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J . J .

SMU 331 Music in Secondary School/Practicum Syllabus


Seton Hill University
Spring 2014


Instructor: John M. Seybert, Ph.D.
Office: G12
Phone: (724) 552-2907
Email: jmseybert@setonhill.edu
Class Hours: 8:00-9:20 a.m. Monday/ Wednesday (Practicum)
Location: SHU PAC G26
Office hours: 2:50-4:00 p.m. Tuesday and Wednesday, and by appointment

Catalog Description:
The materials, methods of procedure, techniques, and skills suitable to general and vocal
activities in the junior and senior high schools. Field experiences, Tubercular check, Act 33
Child Abuse, Act 34 Criminal Record check, Act 114 FBI Federal Criminal History Record, and
PDE-6004 (Arrest or Conviction Report and Certification Form) required.

Credit Awarded for the Course: 1 credit

Required Materials:

Hoffer, C. (2000). Teaching music in the secondary schools. 5
th
ed. New York: Cengage.

2or 3 binder; enough sets of notebook index sheets/dividers and sheet protectors to
satisfactorily complete your course notebook


Suggested Materials:

Consortium of National Arts Education Associations (1994). National standards for arts
education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

Garcia, J. E. Spalding, & R.R. Powell (2001). Contexts of Teaching: Methods for Middle
and High School Instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kellough, R.D. and N.G. Kellough. (2011). Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to
Methods and Resources. 4
th
ed. New York: Pearson.




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Required iPad Applications

Dropbox for iPad: https://www.dropbox.com/ipad
Nearpod (Panarea): www.nearpod.com
SmartMusic for iPad (Student Membership) www.smartmusic.com
Socrative (Student Clicker): www.socrative.com


Suggested iPad Applications

A.P.S. MusicMasterPro http://apsdevelopmentllc.com
PaperHelper: http://www.rumbleapps.net/paperhelper.html
Notability (Note Taking): https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/notability/id360593530?mt=8
Notion http://www.notionmusic.com/products/notionipad.html


Course Objectives

A. General Learning Objectives

The student should develop skills and understanding necessary to plan, implement, and evaluate
a comprehensive music program at the secondary level. This course is designed to enable the
future music educator to:

(1) Acquire pedagogical skills for use with secondary students

(2) Develop a working knowledge of practices in current use in secondary music
education

(3) Develop a working knowledge of materials employed in the teaching of
secondary instrumental music

(4) Develop an understanding of some of the theoretical constructs on which secondary music
education is based and implement them in the instrumental music classroom


B. Specific Behavioral Objectives

Through a variety of in-class exercises and outside field experiences, the student will:

gain fluency in curricular issues and lesson planning
explore and evaluate repertoire, general music texts, technology and materials appropriate
for use in an secondary music classroom
gain an understanding of various methods of teaching music to secondary school students
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apply principles of teaching, learning, and classroom management to the secondary
school environment
become cognizant about the musical development, maturation patterns, and learning
styles of secondary school students
gain a better understanding of the various theories of learning
identify and sequence appropriate teaching materials and strategies for various types of
learners
implement various techniques for the assessment of musical growth
prepare, teach, and evaluate music lessons that incorporate a variety of musical activities
directed toward the development of a musical concept in a secondary music classroom

Topics to Be Covered

National Standards for Arts Education
Lesson Planning and Sequencing
Pennsylvania Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities
Pennsylvania Common Core Standards
Why Teach Music?
The Importance of Music in the Schools
The Subject Matter of Music
The Secondary School Music Curriculum
Guidelines for Teaching Music in the Schools
Teaching Middle School General Music
Teaching High School Non-Performance Courses
Comprehensive Musicianship
Teenagers and Music
Managing Music Classes and Rehearsals
Assessing Learning in Music
The Music Profession: Past, Present, and Future
Technology for Secondary Music Instruction


University Objectives:

Communication and Problem Solving
Use the expressive arts as a mode of inquiry or expression.
Demonstrate leadership, negotiation, relational, and consensus skills.
Use technological skills to access information, organize knowledge, and communicate.
Propose new solutions to current issues.
Express arguments or main points clearly, in written and oral communication.
Transfer knowledge and values into sound decision-making.

Historical, Cultural, and Global Awareness
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Analyze the impact of history, geography, and socio-cultural dynamics on global
interactions from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.


Multiple Modes of Inquiry
Organize and manage resources in a creative way to achieve impact.
Find, evaluate, and apply information.
Interpret quantitative and qualitative information to present a logical argument based on
supporting data.

Self Reflection and Assessment
Demonstrate ethical decision-making grounded in philosophical inquiry.
Recognize the value of diverse spiritual and religious perspectives.

Major/Program Objectives:
demonstrate knowledge, skills and techniques in the development and delivery of instruction
exhibit a knowledge of content, methodologies, philosophies, materials, technologies and
curriculum development in music education
inspire others by engendering a respect for music and a desire for musical knowledge and
experience
modify instruction to work productively within diverse education populations
recognize the value of lifelong professional development, enabling one to remain current
with changes in the arts of teaching music

Course Philosophy and Pedagogical Design

An effective music educator in the secondary school must possess a variety of pedagogical skills
to meet the requirements of the multifaceted music curriculum. In addition to directing
performance ensembles (e.g., band, choir, orchestra), a majority of secondary music educators
are expected to develop and implement standards-based courses that provide opportunities for all
secondary students to experience music. The purpose of this course is to provide you
opportunities for you to review various pedagogical methods and the research literature and
apply these concepts in diverse classroom experiences to prepare for your future career.

The required and suggested texts for this course are important resources for your development as
a music educator. The required course text, Teaching in the Secondary School, focuses primarily
on methods to be successful in the music classroom. Charles Hoffer, author of the text, is a
former president of the National Association for Music Education and Professor of Music
Education at the University of Florida with experience working with numerous secondary school
programs. To provide additional insight on planning and working within the secondary school, I
encourage you to review Garcias Contexts of Teaching: Methods for Middle and High School
Instruction and Kellough & Kelloughs Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods and
Resources. In addition to the assigned reading (packets) in class, I also expect that you are
researching various music education periodicals to find additional methods to enhance all of your
course projects.
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Class instruction will focus primarily on in-class activities and demonstrations, the discussion of
assigned readings, and teaching presentations (course projects) to peers and secondary school
students in your practicum placement. Class exercises and discussions are intended to clarify and
reinforce the course content to enable individuals to contribute to experiential knowledge. You
are expected to reference the assigned readings to support your views on various issues discussed
in class.

The main purpose of the course is to bring students to a satisfactory level of competency in
regard to the following:

understanding and application of appropriate and effective instructional practices in line
with the National Standards in Music Education and ESOL Standards
an acquired repertoire of effective instructional practices in classroom and rehearsal
settings
a proactive approach to classroom management in various secondary music class settings
a working knowledge of the administrative procedures which attend the development and
maintenance of a well-founded secondary music program


Arts Education Standards

National Standards for Music Education
http://musiced.nafme.org/resources/national-standards-for-music-education/

National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS)
http://nccas.wikispaces.com/Home

Pennsylvania Department of Education Academic Standards for Arts and Humanities
http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/state_academic_standards/19721

Pennsylvania Department of Education Standards Aligned System
http://www.pdesas.org/Standard/CommonCore











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SMU 331 Music in Secondary School/Practicum Course Schedule
(The instructor reserves the right to adjust the schedule as needed. Readings should be
completed prior to class discussions. Students are expected to listen to all related examples
in the score anthology.)

Date Topics, Reading, Listening

Week 2
January 27 (M) Topic: How to be a successful Secondary Music Educator?
Course Syllabus, Projects, and Practicum Placements
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 1
Assignment: Practicum Placement Proposal


January 29 (W) DUE: Practicum Placement Proposal
Topic: The School Music Teacher
Review Secondary Music Bulletin Board Project, Student Teaching
Materials
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 2
Assignment: Secondary Music Unit Plans; Music Educators Journal
Research (Technology in Secondary General Music Classsrooms)


Week 3
February 3 (M) DUE: Bulletin Board (1), Secondary Music Bulletin Board Project
Schedule
Topic: Technology for Secondary General Music Classrooms;
Technology for Secondary Music Classrooms Presentation
Reading: Seybert Article/ Technology Packet in Dropbox
Assignments: Technology Proposal

February 5 (W) DUE: Technology Proposal
Topic: The Importance of Music in the Schools
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 3











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SMU 331 Music in Secondary School/Practicum Course Schedule
(The instructor reserves the right to adjust the schedule as needed. Readings should be
completed prior to class discussions. Students are expected to listen to all related examples
in the score anthology.)

Date Topics, Reading, Listening

Week 4
February 10 (M) Topic: Planning for Music Instruction, Secondary Music Assessments
Project (Responding, Performing, and Creating)
Reading: Hoffer, Chapters 5 and 17; Seybert Article
Assignment: Secondary Music Assessments Project Proposal

February 12 (W) DUE: Secondary Music Assessments Project Proposal
Topic: Secondary Music Unit Plan and Presentation
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 4


Week 5
February 17 (M) DUE: Bulletin Board (2)
Topic: Guidelines for Teaching Music in the Schools; Secondary Music
Methods Practicum and Portfolio; Student Teaching Materials
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 6

February 19 (W) DUE: Student Teaching Materials
Practicum


Week 6
February 24 (M) DUE: Technology for Secondary General Music Curriculum
Presentations
Reading: Student Handouts in Dropbox
Assignment: Secondary Music Assessments

February 26 (W) Practicum

Week 7
March 3 (M) DUE: Bulletin Board (3), Secondary Music Assessments
Topic: Secondary Music Assessments Peer Editing
Assignment: Secondary Music Unit Plans; Music Educators Journal
Research (Middle School General Music)




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SMU 331 Music in Secondary School/Practicum Course Schedule
(The instructor reserves the right to adjust the schedule as needed. Readings should be
completed prior to class discussions. Students are expected to listen to all related examples
in the score anthology.)

Date Topics, Reading, Listening

March 5 (W) Practicum

March 8-16 Spring break, Have a great break!
Week 8
March 17 (M) DUE: Secondary Music Unit Plans Peer Editing (DRAFT)

Topic: Teaching Middle School General Music; Secondary Music Unit
Plans Peer Editing (DRAFT)
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 12; Music Educators Journal Readings
Assignment: Music Educators Journal Research (High School
Nonperformance Courses)

March 19 (W) Practicum


Week 9
March 24 (M) DUE: Secondary Music Unit Plans Peer Editing (DRAFT)
Bulletin Board (4)
Topic: Teaching High School Nonperformance Courses; Secondary
Music Unit Plans Peer Editing (DRAFT)
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 13; Music Educators Journal Research
Assignment: PMEA Conference (Secondary Music Reflections)

March 26 (W) PMEA Conference - Class Cancelled













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SMU 331 Music in Secondary School/Practicum Course Schedule
(The instructor reserves the right to adjust the schedule as needed. Readings should be
completed prior to class discussions. Students are expected to listen to all related examples
in the score anthology.)

Date Topics, Reading, Listening
Week 10
March 31 (M) DUE: PMEA Conference Reflection
Topic: Teenagers and Music
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 15
Assignment: Secondary Music Unit Plan and Presentations

April 2 (W) Practicum

Week 11
April 7 (M) DUE: Secondary Music Unit Plan and Presentations;
Bulletin Board (5)
Topic: Secondary Music Unit Plan and Presentations
Assignment: Secondary Methods Online Portfolio

April 9 (W) Practicum

Week 12
April 14 (M) Topic: Managing Music Classes and Rehearsals
Reading: Hoffer, Chapter 16
Assignment: Secondary Music Methods Online Portfolio

April 16 (W) Practicum


April 17-21 Easter break, Have a great break!

Week 13
April 21 (M) DUE: Bulletin Board (6), Secondary Music Methods Online Portfolio
Peer Editing (DRAFT)
Topic: Secondary Music Methods Online Portfolio Peer Editing I; Special
Topics

April 23 (W) Practicum


Week 14
April 28 (M) DUE: Secondary Music Methods Online Portfolio Peer Editing (DRAFT)
Topic: Secondary Music Methods Online Portfolio Peer Editing II;
Student Teaching Clearances
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SMU 331 Music in Secondary School/Practicum Course Schedule
(The instructor reserves the right to adjust the schedule as needed. Readings should be
completed prior to class discussions. Students are expected to listen to all related examples
in the score anthology.)

Date Topics, Reading, Listening

April 30 (W) Practicum

Week 15
May 5 (M) DUE: Bulletin Board (7)
DUE: Secondary Methods Portfolio (Online) Presentations
Topic: Review semester comprehensively

May 7 (R) DUE: Student Teaching Materials Part II (Clearances)
Special Topics Discussion


Have a Great Summer Break!

























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Responsibility of the Students

Course Projects
All course projects are to be typewritten unless otherwise noted. In cases where specific format
has not been prescribed for the project, the student is to create a format that gives a well-ordered
and professional appearance. Since an important aspect of class instruction is derived from the
discussion of projects, projections submitted late will be accepted within 48 hours of the due
date, minus two full letter grades. Projects will not be accepted beyond this 48-hour extension.
Course projects are designed to focus on the professional application of course information. It is
expected that considerable care will be taken in the preparation and presentation of each project.
It is also required that as concerns arise in class preparations, you make an appointment with Dr.
Seybert to discuss your project. Please plan ahead.

Code of Academic Conduct:
Seton Hill University expects that all its students will practice academic honesty and ethical
conduct. The University regards plagiarism, cheating on examinations, falsification of papers,
non-sanctioned collaboration, and misuse or illegal use of library material published or
unpublished as violations of academic honesty.

Academic Integrity Policy:
If a faculty member believes a student has been intentionally academically dishonest for
example, with cheating, plagiarism, assisting others with dishonesty the faculty member is
obligated to file an Academic Dishonesty Report Form with the Office of Academic Affairs. [For
complete statement of Policy, see GriffinGate DocumentsAcademic Affairs--Academic
Integrity Policy].

Disability Statement:
If you have a disability that may require consideration by the instructor, you should contact Terri
Bassi-Cook, the Director of Disability Services at 724-838-4295 or tbassicook@setonhill.edu
mailto: tbassicook@setonhill.edu and/or disabilityservices@setonhill.edu
mailto:disabilityservices@setonhill.edu as soon as possible to develop a plan of accommodation.
You should provide the instructor with a copy of your accommodation plan and schedule a
meeting so that you can be supported in an informed manner. It is not necessary to disclose to
your instructor the nature of your disability. If you need accommodations for successful
participation in class activities prior to your appointment at the Disability Services Office, you
should offer information in writing to your instructor which includes suggestions for assistance
in participating in and completing class assignments.

Academic Engagement and Class Attendance:
Students must fully engage in the learning process, are expected to attend all class meetings, and
are held responsible for the full content of each course of study.

A responsible academic life implies systematic preparation in all course work. Students must
devote sufficient time for adequate class preparation. A minimum of two hours outside of class
for every hour the course meets is a common guideline.
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Each course instructor articulates in the course syllabus a course outline and required readings
and/or assignments which must be completed prior to attendance. The syllabus also describes the
teaching/learning environment required in the class (laboratory, studios, experiential exercises,
collaborative work, discussion, and lecture). Overall course assessment commonly includes
participation and attendance.

The University faculty and administrative support participation in intercollegiate sports, theatre
productions, music recitals, conferences, workshops, and other co-curricular activities; however,
it is always the students responsibility to negotiate a way to receive information and/or materials
distributed in class. Students must understand that, depending on the course design and
requirements, it may not be possible to make up a missed class session. The student must
negotiate any absence from a class for participation in such events with the instructor prior to the
absence from class.

Students who miss a class because of illness or personal emergency must contact the instructor
before the class meeting. Depending on the course design and requirements it may not be
possible for a student to make up a missed class session.

Saving Course Assignments:
In order to fulfill the requirements of the liberal arts curriculum, students must save major
assignments completed in this course, so that they can successfully argue in the capstone liberal
arts course, Senior Integrative Seminar, that they have met the University Learning Objectives.






















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Evaluation
______________________________________________________________________________
Assignments Points
Course Reading Assignments 50

Secondary Music Bulletin Board Project (February 3-April 23) 100

Student Teaching Materials Part I (February 19) 50
(Education Division Packet, Teacher Interviews)

Technology for Secondary General Music Curriculum Presentation 100
(February 24)

Secondary Music Assessments (March 3) 120
(Responding, Performing, and Creating)

PMEA/Research Conference Reflection (March 31) 30

Secondary Music Unit Plan and Presentation (April 7) 200

Student Teaching Materials Part II (May 7) 50
(PA Clearances)

Secondary Music Methods Online Portfolio (May 5) 300

Total Points 1000

Grading Scale:

A = 940-1000 A- = 900-939
B+ = 880-899 B = 840-870 B- = 800-839
C+ = 780-799 C = 740-770 C- = 700-739
D+ = 680-699 D = 640-670 D- = 600-639
F = 599 and below











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Project Descriptions

Secondary Methods Practicum
The field experiences will take place in a secondary instrumental program in this area. You are
required to complete the appropriate form for EACH observation and if necessary, a reflective
self-evaluation for each teaching episode in the classroom. There will be a minimum of TEN (i.e.
twenty-hours) school visitations for this course.

Components of the Grade: Attendance, Field Experience Report, Journal Entries, Teaching
Videos, Student Interviews and Self-Reflections.

Attendance
If you must be absent from any of your school visitations due to illness or emergency, you must
inform the people affected by your absence (i.e., Dr. Seybert, placement teacher and carpool
members, if applicable). Please discuss the situation with Dr. Seybert during the next class
meeting to find another schedule another field experience.

Privacy Issues
Please be cognizant of the importance of respecting the privacy of the children and teachers
observed. Avoid discussing classroom scenarios that might be embarrassing to teachers, parent,
or children, or that might include sensitive information concerning a child or family. During
class discussions or in journal reflections, use pseudonyms. Use professional judgment when
discussion students and situations at your field experience site.

Deportment
You will be viewed and judged as an adult by students, parents, and teachers. Please plan ahead
and dress conservatively and professionally. Please do not wear jeans or hats. Do not chew gum.
Be polite and considerate to every person that you encounter including the principal, secretaries,
custodians, teacher assistants, and parents. Be sure to arrive a minimum of 15 minutes prior to
your scheduled visitation. Please continue the tradition of representing yourself and Seton Hill
University in a professional manner.


Daily Field Experience Report
A Daily Field Experience Report is to be completed for each day of field experience. The reports
are intended to be a general summary of your days activity in the elementary school. Additional
pages may be added if necessary.

Practicum Journal
The purpose of making reflective journal comments is to focus attention on the importance of
reflective thought as a means of evaluating ones professional practices, on a daily basis. A
journal entry should be made after each field experience. Your comments should include
reactions to lesson planning, classroom/rehearsal teaching, and the complementary experiences
of teaching (e.g., observations of individual students, relationship with the cooperating teacher,
relationship with other teachers and administrators, and the overall social environment of the
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school.). The writing style of the journal entries may be conversational and informal in nature.
Journal writing will be evaluated in terms of content quality and quantity.

Technology Project: Review of Music Software and Applications
Provide a clear and concise summary of a minimum of two software packages and three apps for
a mobile tablet and/or smart phone. The summary consists of answers to the questions listed in
Guidelines for Evaluating Music Software and a Sample Product Evaluation Form for
Technology-Assisted Instruction in Music. Please include any additional information that might
assist you and your colleagues in the future. Please provide copies of this assignment for all
members of the class.

Instrumental Methods Practicum Portfolio (Online)
This purpose of this portfolio is to serve as the basis for the organization of your continuing
education information a volume to which material may be added. The regular and systematic
updating of your professional knowledge is of utmost importance to your best instructional
practice the best care of your students. Continuing education is a fact of life for educators who
exemplify the highest standards of educational practice. The organization and maintenance of
continuing education information, be it from research journals/conference presentations, or
personal creative activity, is a component of every professionals library.

You will be expected to create an online website with all of the information for this portfolio.
Please REVISE all of the assignments with my suggestions before placing any document online.
I recommend that you use Weebly (http://www.weebly.com) to create your website. I also
suggest that you keep hard copies of all documents for your future reference. Please plan ahead.

The Course Portfolio is to be divided into the following tabs online:

Syllabus and Course Schedule
Weekly notes and handouts
Course Projects (in chronological order)
Sections of personal interest (e.g., technology, inclusion)
Secondary Methods Practicum: include materials pertaining to your Secondary Methods
Guided Field Experience (i.e. all lesson plans, videos of your teaching presentations).

Professional Society Memberships
As a music education major at Seton Hill University you are required to be an ACTIVE member
in the collegiate NAfME chapter (this means that you are expected to attend ALL of the chapter
meetings this semester), which represents all phases of music education at all academic levels.
Membership in an additional professional society representing a cognate field is also suggested
(e.g., American String Teachers Association, National Band Association).





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Readings List

Supplemental Readings

Abeles, H.F., and L.A. Custodero, eds. (2009). Critical issues in music education. New York:
Oxford University Press.

Ausubel, D.P. (2000). The acquisition and retention of knowledge: A cognitive view. Dordrecht,
Netherlands, Kluwer Academic.

Banks, J.A. (2012). Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Boyle, J.D., and R. E. Radocy (1987). Measurement and evaluation of musical experiences. New
York: Schirmer Books.

Campbell, P.S. (2004). Teaching music globally. New York: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, P.S., Connell, C. & Beegle, A. (2007). Adolescents expressed meaning of music in
and out of schools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 55(3), 220-236.

Conway, C.M., & Hodgman, T.M. (2006). Handbook for the beginning music teacher. Chicago.
GIA.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper &
Row.

Duncan, A. (2010). The National Endowment for the Arts. Strategic Plan FY 2012-2016.
<www.nea.gov/about/Budget/NEAStrategic Plan 2012-2016.pdf>

Eisner, E.W. (2002) Arts and the creation of mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Elliott, D.J. (1995). Music matters: A new philosophy of music education. New York: Oxford
University Press.

Ericsson, A.K., N. Charness, P. Feltovich, and R.R. Hoffman (2006). Cambridge handbook on
expertise and expert performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, H. (1983/2004). Frames of mind: A theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic
Books.

Froehlich, H.C. (2007). Sociology for music teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Gordon, E.E. (2005a). Primary measures of music audiation (CD-Rom). Iowa City; Chicago:
GIA.
________ (2012). Learning sequences in music: Skill, content, and patterns. Chicago: GIA.
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Hargreaves, D.J. (1986). The developmental psychology of music. Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press.

Hickey, M. (1999). Assessment rubrics for music composition. Music Educators Journal, 85(4),
26-33.

Houlahan, M. and P. Tacka (2008). Kodaly today: A cognitive approach to elementary music
education. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jorgensen, E. (2003). Transforming music education. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Levitin, D. (2006). This is your brain on music. New York: Dutton.

Legette, R.M. (1998). Casual beliefs of public school students about success and failure in
music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46 (1), 102-111.

Lindeman, C. (2003). Benchmarks in action: A guide to standards-based assessment. Reston,
VA: Music Educators National Conference.

Mark, M. L. & C. Gary (2007). A history of American music education (3
rd
ed.). Blue Ridge
Summit, PA. Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Mark, M. (1996). Contemporary music education (3
rd
ed). New York: Schirmer.

Radocy, R.E. & Boyle, J.D. (2003). Psychological foundations of musical behavior. (4
th
ed.).
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Reimer, B. (2000). Performing with understanding: The challenge of the national standards for
music education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

Reimer, B. (2003). A philosophy of music education (3
rd
ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-
Hall.

Seybert, J. (2014). High tech on a low budget: Applications to enhance the music classroom,
Music Educators Journal (under review).

Sloboda, J.A. (2003). The musical mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

Spearman, C.E. (2000). How will societal and technological changes affect the teaching of
music? In C.K. Madesen (Ed.), Visions 2020: The Housewright symposium on the future of
music education (pp. 153-184). Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

Spring, J. (2006). American education (12
th
ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Webster, P.R. (1990). Creativity as creative thinking. Music Educators Journal, 76 (9), 22-28.

Wong, H., and R. Wong. (2001). The first days of school: How to be an effective teacher.
Sunnyvale, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications.

Woody, R.H. (1994). Copyright law and sound recordings. Music Educators Journal, 80 (6), 29-
32.