The Arrival of the

First Fleet through
the eyes of the
Convicts and the
Indigenous
Australians



LEARNING AREA:
History and English LESSN T!IC: Diary Entries of
the first fleet

"EAR LE#EL: "ear
$ %&RATIN of LESSN: '( )inutes %ATE:
CNTE*T:
This lesson plan
has been designed taking into
consideration the classroom
and school
context.
The classroom
has a high percentage
of
indigenous
students and ESL learners. To cater for their diverse learning needs this lesson requires a
specialist teacher that assists the educator and works in smaller groups with the students.

"EAR LE#EL STATE+ENT:
The Year 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Beginning with the
history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait slander peoples! students e"amine European e"ploration
and colonisation in Australia and throughout the world up to the early #$%%s. Students e"amine the
impact of e"ploration on other societies! how these societies interacted with newcomers! and how
these e"periences contributed to their cultural diversity.
The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through
&ey concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect,
-ers-ectives, e)-athy and significance. These concepts may be investigated within a particular
historical conte"t to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical
in'uiries.
The history content at this year level involves two strands( Historical Knowledge and Understanding
and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way) they
may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local conte"ts. The
order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.
A framewor& for developing students* historical &nowledge! understanding and s&ills is provided
by in/uiry /uestions through the use and interpretation of sources. The &ey in'uiry 'uestions at this
year level are(
0ey in/uiry /uestions
. +hy did the great ,ourneys of e"ploration occur-
. +hat was life li&e for Aboriginal and.or Torres Strait slander /eoples before the arrival of the
Europeans-
. +hy did the Europeans settle in Australia-
+hat was the nature and conse'uence of contact between Aboriginal and.or Torres Strait slander
/eoples and early traders! e"plorers and settlers-











LEARNING &TC+ES
Australian Curriculu):
1History2
• Stories of the 0irst 0leet! including reasons for the ,ourney! who travelled to Australia! and
their e"periences following arrival. 1A2334%567
• /ose a range of 'uestions about the past 1A233S%$87
• dentify different points of view 1A233S%$97
1English2
• :nderstand that the meaning of sentences can be enriched through the use
of noun groups.phrases and verb groups.phrases and prepositional phrases 1A2E;A#4687
• /lan! draft and publish imaginative! informative and persuasive te"ts containing &ey
information and supporting details for a widening range of audiences! demonstrating
increasing control over te"t structures and language features 1A2E;Y#<647
• =eread and edit for meaning by adding! deleting or moving words or word groups to improve
content and structure 1A2E;Y#<697
• +rite using clearly>formed ,oined letters! and develop increased fluency and
automaticity 1A2E;Y#<6<7


LESSN 34ECTI#ES
3y the end of this lesson, students 5ill have an o--ortunity to de)onstrate their a6ility to:
#. =eflect on prior &nowledge and create te"ts which incorporate their understanding about
the topic.
?. /lan! draft and publish an imaginative and informative ,ournal entry.
8. :nderstand how to create a ,ournal entry and what is re'uired to create an entry.
4. :nderstand the events which occurred in the 0irst 0leet and how these events impacted
people.

RES&RCES AN% CLASSR+ RGANISATIN
This lesson will be conducted both inside and outside of the classroom.
=esources(
> E"ample of diary entry
> A4 piece of paper
> +hiteboard
> +hiteboard @ar&er
> Blac& pens
> Tea Bags
> +ater
> Tray
> nteractive whiteboard
> E"tension activity A +ord search
> E"tension activity A Before and After the first fleet
Fun Trivia . (!"#. The First Fleet . $etrieved from
http%&&www.funtrivia.com&pla'qui(&qui()*)+*ae!c+.html

ST&%ENTS7 !RIR 0N8LE%GE
• Students have e"plored the Bourney of 2aptain 2oo& and his discovery of Australia.
• Students have e"plored how ndigenous Australians lived before the 0irst 0leet.
• Students have e"plored the 0irst fleet and the effects of the first fleet.
• Students have e"plored who were on the ships of the 0irst 0leet.

LESSN !RCE%&RE
+otivation 1rientating !hase2
This part of the lesson will be conducted inside the classroom.
19: )inutes2
• The educator will introduce the lesson by starting an activity which re'uires the students to go
around the room and state one thing they &now about the first fleet.
• The educator will as& the students what they believe a ,ournal entry is-
> +hat do we include in a ,ournal entry-
> Do you thin& convicts on the first fleet would have written ,ournals-
> +hat do you thin& they would have written about in their ,ournals-
> +hat do you thin& they would have thought when they saw the land and what do you thin&
the indigenous Australians would have thought when the saw the ships arriving-
• The educator will show the students an e"ample of a ,ournal entry written during the voyage
of the first fleet.
• The educator will show students a template which outlines what is re'uired in a ,ournal entry.
• The educator will as& the class what they believe both the convicts and the ndigenous
Australians would have been feeling when they saw the land and the ships. 1These words will
be written on the word wall to help students when writing their ,ournal entries7.


!rocedure 1Enhancing !hase2
This part of the lesson will be conducted outside of the classroom. The educator will be available to
assist any students who are experiencing difficulties.
1: ; 9( )inutes2

Ste- 9: Students will create olden day paper by using a tea bag and water to stain the paper. The
educator will assist the students during this process. The educator will as& students)
• +hy do you thin& we are trying to ma&e the paper loo& old-
• Do you thin& this is what the paper would have loo&ed li&e in the #$%%*s-

Ste- <: The students will leave their paper outside on a rac& to ensure it is dry by the end of the
lesson.
The educator will outline what is re'uired in each ,ournal entry 1=efer to Appendi" A7.

Creating te=ts
This part of the lesson will be conducted inside of the classroom.
1<( > ?( )inutes2

Ste- ?( Students are given the option to write as either a) convict or ndigenous Australian.

Ste- $: The educator will provide students with a ,ournal entry template 1=efer to Appendi" B7.

Ste- :: Students will plan their ,ournal entry on one of the pieces of paper this plan should include
whether they are a convict or ndigenous Australian! the date and whether it was before or after the
arrival of the first fleet.

Ste- ': The students will show this plan to the educator and once the educator has approved the draft
they can begin writing the draft of their ,ournal entries.

Ste- @: Cnce the students have completed their draft of their ,ournal entry they must show the
educator before moving on to the ne"t step.

Ste- A: :sing the paper made earlier in the lesson students will write their good copy of their ,ournal
entry.


Conclusion 1Synthesising !hase2
This part of the lesson will be conducted inside of the classroom.
19( )inutes2
• The educator will as& a couple of students to read aloud their ,ournal entries.
• The educator will collect all of the students ,ournal entries.

%IFFERENTIATIN F LEARNING

>Students have been provided with e"amples of ,ournal entries to assist students who have difficulties
constructing te"ts.

>The word wall was implemented to assist students with a range of words varying in vocabulary to
assist students when creating te"ts.

>Students have been provided with opportunity to use a range of resources varying literacy levels to
match the level of the student*s literacy abilities.

> Teacher aides have been assigned to help out during the lesson to wor& with students who have
diverse learning needs 1hearing loss! vision impairment! autism etc7. This will allow the teacher aid to
wor& one on one with the student or in a small groups with the students.

>Students which e"perience difficulty writing sentences will be provided with e"amples to follow and
will be assisted by the educator.

E"tra Activities 1Advanced learners7
Students are given the option to choose from three activities;
• Activity Cne( Cnline trivia game
Students are reuired to conduct an online trivia game based on the !irst fleet.
• Activity two( ;ife Before and after the 0irst 0leet 1=efer to Appendi" 07
Students are reuired to research information on life before the arrival of the "ritish i.e.
#lothes$ food$ spirituality and education and then life after the first fleet also looking at
clothes$ food$ spirituality and education.
• Activity three( +ord Search 1=efer to Appendi" D7
Students are reuired to complete the word search which focuses on the !irst !leet.


ASSESS+ENT F LEARNING

Students will be assessed by a rubric %&efer to 'ppendix H(






Appendi" A( 3ow to write a ,ournal entry

%ate:



1Starting for)ula for e=a)-leB %ear %iary2




Introduction: "ou 5ill usually 6egin your te=t 5ith so)e Cind of general sentence a6out the day
1for e=a)-le: Today 5as a 5onderful day2 or a general sentence a6out your )o)entary state of
)ind 1for e=a)-leB I7) feeling do5n2.





+ain -art: In the )ain -art 5rite a6outB
> 8hat ha--enedD
> Ho5 you felt and feel a6out itD
> 8hat your ho-es and -lans for the future are.






Conclusion: "ou can end your diary entry 5ith so)e Cind of final re)arC a6out the day or your
feelings 1for e=a)-leB I a) ha--y I 5as a6le to 5rite )y feelings do5n2 or a sentence a6out
your )o)entary situation 1for e=a)-leB It7s late, I have to go to 6ed.





1Closing For)ula for e=a)-leB Love == 2














Appendi" B( Bournal entry template
,ate%
,ear ,iar'-



Appendi" 2( E"ample one A Bournal entry

4ohn Hunter 19@?@>9A<92
Bohn 3unter was second 2aptain on the Sirius. 3e left the colony in #56# returning to succeed /hillip
as second Dovernor of Eew South +ales in September #569.
)n entering "otany "ay Hunter recorded*
FCn the ?<th! made the signal for the transports to get under way. +e perceived this morning two
large ships in the offing! standing in for the bay! under 0rench colours A few days after my arrival
with the transports in /ort Bac&son! set off with a si" oared boat and a small boat to ma&e as good a
survey of the harbour as circumstances would admit During the time er were employed on this
service! we had fre'uent meetings with different parties of the Eatives! whom we found at this time
very Eumerous! which confess was a little surprised to find! after what had been said of them in the
Goyage of the Endeavour for thin& it is observed in the account of that voyage! that at Botany>bay
they had seen very few of the natives! and that they appeared a very stupid race of people! who were
void of curiosity. +e saw them in 2onsiderable Eumbers H they appeared to us to be a lively H
in'uisitive =ace.F





































Appendi" D( E"ample two A Bournal entry
+illiam Bradley 1#59$->#$887
+illiam Bradley was 0irst ;ieutenant on the Sirius. Engaged in early surveying of
Sydney 3arbour! Bradleys /oint was named for him. 3e left the colony to return to England in @arch
#56#.
FSaturday. ?<th( /@. The weather too thic& to move the 2onvoy. A@. At day light 0ine weather with
a moderate breeIe at SE( The 0rench Ships standing in for the Bay! An Cfficer was sent on board of
them! found them to be the Boussole H Astrolabe! 0rench 4ings Ships on Discoveries) 3ad been to
the E.oward! H called at 4amschat&a H 2hina( last from the Eavigators slands.
As soon as the tide made out of the Bay! weighJd with the 2onvoy( At Eoon! wor&ing out of the Bay.F
FSunday. ?5th( At # /@. were clear of the Bay H steerJd for /ort Bac&son! At 8. Seeing that all the
2onvoy were out! made Sail H at 4! were within the 3eads of /ort Bac&son! up which 3arbour we ran
about 9 @iles H Anchored at the entrance of the 2ove in which the Supply was lying H where the
@arines H 2onvicts that came in here were encamped) the 2onvoy all anchored in H off the 2ove
before dar&.
The entrance of /ort Bac&son is about #% miles to the E.oward of Botany Bay H is some dis.ce within
the E.o e"treme of land in sight when without the Bay! the best mar& to &now when you draw near it
coming from the S.oward! is! some remar&able sandhills over a sandy Bay ? or 8 miles to
the S.oward of the S.o 3ead! the shore from this Bay to the S.o 3ead is 3igh roc&y cliffs.F
































Appendi" E( E"ample three A 2onvict Bournal entry

+e have been travelling on this ship for 9 months. At least that is what we have been told have lost
trac& of time stuc& in the dar& damp depths of this ship.

hear voices of the other convicts and wails of pain from the sic& and in,ured. can*t see very far in
front of me but can tell ,ust tell that bad things must be happening. Things can not name.

can feel the rats around my feet nibbling on my flesh. can no move to shoo them. @y body is too
e"hausted to do so. The food we are given in such proportions would not sustain even a small child!
yet we are e"pected to live on this.

The food we are given only adds to the stench we must endure every wa&ing moment. The smell of
human faeces! vomit and rotting flesh are but some of the accompanying odours.

They tell us when we get to Eew South +ales we shall be ,oining the already established colony of
the first fleet. They will feed us and clean us. +e shall ,oin as e'uals not criminals. Although my
crime was not as severe as that of the woman ne"t to me! who had &illed her husband with
arsenic. 2ompared to that crime steeling a woman*s ,ewels does not seem so terrible.

must go the warden does not approve of our writings and if he finds this have no doubt that will
be punished.































Appendi" 0( E"tension activity two > Before and After

Using images identify what life was life before and after the !irst !leet i.e. looking at food$ clothing$
housing and spirituality.


Brief description
.fter
/efore
Brief description
.fter /efore
Brief description
Appendi" D( E"tension activity three A +ord Search

First Fleet

Z F P E B G R E H C O G D I S
Y K O A L O H M A U M F N R E
A G R G Y M F P C F R D P E T
B S T Z N G T F L J I Z Y E T
Y Z J C F A X K I G F W A A L
N I A T I R B P E C K X K U E
A B C N N A S N E Q E F R W R
T A K S I Y O O V H C R S K S
O P S D P U A I L A R T S U A
B D O L S I C F Q D C P C A I
N G N E F A H C H I L D R E N
Q N R D T A A S V A S O N L U
P U O B F X X N L Y Z R W N H
J Q E W H F O T G T F W W I N
D W H U W C G N D B F I B L P


AUSTRALIA
CAPTAIN
INDIGENOUS
SETTLERS
BOTANY BAY
.fter
/efore
CHILDREN
OFFICERS
SHIPS
BRITAIN
CONVICTS
PORT JACKSON

Appendi" 3( Assessment rubric

Bournal Entry Assessment

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Grammar & Spelling
(Conventions)
Writer makes !
err!rs i "rammar
!r s#e$$i" t%at
&istra't t%e rea&er
(r!m t%e '!tet)
Writer makes *+,
err!rs i "rammar
!r s#e$$i" t%at
&istra't t%e rea&er
(r!m t%e '!tet)
Writer makes -+.
err!rs i "rammar
!r s#e$$i" t%at
&istra't t%e rea&er
(r!m t%e '!tet)
Writer makes m!re
t%a . err!rs i
"rammar !r s#e$$i"
t%at &istra't t%e
rea&er (r!m t%e
'!tet)
Flow & Rhythm
(Sentence Fluency)
A$$ sete'es
s!/& at/ra$ a&
are eas0+!+t%e+
ear 1%e rea&
a$!/&) Ea'%
sete'e is '$ear
a& %as a
!23i!/s em#%asis)
A$m!st a$$
sete'es s!/&
at/ra$ a& are
eas0+!+t%e+ear
1%e rea& a$!/&4
2/t * !r , are sti((
a& a1k1ar& !r
&i((i'/$t t!
/&ersta&)
5!st sete'es
s!/& at/ra$ a&
are eas0+!+t%e+ear
1%e rea& a$!/&4
2/t se3era$ are sti((
a& a1k1ar& !r are
&i((i'/$t t!
/&ersta&)
T%e sete'es are
&i((i'/$t t! rea&
a$!/& 2e'a/se t%e0
s!/& a1k1ar&4 are
&istra'ti"$0
re#etiti3e4 !r &i((i'/$t
t! /&ersta&)
Sentence ength
(Sentence Fluency)
E3er0 #ara"ra#%
%as sete'es t%at
3ar0 i $e"t%)
A$m!st a$$
#ara"ra#%s %a3e
sete'es t%at
3ar0 i $e"t%)
S!me sete'es
3ar0 i $e"t%)
Sete'es rare$0
3ar0 i $e"t%)
Focus on !opic
(Content)
T%ere is !e '$ear4
1e$$+(!'/se& t!#i')
5ai i&ea sta&s
!/t a& is
s/##!rte& 20
&etai$e&
i(!rmati!)
5ai i&ea is '$ear
2/t t%e s/##!rti"
i(!rmati! is
"eera$)
5ai i&ea is
s!me1%at '$ear 2/t
t%ere is a ee& (!r
m!re s/##!rti"
i(!rmati!)
T%e mai i&ea is !t
'$ear) T%ere is a
seemi"$0 ra&!m
'!$$e'ti! !(
i(!rmati!)
"or# Choice Writer /ses 3i3i&
1!r&s a&
#%rases t%at $i"er
!r &ra1 #i't/res i
t%e rea&er67s mi&4
a& t%e '%!i'e
a& #$a'emet !(
t%e 1!r&s seems
a''/rate4 at/ra$
a& !t (!r'e&)
Writer /ses 3i3i&
1!r&s a& #%rases
t%at $i"er !r &ra1
#i't/res i t%e
rea&er67s mi&4 2/t
!''asi!a$$0 t%e
1!r&s are /se&
ia''/rate$0 !r
seem !3er&!e)
Writer /ses 1!r&s
t%at '!mm/i'ate
'$ear$04 2/t t%e
1riti" $a'ks 3ariet04
#/'% !r ($air)
Writer /ses a $imite&
3!'a2/$ar0 t%at
&!es !t
'!mm/i'ate
str!"$0 !r
'a#t/re t%e
rea&er67s iterest)
Jar"!
!r '$i'%esma0 2e
#reset a& &etra't
(r!m t%e meai")

References:
.0.$.. (!"1#. Year 4 . $etrieved from http%&&www.australiancurriculum.edu.au&2ear*
Fun Trivia . (!"#. The First Fleet . $etrieved from
http%&&www.funtrivia.com&pla'qui(&qui()*)+*ae!c+.html