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1000 B.C.E.-500 C.E.

Stateless Societies
Family/Kin based
Rise of Monarchies
Rise of Nok Civilization in Western

Africa -> Agricultural in general
Trade within Africa was common
Nok people
Agriculturalists/ Pastoralists
Iron work -> tools and weapons

Spread of Bantu culture
Bantu were people from modern day
Nigeria and Camroon
spread of iron-working across Africa
Spread of Bantu language which split 500
different African languages

No major religion

Bantu culture spreads across Africa
Trade among the separate tribes was

500 1450 c.e.
Kingdom of Ghana rises in power (300-1000
Much of Africa still stateless societies
Sudanic States had a patriarch or a council
of elders from a certain lineage lead them
Malinke people from between Senegal and
Niger rivers separated from Ghana and
formed the Empire of Mali
(1200-1300) Rise of Mali

Sundaita (the Lion Prince) is said to have
created the outline of government and
society in Mali and created a unified state
His successors expanded Mali outward
towards the Atlantic coast
Mansa Musa:
takes a pilgrimage to Mecca
Brings back an architect from Muslim Spain
Expands Islam in Africa
Many places still animistic
Spread of Islam in Africa
Mansa Musa causes spread around Mali
Trade spreads Islam along the Eastern Coast
Spread causes a blend of Islamic and
African culture
Christianity had not spread to sub-Saharan
Africa yet
The people beyond the Eastern Coast were
still animistic
Towns like Jenne and Timbuktu had
scholars, craft specialists and foriegn
Malis population was agriculturalist
The Eastern (Swahili) Coast boomed with
trade with S. W. Asia, India, China
Islamic influence caused a blend of African
and Islamic culture along the Swahili coast
The rulers and merchants had a more
Islamic culture
The common people had a more African
The Arabic language was used and blended
with Bantu to make the Swahili language
The Bantu had fully migrated throughout
sub-Saharan Africa

Trade w/ S. W. Asia brought in Islam
Trade w/ rest of Asia brought
commercial goods
Bantu migrations caused more kingdoms
to form in southern Africa
1450 - 1750
Portuguese start trading along the coasts
The Dutch, British, and French get involved
in slave trade
Africa received goods and gave slaves in the
Triangular Trade
South Africa has Boers (Dutch farmers)
Plantations worked by slaves

The missionaries followed the traders
path to gain Christian converts
Muslim reform movements-1770s

West and Central Africa consisted of
small states
War was common
prisoners of war were traded for weapons
The states closest to the coast had most
b/c they had European weaponry

Europeans were incorporated into African art
Nzinga Mvemba tried to Europeanize his
The Europeans didnt change much of Africa's
Africa becomes the worlds source of
S. W. Asia take women and children
Europeans take men (and later women) to
work the plantations
Slaves are traded for guns which are
used to get more slaves
1750 - 1914
Africa -> Tropical dependency
Small group of Europeans rule large group
of natives
Europeans believed the Africans were
not fit to rule themselves
French Revolution shook control in some parts
of Africa

Used for goods during industrial
Not many consumers
South Africa gold dispute
Britain fought the boers for land in South
Africa containing gold
People were getting categorized into
Labeled the Africans as backwards and tribal
Racial views decreased education in
Colonizer was considered greater than
the colonized
Christianity got better hold under
European control
Religion became a reason for imperialism
Africa came under European control
Primarily used by Europe for resources
Christianity gains ground in Africa
1914 - Present
Berlin Conference split up control of
The new borders put warring groups of
people together
Africans began rebelling European
Borders of independent Africa contained
rival tribes
Led to civil wars

Resources used up by Europe
Recourses for military more than for
education and hospitals
Population too high for economy to
Economic problems led to civil wars
Diverse influence in African architecture
Symmetrical masks, statues popular

Africa obtained many religions
And had many of its own indigenous religions
Africa broke free from European control
United Nations sets standards for basic
human rights