This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
30 Jahre GTZ. Partner für Perspektiven. Weltweit. 30 Years GTZ. Partner for the Future. Worldwide. 30 Jahre GTZ. Partner für Perspektiven. Weltweit. 30 Years GTZ. Partner for the Future.
Focus – Fascination – Future: Designing tomorrow’s cities
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ ) GmbH
Eschborn Dialogue 2005
4 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27
Anatomy of the city Voice of the city
Wo r k s h o p 1
The power of cities – the influence of networking Heritage as an asset
Wo r k s h o p 2
Development without culture – or culture-driven urban development? Balancing act between boom and poverty
Wo r k s h o p 3
Poor rich city – between economic growth and financial crisis Matters of security
Wo r k s h o p 4
City worth living in – security and rights for all Governance by rules
Wo r k s h o p 5
Urban governance – how do cities stay manageable? Urban ecomodels
Wo r k s h o p 6
Ecocities – the places of the future? Transfer between city and hinterland
Wo r k s h o p 7
Town and country – connections create benefits Efficient cities for people
Wo r k s h o p 8
Bringing the city close to the people – through participation and transparency The world as city GTZ profile Contacts
Published by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5, 65760 Eschborn, Germany Telephone: +49 6196 790, fax: +49 6196 791115, email: email@example.com, Internet: www.gtz.de Editorial staff: Jens Heinefirstname.lastname@example.org (responsible) and Georg Schuler/KonzeptTextRedaktion, Mainz Proofreader: Manhard Schütze, Frankfurt am Main | Design: Eva Hofmann, Frankfurt am Main Photos: Dirk Ostermeier (event) and GTZ archive | Litho: Communications Albecker & Haupt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main Printed by: Druckerei und Verlag Otto Lembeck, Frankfurt am Main | printed on 100% recycled paper | August 2005
Cities arouse our curiosity, they fascinate us. They inspire directors to make films, like Metropolis and City of God, writers like Günter Grass and Cees Noteboom to write stories about Calcutta and Marrakesh, and composers like Heiner Goebbels to compose music such as Surrogate Cities. The city engages us. In response to onrushing urbanization, Technical Cooperation is now even more attentive to the city. As Peter Herrle, professor at the Technical University Berlin observed: “Development policy is turning into urban policy.” GTZ has taken up the challenge and set its sights on this issue with our spotlight of the year, Focus – Fascination – Future: Designing tomorrow’s cities. The Eschborn Dialogue 2005 on the same topic provided a professional platform for stimulating discussion and specialist exchange. In addition to GTZ Head Office and field personnel, we were pleased to welcome more than 200 speakers and participants from other federal government ministries and departments, municipalities, national and international organizations, business, industry and academia. The Eschborn Dialogue made one thing clear: urban development is more than just a technical or sectoral issue. It is highly political. This is where people live out democracy, where civil rights are exercised, and where interests are articulated and negotiated. As the range of workshop themes showed, urban development has many facets, from urban culture through environmental issues to international urban networks. What we now have to do is turn all the valuable words into deeds in anticipation of the big events coming up over the next few years. The World Urban Forum III takes place next year and the theme for the EXPO World Exposition in 2010 is ‘Better City – Better Life’. My thanks go to everyone who made the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 possible: the speakers, the people in charge of the workshops, the organization team and all those who took part.
Bernd Hoffmann, Director Governance and Democracy GTZ
Eschborn Dialogue 2005
Anatomy of the city
For two whole days, GTZ Eschborn talked about just one thing: tomorrow’s cities. In workshops and panels at the Eschborn Dialogue 2005, prominent guests and development experts discussed key issues in urban development.
Urban development will have a decisive influence on whether people 20 years from now have an environment worth living in. Can we avert climate collapse and how can we live in a world without oil? We can only find answers to these questions if we include the city as a factor in the scenario, as Volker Hauff, Chairperson of the German Council for Sustainable Development, said at the start of the Eschborn Dialogue 2005. For two days, the specialist conference under the banner ‘Focus – Fascination – Future: Designing tomorrow’s cities’ took a close look at all the facets of urban development. As every year, many prominent guests accepted GTZ’s invitation, this time to discuss its spotlight theme of the year – tomorrow’s cities – with development experts.
Countries with high-growth economies such as Brazil, India, China or South Africa bear a great responsibility. The consequences for people and the environment could be enormous if we chart the wrong course, Hauff warned. The nations of the North must set a good example before they start telling others what to do. He explained that a key problem was
rural exodus. Despite all the problems this caused, cities were growing, particularly in developing and more advanced countries. A major reason for ongoing migration lay in the economic resources concentrated in the municipalities. As GTZ Managing Director Bernd Eisenblätter pointed out, cities are engines of growth and earn a major part of national income. People see cities as the only chance to escape poverty. In Asia alone, the urban population has grown by 163 per cent since 1975. Eisenblätter: “The urban population in Africa grows by five per cent every year.” GTZ has been dealing with the problems of towns and cities and urban development for 30 years, since it started. The focus at the beginning was on such items as developing infrastructure, the drinking water supply and sewage and refuse disposal, as GTZ Director General Cornelia Richter explained. The political dimension of urban development has since moved to the forefront of attention. The Indian social scientist Sheela Patel, Director of the NGO SPARC, called for urban development to include poverty alleviation. The founder of SPARC, an advocate of the rights of the urban poor, underpinned her argument by citing the situation of the poor in Mumbai. At the EFTA opening event with the theme ‘Changing world – focus on the city’ Stuttgart’s Mayor Wolfgang Schuster pinpointed some trends in his city that run counter to those in the South. As an export-dedicated city, Stuttgart is one of the winners of globalization, but the population is shrinking: children and youth live in only 19 per cent of households in the Stuttgart area and ten per
Erich Stather, State Secretary at the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Wolfgang Schuster, Mayor of Stuttgart
Sheela Patel, Director SPARC
Steffen Seibert, chairperson from ZDF
cent of those are one-child households. “We have four times as many cars as children", Schuster said. An important countervailing factor in the trend towards fewer children was migration, with migrants accounting for thirty per cent of the city’s inhabitants, making it increasingly international. “What would things look like without these children?” the mayor asked. Alluding to the use of resources, he warned against taking urban development in the industrialized countries as a precedent for the countries of the South. Schuster: “We can’t globalize our way of doing things.” Erich Stather stressed that development policy must cater for the problems of the megacities just as for those of small towns. “Our aim is to keep people in the rural areas,” the State Secretary of BMZ (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development) added. In answer to moderator Steffen Seibert’s question of whether development funds should be reallocated in favour of urban development, Stather said no, but pointed out that overall development assistance was being raised by a considerable margin, reaching the 0.3 per cent mark next year, 0.51 per cent in 2010 and 0.7 per cent in 2015, as agreed by all European countries.
“The shuttles for the evening event are waiting.” At the Commerzbank Plaza in Frankfurt, the EFTA organizers provided some infotainment before the second round of workshops due to continue the next day. Chairperson Steffen Seibert
port. The plans for the secondary cities had also been superseded. The country’s development planners were looking for ways to stem the influx into Kabul and other cities, by land allocation in the provinces, for example. Under no circum-
After the opening statements to the Eschborn Dialogue 2005, four workshops took a close look at major facets of the GTZ spotlight of the year, ‘Designing tomorrow’s cities’. After a demanding afternoon of discussions, the loudspeakers in the GTZ buildings finally announced:
Volker Hauff, Chairperson of the Council for Sustainable Development
from ZDF television invited the guests to explore the ‘Fascination of the city – between vision and reality,’ or the ‘city of hell’ as he added before going on to lead the audience through the evening as an informed and attentive guide. With an entertaining spot, Lee Roy the B Boy marked the divide between the first obligatory EFTA day and the voluntary exercise. His street dance on stage gave the audience a taste of the global rap culture with its roots in the cities of the USA. “Could someone dance like this on the streets of Kabul?” Steffen Seibert asked his first quest Qiamuddin Djallalzada, who personifies a part of modern Development Cooperation. An Afghan by birth, he returned to his native country as a CIM Integrated Expert (Centrum für internationale Migration und Entwicklung) after 20 years in Germany and now contributes to shaping its development as Deputy Minister of Urban Development and Housing. There were no rappers in Kabul, he answered, but the music and the lust for life, so long taboo, were back. Since his return in 2002 Qiamuddin Djallalzada has himself witnessed how Kabul has grown from 700,000 inhabitants to 3.5 million. This rapid development had overtaken the masterplans which were originally conceived for 1.2 million people at most, said the Afghan, who has lived in the German town of Aachen and returned to Kabul with a German pass-
stances, however, did the Afghan government want to stop the ongoing exodus from the provinces with state interventions, which would run counter to its liberal principles, Qiamuddin Djallalzada explained. Though short of water and housing, the people of Kabul would muster the patience to thwart the plans of political troublemakers, and what was more, “The mass migration to Kabul is strengthening national unity.” Let people into the cities or keep them out? This was also a key question in Steffen Seibert’s interview with India’s Ashok Khosla. The answer the president of the New Delhi NGO, Development Alternatives, gave was, however, quite different to that of the previous speaker from Afghanistan. Ashok Khosla, who with his international biography is for many the personification of globalization, answered with a categorical ‘no’ to keeping the cities open. We needed the opposite approach to current mainstream thinking. “To save the cities, we have to keep people in the country and send the investors there,” he said. Allocating 40 per cent of regional budgets to the urban centres would only make everything worse. Something had to be done for the hinterland, he demanded. That would certainly be cheaper and NGOs were the decisive factor. Ashok Khosla: “God bless their hearts’ strike!” The urban problems at the beginning of the 21st century are unprecedented
Steffen Seibert, moderator from ZDF
Ashok Khosla, President of Development Alternatives, India
Wolfgang Schmitt, GTZ Managing Director
Qiamuddin Djallalzada, Deputy Minister for Urban Development and Housing, Afghanistan
in history, as GTZ Managing Director Wolfgang Schmitt said at the opening of the evening event, pointing to the limits of development work. Despite all the great competency and outstanding expertise, he warned, many questions on cities would have to remain unanswered. In conversation with moderator Steffen Seibert from Germany’s ZDF television channel he added another point: considering the host of urban problems, development experts would do well to listen first to the people and decision-makers involved. GTZ was known for its listening experts, but frequently also for insisting on competencies when solving problems. With its institutional bias, German Development Cooperation would do well to learn more from the Anglo-Saxons. Instead of looking at problems through institutional glasses all the time, it certainly made sense to pick out the ten out of 100 mayors who were prepared to take risks to change the status quo and could otherwise spend a long time asking the establishment for help – to no avail. On the idea of preparing today’s opposition for tomorrow’s government, Wolfgang Schmitt then also reminded the audience of GTZ’s limits. This is where the political foundations came in at the very latest, said the GTZ Managing Director. Sharing tasks with the political foundations was one of the great strengths of German Development Cooperation.
duced the closing event of the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 after the second round of workshops with the theme ‘Shaping the future – designing cities’. Rapid population growth in developing countries and the strong attraction of urban centres were the reasons why cities were growing and new ones kept emerging. Peter Herrle is firmly convinced that new megacities will spring up, particularly in Asia, but urbanization is taking on a new shape. Tomorrow’s city with over a million inhabitants will be an expansive conurbation, including stretches of rural land, and have a much lower population density than cities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Development cooperation should, he urged, venture into the big cities, because this was where the central challenges of Development Cooperation were most pressing: poverty and social inequality, environmental pollution, the depletion of resources and insufficient infrastructure. Herrle cautioned, however, against simply exporting Western methods of urban planning. They needed to be tailored to local needs and conditions, drawing on the experience of Western urban planners and the advisory
Megacities as partners?
“Development policy is increasingly turning into urban policy.” This prediction was made by Peter Herrle, professor at the Berlin Technical University, who introBernd Eisenblätter, GTZ Managing Director
and mediating capacities of all institutions in Development Cooperation. In the following discussion, Stephan Articus, Executive Director of the German Association of Cities, was of the opinion that German Development Cooperation should concentrate on advising mediumsized cities. This was where Germany could best draw on its wealth of experience. Ursula Schäfer-Preuss, in contrast, argued that Development Cooperation should definitely venture into cooperation with megacities. The BMZ Director General for Cooperation with Countries and Regions, Peace-Building and the United Nations advocated cooperation in demarcated sectors and cited as best practice the air-pollution control project in Mexico City. For Cornelia Richter, cooperation was imperative with the metropolises and with medium-sized cities alike, “because the municipalities are closest to the people,” said the GTZ Director General for Planning and Development. Microfinance programmes were also very successful at this level. Hanns-Peter Neuhoff, Senior Vice President for America, Africa and the Middle East at the KfW Entwicklungsbank (KfW development bank), stressed that poor populations were quite capable of taking entrepreneurial initiative and paying back loans. Urban development must harness this potential. Moderator Volker Angres from German television’s ZDF environment magazine then asked whether Development Cooperation was investing more in cities. The final panel of the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 agreed on the need to avoid one-sided development. Urban development must always cater for rural areas because of
the mutual interdependencies. The Mali North project was a showcase for how to harness urban and rural resources for regional reconstruction. In his final address, GTZ Managing Director Bernd Eisenblätter also contended that Technical Cooperation should seek partners in megacities, in growing medium-sized cities and in rural areas alike, depending on needs and on task-sharing with other partners. Development Cooperation must not lose sight of its limits, however. It must always build on what is already there, Eisenblät-
Ursula Schäfer-Preuss, BMZ Director General
Hanns-Peter Neuhoff, Senior Vice President at the KfW development bank
Volker Angres, moderator from ZDF
ter stressed. Like Peter Herrle before him, the GTZ Managing Director urged closer cooperation between GTZ and the universities. His special thanks went to the political foundations for their contribution to the Eschborn Dialogue. Bernd Eisenblätter: “The exchange with all of you, the different views and the many good practices we learn about make the Eschborn Dialogue GTZ’s foremost human resources development event.”
Peter Herrle, Professor at the Technical University Berlin
Cornelia Richter, GTZ Director General for Planning and Development
Stephan Articus, Executive Director of the German Association of Cities
Voice of the city
Cities seek solutions to common problems by looking to networks. Their resources and their political experience lend weight to their national and international role. GTZ promotes exchange on innovative approaches and involves municipalities as partners in dialogue.
Municipalities worldwide come together to seek strategies for solving typical common problems. The resulting city networks have been making a name for themselves for more than fifteen years. The international community has recognized the political dimension of municipal problems, but all too often, when it comes to drafting national policy – including the implementation of the Millennium Declaration – urban governments and their innovative ideas are left out of the equation. So through these networks GTZ contributes to giving cities a say. For the sake of Development Cooperation it is important that cities and municipalities have a greater say as a dialogue partner at international level. Urban governments in particular are engaged in the fight against rising poverty. This is why Agenda 21 of 1992 and the Habitat Agenda of 1996 are also concerned that city networks learn from each other and send messages beyond city precincts. The more the economic and political status of cities changes within countries and in the international context, the more relevant is their experience with water supply and sewage disposal, waste management and transport, environment and housing, access to finance, economic development and the fight against violence and crime. Cities can develop strategies for future economic and social life that can prompt changes in other urban centres, but also across regions or even national frontiers. This has implications for the interaction amongst political, administrative, business and civic stakeholders at urban
level and for their relations with national government. It also affects municipal associations. Party-political differences between urban and national governments can yield new approaches and compromises acceptable to everyone, or exacerbate conflicting interests. Clearly, a growing number of municipal policy lobbyists are entering the national and international political arena. Whether the city networks can perform their role successfully in coshaping global development will depend above all on the integration and participation of the poor urban population, who are not usually organized. The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals also depends to a great extent on this.
Modern city networks
A case in point of how German Development Cooperation supports approaches and exchange of experience in urban poverty reduction is the Cities Alliance founded in 1999. Its members now include the World Bank, UN-Habitat, the UN Development Programme, twelve states, the Asian Development Bank and four municipal federations. Founded in 2004, the mission of the international association, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), is to represent the interests of cities and municipalities and contribute to co-shaping global development. GTZ has also gained experience in helping to organize a development project based on twinned cities. It advises German municipalities on developmental issues in their international activities and offers practical assistance in projects.
Advisory services for inter-municipal corporations and municipal associations have been in keen demand in Technical Cooperation for years. An excellent example of municipal development partnerships is the Caucasus city network, which GTZ supports on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The project builds on city twinning arrangements between Tbilisi and Saarbrücken, Telawi and Biberach-on-theRiss, and Sumgait and Ludwigshafen. Knowledge and experience gained in German cities is combined with strategic developmental objectives, which facilitates regional know-how transfer and joint learning between partners. Mutual learning processes strengthen municipal government capacities and promote participation by the urban population. The process also contributes to defusing conflicts in the Caucasus region. One example of vertical and horizontal network expansion is provided by the institutional partnerships between the Georgian Association of Local and Regional Authorities and the German Association of Cities. Cooperation with the municipal federations in Latin America is another. Collaboration with the Municipios y Asociaciones de Gobiernos Locales (FLACMA) in South America and the Federación Municipios del Istmo Centroamericano (FEMICA) in Central America aims at building up knowledge management capacities in the region and trying out new forms of intermunicipal and international cooperation. These approaches are in line with the way cities see themselves. The municipal development partnerships also attempt
new forms of international cooperation in and with city associations and in direct collaboration with city authorities. The organizations in international cooperation have recognized the importance of the cities and make more use of networks, partnerships and alliances in implementing their projects. They bear co-responsibility for internationally agreed development goals and achieving sustainable impacts.
The power of cities – the influence of networking
"The political and economic role of cities has changed." With these words, Nigel Harris opened the specialist discussion at the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 workshop, Power of the cities – the influence of networking, citing globalization and deindustrialization as the reasons. The emeritus professor at the Development Planning Unit of University College London also pointed to a marked functional shift: “For many cities the connection to the global economy is already more important than relations with their own national government." Cities should exchange good practices in networks and develop their comparative advantages, the London economist advocated. Decentralization was an important prerequisite for their economic success. Worldwide trends in migration were another factor in competitiveness. Nigel Harris: “International institutions should help cities to integrate into the
world economy and facilitate immigration,” particularly in large conurbations. The question for GTZ Country Director Chile, Jörg-Werner Haas, in conversation with chairperson Annette Riedel from Deutschland Radio Berlin, was how small and medium-sized cities fitted into in this picture. International cooperation must engage more in large cities, but also build on experience gained in small and medium-sized urban centres. In municipal networks, a distinction needed to be drawn between temporary networks to solve specific problems, and institutional and municipal associations and the World Association of Cities and Local Governments. Haas forecast that city networks would be more involved in international developments in future. Situational cooperation and advice to meet needs was the way to sustainable success for all stakeholders.
Alliance office in Washington, emphasized the advantages of city networks: “Cities learn more effectively in networks than from donors,” he said. International agreements had accorded them a central role in drafting and implementing international conventions. After all, the cities were the entities that had to do most to achieve their objectives, as specified in strategy papers on poverty reduction and in the Millennium Development Goals. Walter Leitermann, Deputy Secretary General of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions in the German Association of Cities, looked beyond everyday political problems when he pointed out at the end of the workshop: “Municipal self-governance is of value in itself.” This political good must be supported, at national, international and global level.
Phase of possibilities
A centralized state apparatus can be more helpful than delegating power to local government, as Zurab Chiaberashvili, the mayor of the Georgian capital Tbilisi, contended. He cited anticorruption as a case in point. “For me it is important to build infrastructure, but it is all the more important for citizens to learn to organize themselves to tackle their problems and to bear some of the costs,” said Chiaberashvili. The more the population is involved, the sooner municipalities can solve their problems. The twin towns Tbilisi/Saarbrücken in the Caucasus city network have now begun a ‘phase of possibilities’ to develop joint strategies in administrative reform and local governance. Mark Hildebrand, head of the Cities
Mark Hildebrand, Cities Alliance
Jörg-Werner Haas, GTZ Chile
Nigel Harris, University College London
Walter Leitermann, German Association of Cities
Zurab Tschiaberashvili, mayor of Tbilissi, Georgia
Heritage as an asset
Dealing with the cultural identity of our partners in a professional way has long been acknowledged as an important factor in Development Cooperation. Upholding tradition in combination with necessary modernization is an innovative way of addressing the issue of culture in urban development.
Culture plays a major role in the economic and social development of a city. Municipalities as various as Bangalore, Barcelona and Weimar demonstrate what numerous studies from previous years have claimed: taking active cultural measures and safeguarding the cultural heritage can go a long way towards improving locational quality and contribute to economic growth, employment promotion and social identity. With its integrative approach, Technical Cooperation also seeks to make culture a driving force in urban development. International specialists are following with interest what is happening in Aleppo, Shibam and Sibiu, formerly Hermannstadt, where GTZ and its local partners have found a common denominator for culture and development. The formula is integrated urban and historic city development. In the iridescent historic districts in partner cities in Syria, Yemen and Romania, Technical Cooperation is seeking to preserve the cultural heritage by doing more than just restoring historical monuments, as in the past. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the integrated project approach supports local partners in renovating residential buildings and infrastructure, while promoting crafts, tourism, administration and the initiatives of the residents. GTZ, then, sees culture as a resource for economic and social development. This is also the view the World Bank and UNESCO have adopted for several years in their efforts to highlight the economic and social aspects of cultural development. To be included in
the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list, a project needs to submit a management plan and ensure the active inclusion of the local population.
GTZ Development Cooperation combines modern urban development with safeguarding the cultural heritage to prevent cities and urban-dwellers from losing their sense of history and identity. Technical Cooperation refurbishes and revitalizes historic districts and fosters resilient cultural traditions at the same time. This gives the districts a sharper profile and improves the quality of life for the residents, because the cultural heritage figures as an important element in today's city-dwellers’ sense of identity and in social and cultural cohesion. This holds all the more at a time when standard methods of construction and use, ruthless modernization, dilapidation or overexploitation threaten to deface or even completely obliterate the cultural heritage. Many historic cities also play an important part in national identity. The integrative project approach also takes account of tourism, which often promotes local, regional and even national economic development in turn. Because renovating old buildings is far more labour-intensive than building new houses, it contributes to employment. Small and medium-sized local enterprises benefit in particular from the demand generated in the building sector. By European standards, Germany has the best record in rehabilitating and revitalizing historic cities. Nowhere else
have more old cities and residential districts been professionally renovated to preserve their historical character since the end of the nineties than in the new German federal states. Combined with the project approach of integrated urban and historic city development devised by GTZ, this experience provides useful input for urban renewal projects. GTZ has taken a pioneering role here, as confirmed by UNESCO. The experience gained will be harnessed for future projects in urban and historic city development.
Despite these successful projects, city managers and development experts have still not fully grasped the connection between culture and development. In institutional terms, these two aspects are also still leading parallel lives in international cooperation. In Germany too, where the cultural sector in the conventional sense is an intervention prerogative of the Federal Foreign Office, the activity area of harnessing cultural heritage for urban development and the related project types such as sustainable urban renewal or historic city renovation are new in Development Cooperation, and the notion of culture is also acquiring broader connotations in German development assistance. Treating culture as an asset transcends the so-called sociocultural framework in the partner countries, which we have so far tried to understand, cater for and possibly change. With a better understanding of the role of culture and through new partner-
ships, culture can be assimilated more in urban development. Culture should be integrated more closely into project work even if the culture sector is still not a classic GTZ activity area. A more professional approach to the cultural identity of partners in project work has long been a called for. Specifically strengthening this cultural identity can help to combine the desire to keep traditions alive with the need for modernization in urban development. This is just what Christina Weiss, the German Minister of State for Culture and Media thinks: “We cannot base our lives solely on what we think is efficient.”
Development without culture – or culture-driven urban development?
We breathe more easily in the city. Just a cliché? Not at all. “The city embodies lifestyle, emancipation, democracy and participation,” said Christoph Beier, GTZ Director General for the Mediterranean Region, Europe and Central Asian Countries, at the start of the workshop ‘Culture-driven urban development’ at the Eschborn Dialogue, adding that the hallmarks of the urban lifestyle were also developmental goals. There was a link between good cultural synergies and good development paths. The workshop panel discussion asked what priorities the Federal Foreign Office (AA) in Berlin, which is responsible for cultural cooperation, and GTZ should set
and how culture could advance urban development. “The resources for cultural development abroad are meagre, less than two million euros a year,” said Hans Jochen Schmidt, Head of the Culture and Education Division at the AA. Support so far, he said, had included a symposium on urban development in Kenya and a cultural heritage event in St. Petersburg. The cooperation envisaged with the German Academic Exchange Service and the Goethe Institutes would harness synergies in cultural activities, given the shortage of funds. The AA wanted to enlist the support of the private sector as a cultural partner too. Schmidt also advocated stepping up cooperation with the State Minister for Culture and Media and the cultural foundations for Eastern Europe.
economic and social life. Mildner: “Preserving historic cities is not a luxury, it is about income generation and economic development.” “However, life in historic cities is only one of many cultural messages a city communicates,” said the internationally renowned cultural expert Charles Landry. The many urban elements taught us to see the city as a living synthesis of the arts. The urban milieu coloured the emotional life of the residents who identified themselves with it and then
Everyday life in a monument
Finally, Steffen Mildner made a link from the “mother of all GTZ’s urban projects” in Bhaktapur/Nepal, which aimed solely at preserving historical monuments, to integrated urban and historic city development. Thanks to many parallels, this approach had been able to learn from the upgrading projects for marginal urban districts, which the World Bank describes as one of its most successful project types, said the head of the GTZ team in the project to redevelop the historic Romanian city of Sibiu/Hermannstadt. The integrated historic city and urban development project sought to harness the cultural heritage of the old part of the city and the lifestyle of the residents as a development factor. Renewing historic cities went hand in hand with revitalizing
Cornelia Dümcke, Managing Director of Culture Concepts
Hans-Jochen Schmidt, Head of Culture and Education Division at the Federal Foreign Office
translated this feeling into creative activity. Drawing on his project experience in Egypt, Omar Akbar, Director of the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation, added: “Alliances of culture, business and tourism fit into this scenario.” The panel then suggested finding a pragmatic way for AA as a cultural partner and BMZ as a development partner to work together, because as the workshop revealed, culture and urban development were inseparable from each other. Competencies for culture and Development Cooperation should therefore be merged. More room should be given in projects and programmes to experiments with urban subculture. GTZ Director General Christoph Beier: “We must be more receptive and look for interconnections now and in the future.”
Omar Akbar, Director of the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation
Irene Wiese-von Ofen, IFHP
Steffen Mildner, GTZ staff member in Romania
Christoph Beier, GTZ Director General for the Mediterranean Region, Europe and Central Asian Countries
Balancing act between boom and poverty
The cities in the partner countries have to perform a balancing act. Keen locational competition and economic development that tackles poverty must be reconciled in a joint development strategy. GTZ makes its contribution to placing the alliance on as broad a footing as possible.
Cities are pillars of economic growth and at the same time battlefields in the war against poverty. They play a pivotal role in both: for the economic development of entire countries and for the reduction of poverty at home. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals set by the international community therefore depends on whether populous cities meet their great economic and social responsibility. Development Cooperation supports the municipalities on the way to viable and sustainable development and helps close the gap between rich and poor. The most challenging task is to provide the population with public services and involve poor people in economic life. This is compounded by the enormous attraction that cities exert on people, despite all the municipal problems. So cities will have to perform a balancing act. They have to improve their locational advantages to attract new businesses and at the same time they need a propoor economic development policy to offer income opportunities and services to the poor. The job of Technical Cooperation on behalf of BMZ is therefore to bring together the urban stakeholders with their different interests in a strategy that aims at harnessing the strengths of public and private partners. This strategy, however, cannot be implemented like a blueprint. Each city has different, often parallel, economic and employment cycles. Another aim in many developing countries must be to use the resources of the informal economy and integrate these
in formal economic activities. It is very important for the cities to succeed here. Local policy must also promote the international competitiveness of the local economy. Effective incentives are needed to get international companies to invest. Small and medium-sized enterprises also have specific needs that the city must cater for. To improve the competitiveness of cities through joint efforts, functional mechanisms for dialogue and coordination are required. These have to be put into place. When doing this, care must be taken to ensure that underprivileged sections of the population also have a say in municipal decision-making processes. For Technical Cooperation, it is important that as many people as possible can participate in the opportunities afforded by urban development. Development Cooperation assists the municipalities in setting the right framework to meet all the different demands as the basis for broad economic development. The GTZ advisers contribute to improving the business and investment climate, administrative procedures and regulations. They develop institutional and operational capacities, improve qualifications and help micro and small enterprises gain access to credit. As the GTZ portfolio shows, policy strategies to promote economic growth in cities must cover a very broad range of concerns and be carefully planned. This is the only way to ensure that cities develop with the participation of underprivileged groups and do not lag behind international developments. Technical Cooperation also takes
account of globalization in this. Efficient city managers can build bridges between global players and their municipalities. Different starting conditions inevitably lead to disparities in and between cities of different sizes. Economic and social life diversifies. Municipalities must also be able to keep pace with these processes to remain effective.
Private sector as partner
There are more questions to answer. How can cities supply drinking water, transport infrastructure, educational facilities or hospitals in view of rapid population growth and the shortage of public funds? How can they meet the growing demand for investments, innovations and knowhow? For a long time, privatization was regarded as the universal remedy for financing urban infrastructure and services. The wave of privatizations in the 1990s showed, however, that trickle-down effects and ‘getting the prices right’ are not enough to meet the challenges. Current experience in urban development approaches in different regional settings enable us to give more discriminate answers to these questions. On account of efficiency gains and capital resources, privatization approaches still figure in development strategies. GTZ is committed to the vision of sustainable urban development. To put this vision into practice, a systemic procedure is needed that includes different stakeholders, and economic, ecological and social negotiating processes that give shape to the local future and institu-
tionalize innovations. To this end, the GTZ teams and their project partners cooperate with public, private-sector and civil society players and promote municipal self-administration capabilities in keeping with the principles of good governance.
Poor rich city – between economic growth and financial crisis
When experts talk about involving the private sector in municipal services, water inevitably takes centre stage. This is also what happened at the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 workshop ‘Poor rich city’, where this issue dominated the first part of the session. The second part turned its attention to urban economic development between poverty reduction and international competition. The résumé by Oliver Haas on GTZ's work in the activity area initiative ‘Urban Development Asia’ holds for both theme clusters: “Our advisers must help municipalities to create a conducive business climate to induce enterprises to locate and invest in infrastructure and new jobs.” Reporting on experience gained by RWE Thames Water in Jakarta, Ulrike Ebert made a statement that ran like a continuing theme through the discussion: “Unmanageable risks deter investors.” Manfred Konukiewitz, Head of the BMZ Water, Energy and Urban Development Division, assessed the disastrous situation as a clear case of government failure, because 97 per cent of the water supply
in developing countries was organized by the public sector – a clear indicator of the unattractive climate for private participation. Through efficient management and commercial finance, private-sector participation could contribute to affordable and efficient supply. In the debate, the speakers pointed to the need for cooperation between public, private and civic agencies. Citing experience gained by the GTZ Regional Team for South America, Barbara Hess added that the security situation played a role in the business climate, but she also pointed to affirmative examples. Bogotá had succeeded in organizing finances, redeveloping districts and setting up supervisory authorities, resulting in a
German Centre for Industry and Trade in Singapore gave an account of how Singapore, Shanghai, Bangkok and Seoul were vying for international investors. In response to competition, Singapore had cut capital gains tax and set up three institutes for economic development. Finally, there was the question of what role Development Cooperation could play in framing competitive urban locational policy. The prime aim here must be to create a favourable investment climate through a pro-business institutional environment. This could also contribute a lot to poverty reduction in the view of Manfred Konukiewitz, not least when bringing informal enterprises into the formal sector.
Manfred Konukiewitz, BMZ
Günter Dresrüsse, GTZ
Florian Steinberg, Asian Development Bank
distinct rise in private investments. When a city lacks credit standing, GTZ can liaise as an honest broker between the municipal authority, industry and banks, said Herwig Mayer, GTZ adviser in Manila Metro, and Florian Steinberg from ADB Housing and Urban Development added: “National financial sector development is essential for the water supply.”
A balancing act
The second big question in the workshop was: how can cities manage the balancing act between local and pro-poor economic development and global competition for international enterprises? Mattias Böhle provided some insights into economic development and locational policy in the Hanover region. The head of the GTZ Economic and Employment Promotion Division dealt in particular detail with the role of cluster management in setting up businesses. Stephan Weiss from the
Ulrike Ebert, RWE Thames Water
Matters of security
Security in many cities is no longer a public good. The lack of structures coupled with violence born of desperation, are plunging urban areas into crisis. Municipalities seeking to cope with this insecurity cannot manage without integrated approaches.
The cities are growing fast and so is the everyday insecurity of their residents in all walks of life. The needier sections of the population are afflicted by job insecurity, ill health, anxieties about their children's future, domestic violence and the danger of sliding into absolute poverty. The slums and illegal settlements on the outskirts lack electricity, water, sewage systems and basic social services. The social security facilities cannot be built fast enough to keep pace with the speed of urban growth. Fatalism, conflicts, violence and crime are on the increase. Those who can, afford to live in fortified enclaves and pay for their own security themselves, because it hardly exists any more as a public good. Municipalities seeking to cope with the myriad of insecurity factors cannot manage without integrated approaches. Thanks to their experience in various disciplines, Technical Cooperation personnel can contribute towards making life safer in the large cities. TC has a versatile portfolio. In the view of GTZ advisers, the sustainable promotion of a culture of human security means taking the physical, psychosocial and socio-economic dimensions into account.
care. Basic security guards against citydwellers succumbing to desperation. Maximum attention must be given to improving the situation of the most vulnerable sections of the population. This is the only way to ensure sustainable security for all city-dwellers. Security is also unthinkable without liberty. The urge to be free of fear is as real as the desire to be free from privation. Another important facet of security is the freedom to stand up for one’s own interests. So a feeling of security can only thrive in a city when participation and empowerment are accorded their due place in public life. People must be enabled to uphold their interests in social conflicts and take part in decisions. This is why GTZ promotes democratic institutions to involve urban citizens in municipal processes.
GTZ teams promote integrated and interdisciplinary approaches applying the principle of participation in many bilateral development projects worldwide. Development experts in South Africa combine conflict management in urban centres with youth promotion. As community peace workers, young unemployed men and women cooperate with the police to curb violence in the townships. An integral component of this project is promoting training and employment to improve the job prospects of the community peace workers. This has a dual effect: more security and social stability in lowincome districts. The keystone in Mozambique was basic security. GTZ advised its partners
A culture of human dignity
The international goal, then, is to create political, social, ecological, economic, security and cultural systems that together form the basis for survival and a livelihood in dignity. Approaches to making life less unpredictable and insecure must therefore address both security forces in a city and access to basic social services, for instance education and health
on setting up a social welfare system for poor households whose employment prospects were so bleak as to threaten their survival. As part of a World Bank project, the development organization explored the proposition that regular cash payments to poor households could make a decisive, broad and sustainable contribution to poverty reduction. Disaster risk management is the central security concern in Indonesia. With a programme for decentralization and improving urban services, GTZ contributes to enabling the municipalities to cope with extreme natural disasters on their own in future. The findings of a risk analysis are discussed with all decisionmakers at local level. GTZ helps the local authorities to integrate aspects of disaster risk management into development planning. Risk maps contribute to protecting people through appropriate regional planning and preventing damage to infrastructure. This too is an aspect of sustainable security in cities, where earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and floods usually cause most harm to poor people. Prevention is also the maxim in Latin America and in New Delhi. With support from GTZ, city and municipal authorities in four countries of the continent of South America are drawing up their own local security agendas. For two years now, a multisectoral round table in New Delhi has been working on integrated addiction prevention. In the New Delhi City Action Plan on Drugs, city policymakers have now developed a strategy to give particularly underprivileged poor sections of the population more protection and security.
In the face of the many different urban problems, GTZ’s contribution may seem modest. Nevertheless, these projects and programme components represent good practices for dealing with the problem of insecurity in cities. They provide prototype solutions which are then available for broader application.
City worth living in – security and rights for all
“Security means everything in people’s conditions of life that enables them to make use of the goods and services of a city.” This is how Peter Herrle, Head of the Habitat Unit at the Technical University Berlin, summed up the core theme of the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 workshop ‘City worth living in – security and rights for all’. As the workshop revealed, security as a development factor cannot be viewed on its own, but only as part of the total process of reshaping social relations.
mate monopoly over the use of force, and a working civil society. Combining these is the paramount concern of urban security. This in turn presupposes the social participation of marginalized sections of the population – as a legal right. Equal rights exist formally in many countries but many people lack access to them. In his paper on social risk management, Ronald Wiman showed that mental needs are very high up in the pyramid of human needs. As the Deputy Director of the Health and Social Services Department in STAKES and adviser to the Finnish Foreign Office observed: “People do not live to eat, they eat to live.” The idea behind modern social security was not charity, but empowerment. Managing social risks called for participation, but above all a vision of a society and a city that was there for everyone. This scenario also included disaster risk management. “Disasters usually strike cities harder than rural regions,” said Thomas Loster, Managing Director of the Munich Re Foundation. GTZ could use the knowledge of the insurance sector in public-private partnerships to conduct risk analyses and iden-
health promotion in the city of Hamburg. Municipalities worldwide could learn from the network initiated by WHO in the mid-eighties, as Klemens Hubert, GTZ Country Director South Africa explained with reference to the peace and development projects in the townships of Pretoria. In cooperation with the police, groups of young peace workers prevent conflicts and arbitrate in disputes. Dovetailed with social security, housing construction and health, this community policing approach could definitely be applied in other cities as well, because to be successful, security projects must always be social projects, as the workshop established.
Klemens Hubert, GTZ South Africa
Jörg Calließ, Moderator Evang. Akademie Loccum
Klaus-Peter Stender, Ronald Wiman, Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs Healthy Cities Network
Peter Herrle, TU Berlin
The quality of the district and the work situation affected security as much as access to basic services did, said GTZ staff member Rüdiger Krech in his welcoming address to the workshop participants. Chairperson Jörg Calliess added at the opening: “The lack of prospects and basic social security leads to social disparities, poverty and crime.” In the opinion of the sociologist, architect and urban planner Peter Herrle, urban security is based on three interconnected security pillars: resilient core communities, a legiti-
tify the hot spots in the cities. Strategic dialogue amongst politicians, the private sector, civil society and city authorities was still far too rare.
In addition to the two expert speakers, two interviews conducted by chairperson Jörg Calliess provided food for thought in the workshop. In one interview, KlausPeter Stender, the Coordinator of the German Healthy Cities Network, explained the security factor in municipal
Governance by rules
The problems in cities are as multifarious as urban life itself. Many politicians and citizens still need to learn how to apply the yardsticks of good urban governance to developing their municipalities. This is not just about good will; it is also about power and how to use it.
A new era has dawned in many city and municipal halls in our partner countries. Greater democracy, political pluralism and deregulation call for a new notion of governance and administration at local level. Local decision-makers need to learn good urban governance. To apply these principles, though, cities, business and industry and citizens must often familiarize themselves with their new roles. GTZ supports municipalities in this difficult process. In the last 15 years, cities in the transition and developing countries have acquired increasing powers to run their own affairs in an economical, efficient, transparent, accountable and participatory way. Many governments have delegated political decision-making powers and allocated financial resources from the national to the local and regional level and introduced institutional reforms, new laws and new forms of participation. New social and civic movements have gained a voice, women's associations, and environmental and human rights groups, for example. To be able to provide the services formerly rendered by the public sector, there is a general search for new ways to involve the private sector and civil society. Many cities are engaged in global competition for investors and highly qualified personnel. At the same time, cities are having to cooperate more closely and build up networks worldwide to be able to cope with their pressing problems: economic ties are being severed, the social fabric is breaking down, broad strata are excluded from social and political participation, there is mounting insecurity and crime is on the rise. To keep cities manageable and worth living in under these difficult conditions,
those responsible in cities and municipalities must learn to steer developments, reconcile divergent interests and settle conflicts. This is not just about good will; it is also about power and how to use it. Many stakeholders are vying to gain advantages and influence in the urban development arena, established organizations, informal institutions or loose alliances in politics, administration, civil society and industry. Government authorities, societies, associations, NGOs, enterprises, trade unions and religious groups pursue specific interests, stand in different power relations to each other, and want to have a say in decisions on allocating resources. All these, however, must play a part in the political consensus and take on responsibility for their municipalities at the same time. Their participation can mobilize additional resources, provided that knowledge, finances and competencies are activated and harnessed for a purpose. Urban governance also means reorganizing the way services are provided to citizens. The redevelopment of informal settlements, municipal services in water, energy, wastes and security, and participatory development planning, land management, integrated environmental management and local economic development will only work in the long run if they are institutionalized. City authorities and administrations are not the only ones that have to enhance their capacities. Administrative bodies, residents' associations, committees and operator organizations also need to take on responsibility and prepare to perform new tasks, because their capabilities are crucial to finding lasting solutions to the problems.
GTZ provides advisory services for individual fields of activity in municipal and urban development and also for general policy management. Its experts assist local politicians, administrative personnel and municipal associations in drafting policy guidelines for development in and around cities, modernizing administration and raising their efficiency and transparency. They motivate urban stakeholders to cooperate, to broker processes of consensus and civic participation, to help in finding constructive ways of settling conflicts of interest and to promote new forms of public-private partnerships. Good urban governance in the field, however, can only reach its full potential if competencies in the municipalities are demarcated and sufficient financial resources are made available. All this must be organized at national level, with a democratic, decentralized government apparatus, a fair tax system, dependable legal provisions and professional and adequately paid public servants. GTZ provides advice for this as well. A hallmark of cities is the concentration of power and decision-making authority, which stretches even beyond city boundaries. The impetus for nationwide reforms often comes from the cities. Good urban governance cannot be practised in one city alone, so cities are catalysts of social change. GTZ therefore sees urban governance as a contribution to political and social reform and as a path to democracy.
Urban governance – how do cities stay manageable?
Entitled ‘Urban governance,’ this EFTA workshop addressed a theme with many different facets. That is why Bernd Hoffmann, GTZ Director for Governance and Democracy, was looking for a definition at the start. The transparent interaction of government, business and industry and civil society – coupled with integrity, efficiency and the responsible exercise of power – is the mix his guest experts thought defined good urban governance. A key paper, two panels and numerous contributions from the plenum closed in on each facet through the lens of Development Cooperation. “Major developments are already taking place at the local level,” said Marga Pröhl, Head of the Directorate General for Administrative Modernization at the Federal German Ministry of the Interior, in her opening paper, and posed the question of what nation states can do at all for urban development. Modernizing individual administrations was not enough to do justice to the role of the cities. All municipal stakeholders needed to interact to achieve sustainable urban development, she said, and outlined a management scenario for good local governance (GLG). A very lively discussion then ensued on how to initiate and promote GLG.
“Can urban development be effectively linked with national poverty reduction strategies?” was one of the questions
chairperson Bernd Hoffmann then posed to Sheela Patel. In her answer, the NGO representative and member of the Policy Advisory Board at Cities Alliance pinpointed the deficits. “Consultants from the North usually lack the urban focus for poverty reduction”, she said, based on her experience as a member of the NGO SPARC for social justice in Mumbai, India. Development cooperation could help NGOs to enter into dialogue with urban authorities and bring people into contact with public agencies and politicians. GTZ staff member Hans Christian Voigt stressed the importance of knowledge exchange and described the role of urban governance in Africa. The GTZ saw its job as liaising between municipal office-holders and those without power. There was clear agreement in South Africa on the need for government to involve civil society, according to GTZ staff member François Menguélé, referring to the South African government programme ‘Urban Renewal’. GTZ consultants helped to develop overarching strategies for urban development. Menguélé: “National strategies must be given a local face.” For Hela Hinrichs, a representative of the multinational real estate company Jones Lang LaSalle, integrity, efficiency and transparency were the criteria for measuring sustainable urban management. In her view one of the best places to find so-called winning cities was in China. Cities in this country had their own budgetary powers, sought out private development partners and mobilized private capital for urban development, she said. Investors should be able to co-shape the profile of a city. Hans Dem-
bowski, Chief Editor of the magazine Development and Cooperation (D+C), concentrated on access to information and agreed with the workshop's conclusion that Development Cooperation can contribute to establishing local responsibility and a municipal consensus by promoting dialogue amongst all urban stakeholders at a horizontal and vertical level.
Francois-Nestor Menguélé, GTZ staff member in South Africa
Hans-Christian Voigt, GTZ staff member in Cairo
Hans Dembowski, Chief Editor of D+C
Hela Hinrichs, Jones Lang LaSalle
Marga Pröhl, Deputy Director General German Federal Ministry of the Interior
Urban centres often pollute the environment badly and overexploit resources. More and more metropolises are doing something about this by applying the ecocity principle. GTZ process advisers are helping them. The prototypes will then be transferred to other regions.
A city is an organism and, like any living creature, it cannot survive without a metabolism. In many places, though, this process is veering off-balance. Unbridled growth, air pollution, waste heaps, traffic gridlock, slums and lack of access to the services of an urban infrastructure are all symptoms indicating that the ‘city organism’ is seriously ill in many places. The treatment for cities and their residents is socially, economically and ecologically balanced and efficiently organized urbanization. The ecocity strategy supports efforts for ecological and sustainable urban development. To be able to carry the prefix ‘eco’, a city must improve the conditions of life for its residents – particularly the poor – and protect the environment. Waste is controlled, and transport and air pollution is reduced with an ecological mobility scheme. The enterprises in the ecological model city must use technologies that protect the environment and conserve natural resources. Ecocities also have a political component: the residents are involved in urban development, the surrounding countryside is included and land use is planned.
Small and big solutions
GTZ advisers in urban ecology want to keep the metabolism between cities and their environments healthy in the long term and make the cities worth living in. Their integrated approaches in urban development work on both a small scale and a large scale. Technical Cooperation promotes sustainable land use, infrastructure planning and management, and the organization of environmental processes. Along with solid waste disposal, air-pollution control and transport, this also includes the energy and water supply, sewage disposal, water pollution control, energy-saving building methods and municipal trade supervision. GTZ offers concepts, implementation strategies, methods and instruments for the whole city and its sectors that also meet ecocity standards. The development agency's integrated municipal environmental management comprises environmental information systems, environmental monitoring and ‘ecobudgeting’. GTZ advice in ecological construction and housing takes account of building materials and technologies, supply systems and user behaviour. Another important item in the Technical Cooperation portfolio is the interaction between municipal and industrial environmental management. Development experts can draw on extensive experience in managing industrial estates. They support their partners in installing supply and disposal systems, using resources efficiently, reducing emissions and improving accident management. The urban authorities and administrations benefit from GTZ's experience in building functional infrastructure and learn how to provide the related municipal services to all sections of the population in keeping
with their economic, ecological and social responsibility. Policy and legal provisions as well as the institutional and regulatory framework also play an important role in the ecocity approach. Based on them, GTZ advisers apply their management instruments, provide technical advice for appropriate technologies and strengthen operational competency. Technical Cooperation attaches great importance to enlisting the support of the private sector for ecocity objectives, animating citizens to contribute to their city's future and initiating cooperation with the private sector, with chambers, associations, educational establishments and NGOs. Including the informal sector is a strategic factor in urban development.
The ecocity approach has now taken practical shape in two-million-strong cities in the East Chinese coastal province of Jinagsu: Yangzhou and Changzhou. On the way to becoming ecocities, both metropolises want to reduce environmental pollution, introduce better environmental management and cater more for ecological concerns in their municipal development plans. On behalf of BMZ, GTZ advisers support these cities' efforts and those of the Chinese Ministry of the Environment in implementing a suitable programme. The project teams work directly in the municipal authorities. One of their tasks is to find ways to modernize building structure in line with environmental standards to preserve the organic social fabric. With its one million inhabitants, Yangzhou has taken a different path from many other booming cities in China, where entire historic districts
have been ruthlessly demolished. It is national policy to observe old architectural styles and standards but shopping centres and gigantic tower flats are sprouting up everywhere. Yangzhou was, in contrast, one of the first cities in China to draw up a plan with scientists for the ecocity scheme drafted by the national environment authority at the end of the nineties. Within three years, the public parks had already expanded by around two-thirds to cover an area equivalent to about 750 football fields. Production is becoming cleaner all the time. Enterprises subscribe to the precepts of corporate environmental management. The prototypes developed by the ecocity projects will then be transferred to other regions.
footprints. So Khosla's idea of the future city turned out to have lot in common with the way Konrad Otto-Zimmermann sees the ecocity. “It is not a high-tech idea, it is an ecosystem,” said the Secretary General of Local Governments for Sustainability in Canada. In conversation with chairperson Stephan Paulus, both experts then discussed the ecobudget approach. Pilot projects in India and in the Philippines had already applied this method, which turned mayors and managers into custodians of natural resources and kept a permanent eye on the environment. The ecobudget module could be tailored to the needs of any developing country, Zimmermann said.
on a refuse dump in Cuernavaca Mexico left a vivid impression. “Promoting and exchanging experience and knowledge of the ecocity idea and showing the world how it works.” This is how the Brazilian GTZ staff member Francisco Alarcón summarized the tasks of Development Cooperation for ecocities. To be successful, this process required measures to build the confidence of stakeholders, transparency and the resolve to put the idea into practice. All the experts agreed: “It's all about governance, about putting people in charge.”
Ecocities – the places of the future?
Bogotá before and after. The presentation showed how it had changed: the ecocity. In Bogotá, public places have been replanned for the benefit of residents, pedestrians, children and public transport passengers, but the ecocity is not just a single idea, it embraces many visions which share outcomes, as Ulrike Weiland from the University of Leipzig pointed out, providing a lucid definition of the kind of city the EFTA workshop, Ecocities – the places of the future, envisaged. The specialist discussion did not look like agreeing on a common definition at first, however. What Ashok Khosla from India had to say about tomorrow's cities sounded more like a plea for the country. Citing the billion people living in slums, the President of the New Delhi NGO, Development Alternatives, advocated reversing rural-urban migration. Planning for the future meant developing the hinterland of the cities. A possible city of the future could be a conglomerate of settlements linked by transport routes. Khosla called this development ‘transforming villages into a social city’. Two major steps in this direction were planning in advance and changing ecological
Stephan Paulus, GTZ Deputy Director, Environment and Infrastructure
Konrad Otto-Zimmermann, Secretary-General ICLEI
Rusong Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Ashok Khosla, Development Alternatives
Ecocities in this sense did not yet exist in the PR China, said Rusong Wang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The head of the Chinese think tank described his homeland as a country where the economy is the predominating driving force. “This is why we must make special efforts to promote environmental protection,” he argued. Only the megacities Yangzhou and Changzhou wanted to develop as ecocities. Traffic planner Karin Rossmark, GTZ staff member Detlev Ullrich and Raghu Babu of the GTZ-ASEM project presented three more ecocity approaches promoted by Technical Cooperation in the workshop: traffic abatement in the historic city of Sibiu in Romania, sustainable urban development in Brazil by recycling unused areas and the ecocity programme in India. A video showing Brazilian children talking about their dream city of the future and a photo exhibition about life
Transfer between city and hinterland
The trend is towards the city, but this does not mean severing ties with the country. People depend on each other on both sides. The urban-rural connection is of mutual benefit. GTZ applies translocal and multisectoral strategies for this.
The connection between town and country is very important at a time when almost half of the world’s population already lives in cities and towns. A good connection is useful for both sides, for the urban and for the rural population. Municipal decision-makers have recognized that the urban periphery is intersecting more with the centre. Poor households in particular earn a livelihood by commuting. Policymakers must secure their diverse livelihoods. Poor people's mobility and willingness to migrate should bring them more advantages than disadvantages. To support the municipalities, Development Cooperation must not divorce urban from rural sectoral strategies. There are many ways for Technical Cooperation to support urban-rural interaction. GTZ promotes infrastructure, strengthens institutions and service providers and secures the transfer of resources. Development experts also help to cement the social fabric and advise on developing and extending shared capacity. Urban infrastructure depends on rural resources, particularly for water supply and settlement areas. Conversely, rural infrastructure development benefits from the electricity generated in cities and towns, from the markets and transport facilities. Institutions are very important for expediting development activities. If they are planned separately for urban and rural areas, there is a danger of them hindering each other’s policies. Services, particularly modern ones, often start developing in urban regions. Most service companies, banks for example, soon
expand into rural areas to increase business. The urban and rural populations also support each other via markets and other exchange relations, ranging from seasonal workers to goods and services. Improved income opportunities through urban growth result in remittances to relatives in the country. This raises the standard of living of the population in rural areas, which serve as social and ecological refuges, especially in times of economic hardship. The transfer of funds is also an indication of where newcomers to the city see their social and cultural home and of their desire to retain their social and family ties in the country. Development Cooperation contributes to organizing these interrelations so as to promote development.
Shared basic needs
The main good, however, that connects urban and rural areas is food. Low-income households spend a major part of their income on food, but how can food prices be kept low for city dwellers without detriment to the livelihoods of rural producers? A strategic element that benefits both sides is improving access to the urban food markets. A more effective linkage between urban food demand and production in the surrounding countryside improves the incomes of the farmers and affords poor people in urban centres an opportunity to find work processing and trading locally produced food. One factor disrupting the continuous flow between town and country lies in the changing preferences of urban con-
sumers over time. Globalized markets underpin this trend. Supermarkets put rural producers at a disadvantage. Because smallholders cannot meet the strict quality standards for food, goods are imported, which in turn breaks the traditional links between town and country. This is why GTZ supports input suppliers, traders, processors and exporters in complying with the new quality standards on national and international markets. Stable local supply chains restore the broken urban-rural link. Development strategies must also account for the international deregulation of trade and new production locations that are redefining urban-rural relations in some regions. That is why integrating local development strategies in national planning is so important. The interventions must be tailored to local requirements. Both geographical and sectoral development strategies must fit. Synergies between urban enterprises and rural producers are key for speeding up local economic development and poverty reduction. These local economic development strategies are gaining increasing acceptance amongst decision-makers. The successful implementation of programmes depends on a careful analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the locality and the actors. A suitable instrument for this is the analytical framework, Rural and Economic Enterprise Development (REED) developed by GTZ with other development institutions. It is the culmination of 20 years of experience from a large number of projects in sectoral and regional development strategies.
Town and country – connections create benefits
What is urban? What is rural? Those who came to the workshop ‘Town and country – connections create benefits’ with a pretty clear idea about this soon learnt that ‘rural’ is impossible to define exactly. The closest we can get, according to Peter Conze, GTZ Director General for Africa, in his opening speech, is that in rural areas settlements and infrastructure take up a small area and fields, meadows, woods, water, mountains and deserts predominate. Where do such distinctions get us, though, considering the many hybrid forms of urban and rural? The answer given by James Garrett, an expert from the International Food Policy Research Institute, was: “A strict separation makes no sense, if employment and social ties in the whole area shape the lives of the people in it.” In his opinion, a systemic look at the livelihoods system told us far more about how things developed. In Mozambique for example, half of the urban activities had a bearing on agriculture. The corollary was that “Sustainable development
to meet the various needs of urban consumers, said the manager of Biopark, one of the leading suppliers of eco-certified food in Germany. A suitable instrument for promoting regional economic ties based on locally produced products was the value-added chain approach.
Gladys Maingi, the representative of the Ministry of Agriculture in Kenya, explained what must be done so that urban and rural areas both benefit. An example of diverging interests that she cited was that urban consumers were looking for quality at a reasonable price and producers wanted an adequate income. Farmers should be able to serve the market under reliable conditions. The influence of cartels at the wholesale level was harmful to competition. Small producers should organize and train themselves to be able to cope with the logistics of urban markets and meet quality standards. Gerhard Mai then pinpointed an impediment for joint urban and regional planning. “Urban planners care mainly about infrastructure and neglect economic relations. Rural area planners, in contrast, often ignore urban markets,” was the GTZ policy adviser’s criticism. He then gave an
Stefan Helming, GTZ Deputy Director Planning and Development Peter Conze, GTZ Director General Africa
in infrastructure, health and education were land reforms and better access to technologies and research. At the end, the workshop agreed that GTZ must promote strategies for a balanced development of urban and rural areas. Moreover, Gerd Fleischer from GTZ Agriculture, Fisheries and Food called for future approaches that surmount sectoral divisions to be able to respond to new ways of life in the urban-rural continuum.
James Garrett IFPRI
Heino von Bassewitz, Manager of Biopark
Gladys Maingi, Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture
in urban areas depends on the connection with rural areas.” Relations of exchange therefore need to be promoted. Heino von Bassewitz thought that developing marketing chains for farm products also afforded development opportunities for both regions. Now that guaranteed prices and purchasing systems through government regulation had been rolled back, producers would have to be able
account of how things could be done differently, as in Ethiopia. “The poor need to be supported in putting their productive resources to use on the market instead of letting them go to waste,” said Stefan Helming, GTZ Director General for Planning and Development. National development strategies ought not to treat rural areas as a ‘leftover’ in the equation. What was needed besides investments
Efficient cities for people
The German political foundations make an important contribution to municipal development in the developing countries. In cooperation with their partners, they strengthen decentralized capacity and promote participation, transparency and performance at local level.
The global advance of democracy and human rights has taught a growing number of citizens that they stake two claims on local government: as decision-makers, through elections, and as a client, because municipalities are also service providers. The more people in developing countries realize this, the more it will also become apparent to them how unwieldy, inefficient and corrupt their decades-old administrative apparatus is. These local governments discredit themselves and forfeit their authority, but even administrations with high operational efficiency will fail if they ignore democratic rules. This is why the German political foundations take a dual approach: they promote decentralized and efficient municipal capacities and contribute to strengthening participation and transparency at local level. Only a municipal authority that is responsive to the interests of its citizens will find broad support in the population and will be able to advance sustainable municipal development. With democratic instruments, politicians must guarantee that interests can be articulated and priorities set in the competition of interests between municipalities and higher-level power centres as well as within the local community. Civic participation and transparency in administrative decision-making are the key to a thriving community. There are good examples in international Development Cooperation of approaches that can transform traditional authorities into democratically controlled, efficient and effective institutions whose activities meet the needs of citizens. A major element in international municipal development programmes is the involve-
ment of all stakeholders in the decisionmaking process: civic associations with initiative and ideas as well as municipal administrations and political representatives that must be convinced of the need to implement constructive suggestions. There is a tradition of distrust between the two sides of the negotiating table. To ease this deadlock, administrative bodies must be brought into projects early on. New forms of participation can awaken the interest of citizens in the community and keep them interested.
The power of argument
The German political foundations have been effectively promoting these kinds of developments for years. With the power of argument, they give direction in cooperation with parties, parliaments and civil organizations and shape the attitudes of decision-makers by arranging transfer of experience, providing clear guidance with best practices, and promoting worldwide networks. The rationale for this work is based on the unsatisfactory outcomes or even failure of many development approaches due to sole cooperation with central government agencies. It became increasingly clear by contrast how successful the municipal level can be in performing the role of development promoter if it is entrusted with managing its own affairs thanks to a greater responsiveness to citizens' needs, provided the subsidiarity principle is always observed. The foundation for this is an avowed commitment to a democratic order that entails both respect for human rights and greater opportunities for civic participation.
The political foundations always look to two objectives: the decision-making powers, the resources and the administrative competencies need to be delegated from central government to local municipal self-governance, and they also seek to improve political capacities and processes and administrative efficiency at municipal level. Both are important, because success in one strengthens the other. Thanks to their presence in the partner countries, the political foundations can give direct project support and gear this to the target group. The capacities in the assignment country make sure that the partners as initiators of the projects are also the beneficiaries. Cooperation with NGOs has proved to be a particularly successful alternative to cooperation with government organizations. This also applies to administrative assistance, where NGOs act as research, advisory, and/or training agencies for public administration. Direct cooperation with state institutions is, however, still essential to achieve longterm success. There are plenty of examples of successful project work in these fields of activity. The aim of improving the technical and administrative efficiency of municipalities is always to promote the political institutions and their effective interaction and to advance the basic principles of freedom, solidarity and justice. This process must also bring about a lasting improvement in the effectiveness of municipal operations, which is why practical municipal services are always the object of the political foundations’ support for decentralization and munici-
pal development. Taken together, participation, transparency and practical outcomes are ultimately what give municipal players their legitimacy.
Bringing the city close to the people – through participation and transparency
“With the power of argument, political foundations have in cooperation with parties, parliaments and civic organizations helped to give municipal development direction by raising the awareness of municipal decision-makers and assisting in global networking.” This was Gerhard Wahlers’ positive assessment of cooperation with administrative authorities and civil society organizations in partner countries at the start of the Eschborn Dialogue 2005 foundations workshop ‘Bringing the city close to the people – through participation and transparency’. Thanks to their greater responsiveness to citizens’ concerns and their autonomy, the municipalities and NGOs often proved to be better development promoters than central government agencies, was the view of the Head of the International Cooperation Department at the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Direct cooperation with state institutions was, however, still essential to achieve long-term success. Foundations and projects Field staff of the political foundations and local partners presented selected projects at the workshop.
• The Friedrich Ebert Foundation’s project, Decentralization and Municipal Self-governance, in Southeast Europe targets building local self-governance capacity, getting the necessary legal provisions adopted and setting up a regional network in the long term. Regional knowhow transfer supports reforms towards decentralization. Case-study analyses from the region provide approaches for local initiatives. • The Citizens Charter project run by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation supports NGOs in India in stipulating transparency and civic participation as provisions in contractual agreements. between citizens and local authorities. An online-assisted control system will provide information in future on how the administration handles the complaints it receives. A citizens manual explains how the local administration operates. • The Heinrich Böll Foundation sponsors the project, Controlaría Ciudadana, in Mexico City to combat corruption and make the allocations of public funds transparent. The revised local constitution confers on citizens acting in an honorary capacity the right to scrutinize the municipal authority’s invitations to tender, expenditure procedures and accounting. • In its INFOREG project in Egypt, the Hanns Seidel Foundation in Egypt concentrates on raising the efficiency of local and regional authorities and involving citizens more in regional policy decisions. One focus is on qualifying the regional administration in housing construction and in urban planning and development. • In its urban reform project in Cambodia, the Konrad Adenauer Foundation supports nationwide decentralization. With the
Nitai Mehta, Praja Foundation, Mumbai
Wolfgang Mayer, Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung Ägypten
country's ministry of the interior and the Rhein-Sieg District authority in Germany, schemes have been developed in the provincial cities Battambang and Siem Reap for decentralizing administrative units. Legal provisions have been adopted for new local administration bodies. Sectoral ministries have delegated powers. • Finally, in its project Democratic Governance and Local Development, the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation supports decentralization and more civic participation in Rio, Belo Horizonte, Belén and Recife. Its Brazilian partner advises and upgrades legally established local councils to be able to exert greater influence on the decisions taken by local government committees. The project presentation at the workshop showed how the diverse international work of the political foundations complements official German development assistance.
Orlando dos Santos Junior, FASE Brasilien
Andrés Penaleza Mendez, ˇ Controlaría Cuidadana, Mexico
Adelheid Feilcke-Tiemann, Deutsche Welle Bonn
The world as city
by Günter Meinert and Angelika Hutter
In 25 years’ time, two-thirds of the world’s population will be living in towns. Growing urban populations place heavier demands on city managers. They will have to make economic reforms, provide basic services, integrate a multicultural population and curb the consumption of natural resources. GTZ policy advice contributes to good urban governance.
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan coined the term Urban Millennium, and for good reason. The urban population is rising by 180,000 a day and the stresses on urban politicians and administrations are enormous, but political and administrative management capabilities are not keeping up with the rapid pace of urban growth. Conflicts are on the rise and traditional institutions and values are being eroded. Due to chronic governance deficits, many cities particularly in the developing countries, already face insoluble problems. Nevertheless, the city still fascinates people. Rural exodus will continue simply due to the enormous appeal of urban life and not just because of the better economic opportunities in cities. The balance of opportunities and dangers of life in tomorrow’s cities will depend heavily on two factors: one, the number of people who can take advantage of the opportunities and two the successful negotiation of and adherence to viable rules for the difficult coexistence of very diverse social, cultural and ethnic groups. The success or failure of these efforts will have an effect beyond local precincts. Cities are forging closer national and international links all the time, people are changing their places of work, exchanging experience and are informing themselves through the media. What happens in one city has an effect on others, even more so in future. City-dwellers get to know directly what democracy means, and they demand it too. Added to this is the growing political role of cities in decentralization and democratization. Both processes delegate considerable decision-making powers and funds for public expenditure from the national level to towns and municipalities. So the urban community, the polis, is not the just the etymological origin of politics. Large or small, municipalities in many countries are coming to be a new power factor, wielding influence on national policy. This influence is exerted, for example, through city alliances or influential mayors, who often enough rise to the rank of minister or even prime minister. There is an increasing awareness of the role of urban centres in development and it is also shaping the
agendas of international organizations, as attested by the recent foundation of the international association United Cities and Local Governments, and the theme of the 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai, ‘Better City, Better Life’.
Modern ways to cooperate
Looking at this panorama and its many facets, we ask what Technical Cooperation can contribute to coping with the immense problems. For about 30 years, GTZ has been promoting urban development, currently in more than 100 projects with an urban theme. Our development experts support integrational strategies, good urban governance and capacity development and contribute to improving the framework for these. Urban development is often concerned with technical aspects, setting up urban infrastructure, public services and land registers as well as pro-poor business promotion. GTZ here acts as a knowledge broker. Our personnel can draw on extensive experience from many projects and specialist bodies. They put together a package of expertise for the case in hand. Sectoral advisory services help municipal authorities to assess the economic, social and ecological impacts of urban development. It often turns out that integrated approaches are needed to address several problem complexes at the same time. Examples of this are projects in urban redevelopment that provide assistance in employment and housing, infrastructure and the protection of historical monuments in a multisectoral strategy. Cities already consume enormous amounts of natural resources today, as recent urban management instruments such as eco-budgeting or the ecological footprint show. The waste heaps are mounting, the sewage streams are swelling, and exhaust and waste gas concentration is rising. The health of many millions of city dwellers suffers as a result and satellite pictures have already revealed the global consequences – the pollution of large expanses of ocean. In Southeast Asia, a brown cloud is looming over a large expanse of the continent. As in the past in Europe, the smoking chimney stacks are clear evidence of
economic progress. In many countries, the cities account for the bulk of the national product. As innovation centres and magnets for national and international investments they generate the largest part of economic growth. In Asia, the cities are responsible for 80 per cent of economic growth. The impressive skylines of the globalization winners cannot, however, belie the fact that these efforts to make good the development backlog are unfortunately treading the unsustainable path taken by the industrialized countries. Alongside the winners are a large number of losers – countries, cities and people unable to hold their own in the competition. Even in locations with high economic growth, large parts of the population benefit little. A growing number of poor people are forced into the informal sector where jobs are, however, declining and the working conditions are deteriorating. This race to the bottom is also affecting the cityscape. Districts are becoming dilapidated, slums and sprawling informal settlements line the outskirts. In subSaharan Africa, 72 per cent of all towndwellers live in slums, almost 900 million people worldwide. Measured against this, the Millennium Goal of significantly improving the conditions of life for 100 million slum-dwellers by 2020 seems almost modest. Reaching this goal alone will call for enormous additional efforts by cities, national governments and the international community.
Participating in the future
To work, viable solutions require the cooperation of the many stakeholders. Citizens must participate in the major decisions affecting the development of their city. This is the only way to articulate concerns and settle conflicts. Participation leads people to cooperate. Poor sections of the population in particular need support to give them a say. Suitable management methods are needed to enable private enterprises to render public services. Municipal authorities have to give proper account of their decisions and make their expenditure and outcomes transparent. Development projects produce prototypes that bring the principles and procedures of good governance into
public discussion and set them on the political agenda. Faced with the broad array of urban problems and the shortage of municipal funds, the contribution Development Cooperation can make may appear small, but a modern cooperation approach does not aim at working through one set of problems after another as a way to solve the whole complex issue of urban development. GTZ raises the abilities of the stakeholders to solve their problems themselves. Imparting knowledge is only one aspect. Experiencing projects live and practising methods of reaching a goal changes attitudes, views and ways of working. This applies to people as much as to organizations that benefit from GTZ’s methods of organizational development. New forms of urgently needed cooperation amongst groups and organizations also frequently emerge in the course of a project. When problems need to be tackled in new ways, it often becomes apparent how inadequate and restricted the statutory framework is. To be able to establish sustainable project strategies, GTZ therefore contributes to reforming government sector policy, devising development instruments or amending laws and guidelines. Urban development projects cooperate with urban associations and ministries. Based on tried and tested approaches, sound decision-making aids are prepared in a joint procedure. Extensive consultation processes facilitate political consensus and acceptance for reforms. The challenge for Technical Cooperation in urban management is to apply just the right mix of sectoral, organizational and implementation advice to meet the specific needs and strengthen the management capabilities of everyone involved in urban development. GTZ provides in-process services for this. Echoing the theme of the next World Exposition, its slogan could be: Better Management for Better Cities.
Günter Meinert is Priority Area Manager for Sustainable Urban Development Angelika Hutter is a Planning Officer for Urban Development
Service provider for partner countries
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH is an international cooperation enterprise for sustainable development with worldwide operations. It provides viable, forward-looking solutions for political, economic, ecological and social development in a globalized world. GTZ promotes complex reforms and change processes, often working under difficult conditions. Its corporate goal is sustainable improvement in the conditions of life for people. Founded in 1975 as a private company, GTZ is a government corporation registered in Eschborn near Frankfurt am Main. It works mainly for the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), but also on behalf of other German federal agencies, for the governments of other countries, for international clients such as the European Commission, the United Nations or the World Bank, and for private enterprises. GTZ performs its tasks for the public benefit. All surplus funds are reallocated solely for our own projects in international cooperation for sustainable development.
GTZ can draw on more than 30 years of experience in international cooperation for sustainable development. Its specialist and executive personnel are located in the partner countries. GTZ operates nationwide and adapts its procedures and approaches to the local conditions. Together with its partners, it drafts plans and implements measures tailored to the particular situation. It does this by combining sectoral, regional and management competencies.
Our activity areas
The many activity areas where GTZ provides services range from economic development and employment promotion to state reform and democracy promotion, from health and basic education to environmental protection, conservation of natural resources, agribusiness, fisheries, and food and nutrition. In all our activity areas we contribute to raising the performance of people and organizations. Policy advice plays a prominent role in GTZ's work. In many partner countries, GTZ supports far-reaching reforms and the necessary changes in the political, economic and social framework. Where acute need threatens survival, GTZ carries out emergency-aid and refugee programmes. Here too, though, our approach is to strengthen people’s ability to help themselves and to set development in motion that can sustain itself in the long run. In recent years, GTZ has extended its services, for example to include organizing and holding large events.
Open for alliances
International cooperation for sustainable development needs allies. GTZ has a worldwide network linking it with civic, economic and cultural partners. It has always cooperated closely with national and international organizations in Development Cooperation. When appropriate and economically warranted, it deploys German and foreign know-how of private consulting firms, freelance expert consultants and public institutions. GTZ performs tasks in international cooperation in adherence to the principle of sustainable development. We work to improve the ability of all involved to take action themselves. We see capacity development as our core competency, our key task and our approach. A major principle is to include all actors and partners in planning and implementation. This is how we foster cooperation and consensus at the same time. We often liaise between government and civil society and arbitrate in social conflicts of interest. We also assist our partners in drafting and implementing long-term strategies, laying the joint foundation for structural reforms and their implementation. Wherever it makes sense and wherever we can, we enlist the support of the private sector in all our services. For maximum effect, we work at local, regional, national and international level.
Our broad range of services
GTZ advises organizations and governments in performing their tasks and in developing democratic, rule-of-law and social and ecological free-market institutions renders services in project and financial management recruits and prepares experts and provides backstopping during the field assignment takes on tasks in logistics and in designing, managing and implementing projects in cooperation and events management takes on technical planning and procurement of equipment for projects organizes and conducts upgrading courses handles non-repayable financial contributions from the Technical Cooperation budget
In action worldwide
In over 130 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, in East European transition states, in the Newly Independent States and in Germany, the company employs a workforce of some 9,500. About 1,100 of these are assigned experts, some 7,100 are local field staff, and about 300 specialists are engaged in projects in Germany. GTZ runs its own offices in 67 countries. About 1,000 staff work at the Head Office in Eschborn near Frankfurt am Main.
The power of cities – the influence of networking Friedegund Mascher Telephone: +49 6196 791657 Email: email@example.com
Urban governance – how do cities stay manageable? Angelika Hutter Telephone: +49 6196 791648 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Development without culture – or culture-driven urban development? Reinhold Bäuerle Telephone: +49 6196 792325 Email: email@example.com
Ecocities – the places of the future? Nina Barmeier Telephone: +49 6196 796505 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Poor rich city – between economic growth and financial crisis Manfred Horr Telephone: +49 6196 791242 Email: email@example.com
Town and country – connections create benefits Gerd Fleischer Telephone: +49 6196 791432 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
City worth living in – security and rights for all Rüdiger Krech Telephone: +49 6196 791258 Email: email@example.com
Bringing the city close to the people – through participation and transparency Andreas Klein Telephone: +49 30 26996466 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
You can order the booklets GTZ Annual Report 2004 and Fact Sheets “Designing tomorrow’s cities” at: email@example.com workshop
30 Jahre GTZ. Partner für Perspektiven. Weltweit. 30 Years GTZ. Partner for the Future. Worldwide. 30 Jahre GTZ. Partner für Perspektiven. Weltweit. 30 Years GTZ. Partner for the Future.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ ) GmbH Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1– 5 65726 Eschborn, Germany Telephone: +49 6196 790 Telefax: +49 6196 79 1115 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: www.gtz.de
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.