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# Universal Design for Learning Lesson Plan SPED 245

## Teacher(s): Ms. Armanda Morico

Date: Lesson for March 27, 2014
Subject: Mathematics- Addition of Fractions with like and unlike denominators

Domain 5.NF: Numbers and Operations- Fractions
Cluster: Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions
CC Standard 5.NF.1: Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by
replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference
of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad
+ bc)/bd.)

Behavioral Objective: Students will work with visual fraction models and the Math Frame graphic organizer to
explore the relationship between equivalent fractions and common denominators, and then apply their
conceptual understanding to help them solve word problems involving the addition of fractions with like
denominators using the Math Frame as a strategy.
Prerequisite Skills and Concepts:
Students should be able to add whole numbers.
Students should also understand the functions of the parts of a fraction and be able to write fractions in
simplest form.

Materials: Items necessary for the completion of the lesson
1. Fraction models- Paper manipulatives
2. Worksheet with word problems
3. Graphic organizer- Math frame
4. Computer:
- Will be used for the activating prior knowledge section: Instructor will show three different pizza pie
pictures using Google images, each differing in the amount of slices shaded in.
- Will be used so that students have access to online fraction game on the website- www.math-
play.com/math-fractions-gmehml
5. Sheet with typed directions for Fraction game.

Procedure:

Activating Prior Knowledge: The instructor will begin the lesson by going over important concepts learned in
the previous lesson about fractions. Students participated in a lesson about fractions and identifying parts of a
whole. Students learned the difference between the numerator and denominator, and how to represent fractions
of their own by using manipulatives such as skittles candy. The instructor will ensure understanding about these
important concepts by asking students to identify what a numerator and denominator are, and the difference
between the two. The instructor will also show a pizza pie divided into eight slices but with seven slices shaded,
and students will be asked to write down what portion of the pie is shaded in fraction form. The correct answer
will be 7/8. Next, the instructor will show the students a pizza pie divided into eight equal parts, but this time
with 3 slices shaded in. Again, the students will be asked to write down what portion of the pizza pie is shaded
in fraction form. The instructor will use one more example, a pizza pie with 4 slices shaded in out of the 8 total
slices, and will ask the students to rite down what fraction of the pie is shaded in. The instructor will use these
three varying examples, and this will show the instructor whether or not students are ready to proceed to the
next topic on fractions.

Modeling: The instructor will be introducing the graphic organizer: Math Frame, as this will be the strategy the
students will be using in order to solve word problems involving the addition and subtraction of fractions with
like denominators.
The instructor will model how to complete the Math frame graphic organizer, using a word problem involving
the addition of fractions with like denominators. The instructor will hand each student a copy of the graphic
organizer, with the word problem already written on it. The main focus of this modeling section is for the
students to understand how to fill out and use this graphic organizer. In order to properly fill out the graphic
organizer, students must first understand what information goes into each section. First, the teacher will read
aloud the word problem, which states Armanda walked 1/8 of a mile. She then ran 3/8 of a mile before
stopping at the nearest bench to catch her breath. How far did Armanda go before stopping? The instructor will
solve the word problem using the math frame, which involves breaking apart the word problem and following a
step-by-step routine. The steps include:
Step 1. What information is given?

Armnd wlked 1/8 of mile
Armnd hen rn 3/8 of mile

Step 2. What are you asked to solve?

How fr did Armnd go before opping?

Step 3. What strategy might help you solve this problem? (Guess and check, array, drawing, group, ratio, etc.)

1 exmple: Drwing

Step 4. What steps are needed to solve the solution?

1. Draw one circle and divide it into eight different sections.
2. Shade one section of that circle, and write the fractional representation next to it.
3. Draw a second circle, and divide it into eight different sections.
4. Shade 3 sections of the eight total sections of that circle, and write the fractional representation next to
it.
5. Make sure the bottom numbers (denominators) of the two fractions are the same.
6. Add the top numbers (numerators) of the two fractions.
7. Simplify the fraction if needed.

Step 5. What calculations are needed to solve the problem?

The instructor will now introduce the new content of the lesson by placing fraction strips on the desk
representing 3/10 and 5/10 in front of the students, one below the other.

The students will be asked to carefully look at the two strips and think about what each of the strips
represent in fraction form. Using the think aloud strategy, the instructor will ask the students to think about
how many boxes are shaded out of the total number of boxes there are. The instructor will give the students
about 30 seconds to think, and will then ask the students:
1. How many tenths are in the 1
st
strip? The correct answer= 3
2. How many tenths are in the 2
nd
strip? The correct answer= 5

The instructor will give students a chance to think about their answers and then respond. Next, the instructor
will join the two strips close together. The instructor will then ask the students, How many tenths are there in
all? The instructor will remind the students that when fractions have the same denominator, the numerators are
the only numbers added together. The correct answer= 8/10

The main concept of the activity is to teach students that when fractions with the same denominator are added,
the numerator is the only thing that changes. The denominator always stays the same. It is likely that certain
students may end up adding both the denominators and numerators when adding fractions with like
denominators, and that is a common error amongst students. Fraction strips will be used to give students a
clearer representation of why numerators are the only numbers that change when adding fractions with like
denominators. Fraction strips will help the students understand that the denominator of the sum remains the
same as that of the addends. The denominator does not change, because it determines the number of pieces into
which the whole is divided.

Next, the instructor will use a different example. The instructor will use fraction strips once again, but this time
will be modeling how to add these fractions with the Math frame.

Guided Practice: Each student will be given a blank math frame graphic organizer that they will use to help
him or her complete a word problem. Each student will be given the same word problem, and the instructor will
be present to provide feedback if it is necessary. The instructor will keep a close eye on each student in order to
ensure that the students are accurately completing the math frame. In addition, the instructor will be providing
feedback to students who require assistance with the actual word problem.

Word Problem for Guided Practice:
Armanda chooses foods that will help keep her body healthy and in shape. Below is the recipe she used to make
trail mix.
cup yogurt-covered peanuts
cup mini chocolate chips
2/4 cup dried cherries
cup Granola
cup dried apricots
How much fruit does Armanda use in the recipe for trail mix?
Answer: 2/4 + 3/4= 5/4 (numerator is added, and the denominator stays the same)

If the students wish to verbally give their answers to each section of the graphic organizer to the instructor
that will be possible for the guided practice only. Students will be given the opportunity to respond verbally
instead of having to write down all of their answers.
The students will have access to different fraction strips to use in order to help them complete the graphic
organizer and answer the word problem.

Independent Practice: Students will work independently to complete two different word problems that involve
adding fractions with like denominators. They will be given two blank Math frame graphic organizers, that they
will be using as a strategy to help them solve these two word problems. The students will each be given two
different word problems to ensure that they are solving these problems independently. Students will be solving
word problems that include their names and interests, so as to make the lesson culturally responsive.
Each section of the graphic organizer needs to be filled in writing, in a neat and coherent manner. Verbal
response will not be an option for the independent practice. In addition, students will once again have access to
the fraction strips if they so desire them.

Note: If the students finish and there is time left over, they wil1 be given the opportunity to use the computer.
The instructor has chosen a game from www.math-play.com on adding fractions with like denominators, that
will require students to apply the knowledge that have acquired from the lesson. The students will be given a
separate worksheet that lists the steps necessary in order to find the game online. In addition, if the student
requires assistance finding the game, the instructor will verbally read the directions.

Assessment:
Graphic organizers with word problems from the independent practice will be assessed for completion
and correctness.

UDL Guidelines:

Multiple Means of Representation:

1.1: Offer ways of customizing the display of information: The instructor will display information in a
flexible format so that the following perceptual features can be varied.
Worksheets and graphic organizers will be displayed in color, and be given to students in print format.
The size of text will be enlarged and the color used for information will vary in color.
The instructor will slow down the speed when modeling how to use the graphic organizer- Math Frame.

1.3: Offer alternatives for visual information: The instructor will make sure to provide students with both
oral and written instructions, so as to ensure that students comprehend what is asked of them.

Example: Student will be given a worksheet that gives directions on how to find the fraction game online, but
the instructor will read the directions out loud if that is what the student is more comfortable with.

2.5 Illustrate through multiple media: Instructor will provide alternatives to text, by showing students
different representations of fractions.
Example: Fractions will be represented with visual fraction models for further understanding of the addition of
fractions.

3.1 Activate or supply background knowledge:
The instructor will activate students prior knowledge on fractions by going over important concepts
learned in the previous lesson about fractions.
The instructor will assess students prior knowledge by asking students to define terms such as numerator
and denominator are, and what the difference between the two is. The instructor will also be asking students to
identify parts of a whole by using pictorial representations of a pizza pie. Students will be asked to write down
what fraction of the pizza pie is shaded.

Multiple Means of Engagement:

4.1 Vary the methods for response and navigation: Instructor will provide students with multiple forms of
response, including: Math frame graphic organizer & verbal response to instructor.
* Students will also be given the opportunity to take what they learned from the lesson, and apply it to a game
on adding fractions from www.math-play.com
5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance: Instructor will provide
differentiated feedback to each student, based on their needs.

6.3 Facilitate managing information and resources: Students will be provided with a graphic organizer and
for data collection and organizing information.
6.4 Enhance capacity for monitoring progress: Instructor will ask questions to guide self-monitoring

Multiple Means of Expression:
7.2 Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity: Activities and sources of information will vary so that they
can be:
Personalized and contextualized to learners lives & Culturally relevant and responsive: word problems
included the names and interests of each student.
Lesson was designed so that learning outcomes are authentic, communicate to real audiences, and reflect a
purpose that is clear to the participants
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Questions for Independent Practice:
Christina-
1. On the greatest hits CD that Christina just bought, 3/16 of the songs are from the 1990s, and 10/16 of the
songs are from the 2000s. What fraction of the songs are from the 1990s and 2000s combined?
2. On a different CD that Christina just recently bought, 3/8 of the songs are pop songs and 2/8 of the songs are
rap songs. What fraction of the CDs songs are pop and rap songs combined?
Litsy-
1. Litsy walked 1/8 of a mile. The she ran 3/8 of a mile before stopping at the nearest bench to catch her breath.
How far did Armanda go before stopping?
2. Litsy read 1/6 of her magazine before lunch, and 3/6 of the magazine after she finished her lunch. How much
of her magazine did she read altogether?
Jessica-
1. Jessica spent 1/5 of her lunch money on a fruit punch juice box and 3/5 of it on a ham sandwich. What
fractional part of his lunch money did Jessica spend on these two things?
2. Jessica did 7/10 of her homework when she got home after school. She did 1/10 of her homework after she
finished her dinner. How much of her homework did Jessica complete?
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: MATH FRAME

What information is given?
What are you asked to solve?

What strategy might help you solve this problem? (Table, guess & check, array, drawing, compare,
group, ratio etc.)

What steps are needed to find the solution? What calculations are needed to find the solution?
Find out:
By:

Find out:
By:

Find out:
By:

What is the solution to the problem? (Make sure your answer makes sense!)

1. Log onto a computer using your username and
password.

2. Click the Internet browser icon.

3. Type in www.math-play.com

4. On the left hand side you will see a list of different
ubjec, click on Frcion Gme

5. Scroll all the way down the list of different games
unil you ee he gme Foobll Mh gme-Adding
Frcion Click on h gme

6. Read the directions of the game, and begin
playing!