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04/18/2011
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v = iR i = v/R = (16/5) mA = 3.2 mA
Chapter 2, Solution 2
p = v
2
/R → R = v
2
/p = 14400/60 = 240 ohms
Chapter 2, Solution 3
R = v/i = 120/(2.5x10
3
) = 48k ohms
Chapter 2, Solution 4
(a) i = 3/100 = 30 mA
(b) i = 3/150 = 20 mA
Chapter 2, Solution 5
n = 9; l = 7; b = n + l – 1 = 15
Chapter 2, Solution 6
n = 12; l = 8; b = n + l –1 = 19
Chapter 2, Solution 7
7 elements or 7 branches and 4 nodes, as indicated.
30 V
1 20Ω 2 3
+++
2A 30Ω 60Ω 40Ω 10Ω
4
+ 
Chapter 2, Solution 8
d
c
b
a
9 A
i
3
i
2
12 A
12 A
i
1
8 A
At node a, 8 = 12 + i
1
i
1
=  4A
At node c, 9 = 8 + i
2
i
2
= 1A
At node d, 9 = 12 + i
3
i
3
= 3A
Chapter 2, Solution 9
Applying KCL,
i
1
+ 1 = 10 + 2 i
1
= 11A
1 + i
2
= 2 + 3 i
2
= 4A
i
2
= i
3
+ 3 i
3
= 1A
Chapter 2, Solution 10
At node 1, 4 + 3 = i
1
i
1
= 7A
At node 3, 3 + i
2
= 2 i
2
= 5A
3
2
2A
3A
1
4A
i
2
i
1
Chapter 2, Solution 11
Applying KVL to each loop gives
8 + v
1
+ 12 = 0 v
1
= 4v
12  v
2
+ 6 = 0 v
2
= 6v
10  6  v
3
= 0 v
3
= 4v
v
4
+ 8  10 = 0 v
4
= 2v
Chapter 2, Solution 12
For loop 1, 20 25 +10 + v
1
= 0 v
1
= 35v
For loop 2, 10 +15 v
2
= 0 v
2
= 5v
For loop 3, v
1
+v
2
+v
3
= 0 v
3
= 30v
+ 15v

loop 3
loop 2
loop 1
+
20v

+ 10v
 – 25v
+
+ v
2

+
v
1

+
v
3

Chapter 2, Solution 13
2A
I
2
7A I
4
1 2 3 4
4A
I
1
3A I
3
At node 2,
3 7 0 10
2 2
+ + = → = − I I A
12
2A
2 5A
At node 1,
I I I I A
1 2 1 2
2 2 + = → = − =
At node 4,
2 4 2 4
4 4
= + → = − = − I I
At node 3,
7 7
4 3 3
+ = → = − = I I I
Hence,
I A I A I A I
1 2 3 4
12 10 5 2 = = − = = , , , A −
V
11
8
Chapter 2, Solution 14
+ + 
3V V
1
I
4
V
2
 I
3
 + 2V  +
 + V
3
 + +
4V
I
2
 I
1
V
4
+ 
5V
For mesh 1,
− + + = → = V V
4 4
2 5 0 7
For mesh 2,
+ + + = → = − − = − 4 0 4 7
3 4 3
V V V V
For mesh 3,
− + − = → = + = − 3 0 3
1 3 1 3
V V V V V
For mesh 4,
− − − = → = − − = V V V V V
1 2 2 1
2 0 2 6
Thus,
V V V V V V V
1 2 3 4
8 6 11 = − = = − V 7 = , , ,
Chapter 2, Solution 15
+ +
+ 12V 1 v
2
  8V + 
v
1
 3 + 2 
v
3
10V
 +
For loop 1,
8 12 0 4
2 2
− + = → = v v V
V
V
For loop 2,
− − − = → = − v v
3 3
8 10 0 18
For loop 3,
− + + = → = − v v v
1 3 1
12 0 6
Thus,
v V v V v
1 2 3
6 4 = − = = − , , V 18
Chapter 2, Solution 16
+ v
1

+  + 
6V

+ loop 1
loop 2
12V
10V
+
v
1

+ v
2

Applying KVL around loop 1,
–6 + v
1
+ v
1
– 10 – 12 = 0 v
1
= 14V
Applying KVL around loop 2,
12 + 10 – v
2
= 0 v
2
= 22V
Chapter 2, Solution 17
+ v
1

+
 +

+
10V
12V
24V
loop 2
+
v
3

v
2

loop 1

+
It is evident that v
3
= 10V
Applying KVL to loop 2,
v
2
+ v
3
+ 12 = 0 v
2
= 22V
Applying KVL to loop 1,
24 + v
1
 v
2
= 0 v
1
= 2V
Thus,
v
1
= 2V, v
2
= 22V, v
3
= 10V
Chapter 2, Solution 18
Applying KVL,
30 10 +8 + I(3+5) = 0
8I = 32 I = 4A
V
ab
+ 5I + 8 = 0 V
ab
= 28V
Chapter 2, Solution 19
Applying KVL around the loop, we obtain
12 + 10  (8) + 3i = 0 i = 2A
Power dissipated by the resistor:
p
3Ω
= i
2
R = 4(3) = 12W
Power supplied by the sources:
p
12V
= 12 ( 2) = 24W
p
10V
= 10 (2) = 20W
p
8V
= ( 2) = 16W
Chapter 2, Solution 20
Applying KVL around the loop,
36 + 4i
0
+ 5i
0
= 0 i
0
= 4A
Chapter 2, Solution 21
10 Ω
+

45V

+
+ v
0

Apply KVL to obtain
45 + 10i  3V
0
+ 5i = 0
But v
0
= 10i,
3v
0
45 + 15i  30i = 0 i = 3A
P
3
= i
2
R = 9 x 5 = 45W
5 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 22
4 Ω
+ v
0

10A
2v
0 6 Ω
At the node, KCL requires that
0
0
v 2 10
4
v
+ + = 0 v
0
= –4.444V
The current through the controlled source is
i = 2V
0
= 8.888A
and the voltage across it is
v = (6 + 4) i
0
= 10 111 . 11
4
v
0
− =
Hence,
p
2
v
i
= (8.888)(11.111) = 98.75 W
Chapter 2, Solution 23
8//12 = 4.8, 3//6 = 2, (4 + 2)//(1.2 + 4.8) = 6//6 = 3
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.
i
x
1Ω
+ v
x

6A 2Ω 3Ω
Applying current division,
i A A v i
x x
=
+ +
= =
2
2 1 3
6 2 1 2 ( ) , V
x
=
The current through the 1.2 resistor is 0.5i Ω
x
= 1A. The voltage across the 12
resistor is 1 x 4.8 = 4.8 V. Hence the power is
Ω
p
v
R
W = = =
2 2
4 8
12
192
.
.
Chapter 2, Solution 24
(a) I
0
=
2 1
R R
V
s
+
α − =
0
V I
0 ( )
4 3
R R
=
4 3
4 3
2 1
0
R R
R R
R R
V
+
⋅
+
−
α
( )( )
4 3 2 1
4 3 0
R R R R
R R
Vs + +
V −
=
α
(b) If R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= R
4
= R,
10
4 2
R
R 2 V
V
S
0
=
α
= ⋅
α
= α = 40
Chapter 2, Solution 25
V
0
= 5 x 10
3
x 10 x 10
3
= 50V
Using current division,
I
20
=
+
) 50 01 . 0 (
20 5
x =
5
0.1 A
V
20
= 20 x 0.1 kV = 2 kV
p
20
= I
20
V
20
= 0.2 kW
Chapter 2, Solution 26
V
0
= 5 x 10
3
x 10 x 10
3
= 50V
Using current division,
I
20
=
+
) 50 01 . 0 (
20 5
x =
5
0.1 A
V
20
= 20 x 0.1 kV = 2 kV
p
20
= I
20
V
20
= 0.2 kW
Chapter 2, Solution 27
Using current division,
i
1
= =
+
) 20 (
6 4
4
8 A
i
2
= =
+
) 20 (
6 4
6
12 A
Chapter 2, Solution 28
We first combine the two resistors in parallel
= 10 15 6 Ω
We now apply voltage division,
v
1
= =
+
) 40 (
6 14
14
20 V
v
2
= v
3
= =
+
) 40 (
6 14
6
12 V
Hence, v
1
= 28 V, v
2
= 12 V, v
s
= 12 V
Chapter 2, Solution 29
The series combination of 6 Ω and 3 Ω resistors is shorted. Hence
i
2
= 0 = v
2
v
1
= 12, i
1
= =
4
12
3 A
Hence v
1
= 12 V, i
1
= 3 A, i
2
= 0 = v
2
Chapter 2, Solution 30
i
+
v

8 Ω
6 Ω
i
1
9A
4 Ω
By current division, =
+
= ) 9 (
12 6
12
i 6 A
4 x 3 = = = = − =
1 1
i 4 v , A 3 6 9 i 12 V
p
6
= 1
2
R = 36 x 6 = 216 W
Chapter 2, Solution 31
The 5 Ω resistor is in series with the combination of Ω = + 5 ) 6 4 ( 10 .
Hence by the voltage division principle,
=
+
= ) V 20 (
5 5
5
v 10 V
by ohm's law,
=
+
=
+
=
6 4
10
6 4
v
i 1 A
p
p
= i
2
R = (1)
2
(4) = 4 W
Chapter 2, Solution 32
We first combine resistors in parallel.
= 30 20 =
50
30 x 20
12 Ω
= 40 10 =
50
40 x 10
8 Ω
Using current division principle,
A 12 ) 20 (
20
12
i i , A 8 ) 20 (
12 8
8
i i
4 3 2 1
= = + =
+
= +
= = ) 8 (
50
20
i
1
3.2 A
= = ) 8 (
50
30
i
2
4.8 A
= = ) 12 (
50
10
i
3
2.4A
= = ) 12 (
50
40
i
4
9.6 A
Chapter 2, Solution 33
Combining the conductance leads to the equivalent circuit below
i
+
v

9A 1S
i
+
v

4S
4S
1S
9A
2S
= S S 3 6 25
9
3 x 6
= and 25 + 25 = 4 S
Using current division,
=
+
= ) 9 (
2
1
1
1
i 6 A, v = 3(1) = 3 V
Chapter 2, Solution 34
By parallel and series combinations, the circuit is reduced to the one below:

+
+
v
1

8 Ω i
1
= + ) 13 2 ( 10 Ω = 6
25
15 10x
= + ) 6 4 ( 15 Ω = 6
25
15 15x
28V
6 Ω
Ω = + 6 ) 6 6 ( 12
Thus i
1
= =
+ 6 8
28
2 A and v
1
= 6i
1
= 12 V
We now work backward to get i
2
and v
2
.
+
6V

1A
1A 6 Ω

+
+
12V

12 Ω
8 Ω i
1
= 2A
28V 6 Ω
0.6A
+
3.6V

4 Ω
+
6V

1A
1A
15 Ω
6 Ω

+
+
12V

12 Ω
8 Ω i
1
= 2A
28V 6 Ω
Thus, v
2
= , 12 3 ) 6 3 (
15
13
⋅ = ⋅ i
2
= 24 . 0
13
v
2
=
p
2
= i
2
R = (0.24)
2
(2) = 0.1152 W
i
1
= 2 A, i
2
= 0.24 A, v
1
= 12 V, v
2
= 3.12 V, p
2
= 0.1152 W
Chapter 2, Solution 35
i
20 Ω
+
V
0

i
2
a b
5 Ω
30 Ω 70 Ω
I
0
i
1
+
V
1


+
50V
Combining the versions in parallel,
= 30 70 Ω = 21
100
30 x 70
, = 15 20 =
25
5 x 20
4 Ω
i = =
+ 4 21
50
2 A
v
i
= 21i = 42 V, v
0
= 4i = 8 V
i
1
= =
70
v
1
0.6 A, i
2
= =
20
v
2
0.4 A
At node a, KCL must be satisfied
i
1
= i
2
+ I
0
0.6 = 0.4 + I
0
I
0
= 0.2 A
Hence v
0
= 8 V and I
0
= 0.2A
Chapter 2, Solution 36
The 8Ω resistor is shorted. No current flows through the 1Ω resistor. Hence v
0
is the voltage across the 6Ω resistor.
I
0
= = =
+ 4
4
16 3 2
4
1 A
v
0
= I
0
( ) = =
0
I 2 6 3 2 V
Chapter 2, Solution 37
Let I = current through the 16Ω resistor. If 4 V is the voltage drop across the R 6
combination, then 20  4 = 16 V in the voltage drop across the 16Ω resistor.
Hence, I = =
16
16
1 A.
But I = 1
R 6 16
20
=
+
4 = = R 6
R 6
R 6
+
R = 12 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 38
Let I
0
= current through the 6Ω resistor. Since 6Ω and 3Ω resistors are in parallel.
6I
0
= 2 x 3 R
0
= 1 A
The total current through the 4Ω resistor = 1 + 2 = 3 A.
Hence
v
S
= (2 + 4 + 3 2 ) (3 A) = 24 V
I = =
v
10
S
2.4 A
Chapter 2, Solution 39
(a) R
eq
= = 0 R 0
(b) R
eq
= = + R R R R = +
2
R
2
R
R
(c) R
eq
= = = + + R 2 R 2 ) R R ( ) R R ( R
(d) R
eq
= ) R
2
1
R ( R 3 ) R R R ( R + = + 3
= =
+ R
2
3
R 3
R
2
3
Rx 3
R
(e) R
eq
= R 3 R 3 R 2 R =
⋅
R 3
R 2 R
= R 3 =
+
=
R
3
2
R 3
R
3
2
Rx 3
R
3
2
R
11
6
Chapter 2, Solution 40
Req = = + = + + 2 3 ) 3 6 2 ( 4 3 5Ω
I = =
5
10
q Re
=
10
2 A
Chapter 2, Solution 41
Let R
0
= combination of three 12Ω resistors in parallel
12
1
12
1
12
1
R
1
o
+ + = R
o
= 4
) R 14 ( 60 30 ) R R 10 ( 60 30 R
0 eq
+ + = + + + =
R 74
) R 14 ( 60
30
+
+
+ = 50 74 + R = 42 + 3R
or R = 16 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 42
(a) R
ab
= = = + = +
25
20 x 5
) 12 8 ( 5 ) 30 20 8 ( 5 4 Ω
(b) R
ab
= = + + = + + = + + + + 5 . 2 2 2 5 5 4 4 2 ) 4 6 ( 10 5 8 ) 3 5 ( 4 2 6.5 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 43
(a) R
ab
= = + = + = + 8 4
50
400
25
20 x 5
40 10 20 5 12 Ω
(b) = 30 20 60 Ω = =
+ +
−
10
6
60
30
1
20
1
60
1
1
R
ab
= ) 10 10 ( + 80 =
+
=
100
20 80
16 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 44
(a) Convert T to Y and obtain
R
x x x
1
20 20 20 10 10 20
10
800
10
80 =
+ +
= = Ω
R R
2 3
800
20
40 = = = Ω
The circuit becomes that shown below.
R
1
a
R
3
R
2
5Ω
b
R
1
//0 = 0, R
3
//5 = 40//5 = 4.444Ω
R R
ab
= + = =
2
0 4 444 40 4 444 4 / /( . ) / / . Ω
(b) 30//(20+50) = 30//70 = 21 Ω
Convert the T to Y and obtain
R
x x x
1
20 10 10 40 40 20
40
1400
40
35 =
+ +
= = Ω
R
2
1400
20
70 = = Ω , R
3
1400
10
140 = = Ω
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.
11Ω R
1
R
2
R
3
30Ω 21Ω
21Ω
15Ω
Combining the resistors in parallel
R
1
//15 =35//15=10.5, 30//R
2
=30//70 = 21
leads to the circuit below.
11 10.5Ω Ω
21Ω 140Ω
21Ω 21Ω
Coverting the T to Y leads to the circuit below.
11Ω 10.5Ω
R
4
R
5
R
6
21Ω
R
x x x
R
4 6
21 140 140 21 21 21
21
6321
21
301 =
+ +
= = = Ω
R
5
6321
140
4515 = = .
10.5//301 = 10.15, 301//21 = 19.63
R
5
//(10.15 +19.63) = 45.15//29.78 = 17.94
R
ab
= + = 11 17 94 28 94 . . Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 45
(a) 10//40 = 8, 20//30 = 12, 8//12 = 4.8
R
ab
= + + = 5 50 4 8 59 8 . . Ω
(b) 12 and 60 ohm resistors are in parallel. Hence, 12//60 = 10 ohm. This 10 ohm
and 20 ohm are in series to give 30 ohm. This is in parallel with 30 ohm to give
30//30 = 15 ohm. And 25//(15+10) = 12.5. Thus
R
ab
= + + = 5 12 8 15 32 5 . . Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 46
(a) R
ab
= = + + 20 60 40 70 30
80
20 60
40
100
70 x 30 +
+ +
= + + 15 40 21 = 76 Ω
(b) The 10Ω, 50Ω, 70Ω, and 80Ω resistors are shorted.
= 30 20 Ω =12
50
30 x 20
40 = 60 24
100
60 x
=
40
R
ab
= 8 + 12 + 24 + 6 + 0 + 4 = 54 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 47
= 20 5 Ω = 4
25
20 x 5
6 = 3 Ω = 2
9
3 x 6
8 Ω
a b
10 Ω
2 Ω
4 Ω
R
ab
= 10 + 4 + 2 + 8 = 24 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 48
(a) R
a
= 30
10
100 100 100
R
R R R R R R
3
1 3 3 2 2 1
=
+ +
=
+ +
R
a
= R
b
= R
c
= 30 Ω
(b) Ω = =
+ +
= 3 . 103
30
3100
30
50 x 20 50 x 30 20 x 30
R
a
, 155
20
3100
R
b
Ω = = Ω = = 62
50
3100
R
c
R
a
= 103.3 Ω, R
b
= 155 Ω, R
c
= 62 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 49
(a) R
1
= Ω =
+
=
+ +
4
36
12 12
R R R
R R
c b a
c a
R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= 4 Ω
(b) Ω =
+ +
= 18
10 30 60
30 x 60
R
1
Ω = = 6
100
10 x 60
R
2
Ω = = 3
100
10 x 30
R
3
R
1
= 18Ω, R
2
= 6Ω, R
3
= 3Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 50
Using = 3R
∆
R
Y
= 3R, we obtain the equivalent circuit shown below:
3R 30mA
R
R
3R
3R
3R
30mA
3R/2
= R R 3 R
4
3
R 4
RxR 3
=
) R 4 /( 3 ) R 4 /( ) RxR 3 ( R = 3
R R
2
3
R 3
R
2
3
Rx 3
R
2
3
R 3 R
4
3
R
4
3
R 3
= +
= =
+
P = I
2
R 800 x 10
3
= (30 x 10
3
)
2
R
R = 889 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 51
(a) Ω =15 30 30 and Ω = = 12 ) 50 /( 20 x 30 20 30
R
ab
= = = + ) 39 /( 24 x 15 ) 12 12 ( 15 9.31 Ω
b
15 Ω
a
20 Ω
30 Ω
b
a
20 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
12 Ω
12 Ω
(b) Converting the Tsubnetwork into its equivalent network gives ∆
R
a'b'
= 10x20 + 20x5 + 5x10/(5) = 350/(5) = 70 Ω
R
b'c'
= 350/(10) = 35Ω, Ra'c' = 350/(20) = 17.5 Ω
Also Ω = = 21 ) 100 /( 70 x 30 70 30 and 35/(15) = 35x15/(50) = 10.5
R
ab
= 25 + 5 . 31 5 . 17 25 ) 5 . 10 21 ( 5 . + = + 17
R
ab
= 36.25 Ω
b’
c’ c’
b
a
15 Ω 35 Ω 17.5 Ω
25 Ω 70 Ω
a’
b
a
30 Ω
25 Ω
5 Ω
10 Ω
15 Ω
20 Ω
30 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 52
(a) We first convert from T to ∆.
R
3
R
2
b
a
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
b
a
200 Ω
200 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
R
1
Ω = =
+ +
= 800
100
80000
100
100 x 200 200 x 200 200 x 100
1
R
R
2
= R
3
= 80000/(200) = 400
But Ω = = 80
500
400 x 100
400 100
We connect the ∆ to Y.
R
a
= R
c
= Ω = =
+ + 3
400
960
000 , 64
800 80 80
800 x 80
R
c
R
b
b
a
R
a
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
b
a
800 Ω
80 Ω
80 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
R
b
= Ω =
3
20
960
80 x 80
We convert T to . ∆
R
3
’
R
2
’
b
a
500/3 Ω
500/3 Ω
R
1
’
b
a
500/3 Ω
500/3 Ω
320/3 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
Ω = =
+ +
= 75 . 293
) 3 /( 320
) 3 /( 000 , 94
3
320
3
320
x 100
3
320
x 100 100 x 100
'
1
R
33 . 313
100
) 3 /( 000 , 94
R R
1
3
'
2
= = =
796 . 108
) 3 /( 1440
) 3 /( 500 x ) 3 /( 940
) 3 /( 500 ) 30 /( 940 = =
R
ab
= = =
36 . 511
6 . 217 x 75 . 293
) 796 . 108 x 2 ( 75 . 293 125 Ω
(b) Converting the T
s
to ∆
s
, we have the equivalent circuit below.
100 Ω
a
b
300 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
b
a
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
, 75 ) 400 /( 100 x 300 100 300 = = 100 ) 450 /( 150 x 300 ) 75 75 ( = = + 300
R
ab
= 100 + ) 400 /( 300 x 100 200 100 300 + = + 100
R
ab
= 2.75 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
300 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 53
(a) Converting one ∆ to T yields the equivalent circuit below:
20 Ω
b’
c’
a’
b
80 Ω
a
20 Ω
5 Ω
4 Ω
60 Ω
30 Ω
R
a'n
= , 4
50 10 40
10 x 40
Ω =
+ +
, 5
100
50 x 10
R
n ' b
Ω = = Ω = = 20
100
50 x 40
R
n ' c
R
ab
= 20 + 80 + 20 + 65 34 120 ) 5 60 ( ) 4 30 ( + = + +
R
ab
= 142.32 Ω
(a) We combine the resistor in series and in parallel.
Ω = = + 20
90
60 x 30
) 30 30 ( 30
We convert the balanced ∆s to Ts as shown below:
b
10 Ω
10 Ω 10 Ω
10 Ω
10 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
30 Ω
b
a
20 Ω
20 Ω 10 Ω
a
R
ab
= 10 + 40 20 20 10 ) 10 20 10 ( ) 10 10 + = + + + + (
R
ab
= 33.33 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 54
(a) R
ab
= + + + = + = 50 100 150 100 150 50 100 400 130 / /( ) / / Ω
(b) R
ab
= + + + = + = 60 100 150 100 150 60 100 400 140 / /( ) / / Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 55
We convert the T to . ∆
50 Ω
I
0

+
24 V
b
a
35 Ω
70 Ω
140 Ω
R
eq

+
24 V
60 Ω
b
a
20 Ω
40 Ω
10 Ω
20 Ω
I
0
60 Ω
70 Ω
R
eq
R
ab
= Ω = =
+ +
=
+ +
35
40
1400
40
20 x 10 10 x 40 40 x 20
R
R R R R R R
3
1 3 3 2 2 1
R
ac
= 1400/(10) = 140Ω, R
bc
= 1400/(40) = 35Ω
35 70 70 = and = 160 140 140x60/(200) = 42
R
eq
= Ω = + 0625 . 24 ) 42 35 ( 35
I
0
= 24/(R
ab
) = 0.9774A
Chapter 2, Solution 56
We need to find R
eq
and apply voltage division. We first tranform the Y network to ∆.
c
35 Ω
16 Ω
30 Ω
37.5 Ω
a b
30 Ω
45 Ω
R
eq
+
100 V

20 Ω
35 Ω
16 Ω
30 Ω
10 Ω
12 Ω
15 Ω
R
eq
+
100 V

20 Ω
R
ab
= Ω = =
+ +
5 . 37
12
450
12
15 x 12 12 x 10 10 x 15
R
ac
= 450/(10) = 45Ω, R
bc
= 450/(15) = 30Ω
Combining the resistors in parallel,
3020 = (600/50) = 12 Ω,
37.530 = (37.5x30/67.5) = 16.667 Ω
3545 = (35x45/80) = 19.688 Ω
R
eq
= 19.688(12 + 16.667) = 11.672Ω
By voltage division,
v = 100
16 672 . 11
672 . 11
+
= 42.18 V
Chapter 2, Solution 57
4 Ω
e
c
f
a
b
d
36 Ω
7 Ω
27 Ω
2 Ω
18 Ω
28 Ω
10 Ω
1 Ω
14 Ω
R
ab
= Ω = =
+ +
18
12
216
12
6 x 8 8 x 12 12 x 6
R
ac
= 216/(8) = 27Ω, R
bc
= 36 Ω
R
de
= Ω =
+ +
7
8
56
8
4 x 8 8 x 2 2 x 4
R
ef
= 56/(4) = 14Ω, R
df
= 56/(2) = 28 Ω
Combining resistors in parallel,
, 368 . 7
38
280
28 10 Ω = = Ω = = 868 . 5
43
7 x 36
7 36
Ω = = 7 . 2
30
3 x 27
3 27
4 Ω
0.5964 Ω
3.977 Ω
1.829 Ω
4 Ω
7.568 Ω 14 Ω
2.7 Ω
14 Ω
18 Ω
5.868 Ω
7.568 Ω
Ω = =
+ +
= 829 . 1
567 . 26
7 . 2 x 18
867 . 5 7 . 2 18
7 . 2 x 18
R
an
Ω = = 977 . 3
567 . 26
868 . 5 x 18
R
bn
Ω = = 5904 . 0
567 . 26
7 . 2 x 868 . 5
R
cn
) 14 5964 . 0 ( ) 368 . 7 977 . 3 ( 829 . 1 4 R
eq
+ + + + =
= + 5964 . 14 346 . 11 829 . 5 = 12.21 Ω
i = 20/(R
eq
) = 1.64 A
Chapter 2, Solution 58
The resistor of the bulb is 120/(0.75) = 160Ω
2.25 A
1.5 A
40 Ω
0.75 A
80 Ω 160 Ω
+ 90 V 
+
120

+
V
S
Once the 160Ω and 80Ω resistors are in parallel, they have the same voltage 120V.
Hence the current through the 40Ω resistor is
40(0.75 + 1.5) = 2.25 x 40 = 90
Thus
v
s
= 90 + 120 = 210 V
Chapter 2, Solution 59
Total power p = 30 + 40 + 50 + 120 W = vi
or i = p/(v) = 120/(100) = 1.2 A
Chapter 2, Solution 60
p = iv i = p/(v)
i
30W
= 30/(100) = 0.3 A
i
40W
= 40/(100) = 0.4 A
i
50W
= 50/(100) = 0.5 A
Chapter 2, Solution 61
There are three possibilities
(a) Use R
1
and R
2
:
R = Ω = = 35 . 42 90 80 R R
2 1
p = i
2
R
i = 1.2A + 5% = 1.2 ± 0.06 = 1.26, 1.14A
p = 67.23W or 55.04W, cost = $1.50
(b) Use R
1
and R
3
:
R = Ω = = 44 . 44 100 80 R R
3 1
p = I
2
R = 70.52W or 57.76W, cost = $1.35
(c) Use R
2
and R
3
:
R = Ω = = 37 . 47 100 90 R R
3 2
p = I
2
R = 75.2W or 61.56W, cost = $1.65
Note that cases (b) and (c) give p that exceed 70W that can be supplied.
Hence case (a) is the right choice, i.e.
R
1
and R
2
Chapter 2, Solution 62
p
A
= 110x8 = 880 W, p
B
= 110x2 = 220 W
Energy cost = $0.06 x 360 x10 x (880 + 220)/1000 = $237.60
Chapter 2, Solution 63
Use eq. (2.61),
R
n
= Ω =
−
=
−
−
−
04 . 0
10 x 2 5
100 x 10 x 2
R
I I
3
3
m
m
m
I
I
n
= I  I
m
= 4.998 A
p = ( I = 9992 . 0 ) 04 . 0 ( ) 998 . 4 R
2 2
n
= ≅ 1 W
Chapter 2, Solution 64
When R
x
= 0, i R = A 10
x
= Ω =11
10
110
When R
x
is maximum, i
x
= 1A Ω = = + 110
1
110
R
x
R
i.e., R
x
= 110  R = 99 Ω
Thus, R = 11 Ω, R
x
= 99 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 65
= Ω − = − = k 1
mA 10
50
R
I
V
R
m
fs
fs
n
4 kΩ
Chapter 2, Solution 66
20 kΩ/V = sensitivity =
fs
I
1
i.e., I
fs
= A 50 V / k
20
µ = Ω
1
The intended resistance R
m
= Ω = Ω = k 200 ) V / k 20 ( 10
I
V
fs
fs
(a) = Ω −
µ
= − = k 200
A 50
V 50
R
i
V
R
m
fs
fs
n
800 kΩ
(b) p = = Ω µ = ) k 800 ( ) A 50 ( R I
2
n
2
fs
2 mW
Chapter 2, Solution 67
(a) By current division,
i
0
= 5/(5 + 5) (2 mA) = 1 mA
V
0
= (4 kΩ) i
0
= 4 x 10
3
x 10
3
= 4 V
(b) . k 4 . 2 k 6 k 4 Ω = By current division,
mA 19 . 1 ) mA 2 (
5 4 . 2 1
5
i
'
0
=
+ +
=
= Ω = ) mA 19 . 1 )( k 4 . 2 ( v
'
0
2.857 V
(c) % error =
0
'
0 0
v
v v −
x 100% = = 100 x
4
143 . 1
28.57%
(d) . k 6 . 3 k 30 k 4 Ω = Ω By current division,
mA 042 . 1 ) mA 2 (
5 6 . 3 1
5
i
'
0
=
+ +
=
V 75 . 3 ) mA 042 . 1 )( k 6 . 3 ( v
'
0
= Ω
% error = = =
−
4
100 x 25 . 0
% 100 x
v
v v
0
'
0
6.25%
Chapter 2, Solution 68
(a) Ω = 60 24 40
i = =
+ 24 16
4
0.1 A
(b) =
+ +
=
24 1 16
4
i
'
0.09756 A
(c) % error = =
−
% 100 x
1 . 0
09756 . 0 1 . 0
2.44%
Chapter 2, Solution 69
With the voltmeter in place,
S
m 2 S 1
m 2
0
V
R R R R
R R
+ +
= V
where R
m
= 100 kΩ without the voltmeter,
S
S 2 1
2
0
V
R R R
R
+ +
= V
(a) When R
2
= 1 kΩ, Ω = k
101
100
R R
2 m
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 101
100
101
100
1.278 V (with)
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 1
1
1.29 V (without)
(b) When R
2
= 10 kΩ, Ω = = k 091 . 9
110
1000
R R
m 2
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 091 . 9
091 . 9
9.30 V (with)
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 10
10
10 V (without)
(c) When R
2
= 100 kΩ, Ω = k 50 R R
m 2
=
+
= ) 40 (
30 50
50
V
0
25 V (with)
V
0
= =
+
) 40 (
30 100
100
30.77 V (without)
Chapter 2, Solution 70
(a) Using voltage division,
v V
a
=
+
=
12
12 8
25 15 ( )
v V
b
=
+
=
10
10 15
25 10 ( )
v v v
ab a b
= − = V − = 15 10 5
(b)
+ 8kΩ 15kΩ
25 V
 a b
12kΩ 10kΩ
o
v v V v v v
a b ab a b
= = = V − = − = − 0 10 0 10 1 , , 0
Chapter 2, Solution 71
V
s R
L
R
1
+
−
i
L
Given that v
s
= 30 V, R
1
= 20 Ω, I
L
= 1 A, find R
L
.
v i R R R
v
i
R
s L L L
s
L
= + → = − = − = ( )
1 1
30
1
20 10Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 72
The system can be modeled as shown.
12A
+
9V R R ••• R

The n parallel resistors R give a combined resistance of R/n. Thus,
9 12
12
9
12 15
9
20 = → = = = x
R
n
n
xR x
Chapter 2, Solution 73
By the current division principle, the current through the ammeter will be
onehalf its previous value when
R = 20 + R
x
65 = 20 + R
x
R
x
= 45 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 74
With the switch in high position,
6 = (0.01 + R
3
+ 0.02) x 5 R
3
= 1.17 Ω
At the medium position,
6 = (0.01 + R
2
+ R
3
+ 0.02) x 3 R
2
+ R
3
= 1.97
or R
2
= 1.97  1.17 = 0.8 Ω
At the low position,
6 = (0.01 + R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ 0.02) x 1 R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
= 5.97
R
1
= 5.97  1.97 = 4 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 75
M
R 100 Ω
V
S

+
12 Ω
(a) When R
x
= 0, then
I
m
= I
fs
=
m
R R
t
+
R
2
=
m
fs
2
R
I
E
− = Ω = − k 9 . 19 100
10 x 1 . 0
2
3
(b) For halfscale deflection, I
m
= mA 05 . 0
2
I
fs
=
I
m
=
x m
R R R
E
+ +
R
x
= = Ω − = + −
−
k 20
10 x 05 . 0
2
) R R (
I
E
3
m
m
20 kΩ
Chapter 2, Solution 76
For series connection, R = 2 x 0.4Ω = 0.8Ω
= = =
8 . 0
) 120 (
R
V
2 2
p 18 kΩ (low)
For parallel connection, R = 1/2 x 0.4Ω = 0.2Ω
p = =
2 . 0
) 120
=
(
R
V
2 2
72 kW (high)
Chapter 2, Solution 77
(a) 5 Ω = 20 20 20 20 10 = 10
i.e., four 20 Ω resistors in parallel.
(b) 311.8 = 300 + 10 + 1.8 = 300 + 8 . 1 20 20 +
i.e., one 300Ω resistor in series with 1.8Ω resistor and
a parallel combination of two 20Ω resistors.
(c) 40kΩ = 12kΩ + 28kΩ = k 50 k 56 k 24 24 +
i.e., Two 24kΩ resistors in parallel connected in series with two
50kΩ resistors in parallel.
(d) 42.32kΩ = 42l + 320
= 24k + 28k = 320
= 24k = 20 300 k 56 k + + 56
i.e., A series combination of 20Ω resistor, 300Ω resistor, 24kΩ
resistor and a parallel combination of two 56kΩ resistors.
Chapter 2, Solution 78
The equivalent circuit is shown below:
R
+
V
0


+
V
S
(1α)R
V
0
=
S 0 S
V R ) 1 ( V
R ) 1 ( R
R ) 1
α − =
α − +
α − (
R ) 1 (
V
V
S
0
α − =
Chapter 2, Solution 79
Since p = v
2
/R, the resistance of the sharpener is
R = v
2
/(p) = 6
2
/(240 x 10
3
) = 150Ω
I = p/(v) = 240 mW/(6V) = 40 mA
Since R and R
x
are in series, I flows through both.
IR
x
= V
x
= 9  6 = 3 V
R
x
= 3/(I) = 3/(40 mA) = 3000/(40) = 75 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 80
The amplifier can be modeled as a voltage source and the loudspeaker as a resistor:
V

+
Case 1
R
1

+ V
R
2
Hence ,
R
V
p
2
=
2
1
1
2
R
R
p
p
= = = = ) 12 (
4
10
p
R
R
1
2
1
2
p 30 W
Case 2
Chapter 2, Solution 81
Let R
1
and R
2
be in kΩ.
5 R R
2 1 eq
+ = R (1)
1 2
2
S
0
R R 5
R 5
V
V
+
= (2)
From (1) and (2),
40
R 5
05 .
1
= 0 2 =
2
2
2
R 5
R 5
R 5
+
= or R
2
= 3.33 kΩ
From (1), 40 = R
1
+ 2 R
1
= 38 kΩ
Thus R
1
= 38 kΩ, R
2
= 3.33 kΩ
Chapter 2, Solution 82
(a)
10 Ω
1 2
10 Ω
40 Ω
80 Ω
R
12
R
12
= 80 + = + = +
6
50
80 ) 40 10 ( 10 88.33 Ω
(b)
3
20 Ω
10 Ω
10 Ω
80 Ω
40 Ω
R
13
1
R
13
= 80 + = + = + + 50 10 100 20 ) 40 10 ( 10 108.33 Ω
20 Ω
10 Ω
10 Ω
1
4
80 Ω
(c)
R
14
40 Ω
R
14
= = + + = + + + + 20 0 80 20 ) 10 40 10 ( 0 80 100 Ω
Chapter 2, Solution 83
The voltage across the tube is 2 x 60 mV = 0.06 V, which is negligible
compared with 24 V. Ignoring this voltage amp, we can calculate the
current through the devices.
I
1
= mA 5
V 9
mW
V
1
1
=
45 p
=
I
2
= mA 20
24
mW
V
2
2
=
480 p
=
60 mA
i
2
= 20 mA
R
1
i
R2
i
R1
i
1
= 5 mA
R
2

+
24 V
By applying KCL, we obtain
and mA 40 20 60 I
1
R
= − = mA 35 5 40 I
2
R
= − =
Hence, R
1
R
I
1
= 24  9 = 15 V = =
mA 40
V 15
R
1
375 Ω
V 9 R I
2 R
2
= = =
mA 35
V 9
2
R 257.14 Ω
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