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FOURTH DRAFT

Polytechnic University of the Philippines


Sta. Mesa, Manila
College of Economics, Finance and Politics
REVISITING THE SANGGUNIANG KABATAAN FOR ITS
EFFECTIVENESS
Anicete, Socrates Homer Hero
Bitancr, !nalyn
Comon, "ianne
Santos, #achel$Ann
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGES
CHAPTER I THE CONTEXT OF THE POLICY ISSUE

%ntrodction & $ '
"efinition of (erms ) $ *
Statement of the Policy %sse *
+,-ectives .
Significance of the Stdy .
Scope and /imitation 0
Methodology 0 $ 12
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
#evie3 of #elated /iteratre 11 4 1&
#evie3 of #elated Stdies
CHAPTER III
(heoretical Frame3or5 1'$1*
Conceptal Frame3or5 1* $ 1.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 10
APPENDIX I 62
APPENDIX II 61 $ &2
TIMETABLE OF THE STUDY &' $ &)
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE &7 $ &*
LIST OF REFERENCES &. $ '.
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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Society is rn, dominated and controlled ,y adlts, ,t statistics sho3 that there are
more yong people in the society, i.e., people 3ho ,elong to the age ,rac5et of 1) and 6'
8United 9ations :eneral Assem,ly, 100);. (hese yong people have their needs 3hich have to
,e ta5en flly into accont. Special attention needs to ,e paid to the process of shaping the cities
or to3ns, in order to secre the living conditions of children and of yoth, to mold their
insights, and thoght on their environment 8U9HCS, 1007;. (hey are rapidly developing their
a,ility to ma5e p,lic decisions, and the <ality of their environment affect them to a large
degree, ,ecase they are the generation 3ho 3ill e=perience the reslts of their o3n decisions
for the longest 8Fran5, 6227;.
>Children? ,ecome >adlts? and ascend this hierarchy 3hen they accomplish certain tas5s
8Argenti, 6226;. %n order to nderstand these tas5s and social factors that affect the yoth and
ho3 they impact on them, it is imperative to loo5 at the yoth not as the yong individal, ,t
as a dynamic strctre of the society 8Btler, 6220;. As sch, society has to care for the yoth
for the continance of their e=istence to the ftre.
(he Philippines recogni@ed the need of the yoth participation in the affairs of society.
(he 10.* Constittion of the Philippines devotes a section specifically for the yoth. %n
prsance of the mandate, a la3 3as passed creating the Sanggniang Aa,ataan. +r SA , as
poplarly 5no3n.
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#ep,lic Act 9o. *172 of the /ocal :overnment Code of 1001, formed the Aatipnan
ng Aa,ataan 8AA;, to tap and harness the enthsiasm, and idealism of yong people. (hose
aged 1) to 1* years old in the ,arangay cold register in the AA and have the right to vote and ,e
voted into the SA. (he SA chairperson has given a seat in the ,arangay concil, and is given fll
po3ers and athority.
Bith good gidance and serios, respectfl attention ,y people in athority, the SA can
provide the mch needed force for the reform of the Philippine society. "espite the po3ers
vested on the SA officials, ho3ever, many noted that, at their yong age as government
officials, there 3ere allegations and incidences of corrption and ineffectiveness. (he SA
system has defeated the prpose for 3hich it 3as created forC to train and mold Filipino yoth as
a,le and good and pright leaders and citi@ens. Ma-ority ,elieve that SA, as part of the local
government has ,een o,solete all these years. Frthermore, many say that the Philippine
:overnment lac5s ade<ate fnds to sstain the costs for its election. %n addition, the part of
the society 3hich does not ,elieve in the po3er of SA to affect the yoth?s vision, ,elieves that
the fnd given to this government ,ody shold have ,een sed for a lot more prodctive program
of the government 8Balod D :ono, 6212;.
(his paper shall deal on these many points of vie3 on the relevance, performance and
allegations of corrption, and ineffectiveness of the SA to live ot that 3hich it 3as intended for,
or 3hether the yoth 3ill ,e ,etter off if the SA system 3as a,olished.
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DEFINITION OF TERMS
Society: a ,ody of individals living as mem,ers of a commnity. 8Merriam
dictionary;
1urisdiction: the right, po3er, or athority to administer -stice ,y hearing and
determining controversies. 8Cam,ridge dictionary;
Government: the political direction and control e=ercised over the actions of the
mem,ers, citi@ens, or inha,itants of commnities, societies, and statesE direction of
the affairs of a state, commnity, etc.E political administrationC :overnment is
necessary to the e=istence of civili@ed society. 8Merriam dictionary;
Election: the selection of a person or persons for office ,y vote. 8/ongman
dictionary;
National Government: any political organi@ation that is pt in place to maintain
control of a nation. 8Cam,ridge dictionary;
Administration: the fnction of a political state in e=ercising its governmental
dties. 8Merriam dictionary;
Abolition: the act of a,olishingF terminating. 8Cam,ridge dictionary;
Youth: the time of ,eing yongE early life. 8Cam,ridge dictionary;
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Relevance: the condition of ,eing relevant, or connected 3ith the matter at hand.
8Merriam dictionary;
Anomalies: a deviation from the common rle, type, arrangement, or form.
8Cam,ridge dictionary;
Generation: the entire ,ody of individals ,orn and living at a,ot the same time.
8Cam,ridge dictionary;
Community: Social grops of any si@e 3hose mem,ers reside in a specific locality,
share government, and often have a common cltral and historical heritage.
8Cam,ridge dictionary;
Sect: a ,ody of persons adhering to a particlar religios faithE a religios
denomination. 8Merriam dictionary;
Tax: a complsory contri,tion to state revene, levied ,y the government on
3or5er?s income and ,siness profits. 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Welfare: financial or other assistance to an individal or family from a city, state,
or national government. 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Legislative: having the fnction of ma5ing la3s. 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Executive: the person or persons in 3hom the spreme e=ective po3er of a
government is vested. 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
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1udiciary: the -dicial ,ranch of government. 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Sovereign: a person 3ho has sovereign po3er or athority. 8"anng and
CampanillaC622&;
PovertyC the state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of
spportE condition of ,eing poor. 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Citizens: a native or natrali@ed mem,er of a state or nation 3ho o3es allegiance
to its government and is entitled to its protection 8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Good Governance: is an indeterminate term sed in government literatre to
descri,e ho3 p,lic instittions condct p,lic affairs and manage p,lic
resorces in order to garantee the reali@ation of hman rights. 8"anng and
CampanillaC622&;
Policy: a definite corse of action adopted for the sa5e of e=pediency, facility, etc
8"anng and CampanillaC622&;
Council: an assem,ly of persons smmoned or convened for consltation,
deli,eration, or advice. 8Merriam dictionary;
POLICY ISSUE STATEMENT
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(he /ocal :overnment Code of 1001 mandates the SA to safegard the 3elfare and
development of the yoth. (his policy of involving the yoth in local governtment affairs, may
have to ,e amended. (here has ,een no 5no3n revie3 or assessment of the SA?s effectiveness
and relevance althogh there 3ere ver,al insinations that it has otrn its seflness, is no
longer relevant, and has introdced the yoth to corrption contrary to the prposes for 3hich it
3as created. (his stdy shall deal 3ith this dilemma on the e=istence of the SA.
O B 1 E C T I V E S
(his paper aims to srvey the opinions of PUP stdents and hence, ,e al,e to
revie3 the e=istence of SA ,its relevance to Philippine society. Specifically, the stdy hopes toC
Specifically, the o,-ectives of the paper are toC
1. Solicit the perceptions of the people on the SAE
6. #evie3 the milestones and effectiveness of SA from its e=istenceE
&. "etermine the ,enefits and costs to the local governments in maintaining the SA
or is there trth in the perceptions that the SA has not E
'. %dentify the anomalies 3herein SA mem,ers have ,een involvedE
). S,mit policy directions for the enhancement of the SA.
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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
(he stdy 3ill have a significance to the government in that it provides a tool
3hich or inpts as gide in the decision ma5ing as to 3hether or not to a,olish the SA.
(he stdy 3ill also provide 3ith crrent data and analysis of the state or condition of SA failre
for prposes of policy formlation, and ,dgetary items that 3ill develop or improve SAE and to
the yoth themselves and their families, for self analysis, and for evalation of SA?s
effectiveness.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
(he stdy shall evalate the role of Sanggniang Aa,ataan in addressing the pro,lems of
the yoth today. As mentioned ,y Utas in his stdy, se=al ,ehavior, pregnancy, drgs, and
violence or involvement in armed conflict are the main pro,lems concerning the yoth.
(he time parameter of the data is eight 8.; years 8622&$6212;, ,ecase of the limited
information availa,le. (ime, money, and resorce constraints have hindered this policy stdy to
condct a thorogh analysis of the policy pro,lem.
METHODOLOGY
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(he stdy shall se the descriptive method, sing ,oth <antitative and <alitative
approaches. (his method shall ,e sed to descri,e the natre of the SA sitation, as it e=ists at
the time of the stdy and to e=plore the case of any dilemma. As for the <antitative approach, a
srvey shall ,e condcted.
(he srvey and <estionnaire method shall ,e sed for gathering primary data. (he
<estions 3ere ehanced throgh the pre$testing of the <estionnaire. %t involve a total of 1)
respondents from -nior stdents of Political Economy at the Polytechnic University of the
Philippines 8PUP;, 3ho 3ere randomly selected as participants. For the srvey proper, at least
1222 stdents from College of Economics, Finance, and Politics, 3ill ,e randomly selected. (he
<estionnaire contains <estions that measres the a3areness of the yoth a,ot the SA. "ata or
statistics that 3ill ,e gathered shall ,e analy@ed sing the measres of central tendency.
Along 3ith the primary data, secondary resorces in the form of p,lished articles and
literatres, data from agencies li5e, 9ational Goth Congress 89GC; and Concil for the Belfare
of Children 8CBC; 3ill ,e sed, to spport the srvey reslts.
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Chapter II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A. Related Literature
(he right of the yoth to participate in the governance of the ,arangay 3as e=ercised
throgh the government ,ody comprised of yoth, called Sanggniang Aa,ataan 8SA;. (he SA
is the vene 3here the yoth can e=ercise their leadership s5ills and confidence. (his 3ill ,e
frther discssed ,y the follo3ing stdies related to SA ,elo3.
Even ,efore it ,ecame a signatory to the U9 Convention on the #ights of a Child 8U9
C#C;, the Philippines had already enacted a la3 to ensre that the voices of children and yong
people 3ere heard on isses that directly concern them. So far, it is the only contry in the
3orld to have a government fnded political ,ody for yong people that is recogni@ed
nation3ide 8Balanon, 622*;.
Philippine yoth 3here the Sanggniang Aa,ataan ,elongs is the ,iggest segment of the
Philippine society. %t is not only dynamic ,t also essentially enlightened in the sense that these
are of school age going from high school level to3ards the college level. (hese yong people are
also receptive to democratic ideas 3hich they 3old li5e to pt into practice 8SA Primer Boo5 %,
p12;.
(he effective and appropriate garnishment of this great potential on any given time for
prodctive activities 3old ndo,tedly spell ot a difference. Even or national hero, "r. !ose
#i@al emphasi@ed that, Hon the hand of the yoth, lies the fair hope of or fatherlandI 8Jaide,
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6226;. (hs, it is imperative for the state for the enhancement of national secrity to prepare and
involve the yoth 3ith a more define role in society 3ith concerted effort to develop the contry.
B. Related Studies
Some articles a,ot the governance of Sanggniang Aa,ataan say that, this organi@ation is
-st a 3aste of money. (he fnd of SA are inclded in ,arangay fnds 3herein 12K are for the
Sanggniang Aa,ataan 3hich they are sing for their pro-ects and also for their salaries. Bt,
despite the fnds allotted to them, SA officials are failing to do their responsi,ilities 8Cayanan,
622.;.
According to stdy ,y %sagani /iporda, Sanggniang Aa,ataan shold ,e a,olished to
re$allocate their fnds to give importance on providing more fnds for p,lic edcation system
so that more Filipinos 3ill ,e edcated. (he SA?s main o,-ective is to enhance social, political,
economic, cltral, intellectal, moral, spirital, and physical development has ,een lost and
trns into the e=istence of misera,le performance 8/iporda, 622*;.
(his is especially tre as seen in the stdy in terms of coming p 3ith legislations,
promoting the development of yong people, s,mitting reports and holding consltations 3ith
their constitents, it failed to implement yoth development pro-ects and programs at the
national level 8transparencyreporting.netFSanggniang$Aa,ataan$in$lim,o, #a@alC 622', accessed
on !anary 60, 6211;.
Stressing to 3eigh the e=cellence of the Sanggniang Aa,ataan, the 9ational Goth
Commisssion 89GC; 3old find other 3ays to engage the yoth sector in national development.
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(he 9GC 3ants to postpone the election so that the Commission on Elections can still
implement programs to still ma5e the elections credi,le 8/igalig, 622*;.
Ho3ever, after all the alleged anomalies, the SA still has its saving grace. (he impact
of the SA can ,e measred ,y ho3 it has shaped the lives of its mem,ers. %t has imparted good
vales, and s5ills to the yoth representatives, especially their self confidence 8+ng,622);.
(he millions of pesos spent for SA shold not ,e 3asted. (a5ing into accont or present
de,acle, it is the height of irresponsi,ilty if 3e remained remiss in identifying the pro,lem and
offering soltion to the SA predicament. %t is hypothesi@ed that there is a need to re$e=amine the
very fndamentalE the creation of the SA and its relevance to or society 3ith a democratic
system of government 8Cardino@a, 6212;.
Aa,ataan Paty$list #ep. #aymond L. Palatino, filed for Hose Bill 9o. 107& 3hich calls
to strengthen and reform the Sanggniang Aa,ataan, amending for that prpose certain
provisions of #ep,lic Act 9o. *172, other3ise 5no3n as the H(he /ocal :overnment Code of
1001I.
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Chapter III
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
(his chapter discsses and contains theories that are related and essential to this stdy to
finally prove the cases for this propose policy.
Figure 1: Marc Nerfin`s central pillars of Alternative Development Paradigm
SOURCE: United Nations Human Settlement Program, UN-Habitat
(he concept of this HAnother "evelopmentI ,y Marc 9erfin 810**; 3herein these
alternative development theory espose that p,lic development programs and interventions
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Structural
Transformation
Ecological Sound
Endogenous
Need- Oriented
Self-Reliant
shold ,e need$oriented, endogenos, self$reliant, ecologically sond, and ,ased on the
transformation of the strctres of social life 89erfin, 10**;.
$ Need-oriented (Social Factor)Mmeeting hman needs, ,oth material and non$
materialE
$ Endogenous (Social Factor)M,ased from the heart of each society, anchored in its
vales and the version of its ftreE
$ Sel- reliant (!e"a#ioral Factor)Mimplying that each society relies primarily on its
o3n strength and resorces in terms of its mem,ers? energies and its natral and
cltral environmentE
$ Ecologicall$ sound (En#ironmental Factor)Mtili@ing rationally the resorces of
the ,iosphere in fll a3areness of the potential of local ecosystems as 3ell as the
glo,al and local oter limits imposed on present and ftre generationsE and
$ !ased on structural transormation (Social Factor)Mso as to reali@e the conditions
of self$ management and participation in decision$ma5ing ,y all those affected ,y it,
3ithot 3hich the goals a,ove cold not ,e achieved 89erfin, 10**, p. 12;.
%n order to srvive in this competing 3orld, the individal mst 5no3 first his F her needs
that 3ill satisfy the 3ay it shold ,e. Meeting this hierarchal need 3ill ,e a great flfilment in
one?s lives. %t is said, that not meeting this hierarchy 3ill reslt in great an=iety people. (he SA
concil e=pected to inspire yong people to get a3ay from a lot of illegal things. Get the SA has
,een a,sed and their performances are generally 3ea5 from the past ten years, especially in
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terms of coming p 3ith the legislations, promoting development of yong people, s,mitting
reports and holding consltations 3ith their constitents 8#a@al, 622';.
Behavioral theory discsses a,ot the otcomes of an individal?s action in dealing 3ith
their daily lives. (he theory is correlated 3ith the concept of the Hman "evelopment (heory
,y Mah,, Ul Ha< 810*7;. %t is a,ot creating an environment in 3hich people can develop
their fll potential and lead prodctive, creative lives in accord 3ith their needs and interests
3here they can en-oy long, healthy and creative living 8Mah,, Ul Ha<, 10*7;. (he relation of
this theory to SA is that SA mem,ers shold have the potential and leading characteristics to ,e
a,le to ,e prodctive in the ,arangay to flfill the needs the yoth in sch ,arangay they ,elong.
Bt then, the chance of ,ecoming a leader 3ill ,e rooted of violence de to hnger of po3er
8:a,riel Cardina@a, 6212;.
Social theory is a set of interrelated concepts se to descri,e, e=plain, and predict ho3
society and its parts are related to each other. (his theory 3as spported ,y Social Cognitive
(heory 8SC(; ,y Miller and "ollard 810'1;. %t e=plains ho3 people ac<ire and maintain certain
,ehavioral patterns, 3hile also providing the ,asis for intervention strategies 8Bandra, 100*;.
SC( provides a frame3or5 for designing, implementing and evalating programs. Bt then the
pro-ects of theses SA are said to ,e meaningless ,ecase the pro-ects they created has no
direction in ,ilding good commnity 8Cielo :ono, 6212;.
Environmental theory e=plains the location matters of corrption that is e=isting in the
grop they ,elong. %nflencial theory is related to this environment theory 3herein people do
sch actions depending on 3hat they see to others. /ayg 86212; stdy saying that there is a
mismatch ,et3een financial capa,ilities and devolved fnctions are ,eing spend mostly on
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personal services 3ith little percentage for Maintaince and +ther +perating Service 8M++E;
sch as travelling e=penses, spplies and materials, 3ater illmination and po3er, rent etc... to
flfilling the devolved fnctions of ,arangays 3ith most of them failing to finance these
fnction.
C O N C E P T U A L F R A M E W O R K
(his chapter sho3s the steps and manner ,y 3hich the stdy 3ill ,e nderta5en.

Figure 1. Factors that will determine the development of futures country
Goth are said to ,e the ftre leaders of the 3orld. (hey are the one 3ho cold give
economic gro3th in the society. Bt in a,le to ,e the ftre leader in this society, each yoth
mst have the said factors for a child to ,ecome an effective leader 8Fernande@,6220;.
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YOUTH
COUT!Y" FUTU!#
$TT%TU&#
'%&("#T
)!%O!%T%#"
*$+U#"
A((%(U"E 4Having the right attitde in everything individals shold do 5eeps
a3ay from tro,les. Becase attitde is one of the primary ,asis of 3hat type of
person or ho3 good of a person yo are. A good attitde 3ill often lead to good
reslts 3hether in yor o3n performance or on other people?s response. As that it
cold inflence other people to do the same good deeds for others.
M%9"$SE( 4 Mindset is also very important on ,ecoming a ,etter and prodctive
person. Be need the right mindset in order to reach or goals. Proper mindset can
lead s right to sccess along 3ith proper focs.
P#%+#%(%ES 4 9ever set aside yor priorities. Setting yor priorities right is the
first step on ,ecoming sccessfl person.
LA/UES 4 Ano3ing yor personal vales is e=tremely important ,ecase those
vales shape everything a,ot yo. Gor relationships, ,ehavior, choices, and
personal identity are all affected ,y yor vales. (hose vales are yor compass
for the day to day decisions yo mst continally ma5e, and they help dra3 the
map of yor entire life.
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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CICL Children in Conflict 3ith the /a3
COMELEC Comission on Election
HD Hman "evelopment
KB Aa,ataang Barangay
KK Aatipnan ng Aa,ataan
LGC /ocal :overnment Code
LGU /ocal :overnment Unit
NEAT 9ational Elementary Assessment (est
NSAT 9ational Secondary Assessment (est
NYC 9ational Goth Concil
PCYA Presidential Concil for Goth Affairs
PD Presidential "ecree
PSK Pederasyon ng Sanggniang Aa,ataan
SK Sanggniang Aa,ataan
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$))#&%,. %
"ource- United ations Childrens Fund
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APPENDIX. II
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T % ' # T $ . + #
17 February Submission to the Department of Economics
! February Feedbac" from the panelist
#-$ February Re%ised the &roposal
7 Februray &re-test of sur%ey
' February Summission of paper to the ad%iser
' February- 1$ (arch Start of Sur%ey
17-) (arch *ompilation of Sur%ey
1- ' (arch Feed bac" from the ad%iser
+ (arch- 1, -pril Re%ie. and -nalyse the result of Sur%ey
1$ -pril- ) -pril /isit the &hilippine National &olice
, -pri- 7 -pril *ollate and summari0e gathered data
,) -pril- ! (ay /isit theDepartment of 1nterior and 2ocal 3o%ernment
# (ay- + (ay *ollate and Summari0e the gathered data
1) (ay- 1' (ay /isit theNational 4outh *ouncil
1+ (ay- , (ay *ollate and summari0e the gathered data
, (ay- 1 5une /isit theDepartment of Education
5une- $ 5une *ollate and summari0e the gathered data
7 5une- 1# 5une /isit the*ongress
1$ 5une- ) 5une *ollate and summari0e the gathered data
1 5une- + 5une /isit theDepartment of Social 6elfare and De%elopment
,) 5une- , 5uly *ollate and summari0e the gathered data
! 5uly- 11 5uly /isit theDepartment of 2abor and Employment
1 5uly- 17 5uly *ollate and summari0e the data
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1' 5uly- , -ugust E-mail and *onsultation to &rof7 Narne
$ -ugust- 1 -ugust Re%ise and re.rite the paper
1, -ugust- 7 -ugust *onsultation
' -ugust- 1) September Submission to the &anelists8 feedbac" from them
11 September- 1$ September Finali0ing the paper
17 September- 1 October Submission of the finali0ed paper to the panelist
October- 1! October &reparation for Oral Defense
1# October- ,1 October OR-2 DEFENSE
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Department of Economics
)O+YT#CH%C U%*#!"%TY OF TH# )H%+%))%#"
Sta7 (esa8 (anila
*ollege of Economics8 Finance and &olitics
Department of Economics
OT#- This sur%ey is being conducted to generate inputs to the policy paper on /)erceptions of )U) studentry for
"anggunian 0a1ataan23 .hich is a re9uirement for graduation for a :achelor;s Degree in &olitical Economy from
&<&7 -ll information gathered shall be treated .ith confidentiality7 Than" you7
$4#- 55555 "#,- 55555 Y#$!- 555555
1. -re you a.are that there is Sangguniang =abataan>
?Pamilyar ka ba sa Sangguniang Kabataan?)
1 , !
Strongly -gree -gree Strongly Disagree Disagree
6. Do you ha%e any relati%e?s@ or friend?s@ .ho ha%e been S= official?s@>
(Meron ka bang kamag-anak o kaibigan na naging opisyal ng SK?)
1 , !
Strongly -gree -gree Strongly Disagree Disagree
7. 1n .hich of these acti%ities did the S= in your barangay engaged in>
(Alin sa mga aktibidad na ito ang nagawa na ng inyong SK?)
OT#- &ut chec"?s@ on the underline part7
8.

8. Does the S= in your barangay helped the youth community in any .ay>
(Nakatulong ba ang SK ng inyong barangay sa mga kabataan sa kahit anong paraan?)
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AAA :eauty &ageants AAA 2i%elihood &rograms Others
AAA :as"etball *ompetition AAA Outreach &rogram
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA Song B Dance *ontest AAA Scholarship &rogram
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA &arties AAA *ommunity Ser%ice
1 , !
Strongly -gree -gree Disagree
Strongly Disagree
9. Do S= representati%es recei%e salaries>
(Alam mo ba kung nakakatanggap ng sweldo ang mga SK?)
1 , !
Stronlgly -gree -gree Strongly Disagree Disagree
Or8 incenti%esCbenefits>
(O insentibobenepisyo?)
1 , !
Strongly -gree -gree Strongly Disagree Disagree
:. 1s it still rele%ant to retain the S=>
(Kailangan pa bang panatilihin ang SK?)
1 , !
Strongly -gree -gree Strongly Disagree Disagree
;. Do you plan to run for S=>
(May plano ka bang tumakbo sa SK?)
1 , !
Strongly -gree -gree Strongly Disagree Disagree
6hy>
(!akit?)
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
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. % . + % O 4 ! $ ) H Y
I. BOOKS
Abletez, J. P., 1993, Sangguniang Kabataan: Handbook for New Youth Councils, SK
Funding Support, Mary Jo Educational Supply, pp. 37- 43
A handboo !herein it pro"ide# the no!led$able in%or&ation re$ardin$ to the youth, their
bene%it#, #alarie#, their %unction, dutie# and %unction# under the 'ocal (o"ern&ent )ode o%
1991.
Aldaba-'i&, E#te%ania, 1999, Toward Understanding the Filipino u!enile "elin#uent,
Exploring the Crime of Delinquency, *u#ta&ante Pre## +nc., pp. 3-1,
-hi# boo i# a po#iti"e #tep not to!ard# a better under#tandin$ o% the .ilipino /u"enile
delin0uent and al#o to &o"e %or!ard in de"elopin$ ne! orientation in delin0uency re#earchby
looin$ into the %actor# that beed cri&inality a&on$ the youth.
Allen, . E., and E"erette P. M., 119723. A behavior Modification classroom for ead Start
children !ith "roblem #ehaviors$ E4ceptional children, pp 119-156
A boo !herein the teacher #i&ply chan$e hi# %ocu# and beco&e a re#ource teacher, #o&e in-
#er"ice i# u#ually &ade a"ailable to the#e teacher# to help in their tran#ition. -he #ucce## o%
thi# practice depend# upon the initial co&petence and the acceptance o% the ne! "ote by the
teacher# a# !ell a# upon the e%%ecti"ene## o% the in-#er"ice trainin$. -he re#ource teacher#
had to chan$e their planned re&edial pro$re## and helped the pupil# co&plete the re0ue#t# in
a# #hort a ti&e a# po##ible and then teach the& !hat they thou$ht !a# &ore i&portant.
Ateneo 7u&an 8i$ht# )enter in cooperation !ith the +nternational 'abour 9r$anization1199:3,
$pening "oors: % &resentation of 'aws &rotecting Filipino Child (orkers, %emedies
Against Abuse&Expoitation and Discrimination, +nternational 'abour 9r$anization, pp.15:-135
-hi# boo ai&# to pro&ote a!arene## and under#tandin$ o% child labor la!# and the le$al
procedure# in"ol"ed in their en%orce&ent. )hild labor i# a pheno&enon that e4i#t throu$hout
the !olrd. +n the Philippine#, &illion# o% children can be %ound !orin$ in poor and un#a%e
Page 27 of 37
condition, ri#in$ their li%e and health %or littlr or no re&uneration in order to #ur"i"e.-he la!
can be an e%%ecti"e tool in co&batin$ child labor by pro"idin$ child !orer# !ith #u%%icient
ri$ht#, and pro"idin$ e%%ecti"e #anction# a$ain#t tho#e !ho abu#e or e4ploit the&.
Ar&ando, 9. '., and Al#chuler, A. S., 119923. 'verpopulated "hilippines( Child Abuse
Deforestation and the evil of )ambling$ 8e#earch Pre## )o&pany, p. 553.
-hi# boo pro"ide# la! %or the children !hich $i"e# cited their ri$ht# in thi# #tate and !hat
bene%it# they can $et %ro& the $o"ern&ent. Mo#t p#ycholo$i#t# !ould broaden the de%inition to
include &any o% the anti-#ocial acti"itie# #uch a# "a$rancy, pro#titution, alcoholic drinin$, act#
o% "andali#&, etc., althou$h the#e are cri&e# under the #tatue, they are #eldo& en%orced
a$ain#t /u"enile unle## there are al#o other la!# dealin$ !ith youth o%%ender#. -he /u"enile
/u#tice la! or 8epublic act 9344 pro"ide# that children 16 year# old and belo! !ill not be
cri&inally reliable !hile youth o%%ender# a$ed 16 to 1, can be cri&inally char$ed i% they acted
out the cri&e !ith di#cern&ent.
Atin#on, 'inda, 19,5, Your 'egal )ights, *uvenile %ights, .ranlin ;att#, <e! =or,
-hi# boo deal# !ith &inor#, and their ri$ht# %or cri&e that they had been o%%ended and the la!
%or the&. ;ith thi# boo, reader# #urely under#tand the !ay# that /u"enile o%%ender# %aced
durin$ their deten#ion#.
)ha&bli##, ;illia& J., 19,,, *+ploring Cri,inolog-, %aise ell, <e! =or Mac&illan, pp.42:-
452
-hi# boo i# or$anized in a #tandard %a#hion, !ith initial chapter#> #ource# o% data about cri&e,
the cri&inal la!, the #cienti%ic &ethod, theoretical o"er"ie!#, biolo$ical, p#ychiatric, #ocial-
p#ycholo$ical, and #ocial nor&ati"e paradi$&. -hi# boo doe# not de#cribe the co&ponent# o%
the cri&inal /u#tice #y#te& it#el% other than the cri&inal la!, i.e., police, court#, and #o %orth but
in#tead %ocu#e# on the ?cau#e# o% cri&e.@
)ole&an, Mar$aret )ecil, 1995, *,otional and .eha!ioral "isorders, %ise of +ioletn Crime,
Allyn and *acon A. Si&on and Schu#ter )o&pany p.51,-555
-hi# boo i# all about the beha"ior o% a youth and ho! they are ea#ily a%%ected in the proble&#
that they really ha"e to %ace. -hi# e4plain the %actor !hy a /u"enile co&&it delin0uency.
Aa"i#, <anette J., 1999, Youth Crisis: /rowing Up in the High0)isk Societ-, ,outh&
Addiction& and Control, Prae$er, pp.166-195
-he creation o% thi# boo re#pon#e# to the treat&ent o% youn$ people in cri&inolo$y. -hi#
di#cipline ha# lon$ been preoccupied !ith adole#cent de"iance, a# any
peru#al o% /u"enile delin0uency te4tboo# re"eal#. the traditional concern# o% le$al de%inition#
Page 28 of 37
and beha"ior pattern# o% delin0uency and child dependency, but al#o other youth concern# a#
!ellB #tudie# o% abu#ed children, A%rican A&erican %a&ilie#, hi$h #chool drop out#, teen
e&ploy&ent, di%%erential arre#t rate# o% &inority youth, dru$#, "iolence, $an$#, poor la!#,
teena$e pre$nancy, /u"enile "icti&#, /u"enile /u#tice, incarceration trend#, and a ho#t o% other
topic# related to youth proble&#.
Au%%ee, Aa"id E., Corrections, &ractice 1 &olic-, Detention for *uveniles, 8ando& 7ou#e +nc.,
pp.472-47,
-hi# boo introduce# to the practice o% the cri&inal puni#h&ent# and the operation# o% the
correctional #y#te&. -he rationale# and li&itation# on cri&inal puni#h&ent are i&portant in
under#tandin$ ho! con"icted o%%ender# are handled and !hy correctional a$encie# !or a#
they do. *ut in &odern indu#trialized #ocietie#, under#tandin$ !hy and ho! they puni#h i# not
the co&plete picture o% correctional a$encie# !hile thi# te4t boo co"er# cri&inal puni#h&entC
it al#o co"er# the correctional acti"itie# that are not puni#h&ent#.
Aupont, 7., 119713. Educating Emotionally Disturbed Children$ <e! =orB /ohn ;iley and Son#,
p.517
A boo !here you can %ind the &odern learnin$ theory that i# #lo!ly but #urely increa#in$ it#
potential %or i&pact upon #ocial proble&#. A# proble&# in #ocial de"elop&ent and interaction
are clo#ely e4a&ined throu$h the &ethod# o% e4peri&ental analy#i#, the i&portance o%
learnin$ principle# in e"eryday li%e beco&e# clearer. Part o% #erie# #tudie# ai&ed at
de&on#tratin$ !hat the teacher# can do to achie"e a happier, &ore e%%ecti"e cla##roo&
throu$h the #y#te&atic u#e o% learnin$ principle#.
.ido, Martin, 1993, The Chronicles of Cri,e, -eenage -orture. Murderer& %eprieved&)arlton
*oo# 'i&ited, p.1,9
-hi# boo i# a co&pilation o% !or#t cri&e# a$ain#t hu&anity that happened lon$ ti&e a$o all
o"er the !orld. +t include# a $ood deal o% editorial ponti%ication $i"in$ the appropriate %la"or o%
the ti&e#. it #hould be ob"iou# that #o&e o% the prediction# are una#ha&ed !ron$, and the
author and publi#her# do not nece##arily endor#e any other opinion e4pre##ed.
.lo!er#, 8onald *arri, 19,:, Children and Cri,inalit-: The Child as 2icti, and &erpetrator,
Social *ustice and other Factors of Delinquency, (reen!ood Pre##, pp.143-16:
-hi# boo #ee# to add ne! depth and under#tandin$ to the #tudy o% cri&inality by #ho!in$
ho! cri&e relate# to #ociety at lar$e. -he "olu&e# co"er children and cri&inality, !o&en and
cri&inality, &inoritie# and cri&inality, and de&o$raphic# and cri&inality. -he ai& o% thi#
Page 29 of 37
&ulti"olu&e !or i# to brid$e the $ap in the e4ploration o% cri&inolo$y, cri&inal /u#tice, and
"icti&olo$y.
7e&pel&an, Dathleen A., 5222, Teen 'egal )ights, -eens and Crimes, (reen!ood Pre##,
pp.1,7-51:
-he purpo#e o% !ritin$ o% thi# boo i# a$ain to educate teen#, parent#, teacher#, and
coun#elor# about the le$al ri$ht# o% youn$ people and to e4plain the &any a#pect# o% A&erican
la! that teen# !ant to no! &ore about. E4plainin$ to indi"idual the #tory behind the cri&inal
rea#on o% a teena$er co&&itted $i"in$ the& the idea to no! !hat are the challen$e# they are
%acin$.
Madelo, ). /r.C A&ante, A.A.C 'orenzo, 7.), 5223, 3ntroduction to cri,inolog- and
&s-cholog- of Cri,e, Segment /( *uvenile Delinquency, Mind#haper# )o., +<)., pp.:6-77
Aeal# !ith the o"er"ie! o% the #tudy o% cri&e#B it># cau#e and it# e%%ect, the cri&inal# and it>#
cri&inal beha"ior includin$ the approache# o% their treat&ent#. +t al#o include# the #tudie# o%
the di%%erent %actor# that are precipitate cri&e repre##ion, cri&inal etiolo$y or the predi#po#in$
%actor# and producin$ ele&ent# o% cri&e#.
Moeller, -ho&a# (., 5221, Youth %ggression and 2iolence: % &s-chological %pproach,
-elevision and Media, 'a!rence Erlbau& A##ociate#, pp.15:-165
-hi# boo atte&pt# to %ill that "oid and dra!# on re#earch %ro& the %ield# o% #ociolo$y,
cri&inolo$y, and hi#tory a# !ell. A# the de"elop&ental p#ycholo$i#t, -ho&a# Moeller
%a&iliarize the theory and re#earch on &oral de"elop&ent and a$$re##ion in ?nor&al@ children.
At the #a&e ti&e, he al#o ne! that re#earch in de"elop&ental p#ychopatholo$y had
produced a lar$e body o% in%or&ation on clinical &ani%e#tation# o% youth%ul anti#ocial beha"ior
and "iolence. 7o!e"er, he could %ind no one boo that inte$rated the#e t!o bodie# o%
in%or&ation.
Myer#, Aa"id '., 5221, *+cluding 2iolent Youths fro, u!enile Court: The *ffecti!eness of
'egislati!e (ai!er, "unishment and Deterrence -hrough -reating *uvenile 'ffenders as
Adults, '.* Scholarly Publi#hin$, pp.67-7:
A reader or "ie!er i# o%ten le%t !ith the perception that youn$ people are out o% control, the
/u"enile #y#te& i# ine%%ecti"e, and #o&ethin$ &u#t be done to deal !ith the#e "iolent youth%ul
o%%ender#. -hi# /u"enile #y#te& #ee&in$ly #en#ele## due to they are not learnin$ %ro& their
&i#tae# in#tead they repeat the #a&e a$enda all o"er a$ain. (i"in$ the& in%or&ation that thi#
boo content could realize that they are not #uppo#ed to be to ha"e any #pecial treate&ent.
Page 30 of 37
8oach, John. E -hor&anec, Jur$en. 119,63. "ublic "olicy 0la!1$ Europe, )ro## )ultural
Studie#, pp. 17F553.
Gariou# di#cipline# #uch a# p#ycholo$y and #ociolo$y ha"e e4a&ined "andali#& %ro& di%%erent
per#pecti"e#, and it i# di%%icult to reach con#en#u# on a de%inition. -hi# %or& o% de#tructi"e
beha"ior i# thu# &oti"ated not by pro%it but by other %actor#, #u$$e#t# that act# o% "andali#&
are &oti"ated by an$er, boredo&, cathar#i#, ero#ion o% already da&a$ed ob/ect#, or ae#thetic
%actor#.
Hi&bardo, P. (. 119:93. The hu,an choice: 3ndi!iduation, reason and order !ersus
deindi!iduation, i,pulse and chaos& 2n 3$ *$ Arnold 4 D$ Devine$ Symposium on Education$
5incoln, <EB Ini"er#ity o% <ebra#a Pre##.
-hi# boo i# all about the &odern #ociety, %ro& the point o% "ie! o% adole#cent# !ho
e4perience #ocial &ore# and "alue# incon#i#tently and there%ore beco&e in"ol"ed in non-
nor&ati"e beha"ior. +ndi"idual !ho co&&it# "andali#& i# due toB per#onal trait#, di%%icultie# in
ad/u#tin$ to #ociety at lar$e and to #chool in particular, and e&otional proble&#.
II. MAGAZINES/ 1OURNALS/ NEWSPAPER
*alod, SophiaC (ono, )ielo Mar/orie 152123, &hilippine "ail- 3n#uirer, SK6s Dar7 Side,
Philippine Aaily +n0uirer
An article that #ho!# on the de%ect# in San$$uinian Dabataan #et up !herein it #tate# that a lot
o% &oney i# !a#ted that i# allotted %or the SD. .ro& here it #aid to be they !ere e4po#ed and
practice# to an early corruption by &ean# o% their &eanin$le## pro$ra&# !ith no direction #uch
a# partie#, beauty conte#t, dance and #in$in$ co&petition#, etcJ
*ara!id, 8achel 152123, 4anila .ulletin Newspaper $nline, -he )reat SK Debate( do !e
really need the Sangguniang Kabataan8, Manila *ulletin Publi#hin$ )orporation
An article #ayin$ alle$ation# o% corruption by ine%%icient, ine%%ecti"e and non-per%or&in$
San$$unian$ Dabataan 1SD3 o%%icial cau#in$ to $i"e a call %or it# abolition !hich #upported o%
"ariou# #ector# and o%%icial# includin$ the Pre#ident o% the Philippine# *eni$no A0uino. Prior to
that, Philippine# i# #aid to be the only country in the !orld, #o %ar, that ha# $i"en youth# an
opportunity to tae a participation role in the $o"ern&ent throu$h the#e SD.
*en, 8. 8. 15227, Septe&ber 43. 4anila .ulletin, #ill postponing village polls old, Manila
*ulletin Publi#hin$ )orp, p.,
Page 31 of 37
An article that di#cu##e# the )o&&ittee on Su%%ra$e and Electoral 8e%or&# in the 7ou#e o%
8epre#entati"e# appro"ed ye#terday the con#olidated bill po#tponin$ ane! the baran$ay and
San$$unian$ Dabataan 1SD3 election# %ro& 9ctober 5227 to the #econd Monday o% May in
5229. E&bodied in at lea#t 13 #eparate bill# and re#olution#, the po#tpone&ent o% the 9ct. 59
election# i# a priority &ea#ure o% the 7ou#e leader#hip. +t i# the %ir#t &ea#ure to pa##
le$i#lati"e co&&ittee procedure in the 14th )on$re##.
)ardinoza, (abriel 152123, 3n#uirer5Net, #arangay& SK polls important in testing level of
"olitical Maturity& Philippine Aaily in0uirer
9"er the pa#t decade# that the Philippine# %ace# durin$ election i# #till i&&ature !hen it co&e#
to politic# due to the $o"ern&ent o%%icial# !ho are not properly elected. ;ith that, tho#e SD are
#till needed to e4i#t in e"ery baran$ay to be able to a##i#t and help people but then thi# chance
o% beco&in$ a leader !ill be rooted o% "iolence due to hun$er %or po!er.
)ayanan, Eria )rititne *., 1522,3, &U&ino Youth, An Act Scraping the Fix #udget Allocation
for Sangguniang Kabataan, =outh )on$re##
An article that i# all about the bill re$ardin$ SD># #tate# the plannin$ to #crap the %i4 bud$et
allocation %or the #an$$unian$ abataan. -he %und o% thi# SD are included in baran$ay %und#
!herein 12K are %or the San$$unian$ Dabataan !here they are u#in$ %or their pro/ect# and
al#o %or their #alarie# but !hat i# di#appointin$ about thi# i# that, #o&e #tudie# the
San$$unian$ Dabataan 9%%icial# are %ailin$ to do their re#pon#ibilitie#.
)9<)E8<, +<). 119953. Sangguniang kabataan: pri,er book 6, Abolish it& 9o!:& ManilaB
Mary Jo Educational Supply.
An article that #tate# ?!e do not need the SD to train $ood leader#. ;e do not need the SD to
enable the youth to do their #hare, and neither do !e need it to ha"e the "oice o%
teenybopper# heard and heeded. ;e ha"e to clothe id# !ith %or&al po!er# #o they can be
rele"ant to our national li%e. +t only &ae# the& belie"e too early !hat &any o% u# de#en#itized
adult# ha"e co&e to acceptB that politician# are #el%-i&portant and that the citizen# are
po!erle##.@
(ono, )ielo Mar/orie 152123, Negati!e on Sk7s &art, Philippine Aaily +n0uirer
An article on !hich it #ho!# the de%ect# in San$$unian$ Dabaatn #et up !herein it #tate# that
a lot o% bud$et i# bein$ !a#ted that i# alloted on SD. So&e #ay# that corruption tae# place on
thi# a$e#by &ean# o% their &eanin$le## pro$ra&# that ha# no direction#.
'iporda, +#a$ani 152273, Student Leaders Call for Abolition as Bayan Depends SK Amidst
Air Strike, *899A 9nline .oru&#,
Page 32 of 37
+n thi# article, it in%or&# u# that thi# San$$unian$ Dabataan .ederation #hould be aboli#hed to
re-allocate their %und# to $i"e i&portance on pro"idin$ &ore %und# %or public education #y#te&
!ith that &ore youth could reach #chool# and &ore .ilipino# !ill be educated.-he San$$unian
abataan .ederation &ain ob/ecti"e i# to enhance #ocial, political, econo&ic, cultural,
intellectual, &oral, #piritual and phy#ical de"elop&ent ha# been lo#t and turn# into the
e4i#tence o% &i#erable per%or&ance.
Mercene, .loro 152123, The 4anila .ulletin Newspaper $nline, "olitics at an Early Age,
Manila *ulletin Publi#hin$ )orporation
An article that tacle# that the &o#t o% the church leader# here in the Philippine# !ant# to
aboli#hed the #aid San$$unian$ Dabataan due to they #ee that #o&ethin$ i# !ron$ to
&o#t o% the youth in"ol"e in thi# ind o% leader#hip and the rea#on i# that &o#t o% the
youth are en$a$in$ into corruption at thi# early a$e. E4po#in$ the& into dirty politic#
that i# pre#ent in here i# not a $ood thin$ becau#e they could adopt thi# ind o% &anner
in all a#pect# o% their li"e#.
<uLez, Ar. Ao&in$o *., 1997, Social (elfare and "e!elop,ent ournal, #eyond 2nnocence(
A Study on the Age of Discernment of the Filipino Children, Aepart&ent o% Social ;el%are and
Ae"elop&ent Journal, "ol.5 i##ue no.3C pp.42-4:
+n thi# /ournal, reader# could learn about the real a$e %or deci#ion &ain$ o% .ilipino children
and ho! they react and thin about a certain thin$. Dno!in$ and under#tandin$ thi# #tudy !a#
conducted by Ar. <uLez !e could learn that /u"enile are innocent no &ore.
Mui#&undo, -arra, 5229, .ebruary 12, 3n#uirer5Net, *uvenile Crimes ;p by <=>.."9",
Philippine Aaily +n0uirer
+n thi# /ournal, the Philippine <ational Police #tate# that a# o% .ebruary 5229 the ca#e#
re$ardin$ /u"enile cri&e increa#e# to 1,K %ro& la#t year o% record. Prior to that, the
#entence or detention %or the& are #till in rehabilitation.
S&ith, 7. <., 1 19:,3. 4oral )easoning of Young adults: &olitical0social beha!ior, fa,il-
background and personalit- correlate5 Journal o% Per#onality and Social P#ycholo$y.
Ae%inition o% thou$ht i# ob"iou#ly inco&plete i% !e #ay only that thou$ht# are re#pon#e#,
al&o#t any de%inition !e co&e up !ith i# not $oin$ to be airti$ht, thou$h, becau#e there !ill be
$ray area# !here it !ill be hard to apply. 9rdinarily, thou$h, !e #y&bolize thin$# !ith !ord#
and co&e people ar$ue that thou$ht i# ba#ically con"ert "erbal beha"ior, in $eneral, thou$ht#
can be de%ined a# brain proce##e# that are #y&bolical. -hi# $eneral de%inition re%er# to !hat
Page 33 of 37
&o#t o% u# thin o% u# con#ciou# thou$ht but the de%inition# run into trouble !hen !e con#ider
uncon#ciou# or partially con#ciou# in%luence# on beha"ior.
III. OFFICIAL REPORTS and DOCUMENTS
*alanon, .aye Al&a (.C 9n$, MichelleC -orre, *eatrizC Puzon MarcoC (ranada, Juan PaoloC
-rinidad, Arnie 152273, The 3,pact of Youth &articipation in the 'ocal /o!ern,ent, -he
Sanggunian Experience, Inited <ation )hildren># .und 1I<+)E.3, pp. 19-35
A #tudy co&&i##ioned by the Inited <ation# )hildren># .und in partner#hip !ith the
Aepart&ent o% the +nterior and 'ocal (o"ern&ent- <ational *aran$ay 9peration# 9%%ice to
loo up to the e%%ecti"ene## o% the SD council acro## the country. -hi# #tudy #ho!# the
per%or&ance o% SD># o"er the pa#t ten year# !hich rati%ied that it# per%or&ance ha# been
$enerally !ea thou$h the #tudy al#o di#co"ered #o&e #tren$th o% the #aid SD.
.uuda- Parr, Saio, 5223, The Hu,an "e!elop,ent &aradig,: $perationali8ing Sen7s
3deas on Capabilities, 8outled$eB -aylor and .ranci# (roup, pp. 321 F 317
-hi# paper reNect# on Sen># !or in li$ht o% thi# #hi%t in e&pha#i#. (ender analy#i# ha# been
central to the de"elop&ent o% the ne! a$ency-dri"en paradi$&, and $ender e0uity i# a core
concern. A $ender per#pecti"e ha# al#o helped hi$hli$ht i&portant a#pect# o% thi# paradi$&,
#uch a# the role o% collecti"e a$ency in pro&otin$ de"elop&ent.
7a-Su, Di& 152223, *cono,ic and Social Co,,ission for %sia and the &acific, ,';- 29
-E "252""29ES( A %evie! of the ,outh Situation and 9ational "olicies and "rogrammes,
Inited <ation#, <e! =or, pp.121-11,
-he &ain hi$hli$ht# o% thi# #tudy i# the =outh Participation on "ariou# or$anization# that i#
operatin$ in thi# country %ollo!ed by a #ection that pre#ent# youth i##ue# throu$h the u#e o%
their o!n "oice. -he ob/ecti"e o% thi# pro/ect i# to #tren$then the capacity o% $o"ern&ent#, in
coordination !ith other #ector#, to %or&ulate and i&ple&ent pro$ra&&e# that addre## the
hu&an re#ource# de"elop&ent need# o% youth, it i# hoped that thi# Mono$raph !ill encoura$e
at the local, national, and re$ional le"el# the inclu#ion o% youn$ people in deci#ion-&ain$
proce##e# and pro/ect i&ple&entation.
7indelan$, Michael J., 199:, %,erican Sociological )e!iew, Correlates of Delinquency( -he
2llusion of Discrepancy bet!een Self. %eport and 'fficial Measures,
9%%icial 8ecord# !ere it i# #aid to be re%lectin$ the accuracy o% an indi"idual># #in$le &o#t
#eriou# "iolation that the pattern o% o%%en#e# either #eriou# or non-#eriou#, !hich co&&only
co&&it#.
Page 34 of 37
'ayu$, Allan S., 5212, Do Barangays Really Matter in Local Services Delivery? Some Issues
and Policy Options8 #he link between !arangay planning and !udgeting8 &hilippine 1nstitute for
De%elopment Studies8 pp7 $- 1$
-he P+AS Ai#cu##ion Paper Serie# con#titute# #tudie# that are preli&inary and #ub/ect to
%urther re"i#ion#. -hey are bein$ circulated in a li&ited nu&ber o% copie# only %or purpo#e# o%
#olicitin$ co&&ent# and #u$$e#tion# %or %urther re%ine&ent#. -he #tudie# under the Serie# are
unedited and unre"ie!ed.
Maca#pac, Macy 152113, Tranparenc- )eporting, -he Sanggunian Kabataan in 5imbo( 3hat
5ies Ahead for the 9ation6s ,outh8,
A&on$ the ey %indin$# o% the #tudy !a# that ?the SD># per%or&ance %or the pa#t ten year# ha#
been $enerally !ea. -hi# i# e#pecially true in ter&# o% co&in$ up !ith le$i#lation#, pro&otin$
the de"elop&ent o% youn$ people, #ub&ittin$ report# and holdin$ con#ultation# !ith their
con#tituent#.@Inder it# con#titution and by-la!#, the &ain %unction o% the SD i# to pro&ul$ate
re#olution# nece##ary to carry out the ob/ecti"e# o% the youth in the baran$ay, initiate
pro$ra&# de#i$ned to enhance the #ocial, political, econo&ic, cultural, #piritual a phy#ical
de"elop&ent o% the &e&ber#, conduct %und-rai#in$ acti"itie#, con#ult and coordinate !ith all
youth or$anization# in the baran$ay %or policy %or&ulation and pro$ra& i&ple&entation, and
coordinate !ith the appropriate a$ency %or the i&ple&entation o% youth de"elop&ent pro/ect#
and pro$ra&# at the national le"el.
Madelo, ). /r.C A&ante, A.A.C 'orenzo, 7.), 5223, 3ntroduction to cri,inolog- and
&s-cholog- of Cri,e, Segment /( *uvenile Delinquency, Mind#haper# )o., +<)., pp.:6-77
Aeal# !ith the o"er"ie! o% the #tudy o% cri&e#B it># cau#e and it# e%%ect, the cri&inal# and it>#
cri&inal beha"ior includin$ the approache# o% their treat&ent#. +t al#o include# the #tudie# o%
the di%%erent %actor# that are precipitate cri&e repre##ion, cri&inal etiolo$y or the predi#po#in$
%actor# and producin$ ele&ent# o% cri&e#.
8azal, Ildarico S., 5224, The 3,ple,entation of the &rogra,s and &ro9ects of
Sangguniang Kabataan 4unicipal Federation &residents in Cataduanes in their
.aranga-s, 146 lea"e#
A #tudy !here in it pro"ide# #o&e pro/ect# and pro$ra&# that San$$unian$ Dabataan under
the baran$ay o% )atandue#. +t al#o pro"ide# in%or&ation about the ine%%ecti"ene## o% the youth.
Said to be, the %und that #hould alloted to thi# SD #hould allocate in &ore re#ource%ul pro/ect#
that !ill help it# baran$ay.
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8hode#, Dri#tinC 522,, The Cri,inal &rosecution of u!eniles: % &hilosophical )eappraisal
of %dolescent %genc-, -he "roblem !ith ?)etting -ough@ on *uvenile 'ffenders, 'ethbrid$e
Inder$raduate 8e#earch Journal, "olu&e 3, #ection 5
-hi# paper e4a&ine# the i&plication# o% conte&porary ad"ance&ent# in neuro#cience %or our
under#tandin$ o% a$ency, particularly in a##e##in$ the cri&inal re#pon#ibility o% /u"enile
o%%ender#. an indi"idual &u#t be capable o% na"i$atin$ hi# or her o!n li%e and o% &ain$
deci#ion# %or !hich he or #he in #i$ni%icant part i# re#pon#ible. +t re"i#ed conception o% %ree !ill
challen$e# con"entional notion# o% le$al $uilt and accountabilityC it illu&inate# ne! !ay# o%
thinin$ about the co&ple4 and di%%icult 0ue#tion# o% /u"enile a$ency.
IV. INTERNET MATERIALS
del .inalbano, +#abela., Sangguniang Kabataan Constitution 1 .-0'aws, -he ABB<
Katipunan ng Kabataan and Sangguniang Kabataan Constitution and #y.5a!s,
del%inalbanoi#abela.co&
Pro"ide# article concernin$ the &ain purpo#e and the obli$ation# o% the San$$unian$
Dabataan to e"ery baran$ay#. +n the #aid article, it# #ho!# the re#pon#ibility and the dutie# o%
SD $i"en the con#e0uence# they !ill %aced in ter&# o% any irre#pon#ible act they !ill do.
.abian, )arlo# Mi$uelC <ecor, Shar&aine *iancaC Perez, <icole 'ucille 1522,3, % research
&aper fro, "e 'a Salle Uni!ersit-0 "as,arinas, 'n the Abolition or %etention of
Sangguniang Kabataan
-hi# re#earch paper !ould bene%it the youth in that the San$$unian$ Dabataan 1SD3 i# a
#ection o% the $o"ern&ent &ade up and %or the youth, the #o-called %uture leader# o% #ociety.
+n the e"ent that our re#earch %ind# out that the SD #hould be aboli#hed, it i# the youth !ho
!ould be directly a%%ected.9n the other hand, i% the re#earch %ind# out that the SD #hould not
be aboli#hed, it i# #till the youth !ho !ould lar$ely bene%it. .urther&ore, thi# re#earch paper
!ill in%or& the youth the role# and the bene%it# !hich they $et %ro& their peer# !ho& they ha"e
elected into o%%ice. .inally, #ince the SD %ocu#e# on &e&ber# o% the youth !ho are beco&in$
delin0uent &e&ber# o% #ociety, thi# re#earch paper !ould be able to in%or& the $eneral public
on the bene%it# o% SD on the youth. Either !ay, the youth !ould bene%it %ro& the re#earch
outco&e.
Dohlber$, (. D., 119733. Stage and Sequence( -he Cognitive Developmental Approach to
SocialiCation$ 7andboo o% Socialization -heory and 8e#earch, 8and Mc<ally E )o&pany
Page 36 of 37
En"iron&ent &odi%ie# to a certain e4tent the e%%ect# o% heredity, a per#on endo!ed !ith
intelli$ence but bere%t o% education cannot %ully de"elop into an achie"in$ citizen. 9n the other
hand, a per#on !ho co&bine# intelli$ence and %or&al education can %ully de"elop an achie"in$
citizen, !here $ood #chool can de"elop pupil# better than the poor one#. En"iron&ent
pro"ide# the direction o% the $ro!th and de"elop&ent o% indi"idual !herein #chool i# an
i&portant %actor in the !ide "ariation o% the le"el# o% de"elop&ent o% indi"idual#.
'i$ali$, Mie 9rte$a 152273, Abolition of the Sangguniang Kabataan , Philippine +n%or&ation
A$ency, httpDCCtubagbohol7mi"eligalig7comCindeE7php>actionFprintpageGtopicF#!$,7)
Stre##in$ on the reco&&endation# o% the #tudy to !ei$h the &erit# o% the San$$unian$
Dabataan 1SD3, <ational =outh )o&&i##ioner 1<=)3 *en/ie 9li"a hinted that in ca#e o% the
abolition o% the SD, the <=) !ould %ind other !ay# to en$a$e the youth #ector in national
de"elop&ent. -he <=) !ant# to po#tpone the election# #o that the )o&&i##ion on Election#
can #till i&ple&ent pro$ra&# to &ae poll# credible, he ad&itted it could be too late %or the
Senate to call on a plenu& to di#cu## the )on$re##ional )o&&ittee Su%%ra$e and on Electoral
8e%or&#.
8oble#, )han, Chan )obles 2irtual 'aw 'ibrar-, Executive 'rder no$ AD, )han 8oble#
Pro%e##ional 8e"ie! +nc.,
An online !eb#ite that pro"ide# di%%erent la!# under the Philippine con#titution and al#o
di%%erent #ituation in !ithin the country. +t $i"e# you in%or&ation about the #ituation that i#
happenin$ in the country and the corre#pondin$ la! on the $i"en #ituation.
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