Knife Line Attack

Compiled and edited by
Nasrizal Mohd Rashdi
Senior Lecturer
Fabrication & Joining Section
Universiti Kuala Lumpur
Knife Line Attack
 Occur in stabilized austenitic stainless
steel such as 321 & 347.
 It also inter-granular corrosion but not
same as weld decay.
 Also cause by precipitation of Chromium
carbide at grain boundary.
Differs from weld decay
 Occurs in narrow band in the area
immediately adjacent to weld metal.
 Occurs in stabilized SS
Mechanism
 The area corresponding to thermal cycle
‘1’ is very close to the fusion boundary
 Therefore is subjected to both a very high
peak temperature and a very rapid cooling
rate during welding.
 This peak temperature is above the solvus
temperature of titanium carbide, so it will
dissolves in this area.
Mechanism
 Because of the rapid cooling rate through its
precipitation temperature range, titanium carbide
does not re-precipitate during cooling
 Thus leaving abundant free carbon atoms in this
area.
 When the weld is reheated in the Cr carbide
precipitation range (for stress-relief or in
multiple-pass welding), Ti carbide does not form
appreciably since the temperature level is not
high enough.

 Consequently, Cr carbide precipitates at
grain boundaries, and this area becomes
susceptible to intergranular corrosion
attack.
 Because of the high temperate gradient
near the fusion boundary and the high Ti
carbide dissolution temperature, the region
in which Ti carbide dissolves during
welding is very narrow

 As a result, subsequent intergranular
corrosion attack occurs in a very narrow
strip immediately adjacent to the fusion
boundary, and thus the name knife-line
attack. Figure 18.15 shows the
transmission electron
Prevention methods
 Addition of rare earth metal ( La + Ce).
 It reduce the rate of intergranular corrosion.
(see fig. 18-18).
 It no adverse effects on mechanical
properties.
 Post weld heat treatment.
 Heat to 1000
O
C to 1100
O
C, to dissolving the
chromium carbide and than rapid quenching.
 Use low carbon grade.
Question

 State the area are possibility to knife line
attack
second pass
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