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Applied Electromagnetics

Applied Electromagnetics

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Published by liubingxy
A very nice Applied Electromagnetics book.
A very nice Applied Electromagnetics book.

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Published by: liubingxy on Nov 08, 2009
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08/03/2013

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Most of us are familiar with antennas. Although in the new generation
of cell phones, the antenna is no longer visible, base station antennas are now
part of our landscape. Dish antennas as receivers for satellite broadcasting are
equally omnipresent. A radio-telescope is yet another example that perhaps
does not readily come to mind. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines antenna
or aerial (still preferred over antenna in Great-Britain) as a metal rod, wire or
other structure by which signals are transmitted or received as part of a radio
transmission or receiving system. More generally, the term antenna refers to a
vary large variety of structures that can be used to either generate or receive
electromagnetic fields.
In this introductory course it is impossible to cover a large number of an-
tenna types and their design and operation principles. This would typically be
the subject matter for a Master’s course on “Antennas and Propagation”. In
this chapter we will restrict ourselves to so-called wire and patch antennas. In
this case, the sources of the fields are the conductor currents on the metal wires
or the metal patches. When transmitting, these currents are injected into the
antenna at the antenna terminals, i.e. the connection points to the transmit
circuit. When receiving, currents are induced in the metal parts of the antenna
and fed into the receive circuit through these terminals.
To avoid unnecessary complications, discussions will be restricted to anten-
nas radiating and receiving in homogeneous and infinite free space. As a first
step to understanding the behaviour of an antenna, we will consider the fields
generated by a known source current density and more particularly the so-called
far fields. The introduction of the radiation impedance of the antenna allows
to define the equivalent circuit of a receiving antenna. Next, the fundamental
reciprocity that exists between receiving and transmitting will be highlighted.
The open circuit voltage at the terminals of the antenna, when immersed in
an incident plane wave, is the key to the equivalent circuit representation of
the antenna in receive mode. Finally, we are in a position to discuss the Friis
formula which elegantly describes the power transmitted between two antennas.
In the second part of this chapter, the properties of a simple dipole antenna
are discussed. From this it can easily be understood that the exact treatment of

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168

CHAPTER 8. ANTENNAS AND RADIATION

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Figure 8.1: Relevant to the calculation of the far field.

the general wire antenna problem requires the solution of an integral equation
for the currents on the metal wires or patches of the antenna. No in depth
treatment of such an integral equation will be presented though. The concept
of an antenna array is also very briefly outlined and the chapter concludes with
an overview of various types of more advanced wire and patch antennas.

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