PREPARED BY: S.RATH PGT BIOLOGY K.

V 3 BBSR
http://students-learn.blogspot.com

THE LIVING WORLD-CLASS XII BIOLOGY

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CONTENTS
Characteristics Of Living  Binomial Nomenclature  Rules Of Nomenclature  Taxonomic Categories  Taxonomical Aids

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CHARCTERISTICS OF LIVING
Growth Reproduction Metabolism Cellular organisation of body Consciousness Interaction

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BIODIVERSITY

The number &types of organisms present on earth constitute biodiversity. Number of species that are known and described ranges between 1.7 to 1.8 million.

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NOMENCLATURE & IDENTIFICATION

Nomenclature-naming of a particular organism in such a manner that it is known by the same name all over the world. Identification-it is the correct description of an organism and its recognition in its scientific name.

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BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
   

Given By Carolous Linnaeus Each Name Has Two Components First Name-generic Second Name-specific Epithet

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UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE

Names are in Latin and written in italics.They are Latinised or derived from Latin irrespective of their origin. The first word is genus name and second word is specific epithet.

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UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE

Both the words when handwritten are separately underlined or printed in italics to indicate their Latin origin. Genus starts with capital letter while specific epithet starts with small letter. Example-Mangifera indica
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UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE

Name of the appears after specific epithet and it is written in abbreviated form. E.g Mangifera indica Linn.

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CLASSIFICATION

It is the process by which any thing is grouped into conventional categories based on some easily observable characters.

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PURPOSE OF CLASSIFICATION

Organise vast number of plants,animals etc into categories that could be named, remembered & studied. Study of one organism of a group gives the idea about rest of the members of that group.

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TAXA & TAXONOMY

It is the scientific term which indicates categories of organisms at different levels. Taxonomy-process of classification taking into account various characteristics such as external & internal structure,structure of cell,development process & ecological information of organisms.
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SYSTEMATICS

Systema(Latin word)-arrangement of organisms It is the study of organisms which include identification,nomenclature &classification of organisms.it also takes into account evolutionary relationships between organisms.

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TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES

Classification involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents a rank or category. Category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement ,called taxonomic category.All categories together constitute the taxonomic hierarchy.Each category is termed as taxon.
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TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES
KINGDOM PHYLUM OR DIVISION CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES
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SPECIES

Group of individuals having fundamental similarities in characteristics and successful reproduction takes place among themselves form a species. E.g:Panthera tigris,Panthera leo Solanum tuberosum, Solanum nigrum.

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GENUS

It consists of a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera. Genera are aggregates of closely related species. E.g:Panthera leo ,P pardus (leopard) ,P tigris E.g:Solanum tuberosum ,S nigrum
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FAMILY

It has a group of related genera with less number of similarities as compared to genus and species. E.g:family Solanaceae includes genera solanum(tomato,potato) , petunia & datura. Family Felidae includes genera panthera (lion, tiger ,leopard) &Felis(cat)
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ORDER

It is the assemblage of families which include a few similar characters in comparison to genus, family etc. E.g:order polynomial includes family solanaceae & convovulaceae. E.g: carnivora includes family felidae & cancidae(dog) .
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CLASS

It includes all related orders having less numbers of common characteristics. E.g: class mammalia includes order Primata (monkey, gorilla,gibbon) &carnivora. E.g:class Dicotyledonae includes order polymoniales &sapindales(mango)
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PHYLUM or DIVISION
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It includes related classes. E.g:phylum Chordata includes classes fish ,amphibia, reptilia, aves &mammalia. Division angiospermae includes class dicotyledonae & monocotyledonae.

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TAXONOMICAL AIDS
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Herbarium Botanical Garden Museum Zoological Park Key

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