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Basic Electronics

# Basic Electronics

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04/25/2013

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•Electricity, according to Benjamin Franklin, acts like a
fluid. It flows and has a measurable CURRENT . We can
restrict its flow by adding electrical friction. We say that
the restriction of electrical flow is called RESISTANCE
and that a device which causes such RESISTANCE is
called a RESISTOR . All materials, even the very best
CONDUCTORS demonstrate a certain amount of
RESISTANCE to electron flow.

RESISTOR IMAGE

FIXED RESISTOR

VARIABLE RESISTOR

Resistors used in computers and other devices are typically much smaller,
often in surface-mount packages without wire leads.

This is the most general purpose, cheap resistor.
Usually the tolerance of the resistance value is ±5%.
Power ratings of 1/8W, 1/4W and 1/2W are frequently used.

CARBON FILM RESISTOR

CERAMIC RESISTOR

POTENTIOMETER

HOW TO READ THE RESISTANCE OF THE RESISTOR

From the top of the photograph
1/8W
1/4W
1/2W

Rough size

Rating
power
(W)

Thickness
(mm)

Length
(mm)

1/8

2

3

1/4

2

6

1/2

3

9

RESISTOR ANALYSIS

Resistance

•In order to compare the resistance of various materials, we need to
have some standard unit of measurement. The unit of measurement
for resistance is called the Ohm , and is indicated by the Greek
letter Omega ( Ω ).

Less number of electrons are allowed to pass through

More current

RESISTANCE TO FLOW

Resistance

•Although Ohm is the basic unit, Kilo Ohm and
Mega Ohm are frequently used. 1 Kilo Ohm (K
Ω) is equal to 1 thousand Ω. 1 Mega Ohm (M &
Omega) is equal to 1 million Ω.

•Ex

- 8 M Ohm = 8,000,000 Ohm = 8,000 K Ohm

Resistance

There are 4 factors that determine the resistance of a material

(1)Type of Material

- The resistance of various types of materials are different. For instance, gold is
a better conductor of electricity than copper, and therefore has less resistance.

(2)Length

- The resistance of a material is directly proportional to it's length. The longer
the material is, the more resistance it has. This is because the electrons must
flow through more material, and therefore meets more friction over the entire
distance.

Resistance

(3) Cross Sectional Area

- The resistance of a material is inversely proportional to the
cross sectional area of the material. This means that the thicker the
substance is across, the lower the resistance. This is because the
larger the cross sectional area is, the less friction there is over a
given length.

D

R = pL
A

Area is directly proportional to diameter

A = pie (R squared)