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1-How can a chemical production engineer improve

the process with respect to yield & quality?


2-what is the difference between unit operation

and unit process ?

In unit process there is no any physical changes but chemical changes occur. but in unit
operation no any chemical changes, only physical chages occur

3-What is are the main terms in Unit

Operations? and what is its charecteristics?

4-what is unit operation ?

Unit operation involves all types of operations carried out in chemical and process industries
which do not involve any chemical reaction. Hence the chemical properties of the substance do
not change however the physical properties may change. Examples are Size reduction operation
Different type of separation operations and heat transfer operations

In chemical engineering and related fields a unit operation is a basic step in a process. For
example in milk processing homogenization pasteurization chilling and packaging are each unit
operations which are connected to create the overall process. A process may have many unit
operations to obtain the desired product.

Historically the different chemical industries were regarded as different industrial processes
and with different principles. In 1923 William H. Walker Warren K. Lewis and William H.
McAdams wrote the book The Principles of Chemical Engineering and explained the variety of
chemical industries have processes which follow the same physical laws. They summed-up
these similar processes into unit operations. Each unit operation follows the same physical
laws and may be used in all chemical industries. The unit operations form the fundamental
principles of chemical engineering.

Chemical engineering unit operations consist of five classes:

1. Fluid flow processes including fluids transportation filtration solids fluidization

2. Heat transfer processes including evaporation condensation

3. Mass transfer processes including gas absorption distillation extraction adsorption


4. Thermodynamic processes including gas liquefaction refrigeration

5. Mechanical processes including solids transportation crushing and pulverization

screening and sieving

Chemical engineering unit operations also fall in the following categories:

• Combination (mixing)

• Separation (distillation)

• Reaction (chemical reaction)

Chemical engineering unit operations and chemical engineering unit processing form the main
principles of all kinds of chemical industries and are the foundation of designs of chemical
plants factories and equipment used
5-what kinds of questions may employers of
chemcial engineering companies ask me?


1.Tell me about your self ? (They will test your way of talking and english)

2.In which are you intrested? (mass tr. or heat tr. and etc..)

3.For freshers most of the qns will come from Mass tr. and heat tr.

4.In which are you intrested to work? (procee production and etc. )

5.And some general qns like.....If you are the manager or MD of this company this company
then how you will control the employer and how you will feel and etc...


6-why the efficiency of multiple effect

evaporate is less then single effect evaporater?
What is meaning of Eficiency?

If meaning is water evaporation per unit heat transfer area provided in Evaporator Then the
answer is

1. Single effect LMTD ( Log Mean Temperature Difference) is High

2. In mutiple effect evaporator Each Effect LMTD is lower.

7-how to seperate water from benzene?

Water and Benzene are immicible.

On standing it will separate in two layer. Bottom will be benzene layer and top will be water

However Benzene has some solubility say 0.2W/W% water.

This water can be remove from benzene by adsoption on Molecular sieve.

8-What is physical significance of chemical

potential & fugacity?

--- Like there is gravitational potential or electrostatic potential there is chemical potential.
It is basically change in the internal energy of the system by addition of a new particle at
constant volume and entropy. In terms of free energy, its the change in Gibbs free energy of a
system by addition of a particle at constant temperature and pressure. So basically it tells you
about the reactivity of a component in a phase. Transfer of molecule will always occur from
high potential to low potential.
Fugacity is escapability that is tendency of a particle to prefer one phase over other. The
particle will be present in the phase having low fugacity (where the escapability is least). In
terms of chemical potential it is the measure of how much the chemical potential of a
component in a phase differs from the chemical potential in standard state, due to change in
Pressure or mol fr of component. Fugacity is analogous to partial pressure when applying
thermodynamics to any non ideal system for any component. For pure ideal gases fugacity -->
partial pressure.

--- Chemical potential is the main driving force for any mass transfer operation to be occured
and is very closely related with concentration of that corresponding species therefore we
generally take concentration term instead of chemical potential while for very high pressures
we generally calculate fugacities instead of pressures.
9- How to design distillation column?

What is the role of chemical engg. in

technology transfer in pharma company?

10- What is proplan, prodyne?


11- What are the basis for selecting Deaerator operating pressure and

Generally deaerator is designed slight high pressure than atm. around 1.2ksc

Temp is maintained at about 120-130 degree centigrade because dm water should supply at
this temp

process heat is recovered by circulating this dm water down stream of deaerator bfw pump is
there which increases pressure up to desired value.

Designing of high pre and temp shell also too much costlier.

12- Why we use Flairing in the crude oil refining industry?

Crude oil has many chemical components in it i.e. Natural Gas LPG Gasoline Diesel if you can
see there the fraction of those components is different sometime gasoline is higher and
sometime diesel.
the flaring is used to burn Natural Gas which is very small fraction in crude oil and not
economical to store as it must use compressor. Furthermore the flaring of NG can burn
poisonous gas contained in crude oil.
13- Difference between Distillation and Fractionation?
Distillation and fractionation and fractional distillation are all same. which all means
seperation of key components based on the relative volatility and/or boiling points. there is no
difference at all between them....!!

14- Discuss the important properties of solvent used in LEACHING?

Leachng is unit operation in which a solid mixture is contacted with a liquid solvent for removal
of one or more soluble constituents of solid mixture and it is also called a solid liquid
The solvet used in it should be a selective solvent and should have low viscosity for it to
circulate freely.

15- How does actual Capillary Action takes place?

The capillary action is due to surface tension. The surface tension force is the relative action
between the adhesive force to the cohesive force

16- What is 3rd Law of Thermodynamics??

The entropy of a substance is zero at absolute zero temperature(0k)

17-You have two layer of material to provide

insulation. They have heat transfer co-efficient
How will you obtain better insulation?
--- The material which has lower thermal condutivity should be insulated first or the
insulation should increase order of k to get effective insulation.

--- By applying higher insulation layer at lower surface & lower at upper surface
Q/A K1*(dT/dX)
Q/A K2*(dT/dX)
K1(DT)1+K2DT2 Q/A*X
d(Q/A)/dX 0

18- What is the solid angle?

The solid angle Ω is the angle in three-dimensional space that an object subtends at a point. It
is a measure of how big that object appears to an observer looking from that point. For
instance a small object nearby could subtend the same solid angle as a large object far away.

19- Why Iron Carbide diagram can be established upto 6.67% only? What are structure beyond
6.67% carbon?

20- When salt is added to water, what happens to its freezing point?

Freezing point decreases