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MT S THAO TC PHA

CH HA CHT PHNG
TH NGHIM HA HC
TRNG I HC AN GIANG
KHOA S PHM
B MN HA
TRNG I HC AN GIANG
KHOA S PHM
B MN HA
--------------

MT S THAO TC
PHA CH HA CHT
PHNG TH
NGHIM HA HC
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

I.Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung v pha ch dung
dch:
Bnh, l dng pha ch dung dch phi c ra
sch v trng nc ct trc khi pha.
Phi dng nc ct pha ha cht.
Trc khi pha dung dch cn tnh ton cn thn
lng cht tan v dung mi.
Dung dch kim c phi pha trong bt s.
Sau khi pha xong dung dch phi cho vo l c
mu sc thch hp, y nt kn, dn nhn cn thn,
ng v tr qui nh.
Ngi ta thng dng cc loi ng to, bnh nh
mc, pipet chia khi pha ch dung dch. Bnh
nh mc dng pha ch dung dch theo nng
mol v nng ng lng.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

2. Pha ch dung dch cht rn trong
nc theo nng phn trm.
Cht rn khng ngm nc nh NaCl, BaCl
2
,
Trc khi pha cn tnh lng cht tan v lng
nc cn dng l bao nhiu, da vo biu thc nng
%.




V d: Cn pha 250 g dung dch 10% mt cht cho.
Theo biu thc trn th: m
dd
= 250 g ;
C% = 10% ; v ta c m
ct
l :
.100 .100
%
ct ct
dd dm ct
m m
C
m m m

I. Pha ch dung dch:


1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

Dng cn ly 25g cht tan cho vo
225 ml H
2
O (dng ng chia ong
225 ml H
2
O) ta khuy cho tan ht th
c 250 g dung dch nng 10%.
Cht rn ngm nc nh CuSO
4
.5H
2
O,
CoCl
2
.6H
2
O. Trc ht chng ta
cng tnh lng cht tan (khng ngm
nc). Tip theo chng ta tnh lng
cht rn ngm nc tng ng vi
lng cht tan.
. % 250.10
25( )
100 100
250 25 225( )
dd
ct
dm
m C
m g
m g


Nh vy
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

Nu gi khi lng mol cht tan l
M
1
v khi lng mol cht tan ngm
nc M
2
th khi lng cht tan ngm
nc l m
2
c tnh theo biu thc
sau y :
2 1
2
1
. M m
m
M

V d: Cn pha 200 g dung dch ng


sunfat 10% t mui CuSO
4
.5H
2
O.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

Phi ly 31,25 g CuSO
4
.5H
2
O v
ong 168,75 ml H
2
O (200 31,25)ml ta
c dung dch ng sunfat 10% .
1 1
2
2
200.10
20( ); 64 32 64 160( )
100
64 32 64 (5.18) 250( )
250.20
31, 25( )
160
m g M g
M g
m g



Nh vy
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

3. Pha ch dung dch cht lng trong
nc theo nng phn trm.
Phng php ny thng c dng
pha long axit (pha dung dch c nng
thp t mt dung dch c nng
cao cho trc).
Trong trng hp ny chng ta p dng
phng php ng cho tnh ton
s nhanh hn hoc tnh ton chnh tc
nhng s lu hn nhiu.
V d: Cn pha 250 g dung dch H
2
SO
4

10% t axit H
2
SO
4
92%(D=1,824g/ml).
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

a) Theo phng php ng cho:
92% 10 0 = 10
(axit)
10%

0% 92 10 = 82
(nc)

2
10 5
82 41
axit
H O

I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

( c axit c nng 10% th ly 5
phn khi lng axit 92% v ly 41
phn khi lng nc)

2
250.5
27, 2( )
(41 5)
27, 2
14, 9( )
1, 824
250.41
222, 8( ) 222, 8( )
(41 5)
axit
axit
H O
m g
V ml
m g ml

Nh vy
Dng pipet ht 14,9ml axit cho vo ng
ong cha sn 100ml nc ct (cho rt t
t) sau cho phn nc cn li l c.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

b) Theo phng php thng
thng (t cc nh ngha):
250.10
25( )
100
axitnguyenchat
m g
27, 2
14, 9( )
1, 824
axit
V ml
(100 g dd 92% c 92 g axit nguyn cht
x g 25 g axit nguyn cht)
92%
25.100
27, 2( )
92
axit
m g
2 2
250 27, 2 222, 8( ) 222, 8( )
H O H O
m g V ml
Nh vy :
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

4. Pha ch dung dch theo nng M:

Theo nh ngha, nng mol/l l s mol
cht tan c trong mt lt dung dch (1000
ml dung dch). Thng ngi ta k hiu
nng mol/l l C
M
.

.1000
( ) ( )
M
m
n
M
n n
C
V l V ml


I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

a. Pha cht rn theo C
M
:
V d: Cn pha 250 ml dung dch NaCl 0,1M.
M
NaCl
= 58,5. 1 lt dung dch NaCl 0,1M
(1 lt c 0,1 mol NaCl nguyn cht).
1000ml (1 lt) c 0,1 mol NaCl
250 ml c x mol NaCl





Cn 1,5 g NaCl nguyn cht cho vo
ng ong, ri tip tc cho nc vo cho ti
vch 250 ml (mun c chnh xc hn th
pha ch vo bnh nh mc 250ml).
250.0,1
0, 025( )
1000
58, 5.0, 025 1, 4625( ) 1, 5( )
NaCl
x mol
m g g


Nh vy
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

b. Pha cht lng theo C
M
:
V d: Pha 1 lt dung dch HCl 0,1M

g x M n m
mol x l V C n
HCl
M HCl
65 , 3 5 , 36 1 , 0 .
1 , 0 1 1 , 0 ) ( .


Nh vy
Dng pipet ly 8,36ml HCl (D=1,18g/ml)
cho vo bnh nh mc 1 lt cha sn
200ml nc ct, sau cho nc ct vo
n vch.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

(100 g dd axit HCl 37% c 37 g axit nguyn cht
x g 3,65 g axit nguyn cht)
ml
D
m
V
g
x
m x
HCl
axit
36 , 8
18 , 1
865 , 9
865 , 9
37
100 65 , 3
% 37


II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
Nc vi trong cng l thuc th
nhn ra kh CO
2
. y l dung dch
kim r tin nht c dng rt nhiu
trong qu trnh th nghim, ngoi vai
tr l thuc th ca CO
2
, n cn c
dng loi b cc cht c c tnh
axit nh NO
2
, SO
2
, H
2
S
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

Cch pha nc vi trong nh sau:
Ha tan vi ti Ca(OH)
2
vo nc ( tan
ca vi ti rt b : 0,156 g Ca(OH)
2
trong
100 g H
2
O 20
o
C): cho t vi ti vo bnh
cu, cho nc vo gn y ti c bnh
din tch tip xc gia cht lng vi khng
kh l b nht. Khuy cho vi trn u vi
nc.
y kn v lng dung dch vi ngy.
Thnh thong li lc bnh.
Trc khi dng phi lng dung dch vi
gi ri gn cn thn hoc lc dung dch
trong sut.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

2. Pha dung dch h tinh bt.
H tinh bt c dng rng ri nht
nhn ra iot t do.
Mun pha khong 200ml h tinh bt
th ly 0,5 g tinh bt. Nghin tht nh
cho vo nc lnh lm thnh bt
long. Va khuy u, va t t bt
long vo khong 180 ml nc un
si s c h tinh bt.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

3. Pha dung dch phenolphthalein.
Phenolphtalein l cht mu tng hp, n
bin i mu theo mi trng phn ng.
Khng c mu trong mi trng axit v
trung tnh (pH <= 7)
C mu hng (chnh xc l mu tm)
trong mi trng kim. Khong pH chuyn
mu ca n t pH = 8,2 10.
Cch pha : 1 g bt phenolphthalein +
1000ml dung dch ru etylic 60% (600 ml
ru + 400 ml nc).
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M

4. Cht ch th axit baz ch t
hoa dm bt:
Nu khng c cc cht ch th trn y th mi
trng axit, baz ta c th ch ly cht ch th rt
n gin, d dng s dng nh sau :
Thi nh cnh hoa dm bt ti hoc kh, ngm
vo cn trong mt l c nt mi. Cng nhiu cnh
hoa, cht ch th cng c.
y nt kn, ngm sau vi ngy.
Dung dch c mu tm cng ngy cng m.
Khi cn sau 2 gi c th dng lm cht ch th axit,
baz.
Khi dng chng ta cht dung dch ra.
Cht ch th ny trong mi trng axit s c mu
hng (). Trong mi trng trung tnh khng c
mu (tm). Trong mi trng kim c mu xanh
nhng khng bn v n nhanh chng bin i sang
mu vng.
I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php
ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc
nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit baz
ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C
M

b) Pha cht lng theo C
M