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Your Name

Amanda Rathan
School Grade
4th
Teacher Class Size
25
Unit Title
Making Inferences
Reading Level of
Text
Estimated Duration
of Lesson
60 minutes per day
4 lessons
Essential Questions for this unit: What does reading !et"een the lines mean# $o" can you make good inferences !y
using your prior !ackground kno"ledge# $o" can you use your o"n %isuali&ations to make good inferences# $o" can
you impro%e your skills "hen it comes to making inferences#
Context for Unit:
Prior Knowledge: 'efore this unit( students should !e a!le to recogni&e important details in the te)t that support
characteri&ation( main ideas( and the setting* +tudents should !e familiar "ith using a graphic organi&er in order to
organi&e and de%elop their thoughts* +tudents should kno" ho" to find the ans"ers to right,there- .uestions*
+tudents should already !e familiar "ith the genre poetry*
Special ccommodations: /or my struggling reading group( I "ill meet "ith this group during guided reading time
during each lesson* 0his "ill allo" me to help them !uild their fluency( self,confidence( and moti%ation in reading* I
"ill use the reading strategies of choral reading( "hisper reading( and echo reading to aid students in !uilding their
fluency and !etter understand the te)ts*
nticipating !anagement "ssues: 1lassroom management issues that may affect instruction "ould !e students
that talk out of turn or disrupt the classroom during "hole,group and guided reading instruction* I "ould attempt to
decrease the amount of distractions in the classroom !y enforcing discipline rules on all students* 0his "ould
hopefully keep students focused( and there can !e less disruptions and distractions during this unit*
Common Core EL Standards: 2se correct 11++ notation 3e*g* 45*6*67
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*6 4efer to details and e)amples in a te)t "hen e)plaining "hat the te)t says e)plicitly and
"hen dra"ing inferences from the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*9 Make connections !et"een the te)t of a story or drama and a %isual or oral presentation of
the te)t( identifying "here each %ersion reflects specific descriptions and directions in the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*4/*4*4 4ead "ith sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension*
a* 4ead grade,le%el te)t "ith purpose and understanding*
!* 4ead grade,le%el prose and poetry orally "ith accuracy( appropriate rate( and e)pression on successi%e
readings*
c* 2se conte)t to confirm or self,correct "ord recognition and understanding( rereading as necessary*
"nstructional !aterials# Resources# and Tec$nolog%
Messy Room !y +hel +il%erstein 325 copies7
:raphic ;rgani&er for 4eading 'et"een the 5ines- 325 copies7
I Never Said I Wasnt Difficult !y +ara $ol!rook
Each student "ill ha%e a copy of 0rain 0o +ome"here !y E%e 'unting 325 copies7
:raphic ;rgani&ers for 2sing 'ackground <no"ledge to Make Inferences 325 copies7
Buzz ff! 'y 1urtis +lepian 325 copies7
Merry"#o"Round- !y 5angston $ughes 325 copies7
Dreams- !y 5angston $ughes 325 copies7
;%erhead =ro>ector
Lesson Progression:
Lesson &': Inferrin$% Readin$ &et'een the lines% I "ill introduce this lesson !y telling the students that
sometimes the author does not directly ans"er a .uestion that "e ha%e a!out a te)t* 0herefore( students ha%e to
read !et"een the lines*- 0hen( I "ill tell them that in order to do this "e must com!ine "hat "e kno" "ith "hat
the te)t says* I "ill introduce a graphic organi&er that "ill assist them in reading !et"een the lines*- +tudents
"ill get in their guided reading groups* 0here are three guided reading groups: strong( a%erage and struggling* In
their groups( they "ill read a poem entitled Messy Room !y +hel +il%erstein and fill in the graphic organi&er
together as a group* I "ill sit meet "ith the struggling reading group for fifteen minutes( and use the echo reading
strategy* 0his "ill help them practice their fluency and e)pression* +tudents "ill continue reading independently
in their guided reading groups as I meet "ith the struggling reading group* 8fter meeting "ith this group( the class
"ill come !ack together and students "ill fill out the graphic organi&er in a "hole,group discussion* 8fter doing
this as a class( students "ill indi%idually read another poem entitled I Never Said I Wasnt Difficult !y +ara
$ol!rook* 0hey "ill complete the same graphic organi&er in their reading >ournals "ith a partner that "ill help
them to make inferences*
Lesson &(: (sin$ &ac)$round )no'led$e to ma)e $ood inferences% In the pre%ious lesson( I introduced "hat it
means to read !et"een the lines*- In order to do this( the idea of using "hat you kno" from outside of the
reading is key* 0his means that students should use their prior !ackground kno"ledge and use clues in the te)t to
make inferences* /or e)ample( sometimes in order to figure out ho" a character feels in a certain situation( "e can
think a!out if "e kno" ho" it feels to !e in that same type of situation* +tudents "ill read *rain to Some'here
!y E%e 'unting and make inferences of the characters and main ideas of the story* +tudents "ill "ork "ith a
partner to think a!out the !ackground kno"ledge they used to infer some of the meanings in the story* While
students are taking part in this !uddy reading( I "ill !e meeting "ith the struggling reading group for fifteen
minutes( and use "hisper reading to practice their fluency* 8t the end( students "ill share their findings to the
class*
Lesson &): (sin$ +isualizations to Ma)e #ood Inferences% I "ill introduce to the students that inferences can also
come from the pictures in your mind( "hich are called %isuali&ations* I "ill remind students a!out the importance
of using !ackground kno"ledge and reading !et"een the lines in order to make inferences* 4eaders use
%isuali&ations to see "hat the te)t is telling them or not telling them* I "ill use a poem entitled 'u&& ;ff?- !y
1urtis +lepian* I "ill read this poem to the students as a "hole class( and ask them to infer "hat the setting and
characters of a story !ased on their %isuali&ations in their guided reading groups* While students are in their
guided reading groups( I "ill meet "ith the struggling reading group for guided reading as I use the choral reading
strategy "ith this group to !uild students@ fluency* 0he class "ill also complete another graphic organi&er to help
them organi&e their thoughts* 8fter( students "ill share "ith the entire class*
Lesson &*: Sto,- .ause- Re"read- and Reflect Strate$y% +tudents need to understand that readers need to !e a"are
that inferences help them unco%er deeper meaning* I "ill tell students that if they do not understand a te)t( they
are more than likely ha%ing trou!le making inferences in the te)t* I "ill introduce students to the pause( stop( re,
read( and reflect strategy* I "ill read a poem( Merry#oRound- !y 5angston $ughes aloud to the entire class*
8fter( I "ill point out the "ords that "ere difficult and confusing !ecause I could not de%elop my o"n
%isuali&ations* I "ill re,read the poem to the class( and pause at certain parts in the poem that might acti%ate my
prior kno"ledge* I "ill gi%e students another poem( entitled Dreams !y 5angston $ughes and they must read it
indi%idually* While reading( they "ill use the pause( stop( re,read( and reflect strategy* While students are reading
this poem indi%idually( I "ill meet "ith the struggling reading group* I "ill use the "hisper reading strategy to
help these students practice their fluency* 8fter"ards( students "ill share "hat they understand a!out the poem to
the class*
)+* Learning ,utcomes: 3What "ill students !e a!le to do as a result of your reading unit#7
+tudents "ill !e a!le to refer !ack to the te)t to find details and e)amples in a te)t that support the inferences that
they make*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to use "hat the te)t says and their o"n kno"ledge a!out a specific concept or topic( in order
to de%elop their o"n inferences a!out a te)t*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to use %isuali&ations( !ackground kno"ledge( and key details in the te)t in order to make
inferences*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to recogni&e the importance of making inferences as it e)poses possi!le deeper meanings in
a te)t*
Summative ssessment: 0he summati%e assessment "ill take place at the end of these four lessons* It "ill !e a test that
consists of se%en .uestions* /i%e of these .uestions are multiple choice( and t"o of these .uestions are short ans"ers*
+tudents "ill read a short poem entitled $umming!ird !y $ilda 1onkling( and ans"er the se%en .uestions* I "ill gi%e
students thirty minutes to complete this test* 0his test "ill document student achie%ement !ecause all se%en .uestions are
.uestions that force the students to make inferences a!out the poem that they "ill read* 0herefore( depending on ho"
many .uestions the students get correct( I "ill !e a!le to tell if they "ere a!le to make inferences a!out the poem
according to the .uestions !eing asked* 0herefore( the assessment tool "ill !e a test for this summati%e assessment* In
order to determine strong( a%erage and "eakAinsufficient mastery( I "ill focus on ho" many .uestions the students "ill get
correct* +tudents that get si) to se%en .uestions correct on this test "ill !e considered to ha%e stronger mastery in making
inferences* +tudents that get four to fi%e .uestions correct "ill !e considered to ha%e a%erage mastery in making
inferences* +tudents that get three or less .uestions correct "ill !e considered to ha%e "eaker mastery in making
inferences*
4eading 5esson =lan 0emplate
Directions: .lease create one lesson ,lan for each of four days of lessons/ 0learly la&el each com,onent/
Bame: 8manda 4athan +chool: +hields :rade: 4 C of students: 25
5esson C of 4: ,ne 0ime frame of lesson: D E <,F G0 minutes D H E :r* 4,I 60 minutes
65 points
Components Poss- Pts-
+ummaryA
=urpose
In this lesson( students "ill learn ho" to read !et"een the lines- during and after reading a te)t*
+tudents "ill learn that an author does not al"ays e)plicitly state an ans"er to a .uestion that "e
may ha%e a!out a te)t selection* 'y using te)t details and referring !ack to the te)t( students "ill
learn ho" to make inferences a!out the te)t* 0his "ill !e an introduction to the entire making
inferences unit*
1ommon 1ore
E58 3Writing7
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*6 4efer to details and e)amples in a te)t "hen e)plaining "hat the te)t
says e)plicitly and "hen dra"ing inferences from the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*9 Make connections !et"een the te)t of a story or drama and a %isual or
oral presentation of the te)t( identifying "here each %ersion reflects specific descriptions and
directions in the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*4/*4*4 4ead "ith sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension*
a* 4ead grade,le%el te)t "ith purpose and understanding*
!* 4ead grade,le%el prose and poetry orally "ith accuracy( appropriate rate( and e)pression
on successi%e readings*
c* 2se conte)t to confirm or self,correct "ord recognition and understanding( rereading as
necessary*
2nderstandings 'efore this lesson( students should !e a!le to recogni&e important details in the te)t that
support characteri&ation( main ideas( and the setting* +tudents should !e familiar "ith using a
graphic organi&er in order to organi&e and de%elop their thoughts* +tudents should kno" ho"
to find the ans"ers to right,there- .uestions* +tudents should already !e familiar "ith the
genre poetry*
5earning
;utcome
+tudents "ill !e a!le to refer !ack to the te)t to find details and e)amples in a te)t that
support the inferences that they make*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to use a graphic organi&er in order to help them make inferences a!out
a selected te)t*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to reali&e the importance that reading !et"een the lines- has in
determining an author@s message for a selected te)t*
MaterialsA
4esources
Messy Room !y +hel +il%erstein 325 copies7
:raphic ;rgani&er for 4eading 'et"een the 5ines- 325 copies7
I Never Said I Wasnt Difficult !y +ara $ol!rook
4eading Journals for each student
;%erhead pro>ector so that the poems and graphic organi&ers can !e displayed
=encils
;pening In order to !egin this lesson( the teacher "ill start of !y saying( We ha%e read many
different stories throughout the course of this school year so far* +ome ha%e !een chapter
!ooks( picture !ooks( non,fiction !ooks( and poems* I kno" that as an adult( sometimes I
ha%e a difficult time understanding "hat the author is trying to say* ;%er the past year( you
all ha%e learned ho" to find the ans"ers to right,there- .uestions* 0hese are .uestions that
ha%e ans"ers stated directly in the te)t* $o"e%er( sometimes "hen I read( I notice that the
author does not al"ays directly state an ans"er* /or e)ample( an author might not al"ays
state the "ay a character is feeling* In this case( it is up to the reader to make an inference
a!out ho" the character is feeling* $as anyone e%er read a te)t that has not directly told you
ho" a character might !e feeling# K 5 minutes 3Whole class discussion7
5isten to student responsesL* K F minutes
1ontinue the opening !y saying: +ometimes( the author does not al"ays directly tell us an
ans"er to a .uestion* 0herefore( "e must Mread !et"een the lines@* +o ho" do "e do that#
0o Mread !et"een the lines@ "e must com!ine "hat "e kno" "ith "hat the te)t says* K 2
minutes
=rocedures
3+e.uence of
E)plicit
Instruction7
6* +tudents remain seated in their indi%idual seats for "hole group instruction*
2* ;pening 3see a!o%e7 K '. minutes
F* 0ell students( Nou all read a fe" poems earlier this year* =oetry is a genre that can
sometimes !e difficult to understand !ecause of its@ %oca!ulary and organi&ation* If you
come across a %oca!ulary "ord that you are unfamiliar "ith( reading !et"een the
lines- can help you infer "hat the "ord means* 8lso( reading !et"een the lines- can
help you infer "hat the author@s message of the poem is* 0oday( "e "ill !e reading a
poem entitled Messy Room !y +hel +il%erstein*- I "ill no" hand out a copy of this
poem to each student* K ( minutes 3Whole group7
4* +8N: Bo" class( !efore you read this poem( I "ould like for you all to get into your
guided reading groups* 30here are F guided reading groups: 8O strong( 'O a%erage( 1O
struggling7 In your guided reading groups( you "ill first read the poem independently(
and then as a group( make inferences of this poem* 'ut first( I am no" passing around a
graphic organi&er that "ill help you make inferences* Nou all ha%e used graphic
organi&ers !efore in this class( and this "ill help you organi&e your ideas* 0here are
four columns in this graphic organi&er* ;ne column focuses on the .uestion you are
asking* /or e)ample( if I "ant to kno" "hat the "ord sho%ed- means( my .uestion
"ill !e( What does the "ord sho%ed- means in this poem* 0he ne)t column says(
What do I kno" from the te)t*- $ere you can list any details from the te)t that might
help you "ith trying to make an inference* 0he third column says( What I kno" from
my !rain*- $ere you can "rite do"n anything that you already kno" that can help you
make an inference* In the last column( entitled My Inference- you "ill "rite do"n
your inference and the reason "hy you ha%e made this inference* Nou all must read the
poem independently first( and then you may all help each other "ith the graphic
organi&ers* 'ut( your ideas must !e different from each other@s* If one of your group
mem!ers is ha%ing a hard time making an inference( feel free to help them*- K /
minutes 3+tudents mo%e into guided reading groups*7
5* +tudents are in their guided reading groups( and they are reading the poem and filling in
the graphic organi&ers* ,'/ minutes 3:uided reading groups7
6* 0U"DED RED"10 0R,UPS: While students are reading the poem entitled Messy
Room- indi%idually( and then completing their graphic organi&ers in their groups( I "ill
meet "ith my struggling guided reading group 3group 17* Puring this time( they "ill
practice their fluency and e)pression !y echo reading the entire poem* 0hey "ill also
practice reading !et"een the lines- !y trying to make inferences after they echo read
!y completing the graphic organi&er together* 0his "ill !e fifteen minutes and it "ill
happen during step 5( "hile all the other students are reading the poem and filling out
the graphic organi&ers in their guided reading groups* 3:uided reading7 ,65 minutes
during step 5
9* We "ill return as a "hole class and I "ill say( Bo" that "e ha%e all read this poem(
"e can go o%er our graphic organi&ers together* 'ut first( !efore reading this poem( I
noticed that the title "as Messy Room*- I had a .uestion !efore reading Messy Room*
0his .uestion is( Whose room is this# 3I "ill "rite this .uestion in the graphic
organi&er7* I kno" from the te)t that he is definitely familiar "ith the room* 3I "ill
record this in the MWhat I kno" from the te)t- section7* I kno" that you must kno"
someone "ell to !e in their !edroom* 34ecord in the MWhat I kno" from my !rain-
section7* 'y putting these t"o ideas together( I am a!le to infer that it might !e his
si!ling@s room or a %ery close friend* 3I "ill record this in the My Inference- section of
the graphic organi&er7* Po you see ho" I used this graphic organi&er to read !et"een
the lines#- It does not say any"here in the poem a!out "ho the !edroom !elongs to( !ut
"e can make our o"n inferences* K / minutes
I* Bo" that I ha%e gi%en you all e)ample* Who can raise their hand and share their
graphic organi&er "ith the class# 4emem!er( if you are ha%ing trou!le making an
inference( it@s okay* We can all "ork together to make an inference !ased on the
information you used from the te)t* ,/ minutes
G* Bo" "e "ill practice reading !et"een the lines- !y reading another poem entitled I
Never Said I Wasnt Difficult !y +ara $ol!rook* Nou "ill read this independently*
8fter reading the poem( you "ill >ot do"n a .uestion you ha%e a!out the poem* Nou
"ill "ork "ith a poem( and copy the graphic organi&er into your reading >ournal* Nou
"ill fill out the graphic organi&er like you filled out the pre%ious graphic organi&er* If
you cannot think a!out a .uestion that you may ha%e( you can ask me for help* 3If
students don@t think of a .uestion( I can offer a suggestion such as( MWhy does the
narrator go !ack and forth "ith hisAher feelings#@7 Bo" take the time to read this poem
and "ork "ith a partner to record information in your graphic organi&ers into your
reading >ournals* I "ill collect your reading >ournals to look at your graphic organi&ers
and the inferences you came up "ith* K '/ minutes 3independent reading and "orking
"ith a partner after"ards7
60* 1losing: While reading these poems today( hopefully you recogni&e the importance of
reading !et"een the lines*- 0his can help you make inferences that the author has not
directly stated in the te)t* I strongly encourage all of you to use a graphic organi&er
similar to the ones that "e used today( in order to help you make inferences in a te)t* It
is important that you al"ays refer !ack to the te)t( and select details that "ill help you
make inferences a!out an unclear understanding of the te)t* 0omorro" "e "ill continue
to learn ho" to make good inferences in reading*- K ) minutes 3Whole group7
/ormati%e
8ssessment
+tudents "ill !e assessed formally and informally in this lesson* I "ill assess students
formally !y collecting their graphic organi&ers( and their reading >ournals* 0he reading
>ournals "ill also include the graphic organi&ers that they created for the second poem that
they read independently* I "ill assess students informally !y o!ser%ing the types of ans"ers
they pro%ide during "hole group instruction* 8lso( "hile they are "orking "ith their
partners( I "ill o!ser%e ho" much "ork they are doing and if they are participating in the
con%ersations a!out making inferences*
Q 5ook at the 1ommon 1ore +tate +tandards K English 5anguage 8rts* 0hese "ere handed out in class( !ut they can also
!e found at """*corestandards*org*
4eading 5esson =lan 0emplate
Bame: 8manda 4athan +chool: +hields :rade: 4 C of students: 25
5esson C of 4: Two 0ime frame of lesson: D E <,F G0 minutes D H E :r* 4,I 60 minutes
+ummaryA =urpose In this lesson( students "ill learn ho" to use their prior !ackground kno"ledge and use clues in
the te)t to make inferences* +tudents "ill learn a!out the importance of using their !ackground
kno"ledge to make good inferences a!out a te)t* +tudents "ill !e a!le to try to relate "hat they
are reading to a past personal e)perience( or a situation that they ha%e heard of* 0his can help
them make inferences in selected te)t* 0his lesson "ill follo" the lesson on reading !et"een the
lines*-
1ommon 1ore E58
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*6 4efer to details and e)amples in a te)t "hen e)plaining "hat the
te)t says e)plicitly and "hen dra"ing inferences from the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*9 Make connections !et"een the te)t of a story or drama and a %isual
or oral presentation of the te)t( identifying "here each %ersion reflects specific descriptions and
directions in the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*4/*4*4 4ead "ith sufficient accuracy and fluency to support
comprehension*
a* 4ead grade,le%el te)t "ith purpose and understanding*
!* 4ead grade,le%el prose and poetry orally "ith accuracy( appropriate rate( and
e)pression on successi%e readings*
c* 2se conte)t to confirm or self,correct "ord recognition and understanding( rereading
as necessary*
2nderstandings 'efore this lesson( students should !e familiar "ith "hat it means to read !et"een the
lines*- +tudents should kno" that !y reading !et"een the lines- they can make
inferences a!out the te)t* 0hey should already kno" that authors do not al"ays e)plicitly
state the ans"ers to their .uestions in the te)t* +tudents should !e a!le to use graphic
organi&ers to help them make inferences* +tudents should already kno" ho" to select
important details in a te)t*
5earning ;utcome +tudents "ill !e a!le to use "hat the te)t says and their o"n kno"ledge a!out a specific
concept or topic( in order to de%elop their o"n inferences a!out a te)t*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to use their o"n !ackground kno"ledge and specific details in the
te)t in order to figure out ho" characters might feel in the story( e%en though these
character feelings are not e)plicitly stated*
MaterialsA 4esources Each student "ill ha%e a copy of 0rain 0o +ome"here !y E%e 'unting 325 copies7
:raphic ;rgani&ers for 2sing 'ackground <no"ledge to Make Inferences 325 copies7
=encils
;%erhead
;pening In order to !egin this lesson( the teacher "ill !egin !y saying( Nesterday( "e learned
a!out "hat it means to read !et"een the lines*- 1an anyone share "hat you remem!er
from yesterday a!out reading !et"een the lines#-, 36 minute7
;kay class( 4eading !et"een the lines- is %ery important during the process of making
inferences* 0here are different strategies that you can use in order to strengthen your
a!ility to read !et"een the lines*- 0oday( "e "ill !e learning ho" "e can use our o"n
!ackground kno"ledge in order to make good inferences* Poes anyone kno" "hat
!ackground kno"ledge is#-, 3F minutes7
'ackground kno"ledge is "hen you use "hat you already kno" and apply it to "hat you
might !e learning or reading* ;ften times( "e use our !ackground kno"ledge "ithout
e%en reali&ing it* 2sing "hat you kno" from your !rain is called !ackground kno"ledge(
or schema* 4eaders are al"ays checking their !ackground kno"ledge( or schema to add
to "hat the author directly tells you in the te)t* 0his can help you make inferences
!efore( during( or after reading a te)t* It@s important that "e ask .uestions "hen "e read
to help us acti%ate our prior !ackground kno"ledge*-, 3F minutes7
0oday "e are going to try to use our o"n !ackground kno"ledge "hen "e read* Poes
anyone ha%e any .uestions# 36 minute7
=rocedures
3+e.uence of E)plicit
Instruction7
6* +tudents "ill remain seated in their indi%idual seats during "hole,group instruction*
2* ;pening 3see a!o%e7, 2 minutes 3Whole group instruction7
F* +8N:- 0oday( "e "ill read 0rain 0o +ome"here !y E%e 'unting* I "ill gi%e each of you
a copy of this !ook* In your guided reading groups( you "ill read the !ooks
independently first* 0hen "e all "ill use a graphic organi&er that "ill help us use our
prior !ackground kno"ledge in order to make inferences* It is important to remem!er
that "hen "e are trying to make good inferences( "e must not only use our prior
!ackground kno"ledge( !ut "e must also read !et"een the lines(- like "e learned
pre%iously in yesterday@s lesson* <eep in mind ho" you might feel "hen you read this
story* May!e if you reali&e that you are feeling a certain "ay( the characters in the story
might also !e feeling the same "ay* 0his al"ays helps me "hen I@m reading a story*
$a%e any of you !een a!le to understand ho" a character might !e feeling in a story !y
trying to understand ho" you feel "hile reading a!out the situation#-, 3* minutes4
4* +8N:- Bo" class( !efore "e start reading( I "ould like for you to get into your guided
reading groups* Nou "ill read the story first( independently* 0hen( after reading the story(
you "ill "ork on a graphic organi&er "ith a partner from your guided reading groups*
0he graphic organi&er "ill contain three columns* In the first column( you must list
details or statements from the te)t* In the second column( you must "rite do"n a
personal e)perience or personal feelings that you had relating to the te)t* In the third
column( you "ill "rite do"n your inference* 53) minutes4
5* +tudents "ill get into their guided reading groups* I "ill "ork "ill guided reading group
1( "hich is my struggling readers* While "orking "ith this guided reading group( I "ill
engage this group in choral reading( "hich "ill allo" these students to !uild fluency(
self,confidence( and moti%ation* 0he rest of the class "ill remain in their guided reading
groups( and they "ill !e first reading independently( and then completing the graphic
organi&er "ith a partner in their group* 8fter( "e "ill return to the class( and ha%e a
group discussion* K3(. minutes4
6* +8N: 1an someone raise their hand and tell me "ho the main character of the story is#-
+tudent anticipated response: *he $irl- Marianne is the main character/ She is an
or,han?- +8N: Nes( this is correct? Rery good? Bo"( in this story( Marianne is on a
train "ith other orphans on an ;rphan 0rain* Puring the "hole train ride( Marianne is
"aiting for something* 1an someone tell me "hat she is "aiting for#- +tudent
anticipated response: She is 'aitin$ for her mom to &e at one of the sto,s li)e she
,romised/ +8N: Nes %ery "ell done? +he is "aiting for her mother at e%ery train stop*
$o"e%er( stop after stop( Marianne does not see or find her mother* 8lso( there is not a
family that has an interest in adopting her* 'y using your graphic organi&ers( take fi%e
minutes to find te)t e%idence and "rite do"n your o"n personal e)periences or feelings
"hile you "ere reading this story* 0hen make an inference a!out ho" the character
might !e feeling throughout this story* K36 minutes7 Whole group discussion
9* +8N: +tudents( after using your graphic organi&er to incorporate te)t e%idence and
personal feelings "hile trying to make an inference a!out ho" Marianne feels( "hat are
some of the inferences you came up "ith#-, 3) minutes7 Whole group discussion
I* +8N:- In order to infer ho" she felt( "e used our !ackground kno"ledge of ho" "e
ha%e felt "hen "e "ere alone* We felt sad and unsure( so "e could infer that she "as sad
and unsure* We could infer that she "as on her "ay to a !etter life !ecause my
!ackground kno"ledge tells me that she "as li%ing during the era of West"ard
E)pansion( !ased on her clothing* We kno" many people at that time "ere in search of a
!etter life* +o "hen "e use our !ackground kno"ledge along "ith the author@s "ords( it
helps us to infer meaning that "e might not ha%e gotten from the !ook alone* 0ake a fe"
minutes to ans"er this .uestion "ith your partners Why "as Marianne not "orried
a!out !eing adopted !y any other families#- 2se your o"n personal feelings( and te)t
e%idence to try and make an inference a!out this* K37 minutes7 Whole class instruction
G* +8N: Bo"( "e "ill share our inferences a!out Marianne@s lack of concern a!out !eing
adopted !y a different family* 4emem!er( this ans"er is not e)plicitly stated in the te)t(
and this is "hy "e must make an inference* In the story( Marianne is focused on finding
her mother* What does this tell us#- 8nticipated student response: I thin) that Marianne
is focused on findin$ her mother so since she is focused on findin$ her mother- she does
not really care a&out &ein$ ado,ted/ She doesnt 'ant to really &e ado,ted &ecause she
'ants to find her mom/ I )no' this &ecause in the te1t- the author says that she is 'aitin$
for her mom at every train sto,/ I )no' that if I 'as in this situation- I 'ould not 'ant
another family to ado,t me/ All I 'ould 'ant is my mom/ ne time- I 'as lost in
Walmart- and all I 'anted to do 'as hu$ my mom/ 2/ minutes7 Whole group instruction
60* +8N: 0his is a great ans"er? Nou used details from the te)t 8BP your o"n prior
!ackground kno"ledge from a personal e)perience* 0his helped you make your o"n
inference* 0his is a great e)ample of ho" you can use prior !ackground kno"ledge "hen
making inferences in a te)t* K 3( minutes7
66* 1losing: 8l"ays remem!er that as you read( you should !ring your !ackground
kno"ledge and e)periences to "hate%er you are reading to help you infer more a!out the
te)t@s message* 0his "ill help you !uild your comprehension and !ecome !etter readers*
:ood "ork today( class? K3( minutes7
/ormati%e
8ssessment
/or this lesson( students "ill also !e assessed formally and informally* I "ill assess my
students formally !y collecting their graphic organi&ers* 'y looking at their graphic
organi&ers( I "ill !e a!le to see if students understood that they needed to pull details
from the te)t "hile using their !ackground kno"ledge in order to help them make an
inference of the story* I "ill also !e a!le to look at "hat inferences these students came
up "ith* I "ill assess these students informally through "hole,group discussion and the
types of .uestions that I ask them* I "ill o!ser%e the amount of "ork they complete
during the indi%idual and partner "ork*
T,TL 365 ma)*7
4eading 5esson =lan 0emplate
Bame: 8manda 4athan +chool: +hields :rade: 4 C of students: 25
5esson C of 4: T$ree 0ime frame of lesson: D E <,F G0 minutes D H E :r* 4,I 60 minutes
+ummaryA =urpose In this lesson( students "ill learn ho" to use the %isuali&ations that they create "hile reading a
te)t to make inferences* +tudents "ill learn ho" they can create %isuali&ations "hile reading*
+tudents "ill learn that they can use pictures from their mind to infer something that the author
states or does not state directly in the te)t* +tudents "ill learn that they can use %isuali&ations to
help them infer "hat a "ord means or may!e ho" a character is feeling* 0his is the third lesson
in this unit* 0here is one more lesson that follo"s this lesson*
1ommon 1ore E58
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*6 4efer to details and e)amples in a te)t "hen e)plaining "hat the
te)t says e)plicitly and "hen dra"ing inferences from the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*9 Make connections !et"een the te)t of a story or drama and a %isual
or oral presentation of the te)t( identifying "here each %ersion reflects specific descriptions and
directions in the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*4/*4*4 4ead "ith sufficient accuracy and fluency to support
comprehension*
a* 4ead grade,le%el te)t "ith purpose and understanding*
!* 4ead grade,le%el prose and poetry orally "ith accuracy( appropriate rate( and
e)pression on successi%e readings*
c* 2se conte)t to confirm or self,correct "ord recognition and understanding( rereading
as necessary*
2nderstandings 'efore this lesson( students must already kno" "hat it means to read !et"een the
lines*- +tudents must also already kno" that using their o"n !ackground kno"ledge and
details from the te)t are essential "hen making inferences* +tudents must also already
kno" that authors do not al"ays e)plicitly state ans"ers to the .uestions they may ha%e
in the te)t* +tudents must already kno" ho" to select important details from a te)t*
5earning ;utcome +tudents "ill !e a!le to create %isuali&ations of "hat they read in their minds*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to physically dra" their %isuali&ations of a te)t in order to help
make inferences a!out statements that are not directly stated in the te)t*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to use %isuali&ations( !ackground kno"ledge( and key details in the
te)t in order to make inferences*
MaterialsA 4esources 'u&& ;ff? 'y 1urtis +lepian 325 copies7
Each student@s 4eading Journal
=encils
;%erhead =ro>ector to display the poem during "hole class instruction
;pening In order to !egin this lesson( the teacher "ill !egin !y saying( :ood morning class? /or
the past t"o days( you ha%e !een learning ho" to make inferences* Nou ha%e also !een
learning a!out the importance of making inferences !ecause you kno" that the author
does not al"ays e)plicitly tell us e%erything in the te)ts that "e read* We ha%e learned
a!out reading !et"een the lines(- and using our o"n prior !ackground kno"ledge to
help us make inferences* 0oday( "e are going to learn a!out ho" "e can use
%isuali&ations to help us make inferences? 0his is a %ery helpful "ay to make inferences*
We often create %isuali&ations in our minds "ithout e%en reali&ing it* 1an anyone share
an e)perience "here they might ha%e created %isuali&ations mentally in order to ha%e a
!etter understanding of a story#- :i%e students the opportunity to share their ans"ers*
+8N:- +tudents( making %isuali&ations means to make pictures in your head according to
the te)t* It also means to take mental snapshots of the important details( characters and
e%ents in a story* In this lesson( "e "ill learn ho" "e can make these %isuali&ations*
0oday( "e "ill read a lengthy poem( and use our o"n %isuali&ations to make inferences
so that "e can make sense out of the author@s message in this poem*
=rocedures
3+e.uence of E)plicit
Instruction7
6* +tudents "ill remain seated in their indi%idual seats during "hole group instruction*
2* ;pening 3see a!o%e7* ,'. minutes
F* +8N: When "e "atch mo%ies( it is easy for us to %isuali&e "hat a character looks like(
or "hat the setting looks like !ecause the picture is right in front of our eyes* We do not
ha%e to de%elop our o"n %isuali&ations "hen "e "atch mo%ies* $o"e%er( "hen "e read(
it is up to the reader to de%elop his or her o"n %isuali&ations* 0his is the !eauty of
reading* 0he reader is in control of ho" he or she imagines a setting to look or the
physical characteristics of a character* 0his means that "e can ha%e fun creating these
images in our heads* Bot only is it fun !ecause "e are a!le to use our imagination( it also
helps us greatly "hile trying to make inferences* 4ight no"( I "ould like for each of you
to take out your reading >ournals* We are going to do a .uick acti%ity that sho"s us ho"
%isuali&ations "ork* 2se your colored pencils and dra" a picture of "hat I am going to
descri!e to you* $ere "e go class: My father came home one day* $e had a !ou.uet of
flo"ers in his hand* +ome of the flo"ers "ere pink( others "ere red( and a fe" "ere
orange* 0here "ere t"o lea%es on each petal* My mother "as surprised* +he !egan to cry
as she hugged him*- 0ake a fe" minutes to dra" "hat you >ust listened to*- K 36
minutes7 Whole group instruction
4* 8fter students share their dra"ings( the teacher "ill say( 0hose "ere great dra"ings* Po
you see ho" much you "ere a!le to dra" after listening to only si) sentences# Nou "ere
a!le to pictures the characters and setting in your head* 'y %isuali&ing this( "ere you a!le
to get a !etter idea of ho" the settings and characters looked in the story# 5isten to
students@ responses* K3) minutes7
5* +8N: It is important to understand that "e "ill not all ha%e the same %isuali&ations or
the same pictures in our head* Why do you think this is# 5isten to student responses* Nes(
students do not all ha%e the same !ackground kno"ledge and e)periences* 0herefore( "e
might relate to a story differently than others* Bo"( I "ill hand out a poem entitled(
'u&& ;ff?- !y 1urtis +lepian* /irst( I "ill read this poem to you all as a "hole class*
0hen( in your guided reading groups( you "ill "ork together and refer !ack to the poem
to fill out a graphic organi&er that I ha%e created for you all* I ask that "hile you are
reading this poem( you are dra"ing pictures a!out "hat you %isuali&e( in your reading
>ournals* 0his "ill help you "ith you graphic organi&ers* In your graphic organi&ers( you
"ill "rite do"n a .uestion that I ha%e pro%ided to you* 0hen you "ill find details in the
poem that help you %isuali&e the poem* 5astly( you "ill state the inference that you ha%e
made !ased on your %isuali&ations* 4ight no"( I "ill !egin to read this poem to you all*-
K36 minutes7
6* :2IPEP 4E8PIB: :4;2=+: 8fter I read the poem aloud to the entire class( students
"ill get into their guided reading groups 38( '( and 17* In these groups( students "ill
look !ack to the te)t to physically dra" their %isuali&ations and fill in their graphic
organi&ers together as a group* I "ill !e "orking "ith guided reading group 1( "hich are
my struggling readers* We "ill !e using the choral reading strategy to reread the poem*
0his "ill !uild students@ fluency in this struggling reading group* We "ill also "ork
together to dra" pictures "hile reading the poem( and use the graphic organi&ers to help
us make our inferences* While I am "ith guided reading group 1( the rest of the class
"ill also !e in their guided reading groups "orking together to dra" their %isuali&ations
and make inferences* K3(. minutes7 :uided 4eading :roups
9* We "ill return to "hole class instruction( and students "ill share their findings to the
class* Each group "ill ha%e a representati%e that "ill tell the entire class a!out the
inferences that they made !ased off of their %isuali&ations* K3'. minutes7 Whole group
instruction
I* 1losing: We ha%e learned today ho" readers use pictures to help them see "hat the te)t
is telling or not telling them* We may use our %isuali&ations to help us infer "hat a "ord
means or may!e ho" a character is feeling* In the future( "e must al"ays use these
%isuali&ations as "ell as prior !ackground kno"ledge and details from the te)t to assist
us in making inferences* :ood "ork today children? Poes anyone ha%e any .uestions or
thoughts a!out today@s lesson#, 3) minutes7 Whole group instruction
/ormati%e
8ssessment
I "ill assess the students formally and informally during this lesson* I "ill assess the students
formally !y collecting their graphic organi&ers and reading >ournals* 'y collecting heir graphic
organi&ers( I "ill !e a!le to see ho" they formed their inferences* I "ill use their reading >ournals
to look at the types of %isuali&ations that they made throughout this lesson* I "ill assess the
students informally !y listening to the ans"ers to their .uestions during "hole group instruction(
and o!ser%ing ho" they "ork together in their guided reading groups*
T,TL 365 ma)*7
4eading 5esson =lan 0emplate
Bame: 8manda 4athan +chool: +hields :rade: 4 C of students: 25
5esson C of 4: 8our 0ime frame of lesson: D E <,F G0 minutes D H E :r* 4,I 60 minutes
+ummaryA =urpose 0he main purpose of this lesson is for students to impro%e their skills of making inferences !y
using details and e)amples in the te)t* In this lesson( students "ill learn to use the pause( stop(
re,read( and reflect strategy( "hich "ill !e modeled so that students are a!le to use this strategy
as they refer !ack to the te)t to select details and e)amples that help them to make inferences*
1ommon 1ore E58
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*6 4efer to details and e)amples in a te)t "hen e)plaining "hat the
te)t says e)plicitly and "hen dra"ing inferences from the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*45*4*9 Make connections !et"een the te)t of a story or drama and a %isual
or oral presentation of the te)t( identifying "here each %ersion reflects specific descriptions and
directions in the te)t*
11++*E58,5iteracy*4/*4*4 4ead "ith sufficient accuracy and fluency to support
comprehension*
a* 4ead grade,le%el te)t "ith purpose and understanding*
!* 4ead grade,le%el prose and poetry orally "ith accuracy( appropriate rate( and
e)pression on successi%e readings*
c* 2se conte)t to confirm or self,correct "ord recognition and understanding( rereading
as necessary*
2nderstandings +tudents "ill already kno" ho" to identify key details and e%ents "ithin a selected te)t*
+tudents "ill already !e familiar "ith the genres of fiction and poetry* +tudents "ill ha%e
already !een introduced to reading !et"een the lines( using %isuali&ations( and using
prior kno"ledge to make inferences*
5earning ;utcome +tudents "ill !e a!le to use the pause( stop( re,read( and reflect strategy to make
inferences*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to consider multiple perspecti%es and interpretations in a selected
te)t*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to recogni&e the importance of making inferences as it e)poses
possi!le deeper meanings in a te)t*
+tudents "ill !e a!le to make inferences to understand the te)t using details and
e)amples*
MaterialsA 4esources Merry"#o"Round- !y 5angston $ughes 325 copies7
Dreams- !y 5angston $ughes 325 copies7
Each student@s 4eading Journal
=encils
;%erhead pro>ector so that the poem Merry"#o"Round- can !e introduced to the entire
class*
;pening 6* In order to !egin this lesson( the teacher "ill start off !y saying We ha%e !een talking
a!out ho" readers make good inferences !y reading !et"een the lines-( %isuali&ations(
and !ackground kno"ledge* Po you all remem!er ho" important it is to !e a!le to
4ead !et"een the lines#- 'y reading !et"een the lines(- "e can try to understand "hat
the author@s message is* 'ut "hat happens if you are not making inferences or ha%ing
trou!le reading !et"een the lines#- What can you do you do as a reader#- 3Whole
group7
5isten to student responsesL , / minutes
2* / 0ontinue the o,enin$ &y sayin$% 4eaders need to !e a"are that inferences help them
disco%er !igger meanings in a te)t* If you are not comprehending and understanding a
te)t( there is a possi!ility that you might not !e inferring* We "ill e)plore a helpful
strategy that might assist you in !eing a!le to make !etter inferences "hile reading* 0his
strategy is called the pause( stop( re,read( and reflect strategy*- 3Whole group7 , (
minutes
=rocedures
3+e.uence of E)plicit
Instruction7
F* +tudents remain seated in their indi%idual seats* 3Whole group7
4* ;pening 3see a!o%e7*
5* 0eacher says( 0oday "e "ill !e reading t"o poems !y 5angston $ughes* I "ill read the
first poem entitled( Merry" #o" Round aloud* 5isten to me as I read* I "ill start no"* K
/ minutes
6* 0ell students( 0his poem "as a little confusing to me* I ha%e !een used to creating
%isuali&ations "hile I read( !ut there "ere some "ords that I "as not familiar "ith* I felt
like I could not understand the poem !ecause I did not kno" "hat some of the "ords
meant* 1lass( I kne" that I did not understand the poem after I finished reading it*- 1an
someone tell me "hat I can do so that I can !egin to understand this poem#- K / minutes
9* If the students are ha%ing trou!le coming up "ith a "ay that the teacher can ha%e a !etter
understanding of the poem( the teacher can suggest that they pause and reflect on "hat
they do understand a!out the poem* 0he teacher "ill say( I can then pause and reflect on
"hat I do understand* I do understand that this poem is a!out a !oy "ho "ants to ride a
merrygoround( !ut it seems like it is a!out something else as "ell* I might ask .uestions
a!out "hat I do not understand( so that "hen I go !ack to re,read( I can focus on the
unclear sections* I "onder "hat the author meant !y MJim 1ro"@# 8lso( "hat does the
author mean "hen he says( Mcan@t sit side!yside@# Bo" I "ill go !ack to reread the poem*
K '. minutes
I* 0ell the students( 4eread the poem and say( Bo" as I reread I@m thinking a!out my
!ackground kno"ledge of the 1i%il 4ights Mo%ement* 1an anyone tell me "hy I "ould
acti%ate my !ackground kno"ledge of the 1i%il 4ights Mo%ement#- Wait for student
responses* K 6 minutes
G* 0eacher says( Well class( I remem!er that the Jim 1ro" 5a"s "ere discussed during
our unit on the 1i%il 4ights in +ocial +tudies* Puring that time( "e kno" that colored
people "ere not treated fairly* I@m making an inference that Jim 1ro" might !e a person
"ho li%ed during this time "ho "as not treated fairly* Po you all agree or disagree# K /
minutes
60* 0ell students( 1an you all see ho" pausing to reflect on "hat I kno"( asking .uestions(
and rereading helped me to infer the deeper meaning of this poem#- ,' minute
66* Bo" you all can try to make inferences in another 5angston $ughes poem entitled
Dreams/ Nou "ill read this indi%idually* 4emem!er that after you read( you might not
understand the poem( !ut you can use the pause( stop( re,read( and reflect strategy to help
you make inferences that can help you to comprehend the poem* 2se your reading
>ournals to "rite do"n the inferences that you make "hile reading this poem( and after
reading this poem* Nou "ill share your inferences "ith the class after* K'/ minutes
3Indi%idual reading( !ut guided reading "ill !e going on during this time "ith my
struggling reading group7*
62* 0U"DED RED"10 0R,UPS: While students are reading the poem entitled
Dreams- indi%idually( I "ill meet "ith my struggling guided reading group 3group 17*
Puring this time( they "ill practice their fluency !y "hisper reading the entire poem*
0hey "ill also demonstrate the pause( stop( re,read( and reflect strategy "hene%er
necessary !y "hisper re,reading* 0his "ill !e fifteen minutes and it "ill happen during
step G( "hile all the other students are reading the poem and making inferences
independently* 3:uided reading7
6F* 1losing: 8s "e gro" older( there are going to !e te)ts that may !e a little difficult for us
to understand* 'ut that does not mean that "e ha%e to gi%e up* 0here are "ays in "hich
"e can !ecome !etter readers and making good inferences is necessary for this to
happen* While you are reading( or after you ha%e read a challenging te)t selection( ask
yourself if you can pause( stop( re,read( and reflect on the poem to help you make
inferences* 8sk the students: Po you all think that this strategy "as helpful# Why or
"hy not#- K / minutes 3Whole group7
/ormati%e
8ssessment
+tudents "ill !e assessed formally and informally throughout the lesson* 0he formal assessment
"ill !e !ased on the students@ inferences that they "rite do"n in their reading >ournals* 0his "ill
help me understand if the students "ere a!le to make inferences "hile using the pause( stop( re,
read( and reflect strategy* 0he informal assessment "ill !e !ased on the o!ser%ations that I
conduct during "hole,group discussions( guided reading groups( as "ell as o!ser%ations that I
conduct "hile students are "orking "ith their partners to make inferences of the poems*
T,TL 365 ma)*7
Graphic Organizer/Poems for Lesson #1

Messy Room
By Shel Silverstein
Whosever room this is should be ashamed!
His underwear is hanging on the lamp.
His raincoat is there in the overstuffed chair,
nd the chair is becoming !uite muc"y and damp.
His wor"boo" is wedged in the window,
His sweater#s been thrown on the floor.
His scarf and one s"i are beneath the $%,
nd his pants have been carelessly hung on the door.
His boo"s are all &ammed in the closet,
His vest has been left in the hall. li'ard named (d is asleep in his bed,
nd his smelly old soc" has been stuc" to the wall.
Whosever room this is should be ashamed!
)onald or Robert or Willie orHuh* +ou say it#s mine*
,h, dear, - "new it loo"ed familiar!
- .ever Said - Wasn/t )ifficult
By Sara Holbroo"
Question: (from the
book, our group, or
my teacher)
What I know from
the book:
What I know from
my brain:
My Inference: (be
sure to use
because)
- never said - wasn/t difficult,
- mostly want my way.
Sometimes - tal" bac" or pout
nd don/t have much to say.
-/ve been "nown to yell, 0So what,1
When -/m stepping out of bounds.
- want you there for me and yet,
- don/t want you around.
- wish - had more privacy
nd never had to be alone.
- want to run away.
-/m scared to leave my home.
-/m too tired to be responsible.
- wish that - were boss.
- want to bla'e new trails.
-/m terrified that -/ll get lost.
- wish an answer came
(very time - as"ed you, 0why*1
- wish you weren/t a "nowitall.
Why do you !uestion when -/m bored*
- won/t be crosse2amined.
- hate to be ignored.
- "now,
- shuffle messages li"e cards,
Some to show and some to hide.
But, if you thin" -/m hard to live with
+ou should try me on inside.
3raphic ,rgani'er for 4esson 56
Details or Statements from
text
What I know from
Personal Experience or
Feelings
My Inference
3raphic ,rgani'er78oem for 4esson 59:
Question:
E)ample: Where is this
taking place#
Risuali&ation from 0e)t
1lues 3Petails7:
My Inference: 3+tate a
reason "hy7
Buzz Off! By Curtis Slepian
$he night is peaceful, warm, and calm,
s - sleep, uncovered, head against palm.
nd then, near my ear a mos!uito flies,
.ot long after -/ve closed my eyes.
- hear a bu'', a terrible drone;
-t sounds worse than a ringing phone.
- &ump up and turn on the light,
3rab a maga'ine, ready to fight.
My heart sin"s. $his will be a long night,
s - notice the mos!uito has flown out of sight.
Bac" in bed, my foot itches badly.
red bump/s on my toe; - scratch it madly.
- pull feet and hands in under the covers,
But - "now that above me, the creature hovers.
$here/s one part of me still e2posed for biting;
So - tuc" in my head li"e a turtle in hiding.
-nside these covers, -/ve nearly e2pired.
$his cocoon the ne2t day hatches a human, most tired.
But, curious now why a mos!uito bites,
- sleepily search for good info sites.
$o my surprise, it/s a survival trait.
Mos!uitoes suc" blood to propagate.
-n order for their eggs to hatch,
Warmblooded animals mos!uitoes must catch.
So my warm blood has played a role
$o the mos!uito population grow.
-f - had my choice, - wouldn/t be found,
But mos!uitoes are than"ful we/re all around!
8oems for 4esson 5<:
Merry#oRound
'y 5angston $ughes
1;5;4EP 1$I5P 80 184BIR85
Where is the Jim 1ro" section
;n this merrygoround(
Mister( cause I "ant to ride#
Po"n +outh "here I come from
White and colored
1anSt sit side !y side*
Po"n +outh on the train
0hereSs a Jim 1ro" car*
;n the !us "eSre put in the !ack
'ut there ainSt no !ack
0o a merrygoround?
WhereSs the horse
/or a kid thatSs !lack#
Dreams
'y 5angston $ughes
$old fast to dreams
/or if dreams die
5ife is a !roken"inged !ird
0hat cannot fly*
$old fast to dreams
/or "hen dreams go
5ife is a !arren field
Frozen with snow.
8++E++MEB0
Pirections: 4ead this poem and ans"er num!ers 6,9*
Hummingbird by Hilda Conkling
Why do you stand on the air
nd no sun shining*
How can you hold yourself so still
,n raindrops sliding*
$hey change and they fall, they are not steady,
But you do not "now they are gone.
-s there a silver wire- cannot see*
-s the wind your perch*
Raindrops slide down your little shoulders...
$hey do not wet you:
- thin" you are not real
-n your green feathers!
+ou are not a hummingbird at all
Standing on air above the garden!
- dreamed you the way - dream fairies,
,r the flower - saw yesterday!
6* Where is the humming!ird#
a* Bear the garden
!* In the "oods
c* In the house
d* 'y a lake
2* 'ased on the o!ser%ations shared in this poem( "hat is the humming!ird doing#
a* +leeping
!* Eating from a !irdfeeder
c* Prinking
d* /lying
F* 8nother title for this poem could !e:
a* My :arden-
!* 8n Interesting 5ittle 'ird-
c* My =et 'ird-
d* 4ain Props-
4* Which "ord !est descri!es this day#
a* +unny
!* Windy
c* 4ainy
d* +no"y
5* 0he poem "as pro!a!ly "ritten in order to
a* 0ell a story a!out a garden
!* E)plain "hat happens "hen humming!irds speak
c* Pescri!e "hat happens "hen it rains
d* :ets readers to %isuali&e humming!irds
6* :i%e t"o details from the poem that help you create a clear image in your mind a!out "hat the humming!ird
looks like*
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2* TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
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9* What is one .uestion you "ould ask the author a!out the humming!ird she sa" in the poem#
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