S

CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute
Uppal Road, Hyderabad-500 007,
Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
www.ngri.org.in
Objective
Aquifer based groundwater
management
Precise aquifer mapping
Establishing geophysical methodology to
be upscaled to entire country
M
o
W
R
/

C
G
W
B

Conceptual model
VES (R&IP), Tomography (R&IP), Magnetic,
Ground TEM, and Logging
Heli-borne TEM
Aquifer Geometry
Data
Integration &
Inversion
CSIR-NGRI & AU-DK
General Work Plan
of AQUIM -India
1D, 2D& 3D Lithological
distribution
Drilling and
other
Hydrogeologica
l input from
(CGWB)
Ground Truthing
Aquifer
Characteristics
Establishing the
best methodology
for aquifer mapping
at country level
Aquifer
Modeling
(CGWB)
AEM Principle
AQTND
AQKAR
AQMAH
AQBHR
AQRAJ
AQDRT
AQRAJ Pilot Area
Dausa, Rajasthan
Quartzite
Sand
clay
Target: Fresh aquifer composed of
thin layer (bottom alluvial i.e.sand and
gravel + underlying top weathered /
fractured hard rock
Fault Limestone Anticline Fold
Syncline Fold
Alluvium
Agawali
Alluvial
clayey sand
Silty clay
Quartzite Bed Rock
Target: weathered-
fractured quartzite
Location of Ground Geophysics
AQMAH Nagpur
27
27
βK
2
Pg
l
dsa 27
βK
2
Pg
l
dsa 26
βK
2
Pg
l
dsa
25
Lr. Gondwn-sandstone
Archean
Gneiss
βK
2
Pg
l
dsa 24
βK
2
Pg
l
dsa 23
K
2
Pg
l
dsa cls
t24
AQKAR, Karnataka
Geo-electrical cross-section-1 across schist
Geo-electrical cross section-3 in Schist
Highly weathered
Basement
Highly weathered
ERTs in Gneiss
N
S
Adinayakanahalli
Manjunathpura
E W
VES and ERT locations
VES
No of sites: 24
Electrode separation: 1400-2000 m
Orientation: NS
Max depth inferred: 350 m
ERT
No of sites: 10
Max electrode separation: 800 m
Orientation: NE-SW
Max depth inferred:120 m
c
0
-10
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-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM7
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM8
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM 11
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM 14
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM 14
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM 16
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM 17
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
-180
E
l e
v
a
t
i o
n
, m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM10
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
20
10
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
0
0
-10
-20
-30
E
l
e
v
a
t
i
o
n
,

m
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
TEM5
Ohm-m
1
10
100
200
0
-
1
0
-
2
0
-
3
0
E l e v a t i o n , m
0
2
5
5
0
7
5
1
0
0
1
2
5
1
5
0
1
7
5
2
0
0
2
2
5
T
E
M
5
O
h
m
-
m
1 1
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
Confined
aquifer
Depth range (m bgl) Thickness (m) Resistivity
(Ohm-m)
I 50 – 130 40- 130 40 – 350
II 110 – 240 45 – 120 10 – 200
III 200 – 360 --- 1.5 - 25
Mapping of confined aquifer system based on VES survey
(Based on 24 VES interpretation)
79.5 79.55 79.6 79.65 79.7 79.75
11.5
11.55
11.6
11.65
11.7
11.75
Chatram
Naduvirapattu
Panikuppam
Kadambuliyur
Nadukuppam
NLC township
Vadalur
Kurunjipadi
Kullanchavadi
Karaikadu
Cuddalore
23
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
DEPTH TO I CONFINED AQUIFER(RMSL)
CONTOURS IN METERS 20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
Depth to I confined aquifer (m bmsl)
79.5 79.55 79.6 79.65 79.7 79.75
11.5
11.55
11.6
11.65
11.7
11.75
Chatram
Naduvirapattu
Panikuppam
Kadambuliyur
Nadukuppam
NLC township
Vadalur
Kurunjipadi
Kullanchavadi
Karaikadu
Cuddalore
23
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
DEPTH TO II CONFINED AQUIFER(RMSL)
CONTOURS IN METERS
75
85
95
105
115
125
135
145
155
165
175
185
195
205
215
Depth to II confined aquifer
(m bmsl)
79.5 79.55 79.6 79.65 79.7 79.75
11.5
11.55
11.6
11.65
11.7
11.75
Chatram
Naduvirapattu
Panikuppam
Kadambuliyur
Nadukuppam
NLC township
Vadalur
Kurunjipadi
Kullanchavadi
Karaikadu
Cuddalore
23
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
DEPTH TO III CONFINED AQUIFER(RMSL)
CONTOURS IN METERS
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
Depth to III confined aquifer
(m bmsl)
Panel diagram for Confined aquifers
y = 3.5847x + 538.81
R² = 0.9251
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
RELATION OF TRANSMISSIVITY Vs. TRANSVERSE RESISTANCE
TRANSMISSIVITY m²/Day
T
R
A
N
S
V
E
R
S
E


R
E
S
I
S
T
A
N
C
E

O
h
m
-
m
²

Aquifer permeability inference from geophysical results
PERMEABILITY (K m/day) of Aquifer depth range (70-130)
(K range (5-90) m/day)
79.55 79.6 79.65 79.7 79.75
11.5
11.55
11.6
11.65
11.7
Chatram
Naduvirapattu
Panikuppam
Kadambuliyur
Nadukuppam
NLC township
Vadalur
Kurunjipadi
Kullanchavadi
Karaikadu
Cuddalore
23
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
SkyTEM results proved to be dense and precise enough in high
resolution mapping of highly heterogeneous formation.

SkyTEM response need to be correlated with the borehole to refine
the interpretation and map weathered-fractured quartzite qualified
as fresh water layer etc and translated in terms of hydrological
parameters.

Some of the features like different flows within Deccan trap which
was not possible to detect by VES – was easily identified by
SKYTEM

In addition to aquifer Geometry, SkyTEM results indirectly indicates
about the boundary conditions
Drilling of boreholes for aquifer mapping is
 time-consuming & cost-prohibitive
 Moreover it gives point-information, particularly in fissured control
aquifer geometry in the hard rock
Geophysical measurements -- information on
 a larger subsurface volume
 lateral continuity of aquifers, structural controls and 3d
disposition
Geophysical information -- converted into
 virtual wells
 Aquifer characteristics in space and time
Economics
 economical and
 relatively less time-consuming
 Measurement density- AEM : ~500 measurements/ sq km
 Measurement Time : ~300 measurement per hour
Requirements
 calibration and standardization -few boreholes only
Thank You
Geophysics converts
imagination into
realization