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“RATIONALE BEHIND THE STUDY”


Industrial progress is an outcome of mainly of the human and physical resources of the
production. Sufficient progress has been made in the sphere of physical input such as
capital and technology. Despite rapid development in technology the desired level of
economic development and social welfare are yet to be achieved! One of the main causes
of failure has been underutilization of human resources in the country. Unfortunately the
rate of progress in our country has not been commensurate with our potential on account of
lack of appropriate work culture. Employer and employed are still looked upon as
adversaries rather than as partners. In the joined endeavors frequent strikes, lockouts and
other forms of industrial unrest are symptoms of prevailing environment in industry.
In this project the main purpose of the study was to have a thorough understanding
of the theoretical concept and their practical application by being placed in the actual work
environment
• To understand their relevance and find the extent to which they are actually being
applied in the work situation;
• To have an in-depth knowledge of the function of the organization through actual
work experience.

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“OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY”

The project apart from a brief overall review of the organization studies the level of
absenteeism rate in the organization, referring the general staff of both the managerial and
non-managerial level of employees. The main issue of concern was related with the
employee’s presence rate and how often they find themselves failing in reporting to work,
at the same time analyzing different causes and other incentives regarding salaries and
welfare packages offered to them as well as judging the satisfaction level with their
compensation package, which surely creates a reason for determining their dedication
towards the work.
This project has also been undertaken to gather the details of employees turn over as
well as examining the general trend within an organization enabling to find an exact
reason behind the increasing absenteeism rate in the organization.

Hence, the major objectives of this study were: -


• To identify the prevalence level of the absentees in Varun Beverages Ltd.
• To identify the major causes of the absenteeism at Varun Beverages Ltd.
• To Asses the after effects of absenteeism in Varun Beverages Ltd.

The project is based on my experience and frequent interaction with the employees in
VBL.

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“HYPOTHESIS”
A hypothesis is a proposition, condition or principle which is assumed, perhaps
without belief, in order to draw logical consequences by this method to test its accord
with facts which are known or may be determined.
When a researcher observes knows facts and takes up a problem for analysis, he
first has to start somewhere and this point of start is the hypothesis. In other words,
one has to proceed to formulate tentative solution as soon as the problem to be tackled
is finalized. These proposed solutions or explanations constitute the hypothesis which
the researcher proceeds to test on the basis of fact already known or that can be made
known. Even, collection of facts merely for the sake of collecting them will yield no
fruits; to be fruitful, facts need to be collected such that they are for or against some
point of view or proposition. Such a point of view or proposition is the hypothesis.
The tentative explanations or solutions are suggested to researcher by something in
the subject matter and by our previous experience.
Hypothesis testing means to know whether the hypothesis based on the data
collected is valid or not. The main object of hypothesis testing is whether to accept the
null hypothesis. Procedure for hypothesis testing deals with steps on the basis of
which a hypothesis is either rejected or accepted.
Thus, this study has been primarily carried out to analyse and judge the effects
and implications of absenteeism among the employees of a bottling plant, both on the
managerial and the non-managerial section of employees.
The hypotheses of the study are: -
• Absenteeism affects and reduces organizational productivity.
• Logical outlook towards various problems was more prominent
among regular attendees than absentees.
• Older employees have greater commitment towards their work.
The hypothesis of this study has been deduced and identified on the basis of the belief that
employees normally absents themselves from work due to certain unconditional and
conditional reasons which affects organizational productivity.
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“SCOPE OF THE STUDY”

Every employee who takes off in defiance of organization regulation has reasons,
right or wrong which justify themselves the legitimacy of their actions. Unless a
management attendance program identifies and addresses the causes of employee
absenteeism it will be ineffective and unfair. Traditional disciplinary programs alone
can, at best, give the illusion of control. It is no secret that there are ways to beat even
the best systems. The fear of discipline often only increases the desire to avoid
management systems.
If absenteeism is to be controlled the physical and the emotional needs of
employees must be addressed. In a 1985 study on “Rates of absence among Nurses” it
was found that 50% of absenteeism could be controlled through attending employees
physical and emotional needs.

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“CONSTRAINTS OF THE STUDY”

My project is entitled as:


“A study of the level of absenteeism and its causes, at Varun Beverages Ltd.”
(A study conducted at Pepsi Bottling Plant Greater Noida, UP, with special reference to
managerial and non-managerial categories of employees)
My project being based on the primary data, I have undergone a session of
interaction through questionnaire with both the managerial and non-managerial group of
employees as per the requirement of my project.
Now, while undergoing the interview process I found certain constraints existing
thereby in VBL:
• Hiding of some true facts by the respondents due to fear of the management.
• Some of the responses given by the respondents vague i.e. not legible and clear.
• Few of them showed disinterest as they all have a notion that such an investigation is
futile and that they will gain no benefit from it.
• Few of them remained quiet when asked about what suggestions they would like to
give for future developments and success of VBL.

Besides all these constraints I have been impressed by the ingenuity, cooperation,
confidence and efficiency which were reflected through their knowledge and experience
and still find my journey of interviewing, interesting and people at VBL amiable and
thus at least I successfully interacted to 70 employees in Varun Beverages Ltd.

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“ORIGIN OF VARUN BEVERAGES LTD. UNDER RKJ GROUP”
It can be said with absolute certainty that the RKJ Group has carved out a special niche for
itself. Its services touch different aspects of commercial and civilian domains like those of
Bottling, Food Chain and Education. Headed by Mr. R. K. Jaipuria, the group as on
today can laid claim to expertise and leadership in the fields of education, food and
beverages.

The business of the company was started in 1991 with a tie-up with Pepsi Foods Limited to
manufacture and market Pepsi brand of beverages in geographically pre-defined territories
in which brand and technical support was provided by the Principals viz., Pepsi Foods
Limited. The manufacturing facilities were restricted at Agra Plant only.

Varun Beverages Ltd. is the flagship company of the group.

The group also became the first franchisee for Yum Restaurants International
[formerly PepsiCo Restaurants (India) Private Limited] in India. It has exclusive franchise
rights for Northern & Eastern India. It has total 46 Pizza Hut Restaurants & 1 KFC
Restaurant under its company.

It diversified into education by opening our first school in Gurgaon under


management of Delhi Public School Society. The schools of the group are run under a
Registered Trust namely Champa Devi Jaipuria Charitable Trust. Companies are medium
sized, professionally managed, unlisted and closely held between Indian Promoters and
foreign collaborators.

The group added another feather to its cap when the prestigious PepsiCo
“International Bottler of the Year” award was presented to Mr. R. K. Jaipuria for the
year 1998 at a glittering award ceremony at PepsiCo’s centennial year celebrations at
Hawaii, USA. The award was presented by Mr. Donald M. Kendall, founder of PepsiCo
Inc. in the presence of Mr. George Bush, the 41st President of USA, Mr. Roger A.
Enrico, Chairman of the Board & C.E.O., PepsiCo Inc. and Mr. Craig Weatherup,
President of Pepsi Cola Company.
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Vision

Being the best in everything we touch and handle.

Mission

Continuously excel to achieve and maintain


leadership position in the chosen businesses; and
delight all stakeholders by making economic
values in all corporate functions.

Their Success
•Production of innovative, high quality retail branded
beverages combined with world-class packaging.
•Driven by a management team with a
relentless focus on achieving superior customer service,
driving earnings improvement and increasing shareholder
value.

Their People
At RKJ Group they are creating an environment where our
employees enjoy a greater degree of empowerment both
individually and in their work teams.
Their employees are equipped with the
necessary tools, training and management
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backup for strong performance and accountability, as well as in an
environment of open communication and involvement.

“RKJ GROUP OWNED BUSINEES IN INDIA AND WORLDWIDE”

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“COMPANY PROFILE WORLDWIDE”

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COMPANY VISION
To become truly global company, by continuing to build a competitive and profitable
worldwide refreshment beverage business.
PEPSI COLA INTERNATIONAL’S STRATEGY
 Target core Brand
 Focus on business growth.
 Satisfy market priorities
 Focus on franchising with building core of company owner.
A North Carolina Pharmacist established Pepsi Cola in 1980 as a cure for Dyspepsia
(indigestion). Under the supervision of Mr. Bradhman Pepsi’s first bottling plant was build
1905.
In 1977, when Coca-cola left the country then Pepsi Co. began to lay plans to enter
this huge Indian soft drink market. Pepsi working with Indian business groups to seek
government approval for its entry in the India soft drink market. Pepsi offered Indian
Government to help in the exports of some of its agricultural products in a volume that
would cover the cost of importing soft drink concentrate.
Pepsi Company is established in Indian in 1989. At that particular time it was know as
a non-Cobo (Company owned bottling operations) company. In January 1995 Pepsi took
over and it is now known as a Cobo (Company owned bottling operations) company. It
joined hands with Voltas Ltd with 60%equity. But now it has become a fully owned
subsidiary.
Pepsi Company is broad based food and Beverages Company, serving more than 60%
of its sales and operation profits from its snack- foods and restaurants business. Established
with a turnover of $ 28 billion in 1989, the company’s beverage business has grown 50%
streets ahead of the market; which has expanded by 20%. It poured in vast sums to whip up
its visibility at the retail level, so that consumes were greeted virtually at very street corner
by Pepsi’s blue-red and white colors. Behind the hype, in effort invisible to consumers,
Pepsi pumped in Rs.300 Crore to add muscle to its infrastructure in bottling and
distribution. This is apart from the money that up grading the plants.

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April 1993, Voltas and Punjab Agro’s equity stakes were bought over converting Pepsi
Foods from a joint venture to fully own subsidiary. Weak bottlers who did nit have the
finance were given massing support in from of interest- free loans to upgrade their
operations. But the big strategy, which has proved to be winner was the position Pepsi,
decided taken company owned Bottling operations (COBO). For this another subsidiary
Pepsi co. India Holding was set up as investment vehicle capitalized at $9.5 million.
1991 saw a major launch of 7-up in India, which was warmly received by India
customers and consumers.
1994 Pepsi achieved the number 1 position in cola brand India.
1995 2new COBOs were opened in UP & Gujarat.
1996 Mirinda attend No 1 Position in orange beverage category.
May 1998 was major launch of Mirinda Lemon in India.

Pepsi is trying very hard to maintain the lead it made over its competitors in the India
sift drink market. It is expanding its business in the other fields also. It is in the business of
export of beverages concentrates. This year Pepsi has achieved a 100% growth in the
export turnover in the first quart of 1998 over the corresponding period for the previous
year. Pepsi has taken a lead in the beverage concentrate exports from potential in the near
future. Pepsi has also developed agricultural linkages to boot its export thrust and as a
move in the direction, its plant at Sonepat has become the first rice-processing facility in
India.
Pepsi mean while added a new range of products to its agro-export Portfolio. These
include Baron, a bread of peanut butter marketed in U.S., Branded red and green chili,
Puree, ginger and garlic paste &cooking paste under the season’s Harvest home, which is
also the name of its branded basmati rice.

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At present Pepsi is trying very hard to maintain its position in the market. It is operating in
a very well managed manner. Some of its strategies it followed to be competitive in the
market area follows –

EMPOWERMENT
One of the strongest weapons in the Pepsi’s armory is the flexibility it has empowered with
its people. Every manger and sales person has the authorities to take whatever steps he
feels will make consumer aware of the brand and increase its consumption.

CHANNEL MANAGEMENT
Pepsi has a very well managed distributive system. It is said the “Pepsi don’t have bottlers,
it has partners’’. Pepsi has a well-aligned bottling network. It operates through COBO
(Company owned bottling operations) and FOBO (Franchise owned Bottling Operations)

It is this way a Pepsi Co., India Strengthens it’s marketing that gives it an edge. Every
number of its sales team is meticulously taught the merchandising and display skills that
can leverage the reach of the company’s bottling network to achieve high visibility for the
product.

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“COMPANY PROFILE IN INDIAN SCENARIO”
Since the entry of Pepsi co. to India in 1987, the soft drink Industry has undergone a
radical change. When Pepsi entered parley was the leader with ‘Thumps UP’ being its
flagship brand. Other product offerings by parley included Limca & Gold Spot. Another
upcoming player in the market was the erstwhile bottle of Coca-Cola, Pure Drinks. Its
offerings included Campa Cola, Camps Lemon and Campa Orange.
With the re-entry of Coca-Cola in the Indian market, Pepsi had to go in for more
aggressive marketing to sustain its market share. The chronology the initial phase of the
“Coal Wars” in India was:

July 1986
An application for soft drinks-cum-snack food joint venture by Pepsi, Voltas and
Punjab Agro is submitted to the government after an earlier proposed alliance- 1985,
between Pepsi and Duncan’s of the Goenkas fails to take off.
Sept.1988
Final approval for the Pepsi Foods Limited (P.F.L) project granted by the Cabinet
Committee on Economic Affairs of the Rajeev Gandhi Government.
March 1990
Pepsi Cola and Seven up Launched in limited market in North India.
May 1990
The government clears the Pepsi project again but with a change in brand name to
Lehar Pepsi. Simultaneously it rejects the Coca-Cola application. Citra form the Parle
stable hits the market.
Dec 1991
Pepsi extends its soft drinks reach on national scale. Products launched Delhi and
Bombay.
Jan 1992
Brito Foods application cleared by the FTPB. Pepsi and Parle start initial
negotiations for strategic alliance but talks break off after a while.

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1993
Pepsi launches Teem and Slice. Captures about 25.30% of the soft drinks market in
about two years.
July 1993
Volta’s pulls out of PFL joint venture. Pepsi decides to raise equity to 92% Reports
of coke – Parle negotiations gain strength.
1994
Pepsi brought Dukes& Sons
1995
Pepsi launched Cans having capacity of 330 ml in various flavors.
1997
Pepsi brought Mirinda Orange opposite to Fanta.
1998
Pepsi launched Lemon Mirinda to give taught competition to Limca.
1999
Pepsi has launched its Diet Pepsi Can and 1.5 Liters pet battles for health conscious
people.
1997
Refusing to dilute its equity state Coca-Coal winds up operations in the country.
Parle launches Thumps Up and Drinks launches Campa Cola.
2001
Pepsi launched Aquafina.
2003
Pepsi launched Mountain Dew
2005
Mirinda lemon zinger, 7UP.Ice was launched by Pepsi.
2006
Bubbly Pepsi was launched.
2007
Pepsi Gold was launched.

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“ABOUT ORGANIZATION AND ITS OBJECTIVES”
By the word organization we generally mean, a structural framework of duties and
responsibilities required of a personnel in achieving the predetermined goals.
An organization of VBL is a simple yet complex in terms of the different
designations provided to its employees.
Company’s overall view of organization can be successfully dealt as follows:
The people at PBG reflect the Company’s emphasis on superior sales capability and
service. In North America, more than one-half of PBG employees work in sales, followed
by nearly one-third in operation. Their organizational structure, based on a general
management model, reflects the same priorities. The Vice President/General Managers of
PBG’s market units lead marketing and sales efforts in contiguous geographic areas with
common major customers. They designed their organization to give their market units the
autonomy to serve the needs of individual customers, develop market-specific strategies,
and respond to local marketplace dynamics. From the General Manager to the frontline
customer representative, the entire PBG sales force competes on a local level to serve
existing customers and to win new accounts.
Their aims are:

We compete locally.
“Small” in big/small company
Visible community leadership
Mindset of an entrepreneur
Know/Service every customer

Sense of urgency
There is no tomorrow.
Fix it today.
Our success is built upon passion.

Every front-line job has targets.


Reinforce goals, plan performance
Prioritize, focus, simplify
Clear accountability for results
No excuses.

Treat everyone fairly, and with dignity.


Operate with integrity and justice.
Every individual is important.

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“OBJECTIVES OF VARUN BEVERAGES ”

The objectives of VBL are:

• To observe the implementation and working of sales club


programme at different sections in Noida.
• To monitor whether it is successfully implemented in the
market.
• To monitor the customer awareness about the sales club
programme whether they are fully aware about the
programme or not.
• To check out that all the required materials for sales club
programmed are given to customer/ retailer or not.
• To find out the effect on increasing the sales b/z of sales club
programmed at partial shop.
• To monitor the purity of vis-cooler at sales club account.
• To monitor the purity of sack at sales club account.
• To monitor whether updates in the programmed book is clan
in time or not.
• To make the books available to the customers.

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“OTHER INFORMATIONS ABOUT VBL”
EARNINGS RELASES
Pepsi Co’s 2004 quarterly earnings releases are expected to be issued the week of April 12
July 12, September 27, 2005 and January 30, 2005.

COMPANY DOCUMENTS
Investor relations: - Security analysts and other members the professional financial
community who have question Pepsi Co’s investor relations department at (914) 253-3035
or (914) 253-2155.

SHAREHOLDERS: - Pepsi Co’s (symbol: PED) shares are traded principally on the New
York Stock Exchange in US. The company is also listed on the Amsterdam, Chicago,
Swiss and Tokyo stock exchanges. Pepsi Co’s has consistently paid cash dividends since
the corporation was founded.

MISSION STATEMENT
“Our mission is to be the world’s premier consumer product’s company focused on
convenient foods and beverages. We seek to produce healthy financial rewards to invest as
we provide opportunities for growth and enrichment. Our employees, our business partners
and the communities in which we operate. And in everything we do, we strive for honesty,
fairness and integrity!” as exclaimed by Pepsi Co’s.
CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP
Pepsi Co’s believe that they are corporate citizen; it has a responsibility to contribute to the
quality of life in our commodities. This philosophy is put into action through support of
social agencies, projects and programs. The scope of this support is extensive-ranging from
sponsorship of local programs and support of employee’s voluntary activities to contribute
to time, talent and funds to programs of national impact. Each division is responsible for its
own giving program. Corporate giving is focused on giving where Pepsi Co’s employees
volunteer.

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PEPSI HEADQUARTERS
Pepsi Co’s world headquarters is located in purchase, New York, approximately 45
minutes from New York City. Edward Darell Stone, one of America’s foremost architects,
designed the seven building headquarters complex. The building occupies 10 acres
complex that includes the Donald Mkendall sculpture gardens, a world acclaimed sculpture
collection in garden setting. The collection of work is focused on major twentieth century
art, and features work by such as Augusta Rodin, Henri Laurens, Henery Moore,
Alexander Calder, Alberto Giacometti, Arnaldo Pomodoro and Claes Oldenberg. The
gardens were originally designed by the world famous garden planner, Russel Page, and
have been a visitor’s booth in operation during the summer and spring.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


It provide following to employee:
• On Job Training Program
• In House Training Program
• Out door Training Program

WELFARE ACTIVITIES
Company provides welfare activities to its employees like:
• Uniform
• Transportation facilities
• Canteen
• Annual meet etc.

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“PRODUCTION SETUP AT GR.NOIDA BRANCH OF PEPSI”

Gr.Noida plant in Varun Beverages plant is a dedicated plant for five major products.
These are as follows:

PRODUCT BOTTLE FILLING


PEPSI 300ml, 200ml
MIRINDA ORANGE 300ml, 200ml
MIRINDA LEMON 300ml, 200ml
SLICE 250ml
7-UP 300ml, 200ml
EVERVESS SODA 300ml
MOUNTAIN DEW 300ml, 200ml
Plant is producing 10 million cases every year.
Plant has employed about 200 employees with separate company uniform on permanent
and causal basis. There are 40 managers/ officers/ supervisors and rest of workmen. Plant
is dispatching near about 125-150 tracks in peak seasons per day to various location. This
Plant spreads over 75 acres.

QUALITY POLICY
• The best delivery.
• The best product in the market place
• The highest quality
• The best testing.

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“AN OVERVIEW OF ALL PEPSI-COLA BRANDS”

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“AN OVERVIEW OF PEPSI-COLA BRANDS PRODUCED BY VBL”
PEPSI
CONTENTS: -
• CALORIES 100
• TOTAL FAT 0gm
• SODIUM 25mg
• POTASSIUM 10mg
• TOTAL CARBOHYDRATE 27g
• SUGAR 27g
• PROTEIN 0g
• CAFFEINE 25mg
Pepsi contains carbonated water, high fructose com syrup and/or sugar, Carmel color,
phosphoric acid, caffeine, citric acid and natural flavors.
SLICE
Produced at 80.c and is prepared by VBL on large scale!
CONTENTS: -
• CALORIES 130
• TOTAL FAT 0g
• SODIUM 35mg
• POTASSIUM 70mg
• TOTAL CARBOHYDRATE 34g
• SUGAR 33g
• PROTEIN 0g
• CAFFEINE 0g
Slice contains carbonated water, high fructose com syrup and/or citric acid, potassium
citrate, potassium benzoate (preserve freshness) gum Arabic, malice acid, potassium
sorbate (preserve freshness), yellow 6, salt, ester gum, natural flavors, calcium
disodium EDTA (to protect flavor) and brominated vegetable oil.

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“CELEBRITIES FOR PEPSI”

Following are some celebrities of Pepsi: -


• AMITABH BACCHAN
• SHARUKH KHAN
• SAIFALI KHAN
• FARDEEN KHAN
• JOHN ABRAHAM
• KAREENA KAPOOR
• PRIETY ZINTA
• PRIYANKA CHOPRA
• SACHIN TENDULKAR
• SAURABH GANGULY
• YUVRAJ SINGH
• HARBHAJAN SINGH
• RAHUL DRAVID
• ZAHEER KHAN
• MOHAMMED KAIF
• AJEET AGARKAR
• MAHENDER SINGH DHONI

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“FAMOUS CATCH LINES OF PEPSI”

Some famous catch lines of Pepsi are: -

• “YEHI HAI RIGHT CHOICE BABY……AAHA!!!!”

• “NOTHING OFFICIAL ABOUT IT”

• “CHOICE OF NEXT GENERATION”

• “MORE CRICKET MORE PEPSI”

• “YEH AAZADI HAI DIL KI ”

• “YEH DIL MANGE MORE”

• “ZOR KA JHATKA DHHERE SE LAGE ”

• “PEPSI KE LIYE HUM BESHRAM HAIN”

• “YEH PYAAS HAI BADI”

• “DO THE DEW”

• “OYE………BUBBLY!”

• “PEPSI UTHAO, GHAR LEY JAO”

• “JOIN THE BLUE BILLION”

• “MOUTH HAPPY POCKET HAPPY”

• “PEPSI…. MY CAN”

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“OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTION FROM 1995-2005”

VBL LTD
Production from 1995 to 2005

90
80
70
60
E ast
50
W e st
40
30 N o r th
20
10
0
95 96 97 98 99 20002001 20032004 2005

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“DEFINING ABSENTEEISM”

Absenteeism in short can be defined as a failure to report to work.


• It is likely a symptom of low moral and declining productivity or little involvement
at work as demonstrated by the employees staying away from work.
• It refers to the failure on the part of employees to report to work through which they
are scheduled to work. In other words an unauthorized absence constitutes
absenteeism.
• It is referred to here in as failure of employees to report to work when they are
scheduled to work.

UNDERSTANDING ABSENTEEISM OR INTRODUCTION TO ATTENDANCE


MANAGEMENT
The management of attendance is an important aspect of supervision. The cost of
absenteeism is greater than the direct payment of wages and benefits made during the
absence. Organization must also consider he indirect cost of staffing, scheduling,
reframing, lost productivity, diminished moral, turn over, opportunity cost. The indirect
cost often exceeds the direct cost of absenteeism. Effective supervisory efforts in
attendance management will affect a relatively small percentage of employees but will
generate substantial savings, increased productivity and moral.

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“TYPES OF ABSENTEEISM”

There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach-

a) INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM: - innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are

absent for reasons beyond their control sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is
not culpable i.e. blameless. In a labor relations context this means that it cannot be
remedied of or treated by disciplinary measures.

b) CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM: - it refers to employees who are absent without

authorization for reasons, which are within their control. For instance, an employee
who is on sick leave even without being so and it can prove so; he/she is guilty of
culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In labor relation context
this means that progressive action can be taken. For the large majority of
employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism, which occurs
infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism.
Many organizations rake the view that through the process of individual absentee
counseling and treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems
and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance.

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“CALCULATION OF ABSENTEEISM”
The rate of absenteeism is expressed as the percentage of man-days lost through absence to
the total number of man days scheduled in a given period.
No. Of Employees Absent * 100
Absenteeism% = ------------------------------------
No. Of Employees Present
No. Of Employees Present = (Avg. No. of workers) *(No. of working days)
As we know, employees are the 21st century organization’s greatest assets. Accountants are
even adding human capital to the balance sheet. Absenteeism is a universal problem in an
industry. It becomes a problem when it exceeds 10% as it disturbs the production schedules
and creates many problems. Personnel Research studies have further revealed that: -
 The days before and after a holiday are liable to higher rate of absenteeism.
 Employees who belong to local area are absent more often than outsiders.
 Bad weather increases rate of absenteeism, especially among employees who live at
distant places.
 Employees under the age of 25 years and above the age of 55 years are absent more
often than those in the age group of 26 to 55 years.
 Operative employees are absent more frequently than the supervisors and managers.

The higher the rate of pay and greater the length of services of the employees\, the
fewer the absences.

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“FACTORS CAUSING ABSENTEEISM”

The causes of absenteeism are many and include: -


• Major accidents and illness
• Low morale
• Poor working conditions
• Boredom on the job
• Lack of job satisfaction
• Inadequate leadership and poor supervision
• Personal problems
• Poor physical fitness
• Inadequate nutrition
• Transportation problems
• The existence of income protection plans
• Stress
• Work load
• Employee discontent with a collective bargaining process and its results.
Although both pschyiological and non- pschyiological factors contribute to it, the findings
of Indian studies appear to have somewhat greater emphasis on non-pschyiological ones.
The workers in Indian industries found that chronic
absenteeism was related to: -
1. The extent of workers identification with the company.
2. Integration with work group.
3. Satisfaction with supervisors.
4. Belief in the future of the company.

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On the other hand there are few psychological factors as the
major causes of absenteeism of Indian industrial workers. Such factors are poor health,
transport difficulty, do chores, and indebtness etc.

Lets have a tabular evaluation of the: -


Observable Behavior pattern indicating possible alcohol related problems
STAGE ABSENTEEISM GENERAL BEHAVIOUR JOB PREFERENCE
I STAGE Tardiness, quits early Complaints from fellow Misses deadlines,
(Early) (Absenteeism from employees for not doing commits error
situations) his/her share. Overreaction (Frequently low job
“I drink to relieve tension” complains of not feeling profile)
well, makes untrue statement

II STAGE Frequent days off for vague Marked changes, Criticism from boss,
(Middle)
or implausible reasons. undependable statements, general deterioration
“I feel guilty about avoid money from fellow cant concentrate,
sneaking drinks” I have employees, exaggerate work, occasional loss of
tremors. and accompanies frequent memory, minor
hospitalization. injuries on the job
(repeatedly), warning
from the boss.
III STAGE Frequent days off, several Aggressive and belligerent Far below
(Late middle) behavior domestic problems
days at a time, does not interfere with work, expectations

return from lunch. financial difficulties Punishable


(garnishments and so on),
“I don’t feel like eating” disciplinary actions.
and more frequent
“ Don’t want to talk about hospitalization, Resignation!
Does not want to discuss
it” problems. Problems with the
“I like to drink alone” law community.

Generally
Prolonged unpredictable incompetent faces
IV STAGE absence Drinking on the job
termination or
(Approachin “My job interferes with my (probably) completely
hospitalization.
g terminal drinking” undependable, repeated
stage) hospitalization, serious
financial
35 problems, serious
family problems, divorce
etc.
Thus above cases reveal that how an effect of alcohol severely affects the presence
of employees leading to absenteeism

“HOW ABSENTEEISM CAN BE CONTROLLED”

The definition of absenteeism, factors affecting and its causes are quite clear. What is not
so clear is how to take affirmative actions to control it. Traditional methods of absenteeism
control based only on disciplinary procedures have proven to be ineffective. It is almost
impossible to create a fair disciplinary action because even well run disciplinary systems,
which treat which treat similar actions in consistently similar ways are seen as unfair. The
reason for this is discipline alone usually identifies the root cause of absenteeism. Every
employee who takes time off in defiance of company regulations has reasons, right or
wrong which justify to themselves the legitimacy of their actions. Unless the management
attendance programme identifies and addresses the cause of employees’ absenteeism it will
be ineffective and unfair. Now, if absenteeism is to be controlled the physical and physical
and emotional needs of employees must be addressed.
The purpose of attendance management is to develop a willingness on the part of all
our employees to attend work regularly and to assist them in motivating their co-
workers to attend work regularly. Now, this can be done by-
1. Addressing the physical and emotional needs of our employees.
2. Communicating the attendance goals of the organization so employees can
understand and identify with them.
3. Dealing with cases of excessive absenteeism effectively and fairly so deterrence
can occur.

36
Successful administration of an attendance management program requires managers and
supervisors to be aware of and create work environment in which the following can be
actualized
1. The greater the extent to which individuals identify their goals with the goals of
the organization the greater their motivation to be regular in attendance.
2. The more people find their jobs meaningful to them, the greater their motivation
to be regular in attendance.
3. As employees workload increases due to the absence of a co-worker, peer
pressure is exerted on the absent co=worker to attend work regularly.
4. The more people like working for the organization the higher their motivation to
attend regularly. Recognition of good employee attendance helps improve
attendance.
5. Employees will have a lower absence ratio if they fail they fail face to discuss
their on the job problems with their supervisors.
6. Employees with a low absence ratio have attitudes of complaisance and ‘team
spirit’.
7. Low absence ratio employee is more satisfied.
Like employees turnover, there is avoidable and unavoidable absenteeism. Absenteeism
is unavoidable when the employee himself falls sick, his dependants at home suddenly
become unwell or there is an accident inside the plant. Unavoidable absenteeism is
accepted by managers and is even sanctioned by labor laws. For insistence, one day of
leave with wages for every 20 days of service is allowed by the factories act, 1948.
Avoidable absenteeism arises because of night shift, opportunities for moonlighting and
earning extra income ineptness, lack of job security, job satisfaction and unfriendly
supervision. This absenteeism needs intervening by the management. Managers should
take steps to remove causes of absenteeism. On the positive side, managers must create a
work environment which will make the employees realize that it make sense to work in

37
the factory rather than stay at home and waste their time.Moreover, the management must
have a safety plan, implement it and evaluate its effectiveness.

“EXAMPLES SHOWING ABSENTEEISM RATE IN CONTEXT


OF VARIOUS INDUSTRIES”
Absenteeism is computed and is expressed in terms of percentages. Table below
shows absenteeism rate in selected industries: -

TABLE: - ABSENTEEISM IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES


INDUSTRIES 1971 1976 1981 1983 1986 1987

COTTON
19.3 20.1 21.8 22.9 18.3 19.2
TEXTILES

11.0 14.9 15.9 16.8 13.9 15.6


IRON & STEEL

CEMENT
13.1 13.1 10.8 12.2 12.4 12.2

MATCH
14.7 14.1 16.6 19.3 19.0 23.1
MAKING

TELEGRAPH 16.2 14.7 15.8 17.9 20.2 17.7


WORKSHOP

Absenteeism costs money to the organization besides reflecting employee


dissatisfaction with the company.

38
“EFFECT OF ABSENTEEISM ON AN ORGANIZATION”
“Levels of absenteeism beyond the normal range in any organization have a direct impact
on that organization effectiveness and efficiency.”
It is obviously difficult for an organization to operate smoothly
and to achieve its goals if its employees fail to report to their jobs. The work plans is
disrupted and often-important decisions are delayed. In organization that relies heavily
on assembly- line production, absenteeism can be more than a disruption: it can result
in the drastic decline in the output and in some cases it can bring about a complete
shutdown of the production. But levels of absenteeism beyond the normal range in any
organization have a direct impact on its efficiency.
Apart from the above viewed fact the most important problem faced is related with that
of the cost of absenteeism! Many organizations set aside approximately 3% of budget
for absenteeism. This makes an average of about 8 days a year per employee. If
absenteeism is above your budgeted figure or certain employee exceed the average in
your organization then this indicates that you have an absenteeism problem. However,
even if absenteeism is below it a focused effort will likely yield improved attendance.
The cost of absenteeism leads to: -
Decrease in productivity-
1. Employees may be carrying an extra workload or supporting new staff.
2. Employees may be requires to attain and orientate new or replacement workers.
3. Staff morals and employee service may suffer.
Financial cost-
1. Payment of overtime may result.
2. Cost of self-insured income protection plans must be borne plus the ways cost
replacement employees.
3. Premium cost may rise for insured plans.

39
Administrative cost-
1. Staff time is required to secure replacement employees.
2. Staff time is required to maintain and control absenteeism.

“DO ABSENTEEISM IS REALLY BAD?”

Although most absenteeism has a negative impact on the organization, we can


conceive of situations in which the organization may benefit by an employee’s
voluntarily choosing not to come to work. For instance, illness, fatigue or excess
stress can significantly decrease an employee’s productivity. In jobs in which an
employee needs to be alert it may well be better for the organization if the
employees does not report to work rather than show up and perform poorly. The cost
of an accident in such jobs could be prohibitive. Even in the management jobs,
where mistakes are less spectacular, performance may be improved. When managers
are absent themselves from jobs rather than make a poor decision under stress. But
these examples are clearly a typical for the most past, we can assume that
organization benefits when employee absenteeism is low!!

40
“CONCLUSION”

Recent surveys have shown: -


- The higher the rate of pays the greater the length of service of the
employee, the fewer the absence.
- As an organization grows, there is a tendency towards higher rate of
absenteeism.
- Women are absent more frequent than men.
- Single employees are absent more frequently than married employees.
- Younger employees are absent more frequently than older employees but
the latter are absent for longer period of time.
- Unionized organization has higher absenteeism rates than non-union
organizations.
- Logical outlook towards various problems was more prominent among
regular attendees than absentees.
- Emotionally surcharged statements were more frequent among absentees.
- Absentee group was found to have indifferent attitude, whereas regular
worker showed more critical thinking towards their work.

Attendance improvement programs can work! What the employees want is commitment
and support from all levels of management, an effective attendance record-keeping system,
consultation and open communication on the reasons for the attendance programs.

Implementing and maintaining a work environment where open communication and team
spirit can thrive will at first sometimes seem a mammoth and unrealistic task. If you need

41
encouragement just consider some of the benefits; reduced absenteeism, open
communication, team spirit, advanced grievances and greater employee satisfaction.

42
“RESEARCH METHODOLOGY”
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific
topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. It is the pursuit of truth with
the help of studies, observation, comparison and experiment. In short the search for
knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem
is research.
According to Clifford Woody, “Research comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and
evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypothesis”.
RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is an arrangement of conditions for connections and analysis of data
in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
procedure. Research design is a plan that specifies the sources and types of
information relevant to the research problem. It is a strategy specifying which
approach will be used for gathering and analyzing the data. In fact, it is the conceptual
structure with which research is conducted; it constitutes the blue print for the
collection, measurement and analysis of data. The plan is an outline to research
scheme on which the researcher id to work. The structure of the research is a more
specific outline or the scheme. The strategy shows how the research will be carried
out, specifying the method to be used in collecting data.
TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is mainly of three types: -
1. Exploratory research

43
2. Descriptive research
3. Experimental research

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: - It is often the initial step in the series of studies


designed to supply information for decision-making. The main purpose of this
research is for formulating the problem for more precise investigation or of
developing a working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major
emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: - It includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries. The


descriptive research is typically concerned with determining the frequencies with
which something occurs or determining the degree to which variables is associated. It
is guided by an initial hypothesis.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: - In this some variables are manipulated to
observe their effect on other variables. Experimentation is defined as a process
where events occur in a setting at the discretion of the experiment and controls are
used to identify the source of variants in the subject. Thus they are those where the
researcher tests the hypothesis of the causal relationship between variables.
The research undertaken by me in this project is a descriptive research
The research methodology adopted for the project can be stated as follows –
• An extensive study of the topic through various sources like internet, books and
work done on some topics
• A questionnaire was prepared to analyze the level of absenteeism in VBL.
• Collection of questionnaire took place after a couple of weeks to analyze data
• All the responses were studied and certain findings and recommendation were
given.
• A detail and systematic report was prepared.

44
SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling is used to collect primary data when the source of data is far too many to be
exhausting handled. Sampling is the integral part of data collection process.
The way of selecting a sample is known as sample design. It is the definite plan
for obtaining a sample from a given population. It may as well lay down the number
of items to be included in the sample i.e. the size of the sample.
Sample design is determined before data are collected.
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
The key for useful systems is the selection of the method for collecting data and
linking it to analysis and decision issue of the action to be taken. The accuracy of the
collected data is of great importance for drawing correct and valid conclusion from
detailed investigations.
There are two types of data viz. primary and secondary.

PRIMARY DATA
The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus
happen to be original in character. There are several methods of collecting primary
data, particularly in survey and descriptive research. Some important ones are
observation method, interview method, through questionnaire, through schedules etc.

SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data means, data that are already available that is they refer to the data
which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else and which have
already been passed through the statistical process. Secondary data may either be
published data or unpublished data and can be gathered through Internet, books,
magazines, manuals, journals etc.
45
In this study I have used Structural Questionnaire for collecting primary data. I
have also made frequent interaction with the management and the employees during
my training at Varun Beverages Ltd.

46
My study was strictly based on the primary data collection method collected by means of

questionnaire dealing and involving the overall sample of 70 people working in Varun

Beverages Ltd., constituting 20 of manager level of employees and 50 of the non-

managerial section!

The data has been interpreted on the basis of tally marking and

thus derive the percentage figure based on the answers given by the sample ingredients,

represented below with the help of a pie-chart and percent (%) notation: -

47
“ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES RECEIVED FROM THE MANAGERIAL SECTION”
1. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.3
The first question an effort is made to clarify the age factor of
respondents of the total of 20.
20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60
AGE GROUP (in years)

NO. OF EMPLOYEES 2 11 5 2

% OF EMPLOYEES 10% 55% 25% 10%

• The above data base structure shows that 10% of managers fall within the age
category of (20-30) years, 55% are between (30-40) years, 25% are in (40-50)
years and 10% are under (50-60) years of age. This shows that the young
executives effectively run Varun Beverages.

We can represent the above data on the basis of below visual pie-diagram!

48
AGE GROUP

10% 10%

25%

55%

50-60 40-50 30-40 20-30

2. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.6


The second question under analysis and interpretation concerns
the ‘educational profile’ of employees.
GRADUATE POSTGRADUATE
EDUCATIONAL PROFILE
NO.OF EMPLOYEES 8 12

% OF EMPLOYEES 40% 60%

• The above EDUCATIONAL


data base structure showsPROFILE
that40% of managers fall under the
category of postgraduates and 60% of them fall within the category of
postgraduates. This shows that in Varun Beverages most of the manager are
Either MBA or MCA or possessing other equivalent degrees!
40%
We can represent the above data with the help of below visual pie-diagram: -

60%

49

GRADUATE POSTGRADUATE
3. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.7

The third question concerns the financial profile of employees.


UPTO 5000-1000 1000- 15000- 20000- 30000- 40000-
FINANCIAL 5000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000
PROFILE

NO. OF EMPLOYEES ……. 6 8 2 …….. 2 2

% OF EMPLOYEES ……. 30% 40% 10% …… 10% 10%

• The above data base structure shows that none of the managers fall under the
pay scale of Rs.5000, 30% of managers lie between (5000-0000), 40%
between (10000-15000), 10% between (15000-20000), no employee between
FINANCIAL PROFILE
(20000-30000), 10% between (30000-40000) and 10% between (40000-
50000). This
10% shows that 0% of the managers in Varun Beverages Ltd is
10%the salary
30%
moderate!0%

10%
We can represent the data on the basis of below visual pie chart.
40%

UPTO 5000 PER50


MONTH 5000-10,000
10,000-15,000 15,000-20,000
20,000-30,000 30,000-40,000
40,000-50,000
4. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO. 11

The fourth question is about the possible reasons for the managers to
take leave.
MONOTONOUS OVERLOAD COMMUTING STRESS OTHERS
POSSIBLE WORK OF WORK FROM HOME
REASONS TO WORK
PLACE IS
CUMBERSOME
NO OF 1 ……… ……….. …….. 19
EMPLOYEES

% OF 5% ……….. ……….. ……… 95%


EMPLOYEES

• The above data base structure shows that 5% of the managers suffer from
monetary which is caused due to repetition of same type of work and thus to
take leave while 95% of managers considers other factors like illness,
indifferent situations, incorrigible problems etc as an obvious reason for
51
taking leave from work. None of the managers complained of overload of
work, stress and cumbersome situations, as they remained indifferent toward
these facts for being a possible cause to leave.
We can represent the data through below visual pie chart.

POSSIBLE REASONS

5%0%

95%

MONOTONOUS WORK
OVERLOAD OF WORK
COMMUTING FROM HOME TO WORK IS CUMBERSOME
STRESS
OTHERS

5. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.12

The fifth question is about the directions the managers of VBL


communicate to their subordinates in case of leave.

CARRY DECLARE DIRECT THEM OTHERS


ON WITH THE HOLIDAY OR BEFORE OR ON
PENDING THAT DAY THE SAME DAY
DIRECTIONS WORK

NO.OF
EMPLOYEES 6 ……………. 8 6

% OF 30% ……………. 40% 30%


EMPLOYEES

52
• The above data base structure shows that 30% of the managers convey their
subordinates to carry on with the pending work. No manager declares the
holiday for their employees when they are on leave, 40% direct them before or
on the same date concerning the task their subordinates have to perform while
30% adopt other factors like they appoint a leader to assist their employees or
ask other departmental heads to take necessary action.
We can represent the following data with help of below visual pie-diagram!

DIRECTIONS

30% 30%

0%
40%

CARRY ON THE PENDING WORK


DECLARE HOLIDAY FOR THAT DAY
DIRECT THEM BEFORE OR ON THE SAME DAY
ORHERS

6. ANALYSIS OF OUESTION NO.13

The sixth question deals with the regularity of subordinates from manager’s point
of view.

CONDITIONS YES NO

NO.OF EMPLOYEES 13 7

% OF EMPLOYEES 65% 35%

53
• The above data shows that 65% of the managers confirmed that their
employees are regular in the organization while 35% of managers complained
about the irregularity of their employees due to obvious reasons like illness,
anxiety, and in contingent situations.
The below visual pie chart represent the above data-:

CONDITION

35%

65%

YES NO

7. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.14

The seventh question concern about the acknowledgement of absence records


of employees.

THROUGH DO NOT OTHERS


MAINTAIN
METHODS ATTENDANCE
PERSONAL OTHER MAINTAIN
WATCH MEMBERS
REGISTER

NO.OF
EMPLOYEES 15 4 1 ……… ………

% OF
EMPLOYEES 75% 20% 5% …….. ……….

54
• The above data base structure shows that 75% of managers maintain an
attendance register. 20% go for a personal watch to check their employees,
5% come to know about the presence of their employees through other people
in the plant. While none of the managers said that they do not maintain any
record of their employees.
We can represent the above data on the basis of visual pie chart below-

METHODS
5% 0%

20% 0%

75%

MAINTAIN ATTENDANCE REGISTER


PERSONAL WATCH
THROUGH OTHER MEMBERS
DO NOT MAINTAIN
OTHERS

8.ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.15


The eight questions under analysis and interpretations concerns about the measures
That manager adopt for the decreasing the level of absenteeism in VBL.

55
MEASURES TRAINING AND RECREATION SALARY PROVIDING
DEVELOPMENTS AND INCENTIVES PROPER
AMUSEMENTS LEAVE

NO. OF 5 4 6 5
EMPLOYEES

% OF 25% 20% 30% 25%


EMPLOYEES


• The above data shows that 25% of managers think that true training and
development absenteeism can be reduced as than employees will become
more efficient to perform their job well and thus will to love to work. 20% of
managers think recreation and amusement facilities should be provided to
employees and it will reduce their stress and thus they will file relaxed.30%
think that salaries of employees should increase while 25% are of the view
that employees should be provided enough leave show that they do not require
any reason for the absent from work.
The below mentioned visual Pie chart represents the above data.
MEASURES
25% 25%

20%
30%

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


RECREATION AND AMUSEMENTS
SALARY INCENTIVES
PROVIDING PROPER LEAVE

56
“ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES RECEIVED FROM THE NON-MANAGARIAL
SECTIONS.”

1. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.3

In the first question an effort has been made to classify the age factor of
respondents of the total of 50respondents.

AGE GROUP 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60

NO.OF 24 14 10 2
EMPLOYEES

% OF EMPLOYEES 48% 28% 20% 4%

• The above data based structure shows that 48% of employees fall within the
age of category of (20-30) years, 28% between (30—40) years, 20% between
(40-50) years and only 4% fall between to (50-60) years.

We can represent the above data with the help of below visual Pie chart.

AGE GROUP

4%
20%
48%

28%

20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60

57
2. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.5

The second question concern to educational profile of the employees.

MATRICULATE INTERMEDIATE GRADUATE POSTGRADUATE


EDUCATIONAL
PROFILE

27 13 9 1
NO. OF EMPLOYEES

% OF EMPLOYEES 54% 26% 18% 2%

• The above data based structure shows that 54% employees are metric passed,
26% is intermediate, and 18% are graduate while only 2% are postgraduate.
They show that for VBL higher academic qualifications are not more
important than efficiency and hard work

We can represent the above data with the help of below visual Pie chart.

EDUCATIONAL PROFILE

18% 2%

54%
26%

MATRICULATE INTERMEDIATE
GRADUATE POSTGRADUATE

58
3. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.6

Third questions concern with the financial status of employees.


FINANCIAL UPTO 5000 5000-10000 10000-15000
PROFILE

NO.OF 36 12 2
EMPLOYEES

% OF 72% 24% 4%
EMPLOYEES

• The above data based structure shows that 72% of employees of VBL earn up
to Rs 5000/ per months, 24% of employees earn between (5000/-10000/) per
months while only 4% of employees were having their monthly salary
between (10000/-15000).
We can represent the above data from the basis of below Pie chart.

FINANCIAL PROFILE

4%
24%

72%

UPTO 5000 5000-10000 10000-15000

59
4. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.9

The fourth question deals with the rate with which employees fall under the
category of an absentee in VBL.

CRITERIA VERY FREQUENTLY RARELY NEVER


FREQUENTLY

NO. OF …………… 4 40 6
EMPLOYEES

% OF ……………. 8% 80% 12%


EMPLOYEES

• The above data shows that 80% of people in VBL rarely take leave from the
company, 12% said they never take leave, 8% said they due to reasons of
illness and exhaustion frequently take leave from their work while everyone
of them remained indifferent for frequently falling under the category of an
absentee. Thus, the commitment of workers in VBL towards their job is very
high.
The below visual pie chart satisfy the above data!

CRITERIA

12% 0% 8%

80%

VERY FREQUENTLY FREQUENTLY


RARELY NEVER

60
5. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.10

The fifth question concerns the contributing factors behind worker’s being absent
from their work.

EFFECT OF ILLNESS AND UNFORESEEN JOB


FACTORS INTOXCATION INDISPOSITION CONTINGENT DISSATISFACTION
SITUATIONS

NO.OF 1 28 13 8
EMPLOYEES

% OF 2% 56% 26% 16%


EMPLOYEES

• The above data base structure shows that 2% of employees are affected due to
intoxication and thus fall absent, 56% suffer from illness or injury and thus are
committed to absenteeism, 26% consider some unforeseen contingent
situations, which are beyond their control like, death in the family, marriages
etc. and thus fall absent while 16% are not satisfied with their jobs hence
don’t want to report to work.
The below visual pie chart outlays the above data!

FACTORS

16% 2%

26% 56%

EFFECT OF INTOXICATION
ILLNESS AND INDISPOSITION
UNFORESEEN CONTINGENT SITUATIONS
JOB DISSATISFACTION

61
6. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.11

The sixth question concerns the disciplinary actions faced by the workers on
being absent.

DEDUCTION STOPPAGE IN REDUCTION STOPPAGE NON-


ACTIONS IN SALARY INCREMENT IN LEAVES IN REMUNARATIVE
PROMOTION OVERTIME

NO.OF 32 1 14 0 3
EMPLOYEES

% OF 64% 2% 28% 0% 6%
EMPLOYEES

• The above data base structure shows that 64% of employees face deduction in
salary on being absent, 2% suffer stoppage in increment, 28% got their leaves
reduced, 6% have to work for extra hours for which they are not paid, while
none of the employees were charged for detention or stoppage in promotion.
We can represent the above data from the basis of below Pie chart

ACTIONS
6%
0%
28%

2% 64%

DEDUCTION IN SALARY
STOPPAGEIN INCREMENT
REDUCTION IN LEAVES
STOPPAGE IN PROMOTION
NON-REMUNERATIVE OVERTIME

62
7. ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.12

The seventh question concerns about the application of leave framed by the
workers to their superiors.

PRIOR OF BEING THE NEXT DAY ON THE SAME DO NOT


CRITERIA ABSENT DAY INFORM

NO. OF 46 1 2 1
EMPLOYEES

% OF 92% 2% 4% 2%
EMPLOYEES

• The above data base structure shows that 92% of employees inform their boss
prior of being absent, 2% inform the next day, 4% inform the same day from
telephone or personally, while 2% do not inform at all as they consider it
necessary.
We can represent the above data from the basis of below Pie chart

CRITERIA

2% 4% 2%

92%

PRIOR OF BEING ABSENT THE NEXT DAY


ON THE SAME DAY DO NOT INFORM

63
8.ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.13

The eight question concerns whether the employees want to be called as an


absentee or not?

CONDITION YES NO

NO. OF EMPLOYEES 0 50

% OF EMPLOYEES 0% 100%

• The above data base structure shows that 100% of employees do not want to
be called as an absentee.
We can represent the above data from the basis of below Pie chart

CONDITION

0%

100%

YES NO

64
9.ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.14

The ninth question concerns whether the employees want to convert


themselves from an absentee employee to a non-absentee employee?

CONDITION YES NO

NO.OF 49 1
EMPLOYEES

% OF 98% 2%
EMPLOYEES

• The above data base structure shows that 98% of employees want to convert
themselves from an absentee employee to a non-absentee employee while
remaining 2% remained indifferent of this view.
We can represent the above data from the basis of below Pie chart

CONDITION

2%

98%

YES NO

65
10.ANALYSIS OF QUESTION NO.15.

The tenth question contains the view of employees towards absenteeism.

HABITUAL PROBLEM REGULAR PRACTICE AN INCORREGIBLE


VIEWS PROBLEM

NO.OF 15 12 23
EMPLOYEES

% OF 30% 24% 46%


EMPLOYEES

• The above data base structure shows that 30% of employees think
absenteeism as habitual problem of employees, 24% consider it as a regular
practice in any organization as it is found everywhere, remaining 46% treat it
as an incorrigible problem as it is beyond their control and thus they can’t
avoid it.
We can represent the above data from the basis of below Pie chart

VIEWS

30%
46%

24%

HABITUAL PROBLEM
REGULAR PRACTICE IN ANY ORGANIZATION
AN INCORREGIBLE PROBLEM

66
67
“FINDINGS OF THE STUDY”

Conducting a questionnaire based on the level of absenteeism and its causes at Varun
Beverages Ltd. Of both the managers and the non-managers, facts that can be derived are: -

• Youngsters are more privileged with job options in VBL.


• Managers as well as the employees of VBL are completely dedicated and
devoted towards their sphere of activities.
• Both the managers and the workers consider absenteeism as an incorrigible
problem, which is found more likely to be beyond their control.
• Most of the employees of VBL are educated and packed with complete
knowledge of their work profile.
• Both the sections consider salary as an important incentive in curing
increasing absenteeism rate and there in VBL they are facing problems with
low salary.
• Non of the employees at VBL want to be called as an absentee and wants to
contribute his maximum and pay their best efforts towards increasing the
product ional activity as well as progress of Pepsi group.
Thus, all our hypothesis namely:
• Absenteeism affects and reduces organizational productivity.

• Logical outlook towards various problems was more prominent among regular

attendees than absentees.

• Older employees have greater commitment towards their work.

Proved to be true and authentic!

68
69
“IMPRESSIONS FROM THE STUDY”
• There was found to be a timely well-structured and well-administered organizational
culture in VBL.
• The wages and salaries structure of the company was found to be strictly in
accordance with the law.
• A duly and timely filing of all returns in relation to wages and salary administration
was carried out.
• The awareness level among the employees regarding the various leaves and facilities
being provided by the company were found to good.
• There was a general satisfaction amongst the people with regards to their salaries in
relation to their merits.
• It was found that company did not provide any educational facilities to the
employees.
• There was a general satisfaction amongst people with regards to canteen and other
facilities. Also they are not completely satisfied by the welfare activities of
company.
• There was found to be very low job security amongst employees.
• The salary of most of the people could satisfy either their basic needs only, or their
needs as well as reserve requirements.
• Most of the people employed at Pepsi felt that their colleges possessing
approximately equal qualifications and experiences working in other firms were
drawing more salary than them.
• Frequent biases can be witnessed in the plant.
• There is a lack of technical knowledge among the workers of the company.
• A majority of the employees working at Pepsi are satisfied with the leaves they are
provided.

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“SUGGESTIONS”

With all the theoretical knowledge and practical experience I posses, I would like to
suggest the following-:

• To increase the awareness level of employees working at Pepsi with regards to


various things like number of earned leaves.
• To improve upon their Grievance redresser programme should be conducted.
• To bring a sense of job security among the employees.
• They should be provided with welfare activities in absolute terms.
• Trainings and development program should be conducted more seriously.
• Rules and regulations of the enterprise or that of the plant should be made
clearer to every employee working in VBL and it should be insured that they
abide to the same.

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“ANNEXURES”

1.Questionnaire based on the study of the level of absenteeism and its causes at VBL,

(special reference to Managerial categories)

2.Questionnaire based on the study of the level of absenteeism and its causes at VBL

(special reference to Non-managerial categories)

3.Comparison of the data of attendance record of 2005 with that of 2006 till the month

of July, collected from the attendance register of VBL.

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“BIBLIOGRAPHY”

While undergoing the project for collecting various information’s and details I have
referred the following: -
BOOKS AUTHORS PUBLICATION
• Organizational Behavior STEPHEN ROBBINS PEARSON
EDUCATION-2005

• Organizational Behavior FRED LUTHANS TMH-2005


• Human Resource Management GARRY DESSLER
• Business today magazine

SITES
• www.pepsico.com
• www.googlesearch.com
• www.answers.com
• www.yahoo.com
• www.rkjgorup.com
• www.pepsi.com

RECORDS
• Attendance register of VBL.
• Oxford dictionary.

MISCELLANEOUS
Advertisement and banners of Pepsi.
Television advertisements.

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