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SUBSIDENCE

Venezuela
Michelle Davis
Jordan Lewis
Karla Rivera
Carlos Moreno
Interesting Facts About
Venezuela
Population (2012): 28,047,938
The term Venezuela literally means Little Venice. The
country was so named by its explorers, who saw houses
built on stilts in a lake here, reminding them of Venice.
Venezuela has more Miss Universes and more Miss Worlds
than any other country
Baseball is the most popular sport
Venezuela has 43 National Parks
Caracas is the largest city and is also known as the witch
capital of the world
Venezuela used to be an agricultural country-though only
a small proportion of the land is suitable for arable farming.
Around 70% of its food has to be imported
Angle Falls: Worlds highest waterfall, 979 meters. It drops
twice off the mountain and the longest drop is 807 meters.
Its located on the Auyantepui Mountain in the Cananaima
National Park. (15 times higher than Niagara Falls)
Angel Falls
Definition of Subsidence
The sinking or settling of land to a lower level in
response to various natural and man-caused
factors, for example: (1) earth movements; (2)
lowering of fluid pressure (or lowering of ground
water level); (3) removal of underlying supporting
materials by mining or solution of solids, either
artificially or from natural causes; (4) compaction
caused by wetting (Hydrocompaction); (5)
oxidation of organic matter in soils; or (6) added
load on the land surface. With respect to ground
water, subsidence most frequently results from
overdrafts of the underlying water table or aquifer
and its inability to fully recharge, a process termed
Aquifer Compaction.
Venezuela Subsidence
What is happening in Venezuela?
Why are they having so many problems?
Long term oil exploitation dating back to 1914
Natural gas and resources
Extensive ground subsidence reaching 5m in places
Present rates of vertical movement have been up to
20cm/year.
*Venezuela rapidly became the world's first major oil
exporter. Even today, its proven reserves are among the
world's largest. Oil accounts for 90% of export income and
half of central government revenue. In addition, Venezuela
has significant quantities of natural gasthe world's eighth
largest reserves*

Oil and Venezuela
Venezuela is the world's fifth largest oil
exporting country and has the world's
largest proven oil reserves at an
estimated 296.5 billion barrels (20% of
global reserves) as of 2012. In 2008,
crude oil production in Venezuela was
the tenth-highest in the world at
2,394,020 barrels per day and the
country was also the eighth-largest net
oil exporter in the world.

The amount of oil produced
in Venezuela is 2.47 million bbl/day
(2011), and the amount of oil consumed
is 571,000 bbl/day (2011)


Subsidence areas in Venezuela
Guacharo Caves
Cueva del Fantasma (Cave of the Ghost)
Jaua Sarisariama National Park
Maracaibo
Guacharo
Caves
Limestone cavern over 10km
long with a number of large
chambers and spectacular
rock formations
Home to thousands of
Oilbirds, they are found no
where else in the world
Designated as Venezuelas
first National Monument in
1949
Temperature in the cave can
reach and remain 19
degrees C and a humidity of
100%


Oilbirds
The Guacharo Caves are
home to thousands of Oilbirds.
They exists nowhere else in the
world.
Oilbirds are nocturnal.
Although it forages by sight,
the Oilbird is one of only a few
birds, and the only nocturnal
one, known to navigate by
echolocation in sufficiently
poor light conditions, using a
series of sharp audible clicks
for this purpose.
It also produces a variety of
harsh screams while in its cave
*Echolocation: Animals emit calls
out to the environment and listen
to the echoes of those calls that
return from various objects
nearby.
Guacharo: 5 Themes of
Geography
Location: Mongaas, Venezuela.
Nearest City: Caripe
Established May 27
th
, 1975
Place: Cave, pools of water, visitor center,
Mestizo people, National Park, ecosystem,
karst topography
Region: Mountains
Movement: Hiking, cars
Human Interaction: Spelunking, tourists cite,
people spend money, take pictures, provides
jobs, taxes for the government.. Etc.

Cave of
The Ghost
Large enough for
two helicopters to
land in the cave
Its not technically a
cave, but rather a
collapsed steep
gorge caused by the
erosion of
underground
streams.

Cave of the Ghost: 5 Themes
of Geography
Location: Southern Venezuela
Along the slopes of Aprada-Tepui
Place: Cave, karst topography
Region: Towering water, widest cave in
the world, sandstone, quartz
Movement: Hiking, flying
Human Interaction: Tourists cite, people
spend money, take pictures, provides
jobs, taxes for the government.. Etc.

Jaua Sarisariama
National Park
Belongs to the largest formation on the Earth,
Guiana Shield
Formed of sandstone
Has four large sinkholes on top of the mountain;
the larges sinkhole is 1150 feet across and 1000
feet deep. Formed almost in perfect circles
Have their own ecosystem
The summits of these plateaus are characterized
by flat expanses in some sectors and areas
crossed by deep cracks or potholes huge (deep
cavities in the earth), unique in the world.
Jaua Sarisariama
The sinkhole seems like a sign of a time
long forgotten. Not only are the sinkholes
perfectly round, they also serve as rich
habitats for a variety of unique animal and
plant species. In fact, it is the existence of
the sinkholes themselves why naturalists
are attracted to them in the first place. It is
also though that the unique species that
call the sinkholes their home evolved to
cope with an environment that was
different from their counterparts above
ground.
http://placesyoushouldsee.com/rainforest-sinkholes-jaua-
sarisarinama-national-park/
Sinkholes Continued
Adding to the mystery of the place is the local legend
that gave the tepui its name. According to natives to
the area, a flesh-eating evil spirit lived on the mountain,
who made the sound Sari Sari when he was consuming
human meat.
Since the holes were spotted in 1961, many expeditions
into the jungle have occurred. Whether cursed by spirits,
or just unprepared for the harsh jungle landscape, many
of these have ended in disaster, including one fateful
mission in which a number of men became trapped
after lowering themselves into one of the larger
sinkholes.
Considering the thickness of the jungle and the
dangerous unknowns of Sarisariama, forays into the
area are not recommended without a guide, and a bit
of luck to keep yourself from falling 1000 feet into one of
the massive sinkholes.
*The largest sinkhole is 1150 feet wide and 1000 feet deep*

Jaua Sarisariama: 5 Themes
of Geography
Location: Southwest of Bolivar State
Closest city: San Juan de Manapiare
Place: Forest, lush, contains a lot of animal
life, own ecosystem in each hole
Region: Tepui table top mountains
Movement: Hiking, helicopters
Human Interaction: Tourism, beautiful
landscapes, restricted to scientific
research

Lake
Maracaibo
Largest lake on the South
American Continent
One of the oldest lakes on Earth
at 20-36 million years old
Major oil-producing area of the
world
Ground subsidence associated
with oil production in the East
Coast of Lake Maracaibo was
detected as early as 1929.

Maracaibo
Subsidence
Due to the massive volume of oil
removed in the Maracaibo Basin, some
oil-producing areas adjacent to Lake
Maracaibo have sunk, changing the
geography of the region.
This required oil companies to build
dikes and drain the land in order to
build their facilities
Due to the negligence of maintenance
to the dike, many consider it to be a
disaster in waiting, with the potential of
an Earthquake causing soil liquefaction
and submerging to large population.
Lake Maracaibo: 5 Themes of
Geography
Location: Connected to the Gulf of
Venezuela by Tablazo Strait.
Place: Wayuu people, shipping route
Region: Lake, oil, natural gas, fishing,
duckweed.
Movement: Ocean going vessels access to
the bay.
Human Interaction: Oil mining (money), fishing
(food), tourism, commercial and recreational
purposes.