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Hyerim Lee

SRST 623
May 7, 2014
Literature review

Chapter 1

Background for the Study
A number of countries have established organizations to administer and regulate their
college sport systems and one of the examples is the National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) in the United States. Indeed, the NCAA is responsible for the overall management of
college sport in the U.S. Therefore, it would be wise to appreciate the NCAA in order to
understand the college sport system in the United States. Located in Indiana, the NCAA is
responsible for all of the college sports in the U.S. and all of the college athletic programs and
their student athletes are under its management and regulation. More than thousands of colleges
in the U.S. are registered as the members of the NCAA. The NCAA divides colleges and
universities into three divisions and each division sets its own guidelines for administrative
purposes. Also, the NCAA makes its own rules to regulate progress of tournaments, operation of
college athletic programs, and enforcement of punishment against those who violated the rule.
Also, they make a great amount of efforts to raise funds for better management of college sport
systems. It is markedly noticeable that college sport system exhibits commercial traits since it is
mostly sponsored by many businesses for the tremendous amount of funds. This sponsorship has
been possible due to the high level of enthusiasm from many college sport fans in the United
States. Therefore, the financial capacity of the NCAA is a driving force for success of college
sport in the U.S.
The NCAA heavily emphasizes on the balance between athletics and academics
performances. For instance, high school athlete students not only need to perform well in their
sport team but are also required to meet for the academic requirement in order to get into the
college sport program of their interest. Student athletes would not be able to compete for their
sport team if they are not qualified academically due to failure in class or low GPA. Indeed, each
college has been operating tutoring system for college athletes in order to help them keep up with
their educational progress and counseling program to aid their balance between academics and
athletics lives. So, the majority of student athletes try their best to study for their classes and
examinations after their workout and training.
South Korean college sport model is different from the sport model in the United States.
South Korean does not have a major association like the NCAA, but Korean Olympic Committee
(KOC) is responsible for international college athletic activities including Universiade, and
World University Championships. In fact, most college athletic competitions are organized by
Ministry of Education, Ministry of Cultures, Sports, and Tourism, Korea Council of Sport for All,
and National Sports Federations (Korea Olympic Committee, n.d.). As these organizations are
sponsored by the government, people find it difficult to develop college sport business and
promote college athletic programs.
The major mission of Korea sport focuses on elite youth sports and professional sports
rather than armature college sports. Student-athletes do not receive academic support from
colleges, but colleges allow them to focus solely on their athletic goal which has positive and
negative effects on Korean student-athletes. A large percentage of Korea National team members
are college student-athletes and they have contributed winning a medal at the Olympics and
major international competitions.
Student-athletes low academic abilities and their insecure career and life have been
concerned. Student-athletes in secondary education attend classes around two hours a day which
is much lower than non-athlete students and spend around five to six hours on athletics (Kwak,
Kim & Joo, 2011). Student-athletes do not develop academic integrity and do not receive an
education which is necessary for career and future life. Therefore, parents are reluctant to
encourage their children to play sports when they enter secondary education because of career
instability, and most student-athletes who are not competitive in international level do not
participate in athletics. There are no student-athletes who participate in athletics for health, social
networking or any other benefits of playing sports in any level of education while only student-
athletes who want to become professional participate in athletics.
As a result, an overall number of student-athletes playing in secondary and higher
education have decreased and student-athletes who are competitive in international competitions
are more likely to go a professional team which causes student-athletes participating in college
athletics to demonstrate lower level of athletic performance. Because of this, colleges find it
difficult to promote college sport fans and generate revenues from their team and either colleges
cut their sport teams or invest less on college athletics.
The concern about Korea college athletics and student-athletes college experiences has
increased significantly. Many researchers argue that student-athletes should have opportunity to
have academic experiences to be prepared a well-around person after discontinue athletic
participation (Kim & Park, 2009; Kim & Yoon, 2010). In 2010, the Korea University Sport
Federation (KUSF) was established to develop Korea college sport environment, and the KUSF
has implemented a new college athletic operating system. The KUSF is committed to protect
student-athletes learning experiences and academic competencies, enhance good sportsmanship
and amateurism, promote student-athletes right and well-being, and improve student-athletes
athletic performance through conducting research and support student-athletes academic
experience, educational management, resources (KUSF, n.d.).

Overview of the Study
This study will discover American student-athletes and South Korean student-athletes
college experiences and the benefits and challenges associated with the US college sport model
and South Korea college sport model. The review of literature discusses the benefits and
challenges of being student-athletes in the United States. Much literature examines the impact of
academic support services and social networking on student-athletes college experiences and the
benefits of time management skills, psychosocial problems, stereotypical assumptions and
alcohol and drug abuse among student-athletes. The literature analyzes student-athletes
perceptions of participating in college athletic and of facultys attitude toward student-athletes
and how these benefits and challenges affect student-athletes academic and athletic
development. Much research examines alcohol and drug abuse and academic motivation between
student-athletes and non-athletes students, and characteristic of student-athletes regarding gender,
race, and type of sports.
Rationale for the Study
The purpose of this study will be to explore American student-athletes and South Korean
student-athletes college experiences while participating in college athletics and the focus will be
on their academic and athletic experiences. By analyzing those student-athletes college
experiences, this study will contribute to a better understanding of what are the benefits and
challenges associated with the US college sport model and South Korean college model and what
South Korea colleges can be learned from the US college sport model and what regulations and
programs should be implemented to South Korea to improve student-athletes college
experiences and to help student-athletes develop career and life goals. Much research has been
done on student-athletes college experiences qualitatively and quantitatively in the United States.
However, there is little research qualitatively examines South Korean student-athletes
perceptions of their college experiences
Statement of the Problem
There is a gap in understanding how two different college models affect student-athletes
college experience and what would be the benefits one can learn from the other. Much
quantitative research has been done on student-athletes athletic experiences and class attendance
rate which attending in secondary education in South Korea. However, there is little research on
how the South Korea college sport model affect student-athletes college experiences and how
colleges improve student-athletes college experiences. Though many studies have researched
student-athletes academic and athletic experiences and suggestions and programs in student-
athletes academic, athletic, and personal development in the United States, little is known about
the benefits of the US college sport model that can promote college sport in other countries and
whether the US college sport model is beneficial for countries that have different cultural
background. Thus, there is a need for cross-cultural comparative research qualitatively focusing
on American student-athletes and South Korean student-athletes college experiences to develop
college sport model and benefit student-athletes in succeed in academic and athletic goals.

Chapter 2

Review of the Literature

The Benefits associated with Being Student-Athletes
Even though student-athletes face many challenges balancing their both academics and
athletics and express their negative experience of being student-athletes, many student-athletes
find it beneficial to participate in college athletics. They believe that their athletic participation
has more positive effect than negative effects on their academics and athletics. Also, the NCAA
requires the U.S colleges to provide programs for student-athletes. In this section, the major
benefits associated with being student-athletes are presented.
Academic Supporting Services
Many colleges provide a number of programs to help student-athletes in succeeding their
academic goals and their future careers. Even though faculty and non-athlete student argue that
student-athletes are not deserved to receive any special treatments and they consider those
special treatments unfair, student-athletes often receive special treatment including tutoring,
early enrolment, special advising, and review sessions (Simon, Rheenen, & Covington, 1999;
Potuto & OHanlon, 2007). Another study also indicates that being of student-athletes enables
them to gain benefits including career preparation services, academic tutoring, and involvement
in community services (Chen, Snyder, & Magner, 2010). This supports the research conducted
by Paule and Gilson (2010) which reveals that student-athletes often have priority to register for
the classes and meet with their athletic advisors who helps them prepare exams. Pierce (2007)
claims that engineering students of the University of South Carolina who sought an additional
help from their engineering faculty members received a higher grade point average than those
who did not. Many researchers have conducted research assessing the effect of academic support
program in the U.S. colleges on student-athletes academic success.
Many colleges provide Challenging Athletic Minds for Personal Success
(CHAMPS)/Life Skills programs to help student-athletes in athletics, academics, personal and
career development (Carodine, Almond, & Gratto, 2001). Many colleges currently provide
athletic support programs for student-athletes. All junior and senior student-athletes of The
University of Florida are required to attend a class where they can develop self-marketing plan,
and write successful resumes and cover letter. In addition, The University of Texas at Austin
holds Career Days to help student-athletes in preparing their job requirement (Carodine,
Almond, & Gratto, 2001).
Time Management Skills
Time management consists of sound planning, good judgment, and personal
responsibility (Harris, Altekruse, & Engels, 2010, p. 73). Many studies have indicates that
student-athletes develop time management skills while being student-athletes because of their
demanding schedule, and student-athletes consider time management skills as one of the benefits
of being student-athletes (Potuto & OHanlon, 2007) In the study reported by Paule and Gilson
(2010), student-athletes state their experience of time management, and a Lori, a female track
and field athletes said, A couple of weeks ago we went to Floridawell my first year I didnt, I
wasnt really on the travel team my first yearBut when I started to become competitive, thats
when I think my focus changed and I just became more disciplined in all aspects of life and I
learned how to better manage my time. This supports that student-athletes who compete in high
level are also learn and use time management skills. Student-athletes who use time management
skill are more likely to achieve their academic goal.
Pierce (2007) examined the academic success of nineteen student athletes who majored in
engineering at the University of South Carolina, a member of the NCAA Division I Southeastern
Conference. Their grade point average during the spring semester of 2005 was well above 3.00
on a 4.00 scale. Among the number of attributes, these student athletes were shown to be
excelled on time management, organization, and problem solving ability. The author argue that
the time management played an essential role in the academic success because more than 60 %
of these students responded that their course planning, guided by their engineering academic
advisor, had a positive effect on their success. Also, these excelling students answered that their
academic performance was not hindered by their athletic schedule. Another study insists that
time management skills is one of the essential skills for student-athletes to accomplish their
college life (Harris et al., 2010). This finding suggests that it is necessary to develop time
management skills for student-athletes to fulfill their both academics and athletics
Social Networking
Student-athletes spend much more time with their teammates than their non-athletes
peers. According to Potuto and OHanlon (2007), many student-athletes report that their social
and emotional supports are influenced by their teammates. Since they have a lack of time to
interact with other students, their relations is very limited to their teammates. However, the study
conducted by Gayles and Hu (2009) show that student-athletes spend their time with non-athlete
students, and student-athletes in high profile have a lower level of interaction with non-athletes
than student-athletes in low profile sports. Female student-athletes spend more time with non-
athlete students than male student athletes. The authors emphasize that social engagement has
positive effects on student-athletes college experience.
Another study indicates that being student-athletes help them to build personal
relationship to faculty (Simon et al., 2007). For instance, a female student said, The only think I
can think of tis the fact that I got to know one of my professors better because of my sport. I was
lucky to get a personal connection with a professor (Simon et al, 2007, p. 265). Student-
athletes state that being student-athletes provides an opportunity to experience of the benefits of
college athletics while they interact with their teammates (Paule & Gilson, 2010). Their team
often indicates their central peer group for student-athletes (Simons et al., 1999). For instance,
male student-athletes said Being part of a team, you know you cant really replicate that. And
something about playing, just having your team is a really powerful sort of bond (Paule &
Gilson, 2010, p. 339). This comment indicates that student-athletes feel a strong sense of
belonging to their team.
Watt and Moore (2001) argue that working with teammates enables student-athletes to
improve their generosity and understand difference. Potuto and OHanlon (2007) clam that
participating in college athletic allows student-athletes to have more multicultural experience and
to have more chance to interact with students from different backgrounds than non-athletes
students. According to the 2004 NSSE report, student-athletes said, they had developed a
greater understanding of people of other racial and ethnic background(p. 954). Jolly (2008)
emphasized the importance of building relationships between faculty and student-athletes and
believed that this can assist faculty in understanding of student-athletes college experiences and
challenges. In fact, the understanding their dual roles of student and athlete will increase faculty
members willingness to provide academic support for student-athletes and to remove student-
athletes misperceptions of faculty and professors stereotypical assumptions about their
academic abilities.
The Challenges of Being Student-Athletes
Student-athletes in the United States spend a great deal of time participating in athletic-
related events including practicing and competing, and they also have obligation to fulfill their
academic responsibilities to keep their National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
eligibility standard. Their responsibilities in both academics and athletics often cause student-
athletes to fail their athletic goals and academic achievement. Student-athletes often express their
negative experiences while being student-athletes, and many previous researchers also have been
concerned about these negative impacts on student-athletes college experience. This section will
illustrate the major challenges associated with their athletic participation.
Psychosocial Problems
The most common challenge that student-athletes face is their lack of time to experience
their campus life and build social networking with people outside of their athletic programs.
Much previous research has revealed that college student-athletes face many challenges
associated with their obligatory work in athletic and athletic, and they tend to spend much time
with their teammates and people who are related to their athletic programs. Watt and Moor (2001)
discuss that student athletes spend much time with their coaches, teammates, and others in the
athletic department. These tendencies found in among student-athletes cause them to have less
opportunity to develop their social networking with their non-athlete students (Watson &
Kissinger, 2007; Bell, 2009).
Watt and Moore (2001) presents that student-athletes tend to isolate themselves from
non-athlete students, and be unwilling to participate in class discussions. Also, this leads student-
athletes to disregard their role as a student, and responsibility for pursing their academic
achievement. Because of their time commitments to college athletic, their opportunities to
participate in their campus activities are very limited (Paule & Gilson, 2010). Carodine, Almond,
and Gratto (2001) emphasize that student athletes have less opportunity to develop their social
relationship than non-athlete students. Their lack of social networking and college experience
often result in student-athletes develop psychological problems and feel isolated.
According to Watson and Kissingers research measuring student-athletes wellness,
student-athletes scored lower than non-athlete students on Social Self factor which indicates that
their lack of time interacting with college community can cause student-athletes to experience
lower social wellness. Their Essential Self factor was much lower than the non-athlete group
which reveals that student-athletes find it difficult to identify their personal values. The authors
argue that their lack of social interaction may cause the over-identification with their athletic role,
and this problem can be one source affecting their academics, social, personal development, and
their sense of holistic wellness.
Stereotypical Assumptions
Student-athletes often face challenge of being stereotyped by their faculty and peers.
Many researchers have found that faculty members and non-athlete students hold prejudicial
attitudes and stereotypes toward student-athletes academic motivation and academic ability
(Engstrom, Sedlacek, & McEwen, 1995; Comeaux, 2012; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita & Jensen,
2007, Paule & Gilson, 2010). Comeaux (2012) provides evidence that professors have prejudice
against their intellectual abilities. Student athletes often report that professors often assume that
student athletes are not as smart as other non-athlete students. For instance, student-athletes
commented, The professor stood up asking how many student-athletes are in class. When no
one raised their hand, he said good, I dont have to slow dawn then. Also, faculty members
may feel skeptical about student-athletes grade when they made an A in a class (Engstrom et al.,
Some student athletes express that their professors and peers often hold stereotypic
assumptions about their academic motivations and they believe that student-athletes do not have
interest in their academic achievement (Comeaux, 2012). For instance, a female student-athletes
said, A lot of my professors assume that if you are an athlete then your are going to take them
for granted, not come to class, and just assume [youll receive] a good grade for being an athlete
(Paule & Gilson, 2010, p. 342). This comment reflects that professors hold stereotypical
assumptions about student-athletes academic motivation.
These negative stereotypes are also related to different race and gender. African
American athletes express their negative experience of stereotypical assumptions about their
intellectual ability (Simons et al., 2007). Sailes (1993) provide evidence that racial stereotyping
exists in college sport. For instance, white and male hold prejudicial attitudes toward African
American student-athletes. They believe that African American athletes have lower academic
performance than other students because African American athletes are not as smart as other
students. Also, those people assume that white student-athletes are more intelligent than African
American athletes.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Many studies have found that student-athletes are more engaged in the use of
alcohol and drugs (Yusko, Buckman, White, & Pandina, 2008; Wechsler, Danenport,
Dowdall, Grossman, & Zanakos, 1997). Many research believe that student-athletes are more
likely to report the consumption of alcohol than non-athlete student (Grossbard, Geinser,
Mastroleo, Kilmer, Turrisi, & Larimer, 2009; Martens, Dams-OConnor, & Beck, 2006; Yusko
et al., 2008). Yusko and his colleagues conducted a study to compare the prevalence and pattern
of alcohol and drug use of college athletes to those of non-athlete students. In comparison to
male non-athlete student, male student-athletes had a higher number of heavy drinking episodes
and more likely reported that they used illegal performance enhancing drugs, smokeless tobacco.
Instead, male non-athlete students more likely answered that they abused cigarettes and social
drugs when compared to male athlete-students.
Female athlete students answered that they consumed alcohols less frequently compared
to female non-athlete students who reported a significantly greater number of heavy drinking
episodes. Female athlete students were also less likely to report the use of cigarettes, social drugs,
and weight-loss products compared to female non-athlete students were. However, female
athlete-students were more likely to answer that they use of illegal performance-enhancing drugs
and nutritional supplements when compared to female non-athlete students.
The researcher also compared the drug and alcohol use by male athlete- students during
athletic season to off-season use. The result showed that male athlete students were more likely
reported the use of drug and alcohol during their off-season than their athletic season use. Indeed,
the percentage of off-season drug and alcohol use was double that of athletic season use. The
incidence of social drugs and hallucinogens abuse by female athlete students quadrupled during
their off-season (Yusko et al, 2008). The research by Martens et al (2006) indicates that student-
athletes tend to consume more alcohols per week than non-athlete students, and they are more
likely to experience negative consequences caused by alcohol consumption. According to Nelson
and Wechsler (2001), student-athletes experience the negative consequences from alcohol
consumption such as getting into police-related troubles, having unplanned sexual
activity, and being hurt and injured.
Academic and Athletic Motivation
Student-athletes demonstrate different academic motivation and athletic motivation and
measuring academic and athletic motivation help a better understanding of their academic and
athletic performances and enhancement of student-athletes college experiences. The Student
Athletes Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ) was studied to
describe the factors associated with academic and athletic motivation.
The Student Athletes Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire
The SAMSAQ was developed in the study published in 2002 by Gaston. In this study,
236 student-athletes from a large university in the mid-west were asked to complete the
SAMSAQ. The SAMSAQ consisted of a total 30 items measuring academic and athletic
motivation and those student-athletes were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each
statement measured on a six-point Likert-scale.
The purpose of study was to develop instrument (a) to measure academic and
athletic motivation of student-athletes, (b) to examine differences in academic and
athletic motivation by gender and sport, and (c) to explore the predictability of the scale
on future academic performance.
Theories of achievement motivation expectancy value, attribution, and self-efficacy
theories were used to construct the items on the SAMSAQ which help understanding of student-
athletes attitude and behavior toward academic and athletic task.
Expectancy value theory is defined as an individuals perception about a given task
based on the value associated with completion of that task. Based on this information,
individuals who play sports such as football and basketball would work hard to go the
professional level because they value the extrinsic reward associated with playing at a
professional level. Moreover, Eccles (1983) argues that expectancy or probability of success is
influenced by individuals self-concept of their ability to complete the task successfully, and the
level of difficulty.
The second theory is attribution which is defined as individuals have certain beliefs
about the causes of their successes and failures. Based on the information, individuals who
choose to approach success would attribute success to ability and efforts, and attribute failure to
a lack of hard work and effort. Those who choose to avoid failure tend to attribute success to
luck or chance, and attribute failure to lack of ability. Tuckman (1997) indicates that individuals
use three sources of information to determine causes of behavioral outcomes. The sources are:
past history of success and failure, the performance of others doing the same task, and the
amount of time spent on the task.
Another achievement motivation theory is self-efficacy which is defined as assumption
that individuals make judgments about their ability successfully to complete a task. Related to
this definition, individuals would avoid tasks when they think that they cannot finish successfully,
but they would do tasks when they think that they can finish successfully. Four types of
information refer individuals self-efficacy expectations: performance accomplishments,
vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal.
The results of exploratory factor analysis on structure of the scale showed that a three-
factor model was appropriate and the items that loaded on each factors were found to share the
common characteristic. The factors were named: student athletic motivation (SAM), academic
motivation (AM), and career athletic motivation (CAM).
The results indicated that female had higher academic motivation than males, and males
had higher academic motivation and student athletic motivation than females. Also, high profile
student-athletes had higher career athletic motivation than low profile student-athletes. In the
results of future academic performance, the SAT score and academic motivation score were the
predictors of academic performance. Career athletic motivation and student athletic motivation
had negative effect on academic performance.
This study contributed to a better understand how student-athletes are motivated toward
academic and athletic tasks which can help educators and administrators create effective
programs and services to help student-athletes demonstrate high levels academic and athletic
motivation. The results of this study provided the relationships between motivation and academic
performance of student-athletes which can benefit coaches and athletic administrators in
recurring process. In fact, understanding the predictors of academic achievement will help them
recruit student-athlete with higher potential for succeed in classroom and on the field.

Academic Motivation
Academic motivation is important psychological concept to predict future academic
success in educational settings. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was studied to develop a
model that measure and describe the factors related to academic motivation.
Academic Motivation Scale (AMS)
The AMS was developed and validated in study being published by Vallerand in
1992. The purpose of this study was to support for the factorial validity and reliability of
a French-Canadian version, the Echelle de Motivation en Education (EME) in English. The EME
was developed by Vallerand et al in 1989 in French which is based on self-determination theory
and composed of seven subscales assessing intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and
Figure 1- Self-determination continuum based on Vallerand et al

Intrinsic Motivation (IM) refers to the fact of doing an activity for itself, and the
pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation in study of Deci (1975), and Deci and Ryan
(1985). Deci and Ryan argued that IM came from the innate psychological needs of competence
and self-determination. The IM can be divided as IM to know, to accomplish things, and to
experiences simulation.
Intrinsic Motivation to Know (IM-to know) relates to several constructs such as
exploration, curiosity, learning goals, intrinsic intellectuality, and the IM to learn. More
specifically, students engage in activities to experiences the feeling of pleasure and the
satisfaction while learning, exploring, or trying to understand something new (p. 1005).
Intrinsic Motivation toward accomplishments (IM-to accomplish things) is when students
focus on the process of achieving rather than on the results, and this can be defined as the fact
of engaging in an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction experiences when one attempts to
accomplish or create something (p.1005). Thus, students who show IM toward
accomplishments contribute to their work more than requirement.
Intrinsic Motivation to experience stimulation (IM-to experience stimulation) is operative
when students engage in activities to experience sensory pleasure, aesthetic experiences, and fun
and excitement. For instance, students who are intrinsically motivated to experience stimulation
engage in class discussion to experience excitement, and read a book to feel pleasure when they
find passionate and exciting passages.
Extrinsic Motivation (EM) relates to a wide variety of behaviors which are engaged in
as a means to an end and not for their own sake (p. 1006). The types of the EM are described as
external regulation, introjection, and identification.
External Regulation refers to behavior is regulated through external means such as
rewards and constraints (p.1006). Students who are extrinsically motivated with external
regulation would study the night before exams because [their parents] force [them] to.
Introjected Regulation can be described as individual begins to internalize the reasons
for his or her actions (p. 1006). Students would internalize the reason for their actions, but the
actions are not made by their own decisions. Students who show introjected regulation would say,
I study the night before exams because thats what good students are supposed to do (p. 1006).
Identification can be described as the behavior becomes valued and judged important for
the individual, and especially that it is perceived as chosen by oneself, then the internalization of
extrinsic motivation becomes regulated through identification (p. 1007).
Amotivation is considered important to a better understanding of human behavior and can
be descried as individuals perceive contingencies between outcomes and their own actions (p.
1007). Students who are amotivated experience the feeling of incapability to do something and
do not realize the reason why they go to school.
To conduct this research, the seven subscales of four items that assess the reasons why
they go to college were translated to English, and the AMS was completed by 745 university
students from the province of Ontario. The result of internal consistency of the subscales and the
temporal stability of the English version of the scale from the AMS were very similar to those
obtained with the EME. The result from the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the seven-
factor structure of the AMS and support for the discriminant validity of the three IM (knowledge,
accomplishment, and situation) subscales. Gender differences on the various subscale means
replicated the results from the EME except the fact that in the EME study, females were less
amotivated than males and no sex differences on the IM Accomplishment subscale because of
differences on culture, student education level, and socio-economic background. Overall, this
study supported the reliability and some of validity of the AMS.
Sport Motivation
Sport Motivation is an important concept to encourage sport participation and to
understand why student-athletes participate in college athletics. There is research that discuss the
Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6) that measures student-athletes motivation toward sport
Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6)
The SMS was developed from the original version, the IEchelle de motivation dans les sports
(EMS) in study conducted by Briere, Vallerand, Blais and Pelletier in 1992. This study was
conducted to improve this SMS which shows problems with the lack of factorial validity and low
reliability reported by many researchers. More specifically, (a) items measuring integrated
regulated extrinsic motivation were developed and found to possess satisfactory levels of
construct validity, (b) the replacement of several problematic items improve the factorial validity
of the revised SMS, and (c) a solution to the poor discriminant validity of the IM factors was
The first goal was achieved by developing items measuring integrated regulations:
Because it is an extension of me, Because participation in my sport is consistent with
my deepest principles, Because participation in my sport is an integral part of my life,
Because through my sport, I feel that I can now take responsibilities for changes in my
life, and Because it is part of the way in which Ive chosen to live my life. The items
measuring regulated regulation were found to show satisfactory level of construct validity
and four of them were found to be internally consistent.
The second goal was achieved by replacing items for the identified problematic
items of the SMS. The six items of seven potential replacement items replaced were: I
dont seem to be enjoying my sport as much as I previously did (amotivation), I dont
know anymore if I want to continue to invest my time and efforts as much in my sport
anymore (amotivation), For the socio-economic benefits of being an athlete (external
regulation), Because I dont want to disappoint others if I do not play my sport
(introjected regulation), Because training hard will improve my performance (identified
regulation), Because it is good way to socialize (identified regulation), and For the
adrenaline that I experience (IM-stimulation).
As a result, the revised scale consisting of 32items scale model the SMS-8 is developed;
however, the lack of discriminant validity between the IM factors with the SMS-8 was not
resolved. Therefore, an optimal set of four items representing the IM as a single scale was chosen
from theoretical and statistical considerations.
Finally, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the SMS-6 (Model 3) was conducted
and Akaike information criterion (AIC) value was compared with the original SMS and the
revised SMS-8. The result revealed that the fit of the SMS-6 was acceptable and the AIC value
of the SMS-6 was much smaller than previous models which supported that the SMS-6 was
preferable model to measure sport motivation.
Synthesis of Literature
A study of student-athletes perceptions of college experience indicates the impact of the
college sport model in the U.S. The U.S. college sport model has both negative and positive
effects on student-athletes college experiences.
Among the benefits of being student-athletes, academic support services which student-
athletes receive from colleges benefit student-athletes academic development and
accomplishment. Tutoring and academic advising are mainly discusses as most beneficial
academic support services. Time management skills are developed while participating in college
athletics. Student-athletes possessing these skills succeed in their academic as they are able to
balance between their academics and athletics. Social networking is another benefit of being
student-athletes. They are able to interact with the students from different backgrounds and the
professors who have interested in sports. Also, they develop strong sense of belonging to their
Among the challenges of being student-athletes, psychosocial problems indicates
that student-athletes lack of time to experience college community and to interact people
outside of athletics cause they feel isolated which has negative impact on their
development. Stereotypical assumptions that is another negative aspect of college
athletics indicates that professors and peers hold stereotypical assumptions about their
intellectual ability and academic motivation. Racial stereotyping between white and
African American student-athletes occurs in college sports. Alcohol and drug abuse
indicates that female and male student-athletes use illegal performance-enhancing drugs
and their number of drinking episodes is higher during their off-season than in-season.
A study of student-athletes motivation toward academics and athletics helps a
better understanding of student-athletes academic and athletic performance while
participating in college athletics. The factors associated with academic motivation and
athletic motivation will help the enhancement of student-athletes college experiences.
The SAMSAQ was developed to measures student-athletes attitude and behavior
toward academic and athletic tasks. Theories of achievement motivation expectancy
value, attribution, and self-efficacy theories were used to construct the items on the
SAMSAQ. Expectancy value theory is defined as an individuals perception about a
given task based on the value associated with completion of that task. Attribution is
defined as individuals have certain beliefs about the causes of their successes and failures.
Self-efficacy is defined as assumption that individuals make judgments about their ability
successfully to complete a task.
Previous research indicates that female student-athletes had higher academic motivation
than male student-athletes. The athletic motivation and career athletic motivation have a negative
impact on their academic performance.
Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6) were
developed to measure student-athletes motivation toward academic task and sport participation.
Those scales includes intrinsic motivation: the drive to pursue an activity simply for the pleasure
or satisfaction derived from it, extrinsic motivation: pursuing an activity out of a sense of
obligation, or as a means to an end, and amotivation- the absence of intent or drive to pursue an
activity due to ones failure to establish contingencies between their behavior and the activity.
Among the motivation scales, the SAMSAQ will be used in this study to measure
student-athletes academic and athletic motivation.

Chapter 3


Research Questions
The research questions developed for this study will include the two concepts. The first
concept that indicates the overview of this study is the central question which is What are the
American student-athletes and South Korean student-athletes perceptions on their college
experience while participating in college athletics? From the central question the study moved
towards a series of subquestions that were design to help a better understanding of themes
associated with the central questions. The subquestions are listed as follows
1. What are the factors associated with academic and athletic motivation for South
Korean student-athletes?
2. What are the factors associated with academic and athletic motivation for
American student-athletes?
3. Is there a significant difference between American student athletes and South
Korean student-athletes motivation towards academics and athletics?
4. What are the benefit and challenges associated with being student-athletes in the
U.S. higher education contexts?
5. What are the benefit and challenges associated with being student-athletes in
South Korean higher education contexts?
6. Is there a significant difference between South Korean student-athletes college
experiences and American student-athletes college experiences?

Research Design and Instrumentation
A mixed method design will be used for this study. Research question from one to three
will approach through the quantitative tradition of survey research. Research question from four
and six will approach through the qualitative research by interviewing. The survey will be
conducted by asking student-athletes to compete the Student-Athletes Motivation toward Sports
and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ) by Gaston in 2002. These questionnaires will measure
student-athletes academic motivation and athletic motivation while participating in college
The SAMSAQ consisted of total 30 items measured on a 6-point Likert-type scale. The
scale ranges from 6 (very strongly agree) to 1 (very strongly disagree). The items were
constructed from expectancy-value, self-efficacy, and attribution theories. The SAMSAQ has
three subscales, academic motivation (AM), student athletic motivation (SAM), and career
athletic motivation (CAM). The AM subscale measures the student-athletes motivation toward
academic related tasks. The SAM subscale measures the student-athletes motivation to excel at
athletic-related task. The CAM subscale measures the student-athletes motivation toward a
professional career in athletics. The scale consisted of 16 items intend to measure academic
motivation, eight items intend to measure athletic motivation. Five items intend to measure
career athletic motivation, but this scale will not be used in this study. The full scale is included
in Appendix A.
Independent variables will be divided into two categories, background characteristics and
variables of interest. Background characteristics including gender, race, type of sport, years of
eligibility remaining, and highest level of education completed by mother and fathers are self-
report items on the SAMSAQ. The variable of interest includes the three motivation scores, AM,
SAM, and CAM.
The qualitative portion of investigation will be conducted by interviewing
student-athletes and the interview questions will indicate the benefits of being student
athletes including academic supporting services, time management skills, and social
networking, and the challenges of being student-athletes including psychosocial problems,
stereotypical assumptions, and alcohol and drug abuse. The list of interview questions is
included in Appendix B.
Research Setting
The study will be conducted at South Korean universities and American universities. The
participants in this study will be selected from student-athletes enrolling in both universities
where offer a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs and variety of college athletic
teams. Student-athletes will be selected from mens and womens team sports and individual
sports. Sports for men will include baseball, soccer, swimming, and track and field. Sports for
women will include track and field, swimming, soccer, and volleyball.
Data Collection
The first portion of the study will be conducted by the qualitative tradition of survey
research. The permission will be obtained from college athletic director and head coaches before
colleting date from participants. Student-athletes from both South Korean universities and
American universities will be asked to complete the SAMSAQ and return this questionnaire
immediately upon completion though email. The email list will be provided by administrator
from universities. If a response is not received within one week, a short follow up email will be
sent relaying the same questionnaire. If no response is received within one week after sending
the follow up email, no further contact will be made with the participants. The SAMSAQ will be
administered to student-athletes in South Korea and the U.S. at the same time.
For the qualitative portion of the study, the interview with each of the participants will be
conducted. In this study, a question at the end of the online quantitative survey will include to
determine whether student-athletes agree to participate in a follow-up interview. Student-athletes
who agree to a follow-up interview will be selected for the qualitative portion of the study. The
follow-up interview will be conducted by telephones as student-athletes are in different countries.
The goal of the qualitative portion of the study will be to develop a better understanding
of student-athletes college experiences, including the benefits and the challenges of being
student-athletes. The follow-up interview will be developed using main themes elicited
throughout the literature review and the sample interview questions will be Have you received
academic support services while participating in college athletics? And Can you tell me how
academic support services enhance college experiences? The interviews will range from 30 to 40
minutes in length and will be recoded with the participants permission.
The survey questions and interview questions in English will be translated into Korean
for student-athletes in South Korea and the questions will be interview and asked in the same
order with all the participants in South Korean and the U.S.
Data Analysis
Academic motivation and athletic motivation will be calculated using the Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The statistical analysis will produce descriptive statistics
including means and standard deviations that describe student-athletes motivation toward
academics and athletics. Also, Independent sample t-test will be applied to explore the
relationship between demographic valuable and student-athletes motivation toward
academics and athletics. According to Tate (19980, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a
statistical method used to compare the means and determining whether there is a
difference among the groups means. In this study, the ANOVA test will be used to
determine if there is significance between the mean of American student-athletes and
South Korean student-athletes academic motivation and the means of those groups
athletic motivation.
Data analysis for the qualitative portion of the study will follow the seven steps by
Creswell (2014). In Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method
approaches, Creswell illustrate qualitative six data analysis steps. The first step is to
organize and prepare the date analysis. This involves transcribing interview, making note,
scanning and cataloguing material, and arranging the date into different types depending
on information. The second step is to read or look at all the data and to identify theme. In
margins of each transcript or set of notes, start to note general thoughts about the date.
The third step is to start coding all of the date. This involves gathering the initial themes
together. Tesch (1990) illustrated the eight steps typically used in forming codes.
1. Read all the transcription and jot down some ideas.
2. Pick one most interesting interview and try to find its underlying meaning.
3. Cluster together similar topic
4. Abbreviate the topics as codes and write the codes next to the appropriate
segments of the text.
5. Turn the descriptive wording into categories and try to reduce the total list of
categories by grouping related topics.
6. Decide the final abbreviation for each category and alphabetize these codes.
7. Assemble the data material belonging to each category in one place and do
preliminary analysis.
8. If necessary, recode the existing data
The fourth step is to use the coding process to generate a description including
information about people, place, or event in a setting and themes or categories which are major
findings in qualitative studies. The fifth step is to represent the themes and description in
qualitative narrative. This involves discussion of several themes, or with interconnecting themes.
The final step is to make an interpretation in qualitative research of the finding.
Understanding the lesson from the study and the lesson can be personal culture, history, and
experiences. Also, it can be a meaning derived from a comparison of the findings with
information derived from the literature or theories.
The interview questions already include the main themes derived from the literature
review as the benefits and the challenges of being student-athletes and Therefore, this study will
focus on comparing American student-athletes and South Korean student-athletes experiences
with those benefits and challenges.


The SAMSAQ Items

1. I am confident that I can achieve a high grade point average this year (3.0 or above).
2. Achieving a high level of performance in my sport is an important goal for me this year.
3. It is important for me to learn what is taught in my courses.
4. I am willing to put in the time to earn excellent grades in my courses.
5. The most important reason why I am in school is to play my sport.
6. The amount of work required in my courses interferes with my athletic goals.
7. I will be able to use what is taught in my courses in different aspects of my life outside of
8. I chose to play my sport because it is something that I am interested in as a career.
9. I have some doubt about my ability to be a star athlete on my team.
10. I chose (or will choose) my major because it is something I am interested in as a career.
11. Earning a high grade point average (3.0 or above) is not an important goal for me this year.
12. It is important to me to learn the skills and strategies taught by my coaches.
13. It is important for me to do better than other athletes in my sport.
14. The time I spend engaged in my sport is enjoyable to me.
15. It is worth the effort to be an exceptional athlete in my sport.
16. Participation in my sport interferes with my progress towards earning a college degree.
17. I get more satisfaction from earning an A in a course toward my major than winning a
game in my sport.
18. During the years I compete in my sport, completing a college degree is not a goal for me.
19. I am confident that I can be a star performer on my team this year.
20. My goal is to make it to the professional level or the Olympics in my sport.
21. I have some doubt about my ability to earn high grades in some of my courses.
22. I am confident that I can make it to an elite level in my sport (Professional/Olympics).
23. I am confident that I can earn a college degree.
24. I will be able to use the skills I learn in my sport in other areas of my life outside of sports.
25. I get more satisfaction from winning a game in my sport than from getting an A in a course
toward my major.
26. It is not important for me to perform better than other students in my courses.
27. I am willing to put in the time to be outstanding in my sport.
28. The content of most of my courses is interesting to me.
29. The most important reason why I am in school is to earn a degree.
30. It is not worth the effort to earn excellent grades in my courses