Face C Face D Face C Face D

-0.6 -0.6 0.20 -0.8 -0.8 -2.88414 -2.88414

-0.6 -0.6 -0.20 -0.4 -0.4 -1.44207 -1.44207

c)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at intermediate level, A = 8.72sqm

(Intermediate nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face C Face D Face C Face D Face C Face D

-0.6 -0.6 0.20 -0.8 -0.8 -11.53656 -11.53656

-0.6 -0.6 -0.20 -0.4 -0.4 -5.76828 -5.76828

d)Effective exposed area of the wall for nodes at intermediate level, A = 4.36sqm

(End nodal points)

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability,the internal pressure coefficient C

pi

=

For the proposed building, h/w = 0.75

l/w = 1.1875

From table 4 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

0

0

degrees

Face C Face D Face C Face D Face C Face D

-0.6 -0.6 0.20 -0.8 -0.8 -5.76828 -5.76828

-0.6 -0.6 -0.20 -0.4 -0.4 -2.88414 -2.88414

Cross walls

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

) Total wind load in KN

Total wind load in KN

Cross walls

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

) Total wind load in KN

Cross walls

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

)

Wind load calculations on RCC Structure

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

#DIV/0!

Design Data:-

Plan length of the building l = 19.00m

Plan depth of the building w = 16.00m

Height of the building excluding pitched roof h = 12.00m

Dead weight of AC sheets = 0.13KN/sqm

Dead weight of purlins,fixtures and false roofing system = 0.45KN/sqm

Span of the truss = 16.00m

Height of the truss = 3.00m

Spacing of trusses = 3.832m

Live load on pitched roof (For pitched roof having slope 20.56

0

) = 0.54KN/sqm

Distance between the nodal points(purlin locations) on top rafter = 1.709m

Sloped area of each slope of Roof = 32.74sqm

No.of Purlins provided = 5.00

Wind coefficients upto 10m height :-

k1 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) = 1.00

k2 (assuming terrain category 2&Class of structure A ) = 1.00

k3 = 1.0 (topography factor) 1.00

Basic wind speed V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Internal wind pressure coefficient C

pi

(Buildings with low permeability) = 0.20

Slope of the pitched roof in degrees = 20.56

Wind coefficients upto 15m height :-

k1 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) = 1.00

k2 (assuming terrain category 2&Class of structure A ) = 1.05

k3 = 1.0 (topography factor) 1.00

Basic wind speed V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Internal wind pressure coefficient C

pi

(Buildings with low permeability 0.20

with openings less than 5%) =

Slope of the pitched roof in degrees = 20.56

Design of Roof purlins&Truss Anchor Bolts

Over hang = 0.50m

The plan and elevation of the shed are as shown below:-

A)Design of Roof Purlins:-

Load Calculations:-

Dead Load of roof = 0.58KN/sqm

Dead load/m run of purlin = 0.991KN/m

Live Load = 0.54KN/sqm

Live load/m run of purlin = 0.921KN/m

Calculation of Wind Load:-

Upto 10m height:-

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

Assuming the building is situated in Vijayawada, the basic wind speed is = 50.00m/sec

Design wind speed, V

z

= k

1

k

2

k

3

V

b

= 50.00m/sec

Design wind pressure, P

d

= 0.6*Vz

2

= 1.50KN/sqm

In between 10 to 15m height:-

Assuming the building is situated in Vijayawada, the basic wind speed is = 50.00m/sec

Design wind speed, V

z

= k

1

k

2

k

3

V

b

= 52.50m/sec

Design wind pressure, P

d

= 0.6*Vz

2

= 1.65KN/sqm

For simplicity adopt uniform wind pressure upto 15m height,which is 1.65KN/sqm

Wind Load on Roofs:-

Exposed area of each slope of roof, per frame is 32.74sqm

From table 5 of IS 875--Part-3:1985,the external wind pressure coefficients are as given below:-

Wind angle C

pi

in degrees Windward Leeward Windward Leeward Windward Leeward

-0.700 -0.5 0.20 -0.9 -0.7 -48.7294 -37.9006425

-0.700 -0.5 -0.20 -0.5 -0.3 -27.0719 -16.2431325

-0.8 -0.8 0.20 -1 -1 -54.1438 -54.143775

-0.6 -0.6 -0.20 -0.4 -0.4 -21.6575 -21.65751

Wind pressure normal to the surface on windward side = -1.65KN/sqm

Wind pressure normal to the surface on leeward side = -1.65KN/sqm

Total wind load in KN

0

90

C

pe

(C

pe

-C

pi

)

16.00

OVER ALL WIND PRESSURE ON ROOF

1

.

6

5

1

.

6

5

12.00

WIND

3.00

Vertical component of max.wind pressure = -1.55KN/sqm

Wind load(vertical) per 'm' run of purlin = -2.650KN/m

Horizontal component of max.wind pressure = -0.58KN/sqm

Wind load(horizontal) per 'm' run of purlin = -1.740KN/m

Load combinations as per working stress method:-

i) 1.0DL + 1.0LL = 1.91KN/m

ii) 1.0DL + 1.0WL -1.66KN/m

Clause 6.9 of IS 800-1984:-

6.9.1: All purlins shall be designed in accordance with the requirements

for uncased beams& ( see 6.2.1 and Table 3.1 ), and the limitations of

bending stress based on lateral instability of the compression flange and

the limiting deflection specified under 3.13 may be waived for the design

of purlins. The maximum fibre stress shall not exceed the values

specified in 6.2.1 except as provided under 3.9 for increase of stress.

The calculated deflections should not exceed those,permitted for the type

of roof cladding used. In calculating the bending moment advantage may

be taken of the continuity of the purlin over supports. The bending

stresses about the two axes should be determined separately and

checked in accordance with 7.1.1. Open web purlins shall be designed as

trusses.

Hence,purlin is to be designed as the member with full lateral restraint.

As per the table 3.1 of IS 800-1984,the maximum slenderness ratio

for the compression in bending is 300

16.00

OVER ALL WIND PRESSURE ON ROOF

1

.

6

5

1

.

6

5

12.00

WIND

3.00

Effective length of the purlin = 3.83m

The radius of gyration of the section required = r = 1.28cm

Considering the supports as simply supported,

the design bending moment in WSM =Wl

2

/8 = 3.51KN-m

1. WSM (clause 6.2 of IS:800 - 1984):

Adopting Yst 240 grade,the yield strength of steel = f

y

= 240.00N/sqmm

Permissible compressive or tensile stress in bending = 0.66f

y

= 158.40N/sqmm

Adopting steel pipes,the section modulus required = 22159.09cumm

= 22.16cm3

From IS 1161,the MS steel pipe of 90mm nominal bore medium gauge is required with

symbol PIP1016.0M.,having section modulus of 28.80cm3

Considering,the bending in other direction also,adopt 90mm nominal bore heavy gauge is

proposed with symbol PIP1016.0H.,having section modulus of 33.75cm3

Radius of gyration of the section proposed = r = 3.43cm

Check as per clause 7.1.1:-

The combined stress in the absence of axial compression shall be as given below:-

C

mx

.a

bcx.cal

C

my

.a

bcy.cal

< 1

a

bcx

a

bcy

Where C

mx

= 0.85

Where C

my

= 0.85

a

bcx.cal

= Extreme fibre compressive stress about x-axis = 104.00N/sqmm

a

bcy.cal

= Extreme fibre compressive stress about y-axis = 51.56N/sqmm

a

bcx

= a

bcy

= Permissible compressive stress in bending = 158.40N/sqmm

Now,the above expression comes to 0.83 < 1

Hence,the section assumed is safe.

Check for deflection:-

Considering the AC sheet roofing,the allowable deflection in the purlin is L/120,where 'L' is

effective length

Moment of inertia of the purlin section PIP1016.0H 'I' = 171.44cm4

Modulus of elasticity of steel E = 200GPa

Assuming that the purlin is simply supported,the max.deflection = 5wl

4

/384EI

= 15.64mm

Allowable deflection = L/120 = 31.93mm >15.65mm

Hence,the section assumed is safe.

B)Design of Anchor Bolts:-

As per the analysis in STADD.Pro.2007,the anchor bolts have to resist an uplift force of 58.76KN

Assuming 25mm nominal dia bolts 4Nos,the uplift force to be resisted by each bolt = 14.69KN

Assuming M18 non-prefered thread bolts,diametre of the bolt is = 18mm

Net cross-sectional area of the 18mm nominal dia bolt = 190.76

(Taking net cross-sectional area as 75% of gross area)

Stress in steel at collapse = 77.01

Assuming M20 grade of concrete,the design bond stress as per IS:456-2000 = 1.92

The development length required Ld = 180mm

Provide an embedment length of 200mm into the concrete to ensure development length

Design of Roof purlins&Truss Anchor Bolts

12.00

3.00

16.00

ELEVATION

16.00

19.00

PLAN

16.00

OVER ALL WIND PRESSURE ON ROOF

1

.

6

5

1

.

6

5

12.00

WIND

3.00

16.00

OVER ALL WIND PRESSURE ON ROOF

1

.

6

5

1

.

6

5

12.00

WIND

3.00

mm

2

N/mm

2

N/mm

2

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