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Eilis Darby

The Internet
The internet is a world wide system of interconnected computer networks
The name comes from this idea of interconnected networks
More than 2 billion people use the internet worldwide
Since its beginning in 1969, the Internet has grown from four computer systems
to tens of millions.
The internet is used in schools, colleges, universities, businesses, government
offices and in homes of people all over the world
Every computer that is connected to the Internet is part of a network,
A modem may be used and dial a local number home to connect to an Internet
Service Provider(ISP).
The internet is a network of networks that share each other
No body actually owes the internet
This is a video explaining how the
internet works-click here

Tim Berners-Lee
Tim burners lee was born on the June 8,1955 in London and is now age 58.
He studied at the Queens college Oxford and university of Oxford.
Time burners lee is a computer scientist who invented the world wide
He wrote the first web client and server in 1990
Tim Berners-Lee invented the world Wide Web in 1989, working as a software
engineer at CERN, the large particle physics laboratory near Geneva
Tim Berners-Lee invented the world wide web as the scientist were looking for
a way to exchange data and results
Tim is a Director of the World Wide Web Foundation which was launched in
This YouTube video is about Tim
Berners-Lee future projects-Click here

A hyper link is under lined text that links you to a web page
By clicking on a link, you will be taken to a different website or open a
A hyper link can join you to a new document or a new section within the
current document by click on it.
You can tell if a piece of text or an image is an active link as
your cursor arrow will change as you hover over the link
Hyperlinks are often blue and underlined but not all the time
An example of a hyper link is
Hyperlinks are used to access information that is on the internet quickly

Web browsers
A web browser is a soft wear application that allows you to search the world
wide web
The Browser translates the HTML (Hypertext Mark Up Language) code
that allows us to see images, text and videos on websites.
The major web browsers are Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet
Explorer, Safari and Opera.
If you have a Windows device the web browser will be internet explorer
Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. An Apple product will be safari.
A web browser acts as door to the internet
The first web browser was invented by Tim Berners lee in
nine teen ninety
This was called the world wide web
What is a browser?-click here

HTTPS means Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
You can tell if a website is secure by viewing the URL in the address field of
your Web browser. If the Web address starts with https://,
you know you are accessing a secure website.
The s in https://, mean that the web site is safe or secure
HTTPS allows secure online banking transactions, security
when using websites that require a log in and security when entering credit
card details
This means websites may steal information if they are not Secure
What is the difference between Http and Https ?

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator
A URL is an address to a web page and every web page has a unique URL.
Computers use the URL to locate a web page they are trying to find.
The URL is typed into the address bar at the top of the window.
A web address can be coped and pasted as a short cut
An example of a web address(URL) is to Donabate
community colleges web site
This URL is the unique name for our
schools web site
A URL is the address of a specific Web site or file on the Internet.
The second part of a URL (after the "://")
contains the address of the computer
being located as well as the path to the file

Domain name
The domain name is the unique name that identifies an Internet site
The domain name appears in the address bar of the web browser
All domain names have a domain suffix, such as .com, .net, or .org.
Some domain names end with a country code, such as (Ireland) kingdom)
3 .dk(Denmark) (Sweden)
5 .ca (Canada) (Thailand)
Domain names
are used to identify a
n IP address.
Domain names are existing trademarks. Anyone can register a domain
name at a fee through domain registrars.

DNS means domain name sever
A DNS is an Internet service that
domain names into IP addresses.
This is the framework for web browsing
domain name sever is the root for the IP address
DNS is used by many internet using soft ware
The benefits of using DNS is convince ,it is simple and
This link tells us what
DNS is, How it work and how
it effects our daily life's
Click here

IP address
(internet protocol)
IP means address internet protocol
Internet Protocol is a set of rules that govern Internet activity
An IP (internet protocol) address is a unique group of numbers
with is separated by full stops which identifies each computer to
communicate with another via the Internet.
My current IP address is
An IP address consists of four numbers,
each of which contains one to three digits,
with a single dot, separating each set of digits
The function of an IP address is to
host or network interface identification
and location addressing.
IP Address - Internet Protocol Address

-Click here
Short cut keys for google chrome

Short cut keys for Google chrome are faster ways of doing things on the
internet using the key board
Ctrl+c : is to copy something.
Ctrl+v : is to paste something.
Ctrl+N : Opens a new window.
Ctrl+T : Opens a new tab.
Ctrl+O : Open a file in the browser
Ctrl+Shift+Q :(twice) Sign out of your Google Account
Ctrl+W:Close the current tab
Ctrl+Shift+W:Close the current
Alt + Home : Open your home page
Backspace or Alt + Left Arrow : Back a page.
Alt + Right Arrow : Forward a page
F5 : Refresh current page
F11 : Display the current website in full
screen mode.
F11 again: will exit this mode
Esc : Stop page or download from loading.

Refresh button(F5)
Refresh button (F5) is known as the reload key.
F5 is the short cut key for reloading the pages
The F5 key is found at the top of the keyboard.
to update something with new data., some Web browsers
include a refresh button that updates the currently
displayed Web pages.
On google chrome the refresh
button is present beside the
key and the
back and forward keys

How a search engine receives
A search engine finds information from key words typed into the
search bar
They find the information for their data bases to find what the person
is looking for
The search engine finds links to websites
When using a search engine
Make your keywords as precise.
Use two or more keywords in your search.
Make sure you spell the keywords correctly
that you type into the search engine.
try more than one search engine to get the best possible results
How a search engine works
Click here

Security status bar
A Yellow security status bar means that the web site maybe suspicious. This
means there is a problem with the This indicates a problem with the certification
of the website you are visiting
-Security bar
A security bar is present on Internet browsers
that displays the current status of the web page
currently being viewed.
The certificate has normal validation.
This means that there has been no issues with
using this website and is safe to use
- Green
The certificate shows extended validation. This means that
The website is safe to use and entre personal and
financial details. the certification has confirmed the
website is not owned or operated by a business that
is legally organized
A red security status bar means the web page is out of date, not valid or an error has occurred
markup language)

HTML means hypertext markup
HTML was invented in 1990 by a scientist called Tim Berners-Lee
The purpose was to make it easier for scientists at different universities to
gain access to each other's research.
The project became a bigger success than Tim Berners-Lee had ever
By inventing HTML he laid the foundation
for the
web as we know it today.
HTML is a language, which makes it
possible to present information on the Internet
This is a programming language used
to create web page
A Web crawler is an Internet service that systematically browses the
World Wide Web looking
A Web crawler may also be called a Web spider or an ant
The most well-known crawler is called Googlebot .
Crawlers look at WebPages and follow links on those pages
They go from link to link and bring data about those WebPages back to
Googles servers

Pop-up blocker
A Pop-up blocker is an advertisement window that you
would see while using a Web browser
A pop-up blocker is software that prevents pop-up
windows from appearing on a website.
Pop-ups are frequently used by websites to advertise
products or features.
This means they are made to be as eye catching as possible.
All the major browsers now support
pop-up blocking such as google chrome,
opera and Mozilla fire fox

Phishing filter
Online phishing is a way to trick
computer users into giving personal
or financial information
Phishing Filter is a feature in Internet
Explorer that helps detect phishing
Phishing Filter runs in the background while you browse the web
A phishing filter is used in three ways
The phishing filter compares the website you are visiting to reported sites from
lists shored on computer
It checks if the web site has the characteristics of
a phishing website
Phishing Filter sends some website addresses
to Microsoft to be further checked against a list of
reported phishing websites.

Active x controls
Active x controls is a set of rules for the methods of applications
should share information
Active x controls is used by programmers
in a variety of different languages
Active x control is like a java script
ActiveX control is design to make the
time Spent on the web browser better
When active control x is down loaded
hackers are able to gather all information
for the operating system
This is a video on ActiveX Controls :
How to Allow ActiveX Controls to Run
-Click here

Typical file types or
Typical file types or
extensions is the to identify a file type is by looking
at its extension
The typical file types or extensions are
Image Files
The most common image file formats on the Web are those with the .jpg .gif and .png. JPEG is the most popular for
photographs and images online
Video Files
For video popular extensions are .AVI and .RAM for the PC, .MP
Sound Files
The most common sound format found on the Web is the
Binary .Mac computers need Sound Apps to play this type
of file. Normal
computers use Waveform to use this file type.
Graphics Files
The most common graphics file on the Internet is also binary.
If your browser does not have a built-in Binary viewer it will
not work.
Formatted Documents
.Doc is the most common file type for formatted documents. Most Formatted Documents were created using
Microsoft Word

Microsoft office suite
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet application created by
Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS computers.
It features calculation and graphing tools
Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft power is an application from
Microsoft that allows side shows to created
and presented
Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Outlook is a personal information
manager from Microsoft
Microsoft office
Microsoft Office is a suite of desktop
applications. It gives applications and
services to users
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word is a word document created by Microsoft to allow
Text to be entered into the document

Adobe Suite
Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended
Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended is a family creative Suite.
It is available in two editions. The Extended edition adds
3D design capabilities that are not on found in the standard
Adobe Illustrator CS5
The Adobe Illustrator CS5 is mainly used for Illustrating
and there are also lots new features in this version as well.
The latest edition, the vector-based drawing program
allows you to draw very accurately.
Adobe InDesign CS5
Adobe In Design CS5 is used for print or digital
publishing, Adobe with a host of new & enhanced features.
CPU means Central Processing Unit
the CPU is the brains of the computer where most
calculations take place
the CPU is the most important element of a computer
the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor
The CPU itself is in side the computers system

Manual input devices
Manual input devices are those devices that require that one to physical
y operate them in some manner in order to input data.
Examples of Manual input devices keyboard, mouse, tablet, scanner, touch screen phones
Almost all computers have a keyboard.
A keyboard has over 100 keys on it.
When you press a key a number is sent to the computer to tell it which key you have pressed.
The keys are arranged in four groups :
Main key board
Function keys
Curser keys
Numeric keys
Touch Sensitive Screens
Touch sensitive screens do a similar job to a key board
When you touch the screen the computer senses where you have pressed and reacts to
the pressure
Touch screens can be used to choose options which are displayed on the screen

Automatic input
A type of control device that is set to automatically control each step in a
Devices are usually categorises as automatic or manual
Examples of Automatic input devices are bar code readers, optical mark
reader devices, sensors, magnetic strip readers
and optical character recognition.
Example of Magnetic strip reader Automatic input devices
Magnetic stripes
Magnetic stripes are in plastic cards such as debit or credit cards and
personal identity cards.
The magnetic strip on the back of the card can hold the personal details of
the card owner and the PIN will allow the card owner to access secure
The information is stored on the magnetic strip and is inputted into a
computer to access details

Computer aided design (CAD)
Plotters are used for Computer Aided Design
A Computer aided design system is a combination
of hardware and software that helps engineers and
architects design everything
For example furniture to airplanes
CAD systems will need a very
high-quality graphics monitor in order
for design system to work
For CAD systems a mouse, light pen,
special printer and plotter for printing
design specifications are all needed for
the system to work properly

Search engines
A search engine is a software system that is designed for searching for
information on the World Wide Web
The main search engines are Google ,yahoo ,bing and delta.
The search engine gets in contact with the web server by keywords
typed into the Search engines and has a data base of URLS
The function of a search engine is to gather information resources
using the key words typed in.
The search engine will then give us a link to any relevant websites
Search engines are a data base of thousands of urls from all over the world
The search engines give the most relevant links to a web site in terms of the
words typed into the search engine

Output devices
An out put device is any information that a computer gives
out through any hard ware devices
The most common output devices are the monitor,
speakers,printer,mouse and keyboard
The monitor is the screen with the person using the computer
revises information through
A CRT Monitor is an older and larger monitor
A LCD monitor is a more modern and faster working monitor
There is three types of monitors which are the Laser printers ,
The Ink-jet printers and the Dot matrix printers
The Laser printer are expensive, high quality and fast
The Ink-jet printers print in black and white slow and are low
quality printers
The Dot matrix printers are cheap nosiy and not very common