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Explain Marine Insurance and discuss its various


Marine Insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or
property by which cargo is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and final
Cargo insurance—discussed here—is a sub-branch of marine insurance, though Marine also
includes Onshore and Offshore exposed property (container terminals, ports, oil platforms,
pipelines); Hull; Marine Casualty; and Marine Liability.
s.4: a policy without insurable interest is void.
s.17: imposes a duty on the insured of uberrimae fides (as opposed to caveat emptor); ie.
that questions must be answered honestly and the risk not misrepresented.
s.18: the proposer of the insurer has a duty to disclose all material facts relevant to the
acceptance and rating of the risk. Failure to do so is known as non-disclosure or
concealment (there are minor differences in the two terms) and renders the insurance
voidable by the insurer.
s.33(3): If [a warranty] be not [exactly] complied with, then, subject to any express
provision in the policy, the insurer is discharged from liability as from the date of the
breach of warranty, but without prejudice to any liability incurred by him before that
s.34(2): where a warranty has been broken, it is no defence to the insured that the breach
has been remedied, and the warranty complied with, prior to the loss.
s.34(3): a breach of warranty may be waived (ie. ignored) by the insurer.
s.39(1): implied warranty that the vessel must be seaworthy at the start of her voyage and
for the purpose of it (voyage policy only).
s.39(5): no warranty that a vessel shall be seaworthy during the policy period (time
policy). However if the assured knowingly allows an unseaworthy vessel to set sail the
insurer is not liable for losses caused by unseasworthiness.
s.50: a policy may be assigned. Typically, a shipowner might assign the benefit of a
policy to the ship-mortgagor.
ss.60-63: deals with the issues of a constructive total loss. The insured can, by notice,
claim for a constructive total loss with the insurer becoming entitled to the ship or cargo
if it should later turn up. (By contrast an actual total loss describes the physical
destruction of a vessel or cargo.)
s.79: deals with subrogation; ie. the rights of the insurer to stand in the shoes of an
What are the types of motor insurance policies??
Explain the features of a personal accident
Vehicle insurance (also known as auto insurance, car insurance, or motor
insurance) is insurance purchased for cars, trucks, and other vehicles. Its primary
use is to provide protection against losses incurred as a result of traffic accidents
and against liability that could be incurred in an accident.

In many jurisdictions it is compulsory to have vehicle insurance before using or keeping a motor
vehicle on public roads. Most jurisdictions relate insurance to both the car and the driver,
however the degree of each varies greatly.
A 1994 study by Jeremy Jackson and Roger Blackman[1] showed, consistent with the risk
homeostasis theory, that increased accident costs caused large and significant reductions in
accident frequencies.
The minimum level of insurance cover commonly available and which satisfies the requirement
of the Act is called third party only insurance. The level of cover provided by Third party only
insurance is basic but does exceed the requirements of the act.

ICICI Lombard Personal Accident Insurance policy covers you not only against Accidental Death and Permanent
Total Disablement (PTD), but also against terrorism and acts of terrorism. You can choose from 4 options of Rs. 3
Lakhs, 5 Lakhs, 10 Lakhs or 20 Lakhs with a choice of cover period (annual auto renewal) - 3, 4 or 5 years.

Accidental Death : In case of death of the insured due to an accident within the policy period, the nominee
(mentioned in the policy) is compensated with the Sum Insured.
Permanent Total Disablement (PTD) : Personal Accident pays compensation against the permanent and total loss
of limbs, sight etc. due to an accident.
This policy covers you in the event of Permanent Total Disability, Loss of Sight in One Eye, Loss of
Sight in both Eyes, Loss of Use of a Limb, Loss of Use of two Limbs, Loss of Hearing, Loss of Hearing
in One Ear, Loss of use of a Shoulder, a Hip, Knee, Ankle, Wrist or Thumb, any Finger or Big Toe, any
other Toe, Hospitalisation, Accidental Death
Benefits are payable if you have an accident after the start date of the cover and before the end date
of the cover. Your Policy Document will provide you with full details of the benefits you are covered
for. Your cover is for one month at a time as is automatically renewed every month until it is either
cancelled or you miss paying three continuous monthly premiums or you die or permanently retire
(whichever happens

Reaffirming the principles enunciated in the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and
Abuse of Power, including that victims should be treated with compassion and respect for their dignity, have
their right to access to justice and redress mechanisms fully respected, and that the establishment,
strengthening and expansion of national funds for compensation to victims should be encouraged, together
with the expeditious development of appropriate rights and remedies for victims,
Noting that the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court requires the establishment of “principles
relating to reparations to, or in respect of, victims, including restitution, compensation and rehabilitation”,
requires the Assembly of States Parties to establish a trust fund for the benefit of victims of crimes within
the jurisdiction of the Court, and of the families of such victims, and mandates the Court “to protect the
safety, physical and psychologic