EUPHEMISM

NGUYEN THI THU HA PHAM QUYNH ANH NGUYEN THI HAT HOANG THI XAM L/O/G/O

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OUTLINE

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DEFINITION CLASSIFICATION EUPHEMISM VS IRONY EUPHEMISM VS OTHER SEMANTIC CHANGES

WHAT IS EUPHEMISM?

• An inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn • A mild word of phrase which substitutes for another which would be undesirable because it is too direct, unpleasant, or offensive. www.tnellen.com/cybereng/lit_terms/terms/Literary.Te

• Pleasant term for unpleasant thing www.yorku.ca/paolucci/language.doc

Etymology
• euphemize [1855-60; Gk euphēmízein to use words of good omen] • eu- a combining form meaning “good,” “well,” occurring originally in loanwords from Greek • euphemism: made up of three bound morphemes:, all Greek in origin: eu (good) + phem(speaking/speech) +ism (act/result)

Formation of euphemisms

• Borrowing words from other languages: halitosis (bad breath)< of Metaphorical transfer: the comparison Latin things of for breath things of another. halitus one order to e.g. blossom (pimple) • Widening: growth (cancer), foundation Phonetic distortion: waste (feces) we encounter (girdle), solid humanWhenspeak their words that we dare not • Semantic shift: rear end (bottom) names, we abbreviate, apocopate
(shorten or omit the last syllable), initial, convert, backform and reduplicate them.

Examples of euphemism
• 1.garbage man sanitation engineer 2. old people senior citizen 3. pregnant in the family way 4. die pass away 5. the dead the deceased /the late 6. burier 7. lunatic asylums undertaker / mortician mental institutions

TYPES OF EUPHEMISM
• Different people hold different view on the classification of euphemism • 3 most popular ways to classify euphemism:
-Positive vs. negative euphemism

-Semantic-based classification

-Other

POSITIVE EUPHEMISM
• Can also be called stylistic euphemisms or exaggerating euphemisms. • Inflate and magnify to make euphemized items seem altogether grander and more important than they really are • Eg: exterminating engineers = ratcatchers, beautician = hairdressers

NEGATIVE EUPHEMISM
• Can be called traditional euphemisms or narrowing euphemism. • Extremely ancient, and closely connected with the taboos. • Eg: In many cultures, it is forbidden to pronounce the name of God  “Jeeze”, “Jeepers Creepers” , or “Gee” for “Jesus”, “Jesus Christ” or “Christ”, “goodness” for “God” or “My Gum” for “My God”

1.Naming death : “to breath one’s last (one’s last breath, gasp)”, “to depart this life”, “to pay one’s debt to nature”, “to go to one’s last home”, “to go the way of all flesh”, “to kick the bucket”, “to hop the twig”, “to join the majority”, “to be no more”, “God’s acre”, etc.:
- He's gone to meet his maker. - I won't worry about money When I'm six feet under." - So Joe has finally kicked the bucket.

EUPHEMISM DIVIDED BY ITS SEMANTIC GROUP

2.Naming social evils, crimes, human vices and their consequences: “three sheets in (to) the wind”= inebriated(person) -“send somebody to kingdom-come”,“send somebody to glory” = to kill sb, - shoot (sling, throw) the bull”= chat, gossip - “kiss the cup”, “have (take) a drop”, “have one too many”, “have had a few” = to be drunk

3. Euphemisms naming poverty, hard financial situation: e.g. “be in Queer Street”, “live from hand to mouth”, “not to have a shirt to one’s back”, “without a penny to one’s name”, make <both, two> ends meet”: • Eg:The government is introducing new schemes to help the disadvantaged. - I'm afraid I can't come to the restaurant with you. I'm financially embarrassed at the moment.

• 4. Euphemisms naming mental deformities (disability): “be out (take, leave) of one’s senses”, “be off one’s nut”, “go nuts”, “soft (touched, weak) in the head”, “a strange bird”, a weird (strange) customer”, a weird (strange) card (duck)”, etc. Eg: Bob went nuts because his car got a flat tire.

• 5. Euphemisms naming some acts or conditions from the sphere of physiology, e.g. - “pay a call” = go to toilet - “in a (the) family way” = pregnant - , “in nature’s garb”, “not a stitch on”, “in a state of nature”, “in one’s skin”, etc.: = naked.

6. Euphemisms referring to the sexual sphere e.g.: - “a lady of easy virtue”, “a light (easy) woman” = a prostitute, an easy woman - sleep with: have sex intercourse

1) 2) 3)

OTHER THEMES God's name Religion: "Adonai" = Jewish
Unemployment: between jobs, being a resting actor The toilet: restroom, Where can I wash my hands?, public conveniences: ladies and gents, the bog, the smallest room of the house, see a man about a dog…Eg "He's gone to see a man about a dog.” Lying economical with the truth: "The boss is known for being economical with the truth.“ Arguments: full and frank discussion: "The directors had a full and frank discussion in the meeting." have words with someone: "Those two have had words."

4) 5)

THE 3RD WAY
Many euphemisms fall into one or more of these categories: • Terms of foreign and/or technical origin: "perspire", "urinate • Abbreviations : Plays on abbreviations :"H-e-double hockey sticks" for "hell", "a-double snakes" or "a-doubledollar-signs" for "ass” • Abstractions and ambiguities: "the situation" for pregnancy, "going to the other side" for death, "do it" or "come together" in reference a sexual act • Indirections: ("behind", "unmentionables", "privates", "live together", "go to the bathroom", "sleep together“ • Reserved understatement ("not exactly thin" for "fat", "not completely truthful" for "lied", "not unlike cheating" for "an instance of cheating")

EUPHEMISM VS. IRONY
EUPHEMISM IRONY - an indirect word/phrase - the use of words that used to refer to st offensive say the opposite of or unpleasant what you really mean  to avoid taboo words.  to imply literal  to avoid negative meaning meaning ,create less offensive i.e: “That was bright” expression is said when sb dis st stupid. i.e: having sex with -> making love to, doing it.  to create humor

EUPHEMISM VS. IRONY
EUPHEMISM IRONY Humor makes the Humor occurs because of a cruel reality become contrast more endurable i.e: a i.e: “as hard as putty” female tiger - No intonation’s effect - Intonation has important role to play in expressing the messages: i.e: - Hey, are you still sad about that? - No, I am not upset at all. (emotional voice)

SIMILARITY
• - Affected by lifestyles, traditional notions and customs from different countries. • i.e: in USA, “rooster” instead of “cock” • - Full of humor • i.e: “a female tiger” (eu.)

EU in comparison with other semantic changes
• • • • Metaphor Metonymy LITOTES HYPERBOLE

Metaphor
Change based on similarity between conceptshidden comparison. Eg . A cunning personreferred to as a fox. A woman may be called a peach, a lemon, a cat, a goose, etc.
 HEAR THEIR VOICES FADE  SUNBRIGHT SMILE

based upon very different types of similarity,  Similarity of shape: head of a cabbage, the teeth of a saw.  Similarity of function. : the head of the school, the key to a mystery.  Similarity of position: foot of a page, of a mountain  Behaviour and function: bookworm, wirepuller

.Metonymy
Metonymy: Change based on contiguity between concepts E.G The White House supports the bill  The Crown "He writes a fine hand" "The pen is mightier than the sword," "The House was called to order,"

• A figure of speech • Expresses it even more effectively, or achieves emphasis, by denying its opposite • Form of understatement, always deliberate and with the intention of subtle emphasis • However, depend on context, including cultural context • Examples - "She is not so unkind." - "She was not a little cross." - "I am not unwell.“ - “ Not bad."

LITOTES

HYPERBOLE
• used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is rarely meant to be taken literally. Examples: - This cat smells like 500 million years worth of spoiled milk! ( The cat smells bad ) - These books weigh a ton. (These books are heavy.) - I could sleep for a year. (I could sleep for a long time.) - The path went on forever. (The path was really long.)

IT’S YOUR TURN!
• Let's see if you can guess the meaning of these! 1. To be economical with the truth A to have more to drink than sensible B to be quite fat C to tell lies C

2. To put something sleep • A to be out of work • B kill st , usually animals • C to declare war to someone

B

3. “to go to glory” means: • A to die • B. to be quite fat • C. st which is quite cheap because it as stolen

A

4. “Between jobs” • A. to be out of work • B. to declare war to someone • C. to be quite fat

A

5. Big boned • A. to die • B. to be quite fat • C. to have more to drink than sensible

B

The expressions in italics are euphemisms. What do they probably mean?

1. She was less favoured by beauty. 2. Tom’s driving ability had plenty of room for improvement. 3. They are now at their final rest. 4. Tears were my only company. 5. Someone borrowed money without asking from my purse.

KEY
• • • • • 1. She was ugly or unattractive. 2- Tom was a bad driver. 3- They died. 4- The person cried a lot. 5- Someone stole money from her purse.

Funnn
• Powder my nose

 Go to WC

• Asking Jesus for shoes

 Having sex

• Bite the dust

 To die

• Still cutting with rounded scissors

 Be stupid

• Worm food

 To Die

Thank You!
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L/O/G/O

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