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# CASING

## Torque & Drag

At the end of this module you will be able to:
Explain and define Side Forces
Explain and define Friction Factor
Objectives
Understand causes of Torque and Drag
Build a Broomstick Plot
Understand the mechanisms to reduce Torque
and Drag
Torque and Drag Uses
Define rig equipment requirements
Determine drillability of the well
Optimize the trajectory and BHA / drill string /bit design
Simulate drilling and completion (casing) runs
Identify problem areas Identify problem areas
Determine circumstances for sticking events
Establish mud program needs
Evaluate the effectiveness of hole cleaning actions
Determining reaming, backreaming and short trip
requirements
Torque and Drag Modeling
To understand computer modeling two key
points must be understood:
Model (Representation) noun(C):
a representation of something, either as a physical object
which is usually smaller than the real object, or as a simple
description of the object which might be used in calculations.
Garbage In = Garbage Out
Components Of
CASING
Components Of
Torque & Drag
SideForces & Friction
The Weight Component of Side Force
incl
weight
Building Section
Sidewall Forces Tension and DLS
tensile
resultant
tensile
tensile
tensile
resultant
Dropping Section
tensile
weight
weight
resultant
tensile
tensile
weight
resultant
Sidewall Forces Tension and DLS*
Wall force with pipe tension and
DLS:
T L DLS
3
10 18

=
T L DLS
SF

Sidewall Forces Tension and
DLS
Wall force with
pipe tension and
DLS:
DE
DLS:
Wear => Casing,
Drill string
components
Sideforce Components
W
n
T
F
C
W
n
W
n
F
B
F
B
W
n
: side weight = linear weight x sin( inclination )
T
curvature side force
F
C
= T x string curvature
F
C
F
C
W
n
F
B
F
B
F
B
: bending side force
(zero in soft string model)
Total Side Force = -W
n
+ F
C
+ F
B
Side Forces - Worst Case Scenario???
DE
Exercise
Exercise:
Example:
Calculate the wall force across a 30 section of 5/100 DLS
considering a tension of 100,000 lbs below the DL.
ft lbf SF 30 / 91 . 2617
10 18
100000 30 5
3
=

=

ft
T L
SF
DLS 100 / 05 . 2
180000 31
2000 10 18 10 18
0
3 3
=

=

=

KOP of 1500' and a build up to 30 inclination. Our TD is
10,000'. The drillstring tension at 1500' when we are drilling at
TD could be around 180,000 lbs. If the average length of a joint
of drillpipe is 31' and if we want to limit our side force to 2,000
lbs per joint of drillpipe what is the maximum DLS can be used?
The Stiffness Component of Side Force
5 drill pipe
3 1/2 drill pipe
16 deg/100ft
22 deg/100ft
When does stiffness start to become a factor?
Stiffness BHA as a Hollow Cylinder
Stiffness Coefficient = E
x I
where:
E = Youngs Modulus
(lb/in
2
)
I = Moment of Inertia (in
4
)
DE
I = Moment of Inertia (in )
Moment of Inertia
I = p (OD
4
- ID
4
) 64
OD = outside diameter
ID = inside diameter
Stiffness BHA as a Hollow Cylinder
Which one is more stiff?
DE
Drill Collar? Drill Pipe?
Casing?
Liner?
The Buckling Component of SideForce
Fb
Fb
Fb
Fb
Fb
String is in compression
Sinusoidal & Helical Buckling
DE
DE
Buckling - Worst Case Scenario???
DE
Dawson-Pasley Buckling Criteria
r
W K I E
F
B
CR
sin
2

=
(lbs) load buckling sinusoidal Critical = F
DE
(in) hole and joint tool pipe between clearance Radial r
(lbs/in) air in ht Unit weig W
) (inch inertia of Moment
(unitless) factor Buoyancy
Modulus s Young'
(deg) interest of point at the hole the of n Inclinatio
4
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
I
K
E
F
B
CR

## Guidelines for Analyzing Buckling

Problems
Sinusoidal buckling is an indication of the onset of fatigue wear.
Classical Sinusoidal buckling is defined by Dawson & Pasley 82
(SPE 11167) with references to Lubinski in 62.
Modified Sinusoidal buckling defined by Schuh in 91 (SPE
21942) and is used in Drilling Office.
Helical buckling generally results in side force loads. Helical buckling generally results in side force loads.
Helical buckling defined by Mitchell (SPE 15470) and Kwon (SPE
14729) in 86.
Generally Helical buckling should be considered at compressional
loads 2 times those calculated for Sinusoidal buckling
Summary
Four Components of Side Force
Weight always a consideration, light drill pipe in
Horizontal wells
Tensile more pronounced with high tension and high
dog legs
Stiffness negligible effect with dog legs less than 15
deg/100ft
Buckling high compressional loads with neutral point
significantly
above the bit (near surface)
Stiff vs. Soft String Model
Soft String Stiff String
Drill string always in
contact with the borehole
Contact area, curvature
side forces are
Drill string curvature can
be different than wellbore
Contact areas are
reduced, more realistic side forces are
overestimated
reduced, more realistic
side forces
More accurate torque loss
calculation in a low
inclination wellbore
Borehole/Drill string contact
HIGH TORTUOSITY WELLS
(local DLS >> well curvature)
Three main components of
side force
Side weight
Curvature side force
Bending side force
T
T
W
n
STIFF&SOFTSTRING/ BOREHOLECONTACT
LOWTORTUOSITYWELLS
(local DLS<< well curvature)
W
n
T
T
W
n
SOFTSTRING/ BOREHOLECONTACT
W
n
W
n
T
T
STIFFSTRING/ BOREHOLECONTACT
W
n
: component of
drillstring weight
perpendicular to
borehole axis
Bending side force
Stiff- and soft-string models
give the same result for an
untortuous plan
Tortuosity in Planned Trajectories
Account for more than Ideal T&D numbers
Allows more consistent results between different
engineers
DE
engineers
Account for drilling system used
Recommended Values (no offset data)
Vertical, tangent sections 0.75/100ftperiod
Build, drop sections 1.5/100ft period
Turn only sections 1.0/100ft period
Friction
It is the resistance to motion that exists when a solid
object is moved tangentially with respect to another
which it touches.
W
Motion
Friction
Coefficient Of Friction and Critical angle
The frictional drag force is proportional to the normal force.
The coefficient of friction is independent of the apparent area
of contact
When does the Pipe Stop Moving?
Tan
-1
(1/FF) = Inclination
Effect of Friction (no doglegs)
Effect of Friction (no doglegs)
(a) Lowering: Friction opposes motion, so
I sin W I cos W T
F I cos W T
f
=
=
I sin W I cos W T =
(b) Raising: Friction still opposes motion
I sin W I cos W T
F I cos W T
f
+ =
+ =
Exercise 1
What is the maximum hole angle (inclination angle) that
can be logged without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing,
other tubulars or sinker bars?
(assume FF = 0.4)
Friction Factors
In reality, Friction Factor (FF) used in modeling is not
a true sliding coefficient of friction. It acts as a
correlation coefficient that lumps together the friction
forces caused by various effects, including friction.
Typically the FF will depend on a combination of
effects including:
Formation
Mud type
Roughness of Support
Tortuosity
Borehole Condition
Friction Factors - Rotation
Rotating
Sliding
Sliding Velocity
Sliding
Friction
Vector
RPM
Vector
Backreaming
Friction Vector
Sliding Velocity
(ROP) Drilling Friction
Vector
Backreaming friction factor from
weight loss/overpull while drill
string is rotating 0<<0.05
Drilling Friction from torque loss
while drill string is rotating 0.1<
<0.3
Sliding Friction Factor from
weight loss/overpull while drill
string is not rotating 0.1< <0.3
Friction Factors
Are a function of the materials involved (pipe to formation
or pipe to casing) and the lubricity of the fluid (mud)
between them
Water based
mud
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
mud
Oil based
mud
(40% reduction)
Rotational .22 - .28 .13 - .17
Translation .03 - .07 .02 - .05
Sliding (not rotating).28 - .40 --.55 .17 - .25 -- .33
CASING
Stress
FOUR possible types of stresses:
NORMAL STRESS,
BENDING STRESS,
DE
BENDING STRESS,
SHEAR STRESS,
TORSIONAL STRESS
The magnitude of these stresses is dependent on the
Normal Stress
Normal Stress is the intensity of the net forces acting normal
(perpendicular) to an infinitely small area A within an object
per unit area.
If the normal stress acting on A pulls on it, then it is referred to
as tensile stress,
DE
as tensile stress,
If it pushes on the area, it is called compressive stress.
Bending Stress
Bending
Stress
R
D E
b
2

=
(*)
DE
E = Youngs Modulus (psi)
D = Diameter of the Tubular
(inches)
(inches) SPE 37353
Drill-Pipe Bending and Fatigue in Rotary Drilling of Horizontal Wells - Jiang Wu
(*)
(*)
Shear Stress
Shear Stress is the intensity of force per unit area, acting
tangent to A.
If the supports are considered rigid, and P is large enough, the
material of the bar will deform and fail along the planes AB and
DE
material of the bar will deform and fail along the planes AB and
CD.
x
S
F
L
Torsional Stress
6
psi 10 12 steel, of Modulus Shear

72
re Whe 6
or
12
G
L
N J G
Q
J
Q
d
L
N d G

= =

DE

L
Modulus) (Shear

G
A
F
Strain Shear
Stress Shear
S
= =
( )
4 4 4
6
inch ;
32
inertia, of moment Polar J
inches pipe, the of diameter Internal d
ft string, Drillpipe of Length L
ft.lb DP, the to applied Torque Q
rev string, pipe drill in the turns of Number N
psi 10 12 steel, of Modulus Shear
d D
G

## Richard Von Mises

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
3
torsional bending axial
+ + =
Von Mises
Stress
DE
Axial, Bending and Torsional Stresses combined
Total Stress of the drillstring component [psi]
CASING
Torque & Drag
Definitions & Monitoring
Torque Losses
Are defined as the difference between the torque
applied at the rig floor and the torque generated at
the bit. Also referred to as rotating friction.
Drag losses
Torque and Drag - Definition
Drag losses
It is the difference between the static weight of the
drillstring and the weight under movement. Also
referred to as sliding friction.
drag = sideforce x friction factor
torque = sideforce x friction factor x radius
Overpull / Slack-Off
Torque
Torque and Drag Monitoring Why
Track hole condition and deterioration
Determine hole cleaning efficiency
Evaluate cuttings bed formation
Determine limitation of equipment and maximum achievable
depths
Determine mud lubricity effects
Determine effects of mud weight and mud property changes
Build a friction factor database
Understand problems encountered when running casing/liners
Optimize string configurations and BHA and need for torque
reducers
Parameters to monitor
Picking Up
at least 5-6 meters
with a constant
speed
Slacking Off
T r i p p i n g H o o k l o a d s
0
1 , 0 0 0
2 , 0 0 0
3 , 0 0 0
4 , 0 0 0
5 , 0 0 0
6 , 0 0 0
7 , 0 0 0
8 , 0 0 0
9 , 0 0 0
1 0 , 0 0 0
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 0 0 O P H 0 . 0 0
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p o u t
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p o u t
I N C L
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A total of 4 measurements required to monitor T&D
Slacking Off
at least 5-6 meters
movement with a
constant speed
Rotating off bottom
at least 1-2 meters
off bottom
Torque
Off bottom torque @
rotary speed
1 1 , 0 0 0
1 2 , 0 0 0
1 3 , 0 0 0
1 4 , 0 0 0
1 5 , 0 0 0
1 6 , 0 0 0
1 7 , 0 0 0
1 8 , 0 0 0
1 9 , 0 0 0
2 0 , 0 0 0
2 1 , 0 0 0
2 2 , 0 0 0
2 3 , 0 0 0
2 4 , 0 0 0
2 5 , 0 0 0
0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0
H o o k l o a d ( k l b s )
M
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D
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(
f
t
)
T I H H o o k l o a d s
F F = 0 . 0
P O H H o o k l o a d s
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Torque and Drag Monitoring When
At every connection
While tripping in/out
Prior to drilling out/going back into open hole
After major inclination and azimuth changes
Before, during and after wiper trips Before, during and after wiper trips
Before and after circulating bottoms up and pumping sweeps
After a mud type change and major mud proprieties change
Before and after additions of torque reducers
At TD before and after hole has been cleaned
In case of running casing, monitor drag values every 3-5 joints
Torque and Drag Monitoring
After drilling down each connection,
reciprocate the stand with good
circulation and rotation to ensure good
hole cleaning and any cuttings are clear
of the BHA and to determine if the hole is
free (situation may be different for
different rigs/company procedures, so at
each connection, pump/ream the last
stand as necessary and as per
100
0
200
300
stand as necessary and as per
instructions, for each hole size, angle,
formation type, etc).
Martin Decker
200
0
400
600
A few meters off bottom,
obtain rotating string
weight and torque at
drilling RPM and flow rate.
If the T&D modeling is
done correctly, this weight
should be on top of the
FF=0 line
Martin Decker
T r i p p i n g H o o k l o a d s
0
1 , 0 0 0
2 , 0 0 0
3 , 0 0 0
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 0 0 O P H 0 . 0 0
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p o u t
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p o u t
Torque and Drag Monitoring
2-3 m
4 , 0 0 0
5 , 0 0 0
6 , 0 0 0
7 , 0 0 0
8 , 0 0 0
9 , 0 0 0
1 0 , 0 0 0
1 1 , 0 0 0
1 2 , 0 0 0
1 3 , 0 0 0
1 4 , 0 0 0
1 5 , 0 0 0
1 6 , 0 0 0
1 7 , 0 0 0
1 8 , 0 0 0
1 9 , 0 0 0
2 0 , 0 0 0
2 1 , 0 0 0
2 2 , 0 0 0
2 3 , 0 0 0
2 4 , 0 0 0
2 5 , 0 0 0
0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0
H o o k l o a d ( k l b s )
M
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d

D
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p
t
h

(
f
t
)
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p o u t
I N C L
T I H H o o k l o a d s
F F = 0 . 0
P O H H o o k l o a d s
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Drilling Torque FF Calibration
0
100
200
5000
0
10000
15000
A few meters off bottom,
obtain rotating string weight
and torque at drilling RPM
and flow rate. If the T&D
modeling is done correctly,
this weight should be on top
of the FF=0 line
Torque Gauge
Torque and Drag Monitoring
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
1,100
1,200
1,300
1,400
1,500
1,600
1,700
1,800
1,900
2,000
2,100
2,200
2,300
2,400
2,500
2,600
0 5 10 15 20
Torque (kft-lbs)
M
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D
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(
m
)
Off-btm Torque
CH=0.25, OH=0.30
CH=0.20, OH=0.20
1
3

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1
4
.
7
5
to turn top-drive.
2-3 m
200
0
400
600
Stop rotary and obtain pick up
(P/U) weight on up pipe
movement, at least 5-6 meters,
record both maximum PU weight
and normal PU weight . (Static
and dynamic frictions)
Martin Decker
T r i p p i n g H o o k l o a d s
0
1 , 0 0 0
2 , 0 0 0
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 0 0 O P H 0 . 0 0
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p o u t
Torque and Drag Monitoring
2-3 m
3 , 0 0 0
4 , 0 0 0
5 , 0 0 0
6 , 0 0 0
7 , 0 0 0
8 , 0 0 0
9 , 0 0 0
1 0 , 0 0 0
1 1 , 0 0 0
1 2 , 0 0 0
1 3 , 0 0 0
1 4 , 0 0 0
1 5 , 0 0 0
1 6 , 0 0 0
1 7 , 0 0 0
1 8 , 0 0 0
1 9 , 0 0 0
2 0 , 0 0 0
2 1 , 0 0 0
2 2 , 0 0 0
2 3 , 0 0 0
2 4 , 0 0 0
2 5 , 0 0 0
0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0
M
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D
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p
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(
f
t
)
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p o u t
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p o u t
I N C L
T I H H o o k l o a d s
F F = 0 . 0
P O H H o o k l o a d s
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5-6 m
200
0
400
600
Obtain the slack off (S/O)
weight on the down
movement of the pipe while
returning the pipe 5-6
meters to bottom. Record
both minimum slack off and
normal slack off weights.
Martin Decker
T r i p p i n g H o o k l o a d s
0
1 , 0 0 0
2 , 0 0 0
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p i n
C S G 0 . 0 0 O P H 0 . 0 0
Torque and Drag Monitoring
2-3 m
2 , 0 0 0
3 , 0 0 0
4 , 0 0 0
5 , 0 0 0
6 , 0 0 0
7 , 0 0 0
8 , 0 0 0
9 , 0 0 0
1 0 , 0 0 0
1 1 , 0 0 0
1 2 , 0 0 0
1 3 , 0 0 0
1 4 , 0 0 0
1 5 , 0 0 0
1 6 , 0 0 0
1 7 , 0 0 0
1 8 , 0 0 0
1 9 , 0 0 0
2 0 , 0 0 0
2 1 , 0 0 0
2 2 , 0 0 0
2 3 , 0 0 0
2 4 , 0 0 0
2 5 , 0 0 0
M
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D
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(
f
t
)
C S G 0 . 2 0 O P H 0 . 2 0 T r i p o u t
C S G 0 . 4 0 O P H 0 . 4 0 T r i p o u t
I N C L
T I H H o o k l o a d s
F F = 0 . 0
P O H H o o k l o a d s
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5-6 m
Torque and Drag Monitoring How
Moving the drill string at the same speed
Turn pumps off and take P/U and S/O weights and repeat
previous steps above, before the connection
Take the circulating readings at the same flow rate (for each
hole section) to avoid the potential influence/interference of
hydraulic lift.
hole section) to avoid the potential influence/interference of
hydraulic lift.
While tripping out, just obtain the pick-up weights. Obtain
the slack-off weights while running in.
Pumps on readings can be used to estimate maximum
depth achievable while drilling
For running casing/liner, get the S/O weights while running.
Picking up off
the slips,
maximum
represents the
static friction
factor). This
will help us
monitor if we
are getting
closer to rig
limits limits
moving the drill
string up (This
represents the
dynamic
friction factor).
needs to be
used in the
T&D charts
Hook Position
Torque & Drag
CASING
Torque & Drag
Examples
Hole Condition
Monitoring
Poor Hole Cleaning Example
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
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12 Tangent Section
LWD Gamma Ray
Curve
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
19,000
20,000
21,000
175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525
Slack-Off Wt. Rotating Wt.
Pick/Up Wt.
1
2

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O
H
Gamma
Ray
indicating poor hole
cleaning in tangent
section
67 degrees
Break-outs Rig with Pump Pressure
Limitations
HC problems
Short Trip
30% FF deterioration
Casing Running - Good
Casing Running - Poor
Gamma ray
Increasing drag running 9
5/8 casing due to hanging 5/8 casing due to hanging
in ledges in wellbore
while running in hole, indicating
increase drag. Casing becomes
stuck off-bottom at 15,100 feet.
Drag improves once
circulation is established to
clean hole
Torque & Drag
CASING
Torque & Drag
Management
Further Considerations
Drillstring Design Sections
Section
Type
Function Desired
Characteristics
Desired
Considerations
I BHA Directional
Control
Stiff, Light
Weight
Minimize T&D
II DP Transfer
Weight
Stiff, Light
Weight
Minimize T&D,
resistance
III DP or
HWDP
Transfer
Weight
Stiff, Light
Weight
Minimize T&D,
Increased buckling
resistance
IV HWDP Transfer /
Provide
Weight
Stiff, Moderate
Weight
Increased buckling
resistance
V HWDP
or DC
Provide
Weight
Concentrated
Weight
Transition component
VI DP Support
Weight
High Tensile and
Torsional Limits
tensile and torsional
margins
Managing Torque and Drag
Torque Reduction
Well Trajectory
Cased Hole
Open Hole
Mud Lubricity
Use of LCM
Drag Optimization
Well Profile
Mud Lubricity
Drill pipe protectors
Buckling Effects
Weight Distribution
Use of LCM
Torque reducers
Well path considerations
Trajectory
Bottom hole
Assemblies
Optimum Profile
Weight Distribution
Hole Cleaning
Down hole Motors
Rotation
Steerable Rotary Systems
General Guidelines for T&D Optimization
String design can help overcome existing drag
Place heaviest Drill String Components in the vertical hole section
Keep tortuosity and doglegs to a minimum (Optimization of well
trajectory)
Use rotary steerable system if feasible
Use torque reducing subs where side forces are the highest
Ensure proper hole cleaning.
Lubricants can be used to effectively reduce Torque and Drag
temporarily.
Run Torque and Drag simulations at several key depths, not just at TD to
monitor hole cleaning
Torque and Drag are caused by lateral forces and friction in the wellbore
BHAs should be designed to achieve the desired build/turn tendencies
with the maximum amount of rotary drilling.
Bit torque should be monitored
Torque & Drag Reduction
Questions??