AGR 303



Lecture Notes Prepared By Dr.K.R.Latha Course Teachers Dr.P.Kalaiselvan Dr.C.R.Chinnamuthu Dr.N.Sakthivel

Department of Agronomy Centre for Soil and Crop and Management Studies Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003


THEORY Agronomy of field crops - importance - origin - soil and climatic requirement - area, production and productivity in World, India and Tamil Nadu. Systems of cultivation. Crop management - season, varieties, seed rate, seed treatment, sowing, density and geometry, growth stages, critical stages for input requirement - nutrient, irrigation and weed management - after cultivation - harvest and processing- storage - byproducts - cropping systems Cereals-Major crops: Cereal- Minor crops: Millets -Major Rice, Wheat, Maize, Oats, Barley, Rye, Triticale* Sorghum, Pearl millet, Finger millet, Minor: Barn yard millet, Foxtail millet, Little millet, Kodo millet, Common millet Redgram, Blackgram, Greengram, Bengalgram, Soybean, Cowpea, Lab-lab, Beans, Horsegram, Lentil, Grain peas Guinea grass, Cumbu Napier, Water grass, Cenchrus, Dinanath grass, Fodder Sorghum, Pearl millet, maize, Teosinte, Lucerne, Berseem, Desmanthus, Stylosanthus, Cowpea, Siratro, Fodder trees* - preservation Sesbania spp, Sunnhemp, Kolinji (Tephrosia), Pillipesara, Gliricidia, Pungam, Neem, Calotropis, Ipomoea

Pulses Forages

Green manures* Green leaf manures*

* Short account of crop production only LECTURE SCHEDULE THEORY 1. Importance of cereals, millets, pulses, green manure, green leaf manures and forage crops 2. Area, production and productivity of major cereals, millets, pulses and forage crops of World, India and Tamil Nadu 3. Rice - importance - origin, distribution - soil and climatic requirement, season and varieties 4. Rice - growth stages - systems of rice cultivation - methods of sowing - nursery preparation and management - seed rate, seed treatment and sowing in nursery 5. Rice - main field preparation for wet and dry cultivation, Methods of crop establishment - Direct sowing under wet and dry condition – Transplanting, Throwing seedlings, plant density and geometry, management of aged seedlings 6. Nutrient management in rice – manures and manuring - time and method of fertilizer application - application of biofertilizers - Azolla, Bluegreen algae, Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 7. Rice - weed control - irrigation - after cultivation - cropping system - harve sting, threshing, drying and storage - byproducts 8. Rice - cultivation of Hybrid rice - deep water rice – Ratoon management 9. Maize - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements - season, varieties – types of maize - field preparation - sowing - manures and manuring - weed control 10. Maize - irrigation - after cultivation - harvest, threshing, drying and storage Agronomic practices for Baby corn - cropping system 11. Wheat - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements - season, varieties 12. Wheat - field preparation - seeds and sowing, seed treatment - manures and manuring weed control - irrigation - after cultivation - harvest, threshing, drying and storage cropping system 13. Oats, Barley, Rye and Triticale* - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements - season, varieties - field preparation - sowing - manures and manuring - weed control irrigation - after cultivation - harvest, threshing, drying and storage- cropping system 14. Sorghum - importance - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements – season, varieties -seeds and sowing – nursery preparation 15. Sorghum - main field preparation - transplanting – manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation – irrigation - harvest and storage


16. Sorghum - Agronomic practices for rainfed and ratoon sorghum - cropping system 17. Mid - Semester Examination 18. Pearl millet - importance - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements season, varieties - nursery - seeds and sowing – main field preparation and planting 19. Pearl millet - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - irrigation harvest and storage – Agronomic practices for rainfed pearl millet - cropping system 20. Finger millet - importance - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements season, varieties - nursery - seeds and sowing - main field preparation and planting manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - irrigation - harvest and storage – Agronomic practices for rainfed crop - cropping system 21. Barnyard millet - Foxtail millet - Kodo millet - importance - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirement - season - varieties - field preparation - seeds and sowing manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - harvest 22. Little millet and Common millet - importance - origin and distribution - soil and climatic requirements - season, varieties - field preparation - seeds and sowing - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - harvest and storage 23. Redgram – importance - origin and distribution - season, varieties - field preparation – seeds and sowing - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation – irrigation - harvest and storage - cropping system 24. Blackgram and Greengram - importance - origin and distribution - season, varieties field preparation - seeds and sowing - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation – irrigation - harvest and storage 25. Bengalgram and Horsegram - importance - origin and distrib ution - season, varieties field preparation - seeds and sowing - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - irrigation - harvest and storage 26. Cowpea, Lab-lab, Beans and Grain peas* - importance - origin and distribution season, varieties - field preparation - seeds and sowing - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - irrigation - harvest and storage 27. Soybean - importance - origin and distribution - season, varieties - field preparation seeds and sowing - manures and manuring - weed control - after cultivation - irrigation – harvest and storage 28. Agronomy of Lentil - Agronomy of rice fallow pulses 29. Green manure crops* - importance - soil and climatic requirement for Sesbania aculeata, Sesbania speciosa and Sesbania rostrata, Sunnhemp, Kolinji, Pillipesara, Agronomic practices - biomass production - time and method of incorporation and nutrient content 30. Green leaf manure crops* - importance - Gliricidia, Pungam, Neem, Calotropis and Ipomoea - method of incorporation and nutrient content 31. Forage crops – Forage grasses - importance - soil and climatic requirement for Guinea grass, Napier grass, Water grass, Blou-buffel grass, Dinanath grass - season, varieties – agronomic practices - time of harvest – biomass production (fodder yield) and nutrient content 32. Cereal and legume forage crops - importance - soil and climatic requirement for Fodder sorghum - pearl millet - maize and teosinte and legumes such as lucerne, berseem, desmanthus, stylosanthes, siratro and cowpea – agronomic practices - harvest biomass production (fodder yield) and nutrient content 33. *Fodder trees and their importance 34. Preservation of fodder – hay and silage - Seasonal pastures Byproduct of crops studied above * Short account only PRACTICAL Maintenance of crop cafeteria - Identification of crop plants, varieties and seeds Acquiring skill in different operations for various crops - nursery preparation - seed treatment sowing - preparation of main field - methods and depth of sowing / planting - use of sowing equipments - maintenance of plant density and geometry - time and methods of application of manures and fertilizers, biofertilizers, irrigation and weed management - after cultivation. Assessment of maturity - Harvest and processing – Hay and Silage making -Cost of cultivation and economics for important crops - Observations on growth and estimation of yield. Visit to farmers' field.


1. Maintenance of crop cafeteria involving cereals, millets, pulses, green manures and forage crops for identification of crops and acquiring skill in various operations 2. Identification of crop plants and varieties of cereals, millets and pulses 3. Identification of crop plants and varieties of green manures, green leaf manures and forage 4. Practicing various nursery preparation in rice 5. Acquiring skill in nursery preparation for sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet 6. Practicing main field preparation, sowing and manuring of important cereals under pure and intercropping system 7. Practicing main field preparation, sowing and manuring of important pulses under pure and intercropping system 8. Acquiring skill in hay and silage making 9. Practicing main field preparation, sowing / planting of important green manures and forage crops 10. Estimation of plant population per unit area for important crops 11. Acquiring skill in foliar nutrition to pulses – Diammonium Phosphate spray 12. Acquiring skill in seed treatment practices for cereals, pulses, green manures and forage crops 13. Observation on growth and yield parameters and assessing maturity, estimation of yield of important cereals, millets, pulses, green manures and forage crops 14. Cost of cultivation and economics of important cereals 15. Cost of cultivation and economics of important millets and pulses 16. Biomass estimation of important green manures, forage crops and incorporation of green manures 17. Practical examination REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Ahlawat,I.P.S., Om Prakash and G.S.Saini.1998. Scientific Crop Production in India. Rama Publishing House, Meerut. 2. Chatterjee,B.N. and K.K.Bhattacharyya.1986. Principles and Practices of Grain legume production. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Chatterjee,B.N. and P.K.Das.1989. Forage crop production - Principles and Practices. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 4. Chidda Singh.1997. Modern techniques of raising field crops. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 5. Singh,R.V.1982. Fodder Trees of India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 6. Singh,S.S.1997. Crop management under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. 7. Srivastava,H.C., S.Bhaskaran, K.K.G.Menon, S.Ramanujam and M.V.Rao.1984. Pulse production - Constraints and opportunities. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 8. Thakur,C.1980. Scientific crop production. Vol.I Metropolitan Book Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 9. Thakur,C.1981. Scientific crop production. Vo l.II. Metropolitan Book Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.


RICE (Oryza sativa) Rice belongs to genus Oryza and family Poaceae. The genus includes 24 species of which O. sativa and O. glaberrima are cultivated. O. sativa has three sub species viz; Indica, Japonica and Javanica. 1. Indica: Indigenous to India is adapted to subtropical to tropical regions. In India, the varieties are very tall, photosensitive, lodging poor fertilizer response and moderate filling. They are late maturing. The morphological differences between the varieties are very wide and awn less. 2. Japanica: It is confined to subtropical temperate region (Japan, China, Korea). Varieties are very dwarf, erect, non-lodging, photo insensitive, early maturing, high yielding and fertilizer responsive. The morphological difference between the varieties is very narrow and awnless. (Hence crosses were made between Indica and Japanica – first cross is ADT 27 during 1964) 3. Javanica: It is known as a wild form of rice and is cultivated in some parts of Indonesia. Varieties are the tallest, erect, poor filling and awned. Origin: De candolle (1886) and Watt (1862) thought that South India was the place where cultivated rice is originated. Vavilov (1926) suggested that India and Burma should be the origin of cultivated crop. Importance 1. It is the staple food crop for more than 60% of the world people. 2. In other countries attractive ready to eat products, which have, long shelf life eg. popped and puffed rice, instant or rice flakes, canned rice and fermented products are produced. 3. Protein is present in aleuron and endosperm 6 to 9% and average is 7.5%. 4. Rice straw is used as cattle feed, used for thatching roof and in cottage industry for preparation of hats, mats, ropes, sound absorbing straw board and used as litter material. 5. Rice husk is used as animal feed, for paper making, as fuel source 6. Rice bran is used in cattle and poultry feed , defatted bran, which is rich in protein, can be used in the preparation of biscuits and as cattle feed. 7. Rice bran oil is used in soap industry. Refined oil can be used as a cooling medium like cotton seed oil / corn oil. Rice bran wax, a byproduct of rice bran oil is used in industries. Recovery % Head rice Ordinary hulling Modern hulling 61-65 67 - 71 Broken+ Bran+ Husk 35 Broken – 3 Bran – 5 Gem - 2 Distribution It grows from the tropics to subtropical and warm temperate countries upto 40?S and 50?N of the equator. Most of the rice area lies between equator and 40?N and 70? to 140? EL. Highest yields were recorded between 30? and 45? N of the equator. India, China and Egypt lying between 21? to 30? N, the average yield ranges from 2.0 to 5.7 t/ha. The countries near the equator shows an average yield of 0.8 to 1.4 t/h. Area, Production and Productivity In terms of area a nd production, it is second to wheat. Maximum area under rice is in Asia (90%). Among the rice growing countries, India has the largest area (43.4 m ha) followed by China - Bangladesh - Thailand. The area, production, productivity of rice for some of the important countries and the world is tabulated below. Total 72-75 77


County China India Indonesia Bangladesh Vietnam Thailand World India Acreage Total Production Average Yield

Area (million ha) 31.4 41.2 10.9 10.9 6.5 9.0 147.5

Production (m. t) 187.2 111.0 47.9 28.0 22.3 19.1 527.4

Productivity (t/ha) 5.96 2.69 4.38 2.57 3.45 2.13 3.58

: WB > UP > MP > Bihar > Orissa > AP : WB > UP > AP > Punjab > TN : Punjab(3.39t/ha)>Haryana(2.96t/ha)>TamilNadu (2.69t/ha)

In India rice accounts for about 22% of the tota l cropped area under cereal and about 31% of total area under food grain. It forms 41% of India’s total out put of the grain and forms roughly 46% of total output of the cereal. Rice growing areas in India can be grouped into 5 regions. 1. Northeastern region: Comprises of Assam, West Bengal, South Bihar and Orissa. Rice grown in the basins of Brahmaputra, Ganga and Mahanadhi rivers and known for the highest intensity of cultivation in the country. This region enjoys heavy rainfall and here mostly rice is grown mainly under rainfed conditions. 2. Southern region: Comprises of deltaic tracts of Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery and Tambraparani rivers and non-deltaic rainfed areas of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in the deltaic regions. 3. West Coast region: Comprises of Kerala and the coastal districts of Karnataka and Maharastra. There is heavy rainfall during the monsoon period. Rice is grown under rainfed conditions. 4. Central region: Comprises of Madhya Pradesh, Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh and parts of Karnataka. Except in Andhra Pradesh, rice is grown as rainfed crop by broadcasting in this region. 5. Northern region: Comprises of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and North Bihar. These areas have low winter temperatures and only a single crop of rice is raised from May-June to September-October. The area, production and productivity of rice in different states of India are tabulated below (1996-97). States Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat Haryana Jammu Kashmir Karnataka Area (l. ha) 39.7 24.9 50.7 6.4 8.3 2.8 13.5 Production (l. ha) 106.86 33.28 72.81 9.46 24.63 4.31 32.12 Productivity (kg/ha) 2494 1336 1427 1474 2969 1567 2338


Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

4.3 52.9 14.8 44.6 21.6 22.7 55.5 58.0

8.32 59.39 26.14 44.38 73.40 58.05 117.71 126.37

1941 1172 1769 981 3397 2672 2121 2179

In Tamil Nadu rice research being carried out in the following research stations of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Paddy Breeding Station, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai Agricultural College and Research Institute, Trichy Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam Rice Research Station, Tirur Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram Agricultural Research Station, Paramakudi Agricultural Research Station, Ramanathapuram Agricultural Research Station, Thirupathisaram

From these Research Stations till January 2000, 149 varieties and 3 hybrids were released. Another 25 high yielding varieties in the pipeline are already introduced making the total varieties at 174 with 3 rice hybrids. Climatic and soil requirements for rice Rice can be grown in different loca tions under a variety of climates. The Indicas are widely grown in tropical regions. Japonicas, which are adapted to cooler areas, are largely grown in temperate countries. Both Indica and japanica rices are grown in subtropical regions. However their crosses grown through out the world. Rice needs hot and humid climate. It is best suited to regions, which have high humidity, prolonged sunshine and an assured supply of water. Temperature, solar radiation and rainfall influence rice yield by directly affecting the physiological processes involved in grain production and indirectly through diseases and pests. Temperature Extreme temperatures are destructive to plant growth and hence depended on the environment under which the life cycle of the rice plant can be completed. The critical low and high temperatures for rice are normally below 20?C and above 30?C, which vary from one growth stage to another. The critical temperatures for different growth stages of rice are tabulated below. Temperature ?C Low 10 12-13 16 7-12 High 45 35 35 35 Optimum 20-35 20-30 25-28 31

Growth stage Germination Seedling and emergence Rooting Leaf elongation


Tillering Panicle initiation Anthesis Ripening

9-16 15 22 12-18

33 35 30

25-31 30-33 20-25

Temperature affects the grain yield by affecting tillering, spikelet formation and ripening and it influences the growth rate just after germination and increases almost linearly with increasing temperature within a range of 22 to 31?C. At later stages it slightly affects tillering rate and the relative growth rate. During reproductive stage, the spikelet number per plant increases as the temperature drops. Solar radiation The solar radiation requirements of rice crop differ from one growth stage to another. Shading during vegetative stage slightly affects yield and yield components. Shading during reproductive stage however has a pronounced effect on spikelet number. During ripening, it reduces grain yield considerably because of decrease, in the percentage of filled spikelets. Solar radiation at the reproductive stage has the greatest effect on grain yield. The minimum requirement of solar radiation is 300 cal/cm2/day. Rainfall Under rainfed rice culture rainfall is the most limiting factor in rice cultivation. When irrigation is provided the growth and yield is determined by temperature and solar radiation. Water stress at any growth stage may reduce the yield. The rice plant is most sensitive to water deficit from the reduction division stage to heading. Day length Rice is a short day plant. Long day prevents or delays flowering. Eg. GEB 24 is a photosensitive and season bound variety. However the latest varieties released are photo insensitive. Wind Moderate wind is beneficial for crop growth. Wind velocity of 0.75 to 2.25 cm/sec is not conducive for photosynthesis. High wind at maturity may cause lodging of the crop. Soils Rice is a semi aquatic plant and grows best under low land condition. In India it grows in all most all type of soils; alluvial, red, lateritic, laterite, black, saline and alkali, peaty and marshy soils and in acid soils. But the soil is having good retention capacity with good amount of clay and organic matter and ideal for rice cultivation. Clay and clay loam soils are most suited. It tolerates a wide range of soil reaction from 4.5 to 8.0. It grows well in soils having pH range of 5.5 to 6.5. It can be grown on alkali soil after treating them with gypsum or pyrites. RICE ECOSYSTEMS Based on land and water management practices, rice la nds are classified as low land (wet land) and upland (dryland). In India, the principal system of rice growing are 1. Dry system (upland) 2. Semi-dry system 3. Wet system (lowland) Dry system or Upland rice In India it is normally grown in Eastern part of India, Assam, West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and central part of India (M.P., part of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra). This system is called Aus in West Bengal, aus/ahu in Assam, beali in Orissa, bhadi or Kuari in Uttar Pradesh. In Tamil Nadu it is mainly grown in Chengleput, , Virudhunagar, Sivaganga, Nagapatinam, Thiruvallur, Kanchipuram, Pudukkottai and Kanyakumari districts. It is grown in areas where the rainfall is more than 850 mm and it is well distributed. In North India, it is mainly grown in South West Monsoon seasons and in Tamil Nadu, it is grown during N.E. monsoon seasons / bimodal rainfall areas of Kanyakumari districts. Field preparation


The field is ploughed and harrowed to fine tilth taking advantage of summer rains and early m onsoon showers. Application of gypsum at 1.0 t/ha is recommended whenever soil crusting and soil hardening problem exists. During the last ploughing organic manures at 12.5 t/ha is applied and incorporated. Season: May-June is S.West monsoon area August/ Sept in N.E. monsoon dominant area. Varieties: Varieties having 90 to 110 days are recommended. 1. TKM 9: Red rice, 100 to 105 days duration, short, bold grain, 5 t/ha. 2. TPS 1: Red rice, 110 to 115 days duration, short bold grain, average yield is 4.8 t/ha 3. TPS 2: 125 days duration, non-lodging, average yield is 5 t/ha, suitable for kumbapu season 4. TPS 3: 135 days duration, non-lodging, average yield is kumbapu season. 5.3 t/ha, suitable for

5. MDU 5: 95 to 110 days, average yield is 5 t/ha, multiple resistant to pest and diseases. 6. PKM 1: 110 to 115 days, dull white rice, pigmented, coarse grain and high protein, average yield is 3.2 t/ha. Seed rate: 75 to 100 kg/ha. Seed treatment: The seeds are treated with any one of the fungicides Bavistin or Thiram @ 2g/kg of seeds, 24 hours before sowing and the seeds are treated with Azospirillum at 3 pockets (600g) per ha of seeds. Sowing 1. Broadcasting: The seeds are sown by broadcasting when the moisture is at the marginal level and the surface soil is compacted by a light roller for compacting the seeds with moist soil. 2. Line sowing: Sowing /dibbling behind the country plough. Line sowing is better than broadcasting. Using seed drill to ensure optimum population, reduce the seed rate and for early intercultivation. After cultivation: Thinning and gap filling should be done 10 to 12 DAS, taking advantage of immediate rains. Manures and manuring: In Tamil Nadu, P is applied at 25 kg/ha as enriched FYM at the time of last ploughing. N at 50 kg/ha and K at 25 kg/ha should be applied in two splits viz. 20 to 25 DAS and the second at 40 to 45 DAS. Weeds and Weed control: Under upland condition, weeds reduce the yield to the extent of 50 %. First weeding should be done at 15 to 20 DAS and second weeding may be done on 45 DAS. Under unfavourable rainfall conditions, application of Thiobencarb 2.5l/ha or Pendimethalin 3.0 l/ha 8 DAS as sand mix if adequate moisture is available followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 DAS. Intercropping: Raising one row of blackgram for every four rows of rice. Special types: A primitive type of shifting cultivation called Punam cultivation in Malabar, Kumari in South Kanara, Podu in Circars, Jhum in Assam hills is being done in scrub jungles on small scale. The bushes are cut and burnt. The land is ploughed with pre monsoon showers and rice is sown as pure or mixed crop. The land is abandoned after the harvest of rice and allowed to recoup its fertility. Fresh jungle land is broken up for cultivation every year. SEMIDRY RICE CULTIVATION It is practiced in the district of Chengleput, Ramnad, Kanyakumari and Pudukottai district. Season 1. July – August 2. August 3. Sept – Oct Varieties Chengleput : TKM 9, IR20, PMK 1, PMK 2, TKM10 and TKM11 ? ? ? Chengleput and Kanyakumari districts Thanjavur and Pudukottai districts Ramanathapuram district


Pudukottai Kanyakumari Ramnad Field preparation i.

: ADT36, Rasi, PMK-1, PMK-2, TKM9 : TKM 9, ADT36, Rasi, ASD17, TPS-1, TPS 2, TPS 3 : TKM9, ADT36, Rasi, PMK1, PMK2, MDU5. On the receipt of shower, during the month of May-June repeated ploughing should be carried out so as to conserve soil moisture, destroy weeds and break the clods. Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha. Application of 750 kg of FYM enrichedwith 50 kg P 2O 5 can be applied as a basal dose in clay soils of Thanjavur district. : 80 to 100 kg ha-1 : "As give n in upland rice"

ii. Seed rate

Seed treatment Sowing

1.Broadcasting as dry crop and compacting with Gundaka 2.Drilling : Sowing by using seed drill at 20 cm row spacing. Whenever water is available after strengthening monsoon, it is treated as wet paddy usually in July-August, when S-W monsoon is active, the rain water is impounded in the fields. In command area, anticipating the release of water, rice crop can be raised under semi dry condition up to a maximum of 45 days. Then the crop in converted in the wet condition on receipt of water. In Chengelput and Ramnad districts, the crop is irrigated from 30 to 35 days onwards after impounding water in tanks After cultivation: Thinning and gap filling should be done on 25th to 30th day after receipt of sufficient rain or impounding water in the field from the adjoining tanks. Manures and Manuring: 100: 50: 50 kg N:P 2O 5:K2O/ha is recommended. P2O 5 at 50 kg/ha is applied as basal as enriched FYM. Nitrogen is applied in three splits. K is applied at 50 kg/ha as basal. 50% of N at basal, 25% at maximum tillering stage and remaining 25% at panicle initiation stage. The first top dressing should be done immediately after the receipt of sufficient rain on canal water. Weed management: Integrated weed management of pre -emergence application of Thiobencarb (Saturn 50 EC) at 3.0 lit/ha (1.5 kg ai/ha) or Pendimethalin 4.0 lit/ha (stomp 30 EC) on the 8th day after sowing as sand mix it adequate moisture is available, followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 DAS. Spraying of insecticides and fungicides may be need based. Harvest: Timely harvest ensures good quality grain and prevents different losses. Harvest is done by using sickle, threshed and dried in the sun for 3 to 4 days up to 10 to12% moisture for storage. WET SYSTEM OR LOW LAND RICE In India, low land rice is established by 1. Transplanting the seedlings in which separate nursery is 2. Direct seedling of sprouted seeds in the puddled soil Types of nursery 1. Wet nursery 2. Dapog nursery 3. Dry nursery I. Wet nursery Seed rate : For short duration Medium duration Long duration a. Dry seed treatment: : 60 kg/ha : 40 kg/ha : 30 kg/ha raised (or)

1. Pre-treatment of seeds: Before sowing


Mix any one the fungicide at 2 g/kg of seed. (Thiram, Captan, Carboxin or Carbendazim). Treat the seeds at least 24 hrs prior to soaking for sprouting. The seeds can be stored for 30 days with out any loss in viability. 2. Treatment of seeds at the time of soaking the seeds for sprouting b. Wet seed treatment: Treat the seeds in Carbendazim or Pyroquilon or Tricyclozole solution at 2g/lit of water for 1 kg of seed. Soak the seeds in the solution for 2 hours. Drain the solution, sprout the seeds and sow in the nursery bed. It gives protection to the seedlings upto 4o days from seedlings disease such as blast and it is better than dry seed treatment. c. Seed treatment with Azospirillum: Three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum culture are to the mixed with sufficient water, wherein seeds are soaked over night before sowing in the nursery bed. The bacte rial suspension after decanting may be poured over the nursery area itself. d. Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescense for management of rice blast Three packets (600 g/ha) of Pseudomonas peat culture should be added in water wherein seeds are soaked over night before sowing in the nursery bed. It can be mixed with Azospirillum culture, as it is not inhibitory to Azospirillum. Soaking and sprouting the seeds i. ii. Soak the seeds for 10 hrs and drain excess water. Should not soak the seeds in running water, which removes the minerals and nutrients. Keep the soaked seeds in gunny bag in dark room and cover with extra gunnies for 24 hrs for sprouting. Should not cover with thick material, which develops heat and reduces the aeration.

Preparation of nursery for sowing Nursery are required : 20 cents (800 m2) for planting one ha. - Raise the nursery near the water source. Apply 1000 kg of FYM or compost to 20 cents of nursery and spread the manure uniformly Before ploughing, allow water to a depth of 2.5 cm. Plough and bring it the a puddle. Before last puddling, apply 40 kg of DAP @ 2 kg DAP/cent Basal application of DAP is recommended when the seedlings are to the pulled out in 20 to 25 DAS If the seedlings are to be pulled out after 25 days, application of DAP is to be done 10 days prior to pulling out Clayey soils, where root snapping is a problem, DAP has to be applied at 1 kg/cent 10 days after sowing. Mark out plots, 2.5 m broad with channels, 30 cm wide in between Collect the mud from the channel and spread on the seedbed and level the surface of seedbed so that water drains into the channel.

Forming nursery beds -

Sowing: Having a thin film of water in the nursery, sow the sprouted seeds uniformly on the seedbed. Water management 1. Drain the water 18 to 24 hrs after sowing 2. Allow enough water to saturate the soil from 3 rd to 5 th day 3. From 5 th day onwards, increase the quantity of water to a depth of 1.5 cm depending on the height of seedlings 4. Afterwards maintain, 2.5 cm depth of water. Weed management in nursery: Apply any one of the following pre -emergence herbicide on 8 DAS to control weeds in the nursery. 1. Butachlor or Thiobencarb 2.0 lit/ha 2. Pendimethalin 2.5 lit/ha


3. Anilophos or 1.25 lit/ha Keep thin film of water at the time of herbicide application and s hould not drain the water after application Top dressing with fertilizers: If the seedlings show the symptoms of 'N' deficiency and if the growth is not satisfactory, apply urea at 500 g/cent of nursery, 7 to10 days prior to pulling. If DAP is applied 10 days prior to pulling, urea application is not necessary. Optimum age of seedling for transplanting Short duration varieties Medium duration varieties Long duration varieties : 18 to 22 days : 25 to 30 days : 35 to 40 days

Main field preparation for wet system: Wet rice requires a well puddled soil. Ploughing under submerged soil condition is called puddling. The land is ploughed repeatedly 3 or 4 times with an interval of about 4 days between each puddling by country plough or mould board plough or tractor drawn cage wheel or by using power tiller with a standing water of 3 to 5 cm. Optimum depth of puddling is 10cm for clay and clay loam soils. Application of organic manures i) Apply 12.5 t of FYM or compost / ha and spread the manure before applying the water. evenly on the dry soil

ii) If FYM or compost is not available, apply green manure/green leaf manure at 6.25 t / ha. Compute the green matter using the formula. Yield / m2 in kg x 10,000. iii) The yield of green manure are as follows Daincha Sunhemp Kolingi :10 to 15 t/ha : 8 to 15 t/ha : 6 to 7.5 t/ha.

iv) Incorporation of green manure Sesbania rostrata: Growing stem nodulating S. rostrata in the month of March to April. Adopt seed rate of 50 to 60 kg/ha. Treat the seeds with rhizobial culture. Cut the crop at 45 to 60 th day to have maximum green matter (25 to 30 t/ha). v) Plough the green manure or green leaf manure directly in to the soilusing mould board or tractor. Then maintain 2.5cm of water in the field. Incorporate the green manure to a depth of 15cm using Burmese Setturn and allow to decompose for 7 days. vi) When the green manure is applied, rock phosphate can be used as cheaper source of ‘P’. It also harness the decompositions of stubbles in the second crop. Finally level the fie ld using levelling board. Transplanting - Puddle and level the fields after applying basal fertilizers. - Seedlings are dibbled at desired spacing and depth. Plant density and geometry: It varies with soil fertility, genotypes and soils. To exploit the full potential of any genotype, optimum plant population is to be adopted. Varietal duration Low and Medium Fertility (Plants / ha ) 8 lakhs 5.0 lakhs 3.3 lakhs : 5 to 6 cm : 2.5 to 3.0 cm Spacing (cm) 12.5 x 10 20x10 20x15 High Fertility Plants / ha 5.0 lakhs 3.3 lakhs 2.5 lakhs Spacing (cm) 20x10 20x15 20x20

Short Medium Long Clay soil Shallow soil

Depth of Planting


Number of seedings/ hill Wet nursery Dapog Saline soil ? ? ? ? : 3 to 4 seedling / hill : 6 to 8 seedling / hill : 4 to6 seedling / hill

Management of aged seedling Increase basal Nitrogen by 25%. Closer spacing. 80 hills/m2 Increasing the number of seedlings / hill.

Transplanting shock: It occurs when the seedlings are pulled out from the nursery and planted in the new environment. For recovery from shock, it will take minimum of 5 to 7 days under tropics. ? ? ? ? ? Shallow planting reduces the period. Mild temperature after transplanting also reduces the period. Hot weather period delays recovery. Very cold weather period also delays recovery. Best temperature: <300 C maximum and > 200 C minimum.

Root dipping: In rice, root nematode is a problem. Dip the seedlings roots in the phosphomidon 0.02% solution for 20 minutes prior to planting. For saline soils: Use saline tolerant variety. ? ? ? ? 25 days old seedling instead of 18 to 22 days. 4 to 6 seedlings / hill. Apply 25% more ‘N’ than recommended. Application ZnSo 4 at 32.5 (25% extra) kg/ha at the time of planting.

Application of biofertilizer to Rice 1. Azolla is a water fern which is used as a biofertilizer for rice and has been found effective. Blue green algae, Anabaena azolla lives in the dorsal cavity of azollae and fix 'N'. It is also able to reduce the 'N' bill to the extent of 25 to 30 kg / ha. It is raised as a dual crop and also applied as green manure . 2. Blue green algae: Broadcast at the rate of 10 kg/ha of powdered blue green algae flakes 10 days after transplanting. Maintain thin film of water. Blue green algae multiplies well from March to September and can be used for any variety raised during period. 3. Dipping roots in Azospirillum slurry. Prepare the slurry with 5 pockets (1000 g/ha of Azospirillum inoculant in 40 lit of water and dip the root portion of the seedling for15 to 30 minutes in bacterial suspension and transplant the seedlings. 4. Soil application of AzospirillumI: Mix 10 pockets (2000g/ha of Azospirillum inoculant with 25 kg FYM and 25 kg of soil and broadcast the mixture uniformly in the main field before transplanting. Water management in low land rice: Among the cereal crops, the productivity per mm of water used is very low in rice, which is about 3 to7 kg/ha mm of water. Total water required for rice from nursery to main field (up to maturity) is 1200 to 1500 mm which depends on the duration of crop, soil type and climate. ? ? ? ? ? ? At the time of transplanting, shallow depth of 2 cm is adequate, since higher depth of water results in reduction in tillering Upto 7 days maintain 2.0 cm of water At establishment stage, 5.0 cm submergence of water has to be continued through out the crop growth period For loamy soil one day disappearance of ponded water during summer and winter 3 days after disappearance For clay soil, immediately after disappearance during summer and 1 to 2 days after disappearance during winter Critical stages for water requirement are


1. Primordial initiation 2. Booting 3. Heading 4. Flowering At boot leaf stage, excess water 75.0 cm, leads to delay in heading and reduction in growth of panicle. Stop irrigation 15 days ahead of harvest. Nutrient management for low land transplanted rice i) As for as possible, apply fertilizer as per soil test recommendation. If it is not followed, adopt blanket recommendation as follows in Tamil Nadu. Varieties Short duration Medium and Long duration ii) N 120 : 150: P 2O 5 38: 50: K2O 38 kg/ha 50 kg/ha

All P2O 5 and K2O should be applied as basal at the time of puddling as quartering method only in course textured (low CEC), K may be applied in two splits 50% at basal and 50% at maximum tillering stage/panicle initiation stage. In clay soil, 'N' should be applied in three splits. 50% basal + 25% at max. tillering + 25% at panicle initiation stage Application 25 kg of ZnSo 4 at the time of sowing. Should not incorporate micronutrient. P and K should be applied as q uartering method

iii) iv)

Different losses of 'N' in paddy soil 1. Denitrification loss 2.Fixation by microbes 3. Leaching loss 4. Volatilization loss Among the losses, denitrification and leaching losses are more in paddy soil under submerged due to low redox potential. How will you increase N use efficiency 1. Choice of fertilizer: Ammonium Sulphate > Ammonium chloride > Ammonium sulphate nitrate > Urea > CAN. In India, 85% of production is urea and further unit cost is less. 2. Split application of 'N' either 3 or 4 splits depending on soil type increase NUE. 3. Slow release fertilizer: Use of chemically manufactured slow release N fertilizers to increase the NUE by slow release of N . Example: IBDU - Isobutylidene di urea and UF-Urea formaldehyde 4. Slow release by Coated urea with physical/mechanical means. Eg. a) sulphur coated urea b) neem coated urea 5. Placement of urea super granules: Bigger size urea super granules are placed directly in to the reduced zone (below 10cm depth). Higher NUE due to less denitirification loss. 6. Use of nitrification inhibitors: To control the convertion of NH4+ to No 3- by inhibiting the activity of nitrosomonas and nitrobacter. Eg: AM, N-Serve 2 chloro-6 trichloro methyl pyridine, but these are not available in India. 7. If green manure is applied, skip basal application of N. Under this situation, 'N' as top dressing in 3 splits at 10 days interval between15 and 45 days after transplanting is recommended for short and medium duration varieties. Phosphorus management: It is essential for root growth, for early ripening, production of efficient and early tillers. Upland rice responds to more 'P' than low land rice, since submergence increases the availability of different forms of fixed 'P' in the soil. 80 to 90 % of P is absorbed upto flowering. Source of P Single super phosphate (SSP) is the best source for neutral and saline soil. Rock Phosphate is the best source for acid soil. 1. Time and method of application: Since 'P' is an immobile element and crop needs 'P' especially in the early stage, basal application at the time of puddling is superior. 5. Run-off 6. Ammonium fixation 7. Crop uptake


2. Rate of application: 50 kg/ha for medium and long duration varieties and 40 kg/ha for short duration varieties. 3. 'P' use efficiency increased with green manuring 4. When DAP is applied in the nursery, 1/3 rd of recommended dose of 'P' can be applied to main field Potassium: Compared to N and P, rice absorb more of K. Potassium absorption is up to dough stage. Ne arly 50 to 60% of K is absorbed from seedling to jointing stage (20 to 25 days). So entire 'K' is applied as basal in clay soil. In light soil, K is applied in two splits viz. 50% basal and 50% at maximum tillering or panicle initiation stage. Source of K: K2So 4 is more effective, but unit cost is very high. Hence KCl is recommended. Zinc: It is more important for rice next to N, P and K. The deficiency occurs in sodic soils, alkaline soils, sandy soils and during continuous submergence. High amount of Ca and Mg reduces Zn uptake. Zn deficiency causes the following physiological disorders 1) Khaira disease 2) Akagare – Type II Zn deficiency can be corrected by 1. Dipping rice roots in 1% ZnO (Zinic oxide) 2. Basal application of ZnSO 4 at 25 kg/ha (only surface application and no incorporation) 3. If basal application is not done, it is better to apply as foliar spray 4. 0.5 % concentration at 20, 30 and 40 DAP for short duration varieties at 30, 40 and 50 DAP for medium and long duration varieties. Akiochi disease is due toxicity of H S when high organic matter is present along with Fe 2 toxicity. Weed management in Low land rice The weeds reduce the yield of transplanted rice by 15 to 20%. Crop weed competitions: Up to 20 to 30 days for short duration varieties and 30 to 40 days for long duration varieties after transplanting. Weed control measures 1. Through land preparation : Summer ploughing and puddling reduce weed population. 2. Straight row planting: It is more effective to operate rotary weeder or wheel hoe in between rows of crop. Now IRRI has developed single and double row Conoweeder which can uproot and burry the weeds and are faster. 3. Flooding paddy at effective root depth: Proper water management of 6 to 8 weeks submergence control the weeds effectively. Aquatic and broad leaved weeds are not affected by this method. 4. Hand pulling : It is laborious and is not economical 5. Weed control by Chemicals is quicker and less laborious. Large area can be covered in a short time with a limited amount of labour and it is cheaper. Disadvantages: 1.No herbicide will kill all the species of weeds 2. Initial cost is higher. Integrated weed management for rice i. Use Butachlor 2.5 l/ha or Thiobencarb 2.5 lit/ha or Pendimethalin 3 lit/ha or Anilophos 1.25 lit / ha as pre -emergence application on 3 rd day of planting as sand mix (50 kg of sand) followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 days after planting (or) ii. Use herbicide mixture: Pre emergence herbicide mixture viz; Butachlor 1.20 l /ha + 2,4 DEE 1.5 lit/ha (or) Thiobencarb 1.20 l + 2,4 DEE 1.5 lit / ha (or) Pendimethalin 1.5 l + 2,4 DEE 1.5 lit/ha as sand mix (or) Anilophos + 2,4 DEE ready mix at 1.25 l/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 days after planting as sand mix will have a broad spectrum of weed control in transplanted rice. Maintain 2.5 cm of water at the time of herbicide application. drained for 2 days (or) fresh irrigation should not be given. Water should not be


iv. Weed management – post emergence: If herbicides are not used as pre -emergence, 2,4 D sodium salt ( Fernoxone 80% WP) at 1.25 kg / ha dissolved in 625 lit of water, is sprayed 3 weeks after transplanting using high volume sprayer.


Harvest and post harvest operations I. Harvesting 1. In the tropics, harvesting is to be done in optimum time, otherwise, there is loss of grain shedding, scattering, lodging and also damaged by birds, over maturity and lodging. 2. Timely harvesting ensures good grain quality, a high market value and improved consumer preference / acceptance 3. In India, harvesting between 27 and 39 days after flowering gave maximum head rice recovery. Harvesting before or after that period resulted in increases in broken rice. The moisture content at the time of harvest is 18 to 20%. 4. Taking the average duration of crops as an indication, drain the wate r from the field 7 to 10 days before the expected harvest as the drainage hastens the maturity and improves harvesting conditions. 5. When 80% of the panicles turn straw colour (or) most of the grains at base of the panicle in the selected tillers are in hard dough stage, the crop is ready for harvest. 6. Maturity may be hastened by 3 to 4 days by spraying 20% Na Cl a week before harvest to escape monsoon rains. Method of harvest: Rice straw is usually cut with a sickle at 15 to 25 cm above the ground. In Indonesia and Philippines, only panicles are removed. Now combined harvester is available for harvesting, threshing, winnowing and cleaning the seeds. Post harvest Technology: Post harvest technology encompasses an array of handling and processing system from the stage of maturation till consumption of the produce and includes threshing, cleaning, grading, drying, parboiling, curing, milling, preservation, storage, processing, packing, transportation, marketing and consumption system 1. Threshing: The methods are generally classified as manual, animal or mechanical. The common method of separating grains from panicle is hand beating (hand threshing or using mechanical thresher (small or big thresher). A loss under manual threshing is 8%. IRRI designed a portable thresher. 2. Drying: It is the process that removes moisture from the grain mass for safe storage and preservation of quality, viability and nutritive value. Drying should begin within 12 hours but not later than 24 hours after harvesting. Rice is normally harvested at moisture content of 20% or more. If the moisture content is not reduced to below 14% shortly after threshing the grain quality is deteriorate because of microbial activities and insect damage. The grains should be dried to 12 to 14% moist level (drying on the threshing floor). In general, 4 to 5 days of seed drying are required. 3. Winnowing and cleaning: Presence of impurities like foreign seeds and trash is more likely to deteriorate in storage and reduce milling recovery rate. Cleaning is mostly done by hand winnower, which takes advantage of wind for removing impurities. Now mechanical winnower is available. Combine harvester is a multipurpose one, which is useful for harvesting, threshing, winnowing and cleaning in one operation. It is highly profitable and economical. TNAU winnower costs Rs. 400/- with 90% efficiency. 4. Grading: The grains are graded for uniformity in size, shape and colour. Seed cleaner cum graders are also available for effective cleaning and grading. 5. Storage: Low temperature and low moisture are necessary for long term storage of rice for seed. Rice seed of 10 to 14% moisture content can be stored in good condition at 18°C for more than 2 years. Rice processing 1. Parboiling: In the process, rough rice is soaked, steamed and redried before milling. Advantages of parboiling: 1. Easy dehusking 2. low incidence of pests and diseases 3. by milling of raw rice, 80% of fat and18% of crude protein are lost, but starch increases by 5%. 2. Curing:The new rice has low swelling capacity and has the tendency to yield a thick viscous gruel during cooking. To overcome the above defect in newly harvested paddy, methods have been developed to hasten the ageing in fresh rice and such process is called as curing. Steaming for 15 to 20 minutes is sufficient to bring satisfactory curing effect.


3. Milling: Rice milling involves the removal of husks and bran from rough rice to produce polished rice. Time of harvest and season affect the milling yield of rice. 4. Polishing: Removal of very fine bran (often called whitening ) 2 to 3 times.


PACKAGE OF PRACTICES FOR WET SEEDED RICE ? Varieties recommended for different seasons ? Main field preparation – puddling ? Application of organic manure / green manure ? Seed treatment and sprouting of seeds. Perfect leve lling is most important for direct seeded rice. Seeds and sowing Seed rate : 75kg Sprouted seeds are sown in lines using drum seeder. It is more economical and labour saving. Cost of drum seeder is Rs. 2000/-. Maintain thin film of wate r at the time of sowing. Nutrient requirement (kg/ha) N Kuruvai / kar / sornavari (Short duration crops) ? 50% N at 20 days after sowing ? 25% N at maximum tillering ? 25% N at panicle initiation stage. ? ZnSo 4 at 25 kg/ha at basal at the time of sowing. For both the rops application of Azolla at 1.0 t/ha at 15 days after sowing and then incorporation on 3 rd week after application. ? For light soil, potassium can be applied in two splits, 50% basal + 50% at tilling/ panicle imitation. Water management 1. Maintain thin film of water at the time of sowing 2. Drain the water, where the water is stagnating 3. Allow enough water to saturate to soil from 3 rd to 5 th day 4. From the 5 th day onwards increasing depth of water to 1.5 cm 5. Then after wards maintain 2.5 cm of water upto tillering 6. Then maintain 5.0 cm of water throughout the crop growth 7. Stop irrigation 10 days before harvest. Weed management: The most critical period is 15 to 30 DAS. Conventional weed control: Handy weeding thrice 20, 40 to 60 DAS. Integrated weed management: Pre -emergence application of Pretilachlor at 0.45 kg ai/ha (Sofit 50 EC) or Thiobencarb at 1.25 kg ai/ha (2.5 lit of commercial product – saturn 50 EC) on 6 th / 8 th days after sowing followed by one late hand weeding on 40 th day. Pre emergence application of pretilachlor 0.3 kg ai/ha + safner is more effective for control of weeds in wet seeded rice followed by one hand weeding. Butachlor 1.25 kg ai/ha + Safener + one hand weeding. 100 P 2O 5 50 K2O 50

Similar to transplanted rice


AGRO TECHNIQUES FOR CULTIVATION OF HYBRID RICE With an advent of cytoplasmic male sterile lines, China released first hybrid during 1976. More than 100 hybrids have been released in China. But out of 33.0 m.ha, only 17.6 m.ha is under hybrid rice. From 33.0 m.ha, China produces about 197 m.t. of rice. India so far produced 9 hybrids and the details are given in the table. S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Hybrid CORH 1 APRH 1 APRH 2 KRH 1 CNRH 3 KRRH 1 KRH 2 ADRH 1 CORH 2 Year of Release 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1996 1996 1998 1998 Duration (days) 110-115 130-135 120-125 125-130 125-130 125-130 130-135 110-115 120-125 Average yield (t/ha) 6.08 7.14 6.02 7.49 7.49 7.30 7.40 6.43 6.07

Hybrids recorded additional yield ranges from 0.85 to 2.3 t/ha compared to check. Private companies viz., Boro. Agro, Pioneer etc released 8 hybrids. The success of hybrid rice cultivation in India depends on the success of seed production. The seed production programme should be efficient and economics. So far India could achieve seed yield of 1.5 to 2.0 t/ha as against China which recorded higher average yield of 2 to 3 t/ha for Indian hybrid and 3.6 t/ha for Japonica hybrid. AGRONOMIC PRACTICES FOR TAMIL NADU RICE HYBRIDS Hybrids CORH 1 CORH 2 ADTRH1 Season CORH1 & ADTRH 1 CORH 2 Nursery Seed rate Seed treatment Manure to Nursery Bio fertilizer Weed control Seedling age Main field Fertilizer schedule : : : : : : : : : : : : : : All hybrids : 20 kg/ha ( 1 kg/cent) Carbendazin 2 g/kg of seed FYM /compost 1t/20 cents or green manure 500 kg, DAP 2 kg/cent at last ploughing. Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each 3 pockets ( 600 g/ha). Butachlor/Thiobencarb at 200 ml/20 cent or Anilophos 100 ml/20 cent 8 DAS as sand mix CORH 1 and ADTRH 1 : 25 days CORH 2 : 25 to 30 days Preparation similar to that of wet rice (transplanted rice) N P 2O 5 K2O kg/ha Kar, Kuruvai, Sornavari Samba, Late Samba, Navarai (110 TO 115 days), (125 days and 6.1 t/ha), ( 115 days and 6.4 t/ha)


CORH 1 and ADTRH 1




Apply 50% N and 100% P and 50% of K as basal. Remaining 50% N in 3 splits viz. 15 DAT, 30 DAT and 45 DAT. Remaining 50% of K should be applied at 30 DAT : CORH2 : N 150 P 2O 5 60 K2O 60 kg/ha

50% N, 100% P and 50% K as basal, Remaining 50% N in 3 splits viz, 15 DAT, 40 DAT and 60 DAT. Remaining 50% of K at 40 DAT. ZnSo 4 Weed control Irrigation Critical stages Planting i) No of seedlings /hill ii) Spacing iii) Population / m2 iv) Planting depth Harvest Yield : : : : : : : Super rice A plant type to raise the harvest index to around 0.6 and the biomass to 22 t/ha. Such a plant type is expected to have a yield potential of 13 t/ha. To achieve these objectives, a new plant type was conceived with following attributes. One 20 x 10 cm 50 hills 2 to 3 cm When 80% of panicles turn yellow ADTRH 1 : 6.4 t/ha CORH 2 : 6.1 t/ha : : : : For both hybrids, at 25 kg/ha as basal Similar to that of transplanted rice 5 cm depth of irrigation. Stop irrigation 10 days before harvest. Panicle initiation ( 50 days ) and heading ( 75 to 80 days)

? ? ?

The new plant type should have lower tillering capacity of producing 3 to 4 tillers when direct seeded and 8 to 10 tillers when transplanted and all other should be ear bearing. Each panicle should have 200 to 250 grains and plants with sturdy stem should grow to the height of 90 to 100 cm. It should have multiple disease and insect resistance and produce grain of acceptable quality.

Rice based cropping systems: In North Eastern part of India, rice in grown under rainfed condition. Rice based intercropping system under rainfed condition Rice + Pigion pea Rice + green gram (moong bean) Rice + Black gram, urd bean In Tamil Nadu, Rice + Black gram 3:1 ratio Ratooning in Rice Ratooning :It is the cultivation of crop regrowth. Rice ratooning is common in USA, but not in India. Varieties suitable 1. Bhavani : 4.0 t/ha. It yields 58% of main crop yield. 3 :1 or 4: 1 ratio


2. Other varieties are : CO 37, ACM 8, ACM 10, ADT 36, ASD 16, PMK 1 Stubble height : 20 cm stubble height Nutrient response : Ratoon crop responds from 120 to 150 kg N /ha. Application of complete basal fertilizer application is immediately after harvest of plant crop registered higher yield than split application. WHEAT (Triticum aestirum or T. Vulgare) Importance Wheat is world’s most widely cultivated food crop. It is a rabi (winter) season crop. In India it is the second important staple cereal food. It is mostly eaten in the form of chapaties. Wheat is also used for manufacturing bread, flakes, cakes, biscuits etc. Wheat straw is a good source of feed for cattle. Wheat contains more protein (8-15%) than in other cereals. Wheat proteins are of special significance. The protein contained in wheat includes albumins, globulins, glutinous and gliadines. Albumins dissolve in water. The other protein forms are insoluble in water and are called gluten. The gluten content in wheat is the highest (16-50%). Because of gluten, wheat flour is used for baking bread. Origin De candolle believed that wheat originated in the Euphrates and Tigris and spread from there to China, Egypt and other parts of the world. Vavilov concluded that origin of durum wheat was Abyssinia and the whole group of soft wheat originated in the region of Pakistan, Southwestern Afghanistan and the southern parts of mountainous Bokhara. Area and distribution Area (m.ha) India 25.93 Production (m.t) 69.3 Productivity (kg/ha) 2671

Classification of wheat 1. Emmer wheat: Triticum dicoccum This wheat is grown in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It is grown in Spain, Italy, Germany and Russia. It was developed from T. diccoides koru., a wild form. 2. Macaroni wheat: Triticum durum It is drought tolerant and cultivated in Punjab, M.P., Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, W.B and H.P. It is used for suji preparation. It is grown in Italy, USA, Canada, and Russia. They are descended from emmer wheat. 3. Common bread wheat: Triticum vulgare It is a typical wheat of alluvial soils of Indo Gangetic plains i.e. Punjab, U.P., Bihar and parts of Rajasthan. Bulk of Indian crop consists of this type. 4. Indian dwarf wheat: Triticum spherococcum This is found in limited areas of M.P., U.P. of India and in Pakistan. They are characterized by very short and compact heads having shorter grains. This belongs to the club wheat of western countries. 5. Bread Wheat : Triticum aestivum This is the type presently grown in India in almost all the wheat-growing zones. It is introduced in India by Dr. N.E. Borlaug of Mexico and called as Mexican dwarf wheat. It is the bread wheat. Growth stages of wheat plant 1. Pre establishment stage a) Pre emergence: Sprouting of seeds by giving rise to seminal roots and coleoptiles. b) Emergence: Appearance of coleoptiles from germinating seeds above the soil surface. 2. Vegetative stage a) Seedling: The young plants establish larger root systems in this stage. The stage may be further differentiated as one leaf, two leaf, three leaf and four leaf stage.


b) Crown root stage: This coincides with three or four leaf stage in which the crown roots appear. c) Tillering: Plants develop crown and branch out into tillers from their base at soil surface.

d) Jointing: This is the stage at which the plants start elongating when the nodes start developing above the crown node. 3) Reproductive stage a) Booting: In this stage the uppermost leaf swells out into flag holding the spike into it. b) Heading: The spikes start emerging out from the leaf sheath at this stage. c) Flowering: Anthesis of florets and fertilization of ovaries takes place at this stage. 4) Post anthesis stage a) Filling: The ovaries after fertilization start elongating in to seeds and pass through milk, soft dough and hard dough stages. b) Maturity : Colour of the glumes changes and kernels become fairly hard at this stage. Important varieties Sonora 64 is dwarf variety introduced to India from Mexico. It is early ripening, resistant to lodging, grown well in late crop rotation with sugarcane or sweet potato. Its grain contains 12.4 to 14.4% protein. When irrigated it yields 6 to 7t/ha. Lerma Rojo is a semi dwarf variety, strongly tillering. The period form blossoming until ripening is short. The resistance to rust is high. Sowing time is late. The yields are high (7t/ha under optimal conditions). Kalyan Sona is a dwarf variety of Indian selection. Bushy, late ripening, very productive under favorable conditions (up to 8t/ha). Sonalika is a short stem, medium bushy, early ripening and high yielding variety distributed (the yields are up to 7t/ha). Soil and climatic requirements Soil: Wheat is grown in a variety of soils in India. Well drained loam and clay loams are good for wheat. However good crop of wheat are raised in sandy loams and black soils also. Soils should be neutral in reaction. Heavy soils with good drainage are suitable for wheat cultivation under dry condition. In India wheat-growing areas can be divided in to 5 soil divisions. 1. the Gangetic alluvium of U.P. and Bihar. 2. the Indus alluvium of the Punjab and Haryana 3. the black soil regions of central and southern India comprising M.P., and parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka 4. the hilly regions of the Himalayas and else where and 5. the desert soils of Rajasthan Climate: Wheat has wide adaptability. It can be grown not only in tropical and sub tropical zones but also in temperate zones and the cold tracts of the far north. It can tolerate severe cold and snow. It can be cultivated from sea level to as high as 3300 m. The optimum temperature range for ideal germination of wheat seed is 20-25?C though the seed can germinate in the temperature range of 3.5 to 35?C. It can be grown in regions where rainfall varies from 25 to 150 cm/year. The wheat plants require medium (50-60%) humidity for their growth. But at the time of maturity crop requires less humidity and warm season. At the time of maturity the plants require 14-15?C. Season and varieties Varieties Zone Timely sown 15 to 30 Hilly zone
th th

Irrigated Late sown Up to 25 Sonalika UP 1109

Rainfed Timely sown Dec. Up to 15

Late sown UP 1109



Girija,HB208, Sonalika, Shailaja

Kalyanasona, HD 2204, Ridley


NW Plain zone NE Plain zone Centra l zone

Sonalika, Arjun, Jairaj, HD 2204 HD 2402, Janak HD 2381,HD 4530, Jairaj, LOK-1

Sonalika, Swati, HD 2270 Sonalika, Sonali HD2327,Sonalika, LOK-1 Swati HD 2610, DWR 195

Kundan, Pratap, Mukta, Sujata Pratap, WL 410 Sujata, Meghdoot, Kalyansona Meghdoot, Mukta NP 200 HW 517 -

K 8962,HDR 77 -

Peninsular zone Southern hills zone Saline soils

HD 2189, DWR 39


HW 741 HW 972 KRL 1- 4 Raj 3077

NP 200 -


Time of sowing: Temperature during growing season and at grain filling is one of the several factors deciding the sowing time. However, ideal temperature requirement values from plant type and stages of growth. The dwarf varieties require the following temperature for their growth and development. Growth stages Germination Tillering Accelerated growth Proper grain filling Temperature requirement 20 - 25?C 16 - 20?C 20 - 23?C 23 to 25?C

Wheat plants are very sensitive to very cold and frost injury at any stage of growth particularly at reproductive growth if temperature is below 15?C. Indigenous wheat Long duration dwarf wheat like Kalyan sona, Arjun etc. Short duration dwarf wheats like Sonalika, Raj 821 etc. Late sown condition : : 2 nd fortnight of November 1 st week of December : : Last week of October First fortnight of November

(under unavoidable circumstances sowing may be delayed up to first fortnight of December beyond which it is not advisable) Systems of Wheat culture 1) Irrigated wheat cultivation 2) Rainfed wheat cultivation

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR IRRIGATED WHEAT Land preparation In general, wheat requires a well-pulverized, but compact seedbed for good and uniform germination. In irrigated areas, wheat is sown after kharif crops, hence the field is ploughed with disc or mould board plough followed by 2 or 3 harrowing and 2 to3 planking should be given. One pre sowing irrigation 7 to10 days before seeding is necessary to ensure good germination. Seed rate: Normal sowing : 100 kg/ha Bold seed / later sown condition : 125 kg/ha Seed treatment: Treat the seeds with any one of the fungicides at 2g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing.



For normal sown crop : 20 to 22.5 cm between the rows For delayed sowing : 15 to 18 cm.

Depth of sowing: Since the coleoptiles length is 5 cm, depth of sowing should not more than 5 cm and the optimum depth of sowing is 2.5 to 5.0 cm. Method of sowing a) Broadcast sowing : Seeds are broadcasted and then worked in by harrowing to cover the seeds. Germination is very poor and plant stand is often irregular, since the seeds are not placed in the moist zone. High seed rate and it is an inefficient method. b) Sowing behind the country plough: A majority of farmers use this method. The seed is dropped in furrows by hand and it is called as 'Kera method' and when it is dropped through a 'pora', a special set of attachment with local plough it is called "Pora method". In this method seeds are dropped at 5-6 cm depth. c) Drilling: Seeds are sown by seed drill or ferti seed drill. In ensures uniform depth of sowing, proper placement of fertilizers and good germination.

d) Dibbling : This method is used in the case where supply of seeds is limited, using the implement is called "Dibbler". It is not a common method, because it is time consuming. e) Transplanting : It is not a common practice. When the sowing delays beyond Ist week of December, seedling are raised in the nursery and transplanted on 25 DAS at 2 or 3 seedling per hill at the row spacing of 15 cm x 5to 7.5 cm. The varieties Kalyansona and Sonalika are best for transplanting. Seed rate : 125 kg/ha. Manures and Fertilizer: A crop of wheat yielding 50 q/ha (5 t/ha) removes 100-150 kg N/ha, 70-80 kg P2O 5 and 120-150 kg K O/ha from the soil. Fertilizer application should be made 2 based on the soil test recommendation. FYM or compost : 12.5 t/ha at last ploughing and incorporated Condition Recommended dose (kg/ha) N : P 2O 5 : K2O Timely sown condition 120:40:40 50 % N and 100 % P and K drilled 5 cm below the seed and the remaining 50% 'N' at first irrigation. 50 % N and 100 % P and K drilled 5 cm below the seed and the remaining 50% 'N' at first irrigation. 50 % N and 100 % P and K drilled 5 cm below the seed and the remaining 50% 'N' at first irrigation. Time and method of application

Late sown


Irrigated if followed by legume crop


for light soil, 'N' should be applied in 3 equal splits viz 1/3 at basal, 1/3 at Ist irrigation and 1/3 at 2 nd irrigation. Weed Management: Critical weed free period up to 30 DAS. Post emergence application of Isoproturon (Tolkan 50% WP or Arelon 50% WP) on 30 to 35 at 1.0 kg ai/ha followed by one hand weeding or combined application of Isoproturon 0.75 kg ai/ha + 2,4-D at 0.5 kg ai/ha on 30 to 35 days is more effective for control of monocot and dicot weeds or pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg ai/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 days is more efficient and economical method. Water Management: Wheat requires 440 to 460mm of water. Irrigation at 50% available soil moisture or 50% depletion of available soil moisture is optimum. The critical stages of crop for irrigation 1. Crown root initiation (21-25 days) 2. Tillering (45-60 days) 3. Jointing (60-70 days)


4. Flowering (90-95 days) 5. Milky stage (100-108 days) 6. Dough stage (120-125 days) Of these, irrigation at CRI stage is the most important and delay of every day results in reduction of 1.4% grain yield/day. It has also been noticed that if any of following irrigation is delayed or missed, the yield is reduced to the extent of 5 to 10 kg / ha. Number of irrigation One CRI Two CRI Boot leaf Three CRI Tillering Boot leaf Four CRI Tillering Boot leaf Milky stage Cropping system Wheat +sugarcane (4 to 5: 1) Wheat + gram (1: 1) Wheat + lentil (4:2) Wheat + linseed (4:2) Wheat may be grown as relay crop in potato after earthing up especially in case of early crop of potato. Harvesting and threshing: Harvest when the leaves and stems turn yellow and becomes fairly dry. Harvest when there is about 20-25% moisture content. Harvesting is done by using sickle or bullock driven reapers or by using Combine Harvester. After threshing and cleaning, the grain is dried in the sun for 3 to 4 days for getting 10 to 12 % moisture for storing. Time of harvest Hilly zone : May to June North Western plain zone : Mid April North Eastern plains zone : March to April Central zone : February to March Peninsular zone: February. Yield: 4.5 to 5.5 t/ha Post Harvest Technology: Wheat is usually ground into flour before used as food. Earlier days stone grinding was done. Nowadays steel roller mills are available for grinding. Process of milling: Before milling wheat is tempered by adding water about 24 to 48 hours earlier to milling so that the moisture of grains comes around 14%. This allows better separation of bran from the endosperm. Wheat is eaten as atta in the north and west, in the south and east as maida and suji. Rava is consumed mainly in the south. Pasta is a mixture of flour and salt. Pasta products comprise vermicelli, noodles, macaroni and spaghetti. Storage: If the moisture content of grain is more than 12% they are eaten up by storage pests. There is marked deterioration in weight, taste, nutrients or nutritive value and germination of wheat grains when they are stored. Safe storage means ensuring that the stored grains retain their original weight, taste, nutritive value and germination. Wheat + pea (4:2) Wheat + chick pea (4:2) Wheat + mustard (8:2) Five CRI Tillering Jointing Flowering and Milky stage


MAIZE (Zea mays.L) Maize is one of the important cereal crops in the world's agricultural economy both as food for men and feed for animals, because of its higher yield potential compared to other cereal it is called as “Queen of Cereals”. Classification : Classification is largely based on the character of the kernels. Classified into seven groups. 1. Flint Corn: Zea mays indurata : Starchy endosperm enclosed with hard hammy endosperm. Kernel size is large with flat bottom and round at the top. High proportion of starch. Colour may be white or yellow. This is the type mostly grown in India. 2. Dent Corn : Z. mays indentata Because of formation of dent on the top of kernal having white or yellow. Maize kernels have both soft and hard starches. The hard starch extends on the sides and the soft starch is in the centre and extends to the top of the kernels. Depression or dent in the crown on the seed is the result of drying and shrinkage of soft starch. This type is widely grown in USA. 3. Pop Corn : Z. mays averta endosperm. Kernel size is small. Presence of hard and corneous

4. Sweet Corn : Z. mays saccharata The sugar and starch make the major component of the endosperm that results in sweet taste of kernels. It is mainly grown in Northern half of USA. The cobs are picked up green for canning and table purpose. 5. Flour Corn : Z. mays amylaceae It resembles to the flint corn in appearance and ear characteristics. The grains are composed of soft starch and have little or no dent are called as “Soft Corn”. It is widely grown in USA and South Africa. 6. Pod Corn : Z. mays tunicata Each kernel is enclosed in a pod or husk in an ear, which enclosed in husks, like other types of corn. 7. Waxy Corn : Z. mays cerabina The kernel looks to have waxy appearance and gummy starch in them, because of amylopectin. Starch is similar to that of Tapioca starch for making adhesive for articles. Origin : - Mexico and Central America. CIMMYT : - Centro International de Mejorimiento de Maizy Trigo (International Centre for the improvement of Maize and Wheat) situated in Mexico. Economic Importance and their uses ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Most important cereal crops in the worlds’ agricultural economy. 85% is consumed as human food. Several food dishes viz Chapathi are prepared from maize flour. Green cobs are roasted and eaten by the people. Popcorn is used for popped form; green cob for table purpose. Corn has low fibre content, more carbohydrate and most palatable. Widely used in preparation of cattle feed and poultry feed. It can be used as green fodder It has no HCN content. Can be preserved as silage. Food product : Corn meal, Corn flakes. Industrial product : Alcohol, Corn Starch (Dextrose), Glucose, Corn oil , corn syrup Used in canning Industry, production of polymer, making paper, paper boards, bread etc. Maize grain contains Protein - 10% Oil 4% - 2.3% Carbohydrates - 70% Albuminoides - 10.4%

Crude fibre

Maize protein “Zein” is deficient in two essential amino acids viz., Lysine and Tryptophane. Maize grain has significant quantity of vitamin A, nicotinic acid, riboflavin and vitamin E. Maize is low in Calcium, but fairly high in ‘P’.


Area and Production Area : 130 m.ha. Maize growing Countries USA > China > Brazil > Mexico > India. USA ranks first in area, production and productivity. India : India occupies 5 th place in area and 11th place in production. Area : 6.25 m.ha (1996 – 97) Average Productivity : 1698 kg/ha. Area Production : U.P. > Rajasthan > M.P. > Karnataka > Bihar. : U.P. > Bihar > Karnataka. Karnataka recorded the highest average yield of 3379 kg/ha. : 81,800 ha : 1,32,900 tonnes Production : 10.61 m.t Production : 580 m.t.

Tamil Nadu : (1997 – 1998) Area Production

Productivity : 1625 kg/ha. Mainly cultivated in Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Madurai, Trichy, Thanjavur, Pudukottai districts. Rainfed Condition : Southern districts, Dindigul areas. Climatic requirement ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? It is essentially a tropical crop. It is a C 4 short day plant. Though it is a tropical crop, it has got high adaptability to wider climate. 55? N to 45? S . It can be grown up to 2500 m above MSL. This crop is not suitable when night temperature drops below 15.6 ? C. Maize requires moist and warm weather from germination to flowering. Most suitable temperature for germination is 21?C and for growth is 32? C. Extremely high temperature and low RH at flowering desiccate the pollen resulting in poor pollen grain formation. Temperature more than 35? C reduce the pollen germination. Temperature < 15? C delays silking and tasseling. Rainfall of 500 to 750 mm of well distributed rain is continue to proper growth.

Soil : Maize is best adapted to well drained sandy loam to silt loam soil. Water stagnation is extremely harmful to the crop, therefore proper drainage is must. Maize can not thrive on heavy soil especially on low lands. pH ranges from 5.5 to 7.5. The alluvial soils of UP, Bihar and Punjab are very suitable for growing maize crop. Salinity and water logging are harmful at seeding stage. Continuous water logging 3 days reduce the yield by 40 to 45%. Growth stages of Maize : 1. Seedling stage 2. Vegetative phase 3 Flowering phase 4. Maturity stage 5. Ripening : 1-14 days from sprouting to 2 to 4 leaves. : 15-39 days. (30-35 days is knee high stage) : (40-65 days). : 66-95 days. Includes soft and hard dough stage. : 96-105 days.

Varieties recommended for cultivation : All India Co-ordinated Maize Improvement Project was started in 1957 in collaboration with Rockefeller foundation.. Hybrids : 100 to 105 days. Deccan, Ganga Safed, Ganga-4, Ganga-5, Ganga-7,9, Histarch, Sangam, In Tamil Nadu, CoH1, CoH2 and CoH3 Hybrids, 5.5 to 6.0 t/ha. Promising Composites : 100 to 105 days. Amber, Vijay, Kisan, Sona, Vikram, Jawahar. 5.0 to 5.5 t/ha. Shortest duration composite : K1(80 to 85 days Co1 (105 days) Cropping system


1. Maize – Potato 2. Maize – Berseem 3. Maize – Chickpea/Safflower (Rainfed) 4. Maize – Potato – Wheat 3. Maize – Onion Tamil Nadu 1. Maize – Greengram 2. Maize – Cotton Rainfed Intercropping Maize + Greengram Maize + Soybean Maize + Redgram In North India Short duration Maize, Kathri and Sathi (65 to 75 days) grown as intercrop in sugrcane in UP. Time of sowing: In India, it is grown in 3 seasons. 1. Kharif – June – July (85% of rainfed area) 2. Rabi – Peninsular India and Bihar. Oct – November 3. Spring : North India. Jan – Feb. Irrigated condiiton. Yield of maize is more during Rabi and Spring season. Tamil Nadu : Optimum time of sowing is 1) Winter/Rabi 2) Kharif 3) Rainfed 1) Rainfed (78% area) : End of December to Ist week of January. : First fortnight of June or First fortnight of August. : End of September to October Ist week. 2) Irrigated (22% area) Maize + Groundnut Miaze + Cowpea

System of Maize cultivation MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR IRRIGATED MAIZE Field preparation: The crop does not require fine tilth. Field is ploughed to a depth of 25 to 30cm using mould board plough, followed by 3 or 4 ploughing with desi plough or harrow. In clay soils main problem is the formation of hard pan. Chiseling reduces the hard pan formation and there is increase in yield of 25 to 30%. Varieties and hybrids recommended for Tamil Nadu CO 1 K1 : Composite, 105-110 days, suited for Coimbatore, Periyar, Pudukottai and Thanjavur. Yield : Irrigated : 4 t/ha. Rainfed : 3 t/ha. : Composite, 80-85 days. Highly tolerant to drought, suited for Pudukottai district.

Hybrids (Irrigated) : 4 t/ha, Rainfed 3 t/ha. COH1: Hybrid, 90-95 days, suited for all locations. Highly drought tolerant and resisitant to downy mildew. Yield: Irrigated: 5 t/ha. Rainfed : 3.7 t/ha. COH2: 100 to105 days. Best suited for all locations. Resistant to downy mildew. Yield : Irrigated : 5.4 t/ha. Rainfed : 3.5 t/ha. COH3 : 90 to 95 days. Irrigated:6.0t/ha, Rainfed: 4.3 t/h. COBC1 : For dessert and canning, 55 to 65 days. All areas of Tamil Nadu, Yield : 6 to7 t/ha, Green fodder : 32 t/ha. (Multiple cobs 2-3) [ 7pickings at interval of 2 days]. Land shaping : Among the different land shaping methods, ridges and furrow system is more effective. Because water logging is less in this system. Method of sowing : Mostly direct seeding, sowing/dibbling behind country plough is adopted.


Transplanting is adopted in problem areas like Dharmapuri and Pudukottai, where red ferrugenious and laterite soils exist. Studies reveal that 5 days old seedling increased the grain yield by 11 to 14% during kharif and summer season over direct seeding. Pai Nursery technique is advocated. Raised bed is formed and above the seed bed spread compost and sand at 1:1 ratio and dibble the seeds. Cover it, sprinkle the water for 3 to 4 days. Pull out the seedling on 5 th day. There will be 100% germination. Seed treatment with fungicide followed by Azospirillum (3 pockets) Seed rate : Composite : 20 kg/ha, Hybrids : 5 kg/ha Spacing : 60x20cm. 83,333 plants/ha. For maximum yield : 1.1 l/ha with (60x15cm). Fertilizer management : Among the cereals, it is the heavy feeder. If there is no soil test recommendation, blanket recommendation of NPK at 135:62.5:50 kg/ha is recommended for irrigated maize, besides application of 12.5 t of FYM/ha. Method of application : Apply fertilizer 5cm below the soil and 10cm away from the root zone. Time of application of fertilizers : 100% P and K should be applied as basal. ‘N’ should be applied in 3 splits. Why ?. In all the cereal crops, there is 2 peak stages of uptake, where as in Maize, there are 3 peak stages of uptake. Ist peak II

30-35 days. (Knee high stage) 50-60 days 70-80 days ( Tasselling) ( dough stage).


IIIrd peak

Hence ‘N’ should be applied in 3 splits. ? basal, ? at 25 th day, ? rd at 45 th day. Bio fertilizers : Seed treatment with 3 pockets of Azospirillum followed by soil application of Azospirillum @10 pockets (2 kg/ha) with FYM at 50 kg/ha, For transplanted crop ‘N’ should be applied 50% basal and 25% at knee high stage and 25% at taselling stage. ZnSo4 : Apply ZnSo 4 at 25 kg/ha at the time of sowing. If not possible to apply at basal, foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSo 4 at critical stages is recommended.‘Zn’ deficiency cause “White bud” in Maize. For getting maximum yield: For irrigated crop adopt 1.1 lakh plants (60 x 15cm) with 200:100:80 kg NPK /ha (N and K application in 3 splits) + 25kg ZnSo 4/ha. Water management ? ? ? ? Requires 500 to 600 mm of water. Based on IW/CPE ratio, irrigating at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio recorded higher yield. Under intercropping situation, 0.6 IW/CPE ratio is optimum. Critical stages for irrigation are taselling and silking. Peak consumption of water also occurs during this period (taselling and silking). Water shortage for 2 days in this stage, reduce the yield by 20%. Light soil : 10 irrigations

Number irrigation required :Clay/clay loam : 8 irrigations Irrigation for germination : 1 (Irrigation after sowing) 2 (Life irrigation 4 th day) Vegetative phase: 1 st irrigation on 12 th day 2 nd irrigation on 25th day 3 rd irrigation on 36 th day. Flowering phase : Maturity phase Weed management ? Maize crop should be kept weed free condition up to 45 days. 1 st irrigation on 48 th day 2 nd irrigation on 60th day 1 irrigation on 72nd day For light soil two more irrigations are needed.


? ?

Among the herbicides, pre emergence herbicide, Simazine and atrazine are more selective. Hence integrated weed management of pre-emergence application of atrazine 0.25 kg/ha followed by one hand hoeing and weeding on 30 to 35 DAS is effective and economical compared to two hoeings and weedings (Conventional methods). For intercropping systems, atrazine should not be used. For maize + pulse intercropping system, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg ai/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 DAS. ? ? ? ? Spraying should be done within 3 days There should be adequate soil moisture Should not disturb the soil immediately after application Use high volume sprayer fitted with deflected type or flat fan nozzle can be used.

? ?


If pre-emergence herbicides is not applied, post emergence application, 2,4 D Na salt (Fernoxone 80 WP) at 1.0 kg/ha on 2 or 3 rd leaf stage for sole maize, should not use when intercropped with legumes. For maize + soybean/pulse intercropping system, pre-emergence application of alachlor at 2.0 kg ai/ha (Lasso 50% EC) + one hand weeding.


Chemical name Pre emergence Atrazine Pendemethalin Post emergence 2.4D Na salt

Trade Name


Commercial Product

Atratop 50%WP Stomp 30% EC

0.25 kg/ha 1.0 kg ai/ha

500 g/ha 3.3 l/ha

Fernoxone 80% WP

1.0 kg ai/ha

1.25 kg/ha.

Thinning and gap filling : Leave one healthy seeding per hill and remove others on 7 th or 8th day of sowing. Where seedings are not germinated, dibble 2 seeds per hill and immediately pot water it. The crop should be earthed up after application fertilizer at 30 to 35 DAS to prevent lodging. Harvesting and grain shelling : The grain cob is harvested when cob sheath turns brownish, grains become hard and they do not contains more then 20% moisture and they are piled up for 24 hours and then dried in the sun for 5 or 6 days to reduce the moisture to 10 to 12%. Shelling : Common practice is hand shelling, but efficiency is very poor. Now corn shellers of greater efficiency, which are manually driven, tractor drawn, electricity operated are available. The left over plants are used as green fodder or straw.


BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.emend, Lam .) It belongs to genus Hordeum. Classification of barley : Cultivated barley varieties are classified based on number of rows of grain and their arrangement. 1. Six rowed barley 2. Two rowed barley 3. Irregular barley Origin : : : Hordeum vulgare Hordeum distichum Hordeum irregular

Of these, six rowed barley is the most commonly cultivated type. i) Core group of investigators considered Abyssinia as the centre of origin for hulled, awned type. ii) Another group considered South-East Asia particularly, China, Tibet and Nepal as centre of origin for hull less six rowed varieties. Economic importance : Barley is a rabi cereal crop ? It is the most important cereal of the world and it is the major source of food for large number of peoples in cooler semi arid parts of the world. It is the staple food crop of people in Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. In European country, it is used only as break fast food. Important food crop in higher altitude. Flour is used for making ‘Chapati’ along with wheat flour or gram flour and used as “Missi Rotti”. Used for preparation of malt, beer, whisky and industrial alcohol, vinegar. Mainly used in malt and brewing industries. Grain is broken and roughly ground in to pearl barley to be used in soup. Excess grain is used as cattle feed and horse feed. Medicinal value, used for biscuit making. Nutritive value : Protein – 11.5%, Carbohydrates - 74%, Fat – 1.3%, Crude fibre – 3.9%, Ash – 1.5% (3.69).

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Area and distributions World : It is grown in many countries viz., Russia, Canada, Germany, France, China, USA, Turkey, India, Australia, Spain etc. Area Production Productivity India : Area Production Productivity : : : 8.84 l.ha (1995 – 1996) 16.54 l.ton 1.87 t/ha. : : : 76.2 m.ha 171.9 m.t 2.26 t/ha.

USSR ranks first in acreage and production.

Of the total area, 61.0% area is under irrigated condition and 39% is under rainfed condition. Area : UP > Rajasthan (1.6 l ha) 20% of area Rajasthan Haryana > > Punjab Rajasthan > MP > Haryana (4.4 l ha) 50% of area Production : UP > (8.48 l.t) Productivity : Punjab > (3.15 t/ha) Tamil Nadu : It is grown in a smaller area in Nilgris and Palani hills. Climatic requirement : Similar to Wheat. Comes up well in cool climate. Warm and moist condition are not conducive. It requires around 12-15 ? C during growing period and around 30 ? C during maturity. It cannot tolerate frost. Frost and Hailstorm at flowering are detrimental.


Rain at the time of ripening causes discolouration of grain and it is not good for malting or seeding. The crop possesses high degree of tolerance to drought and Sodic condition. Edaphic or Soil requirements : Sandy to moderately heavy loam soil of Indo-Gangetic plains having neutral to Saline in reaction and medium fertility are most suited for barley. Being a salt tolerant crop, it is the best substitute for sodic soils and also for saline coastal soils in West Bengal and black soils of Karnataka. A higher spot with efficient drainage would be best location for barley. The soil should not be very fertile which causes lodging and reduce the yield. Acidic soils are not suitable. Season Rainfed crop Irrigated Late sown Seed Rate Irrigated Saline soil : 75 to 100 kg/ha. : 100 kg/ha. Rainfed : 80 to 100 kg/ha. In very high altitude of 2000 m above MSL, grown only as summer crop. Sowing during end of April or Ist week of May . Similar to Wheat. Spacing : Depth of Sowing : Irrigated crops : 23cm row spacing Rainfed crops : 23-25cm row spacing rrigated crops : 5cm depth Rainfed crops : 6 to 8cm depth Varieties recommended : Two type of varieties are sown i) Huskless and ii) Hulled barley I. Suited for hilly areas : (Northern hills) 1. Himami: Developed at Simla. Medium to lower hills. 140-145 days, 3.2-3.6 t/ha. 2. Dolma: Medium to high elevation. 140-150 days. Resistant to yellow rust. 3.5 to 4.0 t/ha. 3. Kailash: Six row hulled variety. Medium to lower elevation. 145-150 days. Resistant to yellow rust. Yield:4.0 t/ha. II. Rainfed areas 1. 1.Ratna: Six rowed hulled variety. Developed at IARI. 125-130 days, 2.5-3.0 t/ha – UP. Grown in WB, Bihar. 2. Vijay : Developed at Kanpur, 120-125 days,. 3.0-3.5 t/ha. Suited for cultivation in UP, Delhi, MP, Punjab. 3. Azad: Developed at Kanpur. Resistant to yellow rust. 115-120 days. 3.5-3.8 t/ha. 4. Ameru: Developed from Kanpur, 130-133 days, 2.5-3.0 t/ha. Best for production of Malt for brewing. III. Irrigated areas 1. Jyoti: Six rowed hulled variety. Developed from Kanpur. 120-125 days, 3.5-4.0 t/ha. 2. Ranjit: Six rowed, semi dwarf, non lodging.125-130 days. 3.0-3.5 t/ha. Recommended for commercial cultivation. 3. Clipper: Two row barley variety. 135-140 days, 28-30 q/ha. Best for malt production and brewing purpose. 4. Karan 18 and 19 : 5.0 –5.6 t/ha. Best varieties. Dual purpose varieties (Fodder and grain): Ratna, Karan 2 , Karan 5 and Karan 10. Selection of variety for malt production ? Plumpy, medium, good quality seeds : Before end of October or first week of November. : Ist or IInd week of November : Up to December

Hilly Zones (2000 m): Is t week of November.


? ? ?

Select the seeds having 1.2 to 1.5% N Timely sowing. Avoid late sowing. Fertile soil should be avoided.

Land preparation : Barley being a shallow rooted crop responds well to light textured, fine seed bed. One ploughing with soil turning plough followed by 2 or 3 ploughings with desi plough or 2 or 3 harrowings by tractor or bullock power. In areas where termites are problematic, mix the soil with BHC 10% at 20-25 kg/ha or aldrin 5% dust at 10 to15 kg/ha. Seed treatment : Treat the seeds with either Captan/Thiram/Bavistin @ 2g/kg of seeds. In the case of saline and rainfed areas, sowing of overnight soaked seeds results in a quick germination and also ensures better stand. Fertilizer management : Condition Irrigated crop Malt production Rainfed N P 2O 5 30 : 20 : 20 : Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha during last ploughing K2O 20 20 20 Recommended 60 : 30 : 40 :

Method and Time of application: 50% N and 100% P and K as basal. Remaining 50 % N at 30 DAS (Ist irrigation). In rainfed and saline soils, entire fertilizer should be drilled below 8 to10cm depth as basal. Light Textured soil: N should be applied in 3 splits. ? as basal + ? during first irrigation + ? during second irrigation. Method of Sowing : Similar to Wheat 1) Broadcasting 2) Pora and Kera method. Water management: It requires 200-250 mm water. 2-3 irrigations are adequate. Light soil requires 4 irrigations. Following are the critical growth stages for irrigation. 1. Seedling or sprouting stage 2. Active tillering stage (30-35 DAS) 3. Flag leaf 4. Milling stage or soft dough stage. Of these active tillering stage around 30-35 DAS and grain filling (60-65 DAS) are most critical. Weed management : Up to 30 days is critical. Monocot and dicot weeds found are similar to that of wheat. 1) Post emergence application of Isoproturan 0.75 kg/ha + 0.5 kg/ha 2,4-D combination on 35-40 days (3-5 leaf stage) effectively control both dicot and monocot weeds + one hand weeding or pendimethalin (pre emergence) 1.0 kg/ha + one hand weeding is economical than that of two hand weedings. Barley based cropping system: Barley being a short duration crop is more suitable for rotation than wheat. The following are the common rotations. Paddy - barley Jowar - barley Bajra - barley 1. Chickpea + barley 2. Pea + barley 3. Lentil + barley Harvest : Similar to that of wheat. Timely harvest ensures quality grain and prevent different losses. Threshing either by using animal or mechanical threshers. Then winnowing and cleaning are done. Storage of grains at 10-12% moisture level. Yield : Grain: 3.0-3.5 t/ha Straw :4.0-5.0 t/ha Cotton - barley Maize - barley Urdbean - barley 4. Mustard + barley 5. Linseed + barley.

Barley is grown mixed with crops like



Hulled barley is not accepted by consumers. Now two improved huskless varieties viz., Karan 18 and Karan 19 have been released and there is a great demand for them among the farmers.


OATS (Avena sativa) Oat belongs to genus Avena Classification of oats : According to their chromosome number. Group I: A.brevis: short oats grown in Southern Europe for green fodder, hay Group II: A.abyssinica. “Abyssinian oat” grown in several parts of North Africa for fodder. Group III: “Common Oat”. It occupies 80% of total acreage under oat. A. Sativa : 80% of total world acreage is under Common Oat. A.byzantina - “red oat” grown around Mediterranean region, Europe and North Asia and warmer sub tropical area for both grains and fodder. It also cultivated in India, next to A. satira. Heat tolerant. A.chirensis: Chinease naked oat extensively grown in hilly parts of China for grain. A. strigosa: called “sand oat”. Dual purpose : Grain and fodder. Grown in Mediterranean region. Of this, 80% of area is under A. Sativa and the remaining area by A. byzantina. Economic importance ? ? ? ? ? ? It is one o f the most important rabi/winter cereal fodder crops of India. It is used as green fodder, straw, hay or silage. Oat grain makes a good balanced concentrate in the rations for Poultry, Cattle, Sheep and Horse. Green fodder contains about 10-12% protein and 30-35 percent dry matter. It is fed to animals mixed with berseem or Lucerne green fodder. Its fodder and grain are highly nutritious and preferred for milch cattle and draft animal. Very small portion of oat grain is processed in to food is the form of “rolled oats and oatmeal” for human consumption.

Origin: Perhaps originated in Asia Minor. Area and Distribution World: Area : 26.8 m.ha. Production : 40.3 m.t. The leading oat producing countries are USSR, USA, Canada, Poland, China, France, Australia. India : It is cultivated on large scale in Punjab, Haryana, U.P. and a limited area in certain part of HP, Maharastra, M.P., Orissa, Bihar and West Bengal. In Tamil Nadu, it is grown in Nilgris. Climate : It requires cool temperature during germination, tillering, booting and heading. High temperature at blooming increases empty spikelets and reduces the seed yield. Oat requires about 15-25º C temperature for its optimum growth. Oat requires more moisture to produce a given unit of dry matter than any other cereal except rice. Rainfall should not exceed 760 m.m. and should be well distributed. Soil: It can be grown on all types of soils except the alkaline and water logged ones. Oats generally make their best growth on loam soils, but produce satisfactory yield on heavy or light soil. Varieties 1. Kent : Introduced from Australia Mid late variety resistant to blight, rust and lodging. Dual purpose, flowering taken place between 112 – 116 days, fodder yield 60 – 65 t/ha. Grain 3 to 3.5 t/ha. 2. Algerian : For irrigated areas. Slow growing 145 to150 days, green fodder yield: 40 to45 t/ha. 3. Bunker 10 : Mid season variety. Suitable for moisture shortage Condition. Resistant to loose smut. Green fodder yield: 40 t/ha 4. Coachman : Introduced from USA. Erect habit. Green fodder Yield:50 t/ha 5. H F O 114 : Erect type, multicut variety. Green fodder yield: 50 to 55 t/ha, grain yield: 2.5 t/ha. Suitable for Haryana.


6. UPO. 50 : Medium late and semi erect variety released from Pantnagar. Resistant to rust, blight and lodging. Fodder yield : 45 to 50 t/ha. Suitable for cultivation in U.P. Time of sowing : Optimum time of sowing is from middle of October to middle of November for getting higher yield. Oct. middle for fodder production and Nov.middle for seed productio n Seed rate : 100 kg/ha. Drill sowing is better than broadcasting. Field preparation: The field should be thoroughly prepared to secure a fine and firm seed bed. One deep ploughing followed by 3-4 harrowings and planking are sufficient to get good seed bed. Long narrow beds may be laid out across the field so that only single irrigation channel along the upper side of the field may serve the purpose. Spacing : 20 to 23 cm for fodder 23 to 25 cm for grain Manures and fertilizers: The crop responds to organic manures apply 15.0 to 20.0 t/ha. Recommended NPK : 80:40:0 kg NPK/ha. Apply entire ‘P’ as basal and ‘N’ should be applied as follows 60 kg N/ha as basal 10 kg N/ha at Ist irrigation (25 to 30 DAS) 10 kg N/ha after Ist cutting. Water management : Lowest WUE next to rice, require high amount of water. The crop irrigated once in 20 to 25 days, 4 to 5 irrigations are needed. Generally irrigation is necessary after each cutting. Critical stage is tillering stage for oat. Weed Control : Usually one weeding after 3 to 4 weeks of sowing is enough. Harvesting : The crop needs about 120 to 150 days to mature (4½ to 5 months). It is common practice to take 2 or 3 cuttings of fodder and then to allow the crop to grow for seed. But normally only two cuttings are taken from the seed or grain crop. Of these two cuttings, first is taken after 60 to 65 days and second after 90 days of sowing or at the flowering stage of the crop. Then plants are allowed to grow and set seeds. Yield : If it has given two cuts, Green fodder: 50 to 60 t/ha and seed / grain yield : 200 to 400 kg/ha. Threshing, winnowing and cleaning of the grain as per wheat. Rotation and Inter cropping 1. Jowar – Oat – Maize 2. Maize – Oat – Maize 3. Cowpea – Oat+Mustard – Miaze+Cowpea 4. Jower+Cowpea – Oat+Lucerne Yield : If the crop is allowed after Ist cut for seed set, then fodder yield : 25 to 30 t/ha. Seed: 3 to 3.5 t/ha. Straw: 2.5 to 3 t/ha


Rye (Secale cereale) Minor rabi cereal. Mainly used for green fodder, pasture crop, green manure crop and cover crop. The flour of rye is mixed with wheat flour for making bread. Rye straw is used for bedding and packing material. Area and distribution : In the world, it is cultivated in an area of 16.3 m.ha with a productivity of 40.7 m.t. 60% of area is in USSR, followed by Germany, Austria, Hungari, USA, Canada, Poland, Turkey etc. In India, it is grown in Punjab, Haryana and U.P. Origin : Compared to wheat, rye is a relatively new crop. The earliest cultivation appears to have been in Western Asia and Southern USSR. Climate : It can with stand all adverse weather conditions except heat. Commonly called as “Winter hardy cereal” and is the earliest of all cereals. Soil : Rye is the only one rabi cereal best suited for sandy soil. Season : Winter season and spring season. Rye Varieties : Rye varieties are not so numerous as Wheat, Barley and Oats. For Winter Season: Forage type: Athens, Common, Abruzzes Grain type : Rosen, Dakold, Balba Spring Rye : Prolific, Merced. Time of sowing : For Forage crop Grain crop : October is the best time. : November.

For Pasture or green manure or cover crop: August. Seed rate : 75 to 95 kg/ha for forage and 55 to 65 kg/ha for grain. Land preparation: Summer ploughing is recommended. Stubble mulching to over come the erosion. Method of sowing: Broadcasting and Drill sowing. Depth 2.5 cm. 20 to 25 cm row spacing. Fertilizers: It responds to 30 to 90 kg N, 35 to 55 kg P and 65 kg K2O. ‘N’ is applied in two splits. Application of BHC 10% or Aldrin 5% at 15.20 kg/ha for termite. Water Management : CRI and heading are the critical stages. Six irrigations are recommended. 1. Sowing irrigation 2. 20 to 25 DAS Vegetative (CRI) 3. 40 to 45 DAS (Tillering) 4. 70 to 75 DAS (Late Jointing stage) 5. Flowering stage 6. Dough stage (115th day). If only one irrigation is available - Irrigate at CRI. If 2 irrigations , CRI and flowering. If 3 irrigations, CRI, Late jointing and flowering stage. Harvest For Forage crops : Two harvests. 50 to 55th day and at Dough stage. Forage cum grain crop : 50 to 55 th day and allowed for seed set. Yield : 50 to 55 t/ha [Only fodder purpose]. Dual Crop : 25 t/ha fodder, 2.5 t/ha grain and 2.5 t/ha straw. TRITICALE Rye, a member of the Poaceae family, is popularly grown as fodder in foreign countries and the same is found on the North Indian hills. It has characteristic feature of growing very profuse with exceptionally more number of tillers per plant under poor fertility status of soil having marginal or no irrigation facilities. Breeders took rye for crossing with wheat and the resultant offspring was named as man made cereal or ryewheat scientifically known as triticale. This was done with a view to reduce the required input in wheat production and to increase the per unit area. Besides these, triticales have about 20 per cent protein and a very high biological value but the greatest drawback was that the grain colour was dark-red, seeds were very


wrinkled with low viability and the plants had a very high degree of sterility. The grains are also susceptible to store grain pests. In the present day breeding these points are being taken into active consideration and probably in near future the farmers would be having a good number of triticale varieties for the cultivation. JOWAR or SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor) It is an annual crop belonging to family Poaceae and genus, Sorghum. Classification of Sorghum: Harlen and classification based on spikelet type. Now cultivated sorghum is Sorghum biclor. b. Hybrid races : Guinea bicolor, Caudatum bicolor etc. Origin : Warth (1937) : Africa : Abyssinia Decandolle(1984) Economic importance 1. Sorghum is one of the major food crops of the world, particularly Africa and Asia. In India, it ranks third in major food crop, especially central and peninsular. 2. It is used in various forms, similar to rice as cooked food, malted, flour for Dosai and making Chapathi or Rotti, popped, semolina. 3. Very good dry and green fodder. 4. Good concentrate for cattle and poultry feed. 5. Raw material for starch Industries. 6. Used in production of alcohol similar to corn. 7. Used for preparation of sorghum syrup (20 to 25% sugar) from sweet sorghum varieties. 8. Used for production of Jaggery. 9. It contains high amount of aconitic acid which prevents the crystallization of sugar. Quality of sorghum: It contains 72.6% mineral and contains more of fibre. Bad Qualities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It contains high amount of Niacin, which interface with the synthesis of Tryptophane which is the precursor for synthesis of IAA. “Pellagara”: nutritional disorder due to presence of high amount of Leucine : iso-leucine ratio (3.4). When it is reduced, yield is also reduced. This disease is common in Africa. It contains considerable amount of oxalic acid which interface with absorption of Calcium and metabolism of calcium. Phytin ‘P’ is not utilized due to high oxalic acid. Oxalic acid also affects the iron uptake. Low digestability and low palatability due to presence of phenolic compounds and glucosides tannin and lignin. Sorghum contains “cynogenic glucoside” called “Dhurin”. This glucoside is converted in to HCN in the stomach of ruminants. It causes blo ating and reduce the transfer of O2 to the blood steam and causes death of the animal. It is called “sorghum poisoning” or “sorghum effect”. HCN content is more than 100 ppm in the early stage. Critical level is 50 ppm. It (50 ppm) normally occurs during 60 to 65 days after sowing or at heading stage. If it is harvested earlier, it should be dried and fed to cattle. “Sorghum injury” : Sorghum stubbles / roots have high C:N ratio (50:1), ie., it contain low amount of ‘N’. Hence microbes take the soil ‘N’ for decomposition than from the decomposed stubble, which causes temporary immobilization of soil ‘N’. Hence succeeding crop after sorghum is affected due to N deficiency in the early stage called sorghum injury. Succeeding crops need higher N. carbohydrate, 10 to 12% protein, 3% fat, 1.6% de Wet (1971) gave a modified and simple

a. Basic races : 1. bicolor, 2. guinea 3. caudatum 4. kafir 5. durra.


Important characters of sorghum


? ? ? ? ?

It has the capacity to withstand drought or excess moisture (92% of sorghum is grown under rainfed. Comes up well even in marginal soil under moisture stress It does well in low rainfall areas It makes comparatively quick growth than maize. It is dormant during stress condition and it resumes it growth, when optimum condition occur.

Climatic requirement : It is a short day plant. Long day condition delays flowering and maturity. It is a C4 plant. It is a warm weather plant and is grown to as high as 1500 m from MSL. Sorghum can tolerate high temperature throughout their life cycle, better than any other cereal. It is highly resistant to desiccation. It can tolerate water logging. Low temperature at flowering affect the seed set. Rainfall at maturity affect the quality of grain. Low temperature with cloudy weather at flowering induce sugary disease. Edaphic or soil requirement : It is grown under variety of soil. Soil with clay loam or loamy texture having good water retention are best suited. It does not thrive in Sandy soils, but does better in heavier soils. It does well in pH range of 6.0 to 8.5 as it tolerates considerable salinity and alkalinity. The black cotton soils of Central India are very good for its cultivation. In TamilNadu, 60% of soil is alfisol, where sorghum is grown. Area, Production and Productivity During 1997, world production : 147 mt. Production USA > Brazil (26.5) > Argentina (14.5mt) > China (13.5) (74.2mt)

In India, it is staple food crop of North Karnataka, Maharashtra, AP, Gujarat, MP and Rajasthan. It is mainly grown as kharif crop and smaller extent as Rabi crop in Maharashtra, Karnataka, AP and MP. India: (1996 – 1997) Area:11.5 m.ha, Production:11.08m.t Productivity: 950 kg/ha. In India, 92.0% of the area is under rainfed. Area : Maharashtra > Karnataka (61.6 l ha) (20.8 l ha) > MP > AP

In Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP and AP sorghum is grown in both kharif and rabi. Tamil Nadu : Area:5.06 l. ha, Production: 4.86 l.t and Productivity: 960 kg/ha. At present, Maharashtra has the largest area accounting 43% of Indian area under sorghum and 51% of total production. In Tamil Nadu, it is largely grown in Trichy, Coimbatore, Salem, Dharmapuri, Madurai, and Tirunelveli (undivided district). North Arcot and Erode districts. In Tamil Nadu 85% of area is under rainfed and 15% is irrigated. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR RAINFED SORGHUM 1. Rainfall: Average and well distributed rainfall of 250 to 300mm is optimum for rainfed sorghum. 2. Distribution: Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi, Virudhunagar, Sivagangai, Trichy, Erode, Salem, Namakkal, Coimbatore and Dharmapuri districts. 3. Season : 1) S.W monsoon: entire North India “Kharif crop” (June to July)- Salem and Dharmapuri in Tamil Nadu. 2) N.E monsoon: All the district except Salem. (Sept to Oct to Dec to Jan) 3) Rabi: North India October and Dharmapuri. Field preparation : Field has to be prepared well in advance taking advantage of early showers.


FYM @) 12.5 t/ha applied at last ploughing. i) Chiselling the soil with hand pan or shallow soil once in three years. ii) Depending on the rainfall and soil type, different land shaping methods may be adopted for conservation of the moisture. Black soil having high rainfall areas and hence form broad bed and furrow. In Black soils having low rainfall, form compartmental bunding or sow the seeds in flat bed and form furrows between crops during inter cultivation or during third week after sowing for both the soil types or form dead furrow at 3 m interval. Varieties : CO26 (105-110), COH3, (105-110), K 8(85 days), CO19 (145 days Lexpark), K10 (110-115), Paiyur-1 (140-145), Paiyur-2 (Sencholam) (90-95 days). Varieties: APK 1 (105-110 days), BSR1 (105-110 days) Southern districts : [Irungu cholam belt] –Traditional variety Variety Co26 K10 Co25 K.Tall K8 APK1 BSR1 Northern districts: Seed rate : 15 kg/ha. Seed treatment 1) Seed hardening : Soak the seeds in 2% Potassium di hydrogen phosphate (20 g in one litre of water or 500ppm of CCC or cycocel (1ml in one litre of water) for six hours and shade dry for 5 hours. Use 350 ml of solution for soaking one kg of seed. Seed hardening i) ii) It is a method by which drought tolerance is induced in plants by soaking the seeds in weak electrolytes or salt solution Seed treatment with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each 3 pockets (600 gm). phosphobacteria with 25 kg of Duration (days ) 105-110 110-115 115-120 90 85 105-110 105-110 Grain yield (t/ha) 4.5 1.6 t/ha 3.68 t/ha 3.75 t/ha 2.40 t/ha 2.60 t/ha 3.00 t/ha Fodder yield (t/ha). 14.00 16.00 13.25 11.25 7.30 8.00 7.20

K.Tall, COH3, COH4, CO25, CO26, BSR 1

iii) In main field, apply 2 kg of Azospirillum and 2 kg of FYM + 25 kg of soil.

iv) Treat the seeds with any one of the fungicides @ 2g/kg of seeds. (Thiram / Bavistin) Sowing : Sow the seeds before onset of monsson at 5cm depth with seed cum fertilizer drill or by seed drill or by country plough. Before sowing, the seed is pelletised with 15g of chlorpyriphos in 150 ml of gum and seeds are dried. Pre monsoon sowing / dry seeding: Sowing a week or 2 weeks before on set of monsoon. District Coimbatore Erode Sivaganga and Ramnad Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli Spacing Sole Sorghum Intercropping and Paired row system : 45x15 or 45x10 cm(1,80,000 plants/ha) : 60//30x15cm. Optimum period 37-38 th week (II – III week of September) 38 th week (III week of September) 40 th week (Ist week of October) 39-40 th (Last week of September to first week of October)

Fertilizer : Organic manure at 12.5 t/ha during last ploughing. NPK: 40:20:0 kg/ha. ‘P’ is applied as basal as Enriched FYM. ‘N’ may be applied in two splits. 50% basal + 50% at 25 DAS depending up on the rainfall.


For high rainfall of North India where sorghum is grown during S.W. monsoon (kharif season), the recommended NPK is: 80:40:40 kg/ha. 50% N and entire P and K should be applied as basal, remaining 50% N as top dressing at 25 to 30 DAS depending on the rainfall. During rabi season : NPK at 40:20:0 kg/ha. Entire fertilizer is applied as basal by drilling the fertilizer. Growth stages of sorghum 1. Seedling stage 2. Vegetative stage (Grand growth (30-40) 3. Flowering/Reproductive Stage 4. Maturity 5. Ripening : : : : : 1-15 days 16-40 days 41-65 days 66-95 days 96-105 days

Weed management : Keep the sorghum fields free of weeds from second week after germination till 5th week. If sufficient moisture is available spray atrazine @ 500g/ha (atrazine 0.25 kg/ha) as pre -emergence within three days after receipt of soaking rain followed by one late hand weeding/inter culture For sorghum based intercropping system with pulses, use pendimethalin (Stomp 30 EC) at 3.0 lit/ha as pre -emergence + one hand weeding/inter culture at later (35 DAS) Striga : Striga asiatica, S.lutea, S. hermonthica (Witch weed) It is a semi-root parasite in sorghum and reduces the yield markedly. Control measures for striga in sorghum 1) Post emergence application of 2,4- D Na salt at 2.0 kg/ha at 25 to 30 DAS 2) Intercropping with redgram 3) Crop rotation with trap crops like cotton sunflower, groundnut, cowpea, etc., which induce germination of weed seeds, but they are not themselves parasitised 4) Heavy application of N and FYM 5) Flooding the field 6) Spraying Urea 10% solution 25-30 DAS 7) Using germination stimulants like Strigol and Ethylene gas Cropping system: Intercropping Tamil Nadu Southern district 2.Coimbatore 3. Arupukottai 4. Dharmapuri : : : : Sorghum + Cowpea (2:1) S. + blackgram (2:1) Sorghum + greengram (4:2) S. + Sunflower (4:2) Sorghum + fodder cowpea (1:1) Sorghum + Lab-Lab (4:1) Sorghum + redgram (3:1) North India Kharif Sorghum (S. W monsoon) 1. Sorghum + Redgram 2. Sorghum + Soybean 3. Sorghum + Greengram: 1. North India : 3:1 ratio 4:2 ratio 4:2 ratio. Sorghum – Chickpea/Safflower Grain legumes – rabi sorghum (Greengram / redgram) 2. Tamilnadu: 1. Sorghum – Horse gram (Dharmapuri areas) 2. Groundnut – Fodder sorghum (Pollachi tract)

Double cropping in rainfed areas


All India Co-ordinated sorghum Improvement Project (AICSIP) It developed 15 sorghum varieties : CSV1 to CSV 15 Hybrids : CSH1 to CSH 18 R CSH1, CSH6,CSH9 : best for kharif season CSH 15 R & 18 R : best fro rabi season.

Hybrids and Varieties recommended for different parts of Rainfed region in India Hybrids / Varieties Grain yield (t/ha) 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.1 (June - July) 3.2 3.3. 3.6 9.6 9.7 12.1 110-115 110-115 107-112 Dry fodder yield (t/ha) 7.5 8.1 9.8 9.2 14.4 9.1 10.4 13.1 Duration (days) 95-100 95-100 105-110 105-110 105-110 110 103 112

Kharif Season

CSH 1 CSH 6 CSH 9 CSH 11 CSH 13 CSH 16 CSH 17 CSH 18

Kharif season Varieties 1. CSV 11 2. SPV 462 (Co26) 3. CSV 15

Rabi season 1. CSH 13R 2. CSH 15R

(Oct – Nov)

Hybrid 3.2 3.2 5.4 5.6 113 110

Rabi season varieties 1. CSV 14 R 2. CSV 8 R 3. Swati 2.3 2.2 2.2 5.5 4.8 5.3 117 120 117

Kharif crop : Best time of sowing July first week Rabi crop : October. Raised in stored soil moisture. Thinning : It is a very important operation in sorghum. Thinning should be completed 10 to15 days after emergence leaving one plant per hill. Harvesting and Threshing: Most of the high yielding varieties and hybrids mature in about 100 to 115 days. The right stage for harvest is , when the grain become hard having less than 25% moisture. Do not wait for stubble and leaves to dry, because hybrid sorghum appear green


even after the crop is mature. Harvest may be done at physiological maturity. Harvesting is done by cutting the entire plant or removing the earheads first and cutting down the plants latter and is allowed to dry for 2 to 5 days. Threshing is done with the help of thresher or beating the earheads. The threshed grain is dried in the sun for a week to bring the moisture content to 10 to 12% for safe storage.

Yield :

Grain : 2 to 3 t/ha under rainfed condition. Dry Stover : 8 to 10 t/ha.


TECHNOLOGIES FOR IRRIGATED SORGHUM It is raised by either I) direct seeding or ii) transplanting. Varieties recommended 1. CO25 - 115-120 days, Grain yield : 6.0 t/ha, Straw yield : 17.5 t/ha. Juicy stalk, semi compact ear head. 2. CO 26 -105-110 days, Grain yield : 6.0 t/ha, Straw yield : 19.0 t/ha. Juicy stalk. 3. BSR 1- 105-110 days, Grain yield: 6 to 6.5 t/ha, Straw yield: 9.6 t/ha. Hybrids recommended 1. CSH 5 : 100 days, Grain yield : 4.5 t/ha, Straw yield : 12.5 t/ha. 2. CoH 4 : 105-110 days, Grain yield : 6.5 t/ha, Straw yield : 20.0 t/ha 3. CoH 5 : 100 days, Grain yield : 6.8 t/ha, Straw yield : 19.0 t/ha. Season : 1) January – Feb (Thaipattam) 2) April – May (Chithiraipattam) (In Thenkasi area) – very less area Seed rate : Direct sowing : 10 kg/ha ? ? ? ? ? and Transplanting : 7.5 kg/ha. Irrigated transplanted crop has following advantage Main field duration is reduced by 10 days Shoot fly attacks economically controlled in the nursery Seedlings which show chlorotic and downy mildew symptoms can be eliminated. Optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used Seed rate is reduced by 2.5 kg/ha.

Nursery preparations: For planting one ha, 7.5 cent (300m2) nursery area is required, near the water source, where water will not stagnate. Apply 750 kg of FYM or compost for 7.5 cent nursery and another 500 kg for covering the seeds after sowing. Form raised beds of 2 m x 1.5 m with 30cm spacing to a depth of 15cm. Pre treatment of seeds for both direct seeded crop and raising in the nursery 1. Treat the seeds 24 hours before sowing with carbendazim / captan / thiram @ 2g/kg of seed. 2. Treat the seeds with 2% KH2 PO 4 for 6 hours and shade dry for 5 hours 3. Dissolve 0.5g gum in 20ml of water. Add 4ml of chlorpyriphos 20 EC or Monocrotophos 30 WSC. To this add one kg of seed, pellet and shade dry. 4. Treat the seeds with 3 pockets of Azospirilllum (600 g/ha) using rice kanji as binder. Sowing Form rills using fingers, broad cast the seeds and cover with 500 kg of FYM. Irrigation : Immediately after sowing, 3 rd day, 7 th day, 12th day and 17 th day. Transplanting 1) Age of seedling 15 to 18 days 2) Dip the seedlings in Azospirillum solution (5 pockets (1000g) dissolved in 40 lit of water) for 15 to 30 minutes. 3) Plant at 45x15cm spacing at a depth of 3 to 5cm with one seedling per hill on the side of ridge. Main field preparation for both direct seeded and transplanted crop ? ? Sorghum does not require fine tilth. Plough the field with an iron plough once and twice with a country plough. To over come the sub soil hard pan in Alfisol, chiseling the field at 0.5 m interval to a depth of 40 cm on both the direction of the field followed by disc ploughing once and cultivator ploughing twice help to increase the yield. Apply 12.5 t FYM or compost /ha with 2 kg of Azospirillum (10 pockets/ha) and incorporate the manure in the soil by working a country plough.




Form ridges and furrows at 45cm apart using ridge plough.

Fertilizer management Transplanted crop : If soil test recommendation is not available, follow the blanket recommendation of 90:45:45 kg NPK /ha. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50% N and entire P and K should be applied basally before planting. Remaining 50% N on 15 days after planting. Apply 50% N and entire P and K basally Remaining 50% N on 25 to 30 DAS For Zn deficient soils, apply 25kg ZnSo 4/ha at the time of sowing/transplanting. For Fe deficient soils, apply 50kg FeSO 4 at sowing or at planting. If ZnSO 4 is not applied basally and if Zn deficiency is noticed, spray ZnSO 4 at 0.5% concentration. Similarly FeSO 4 at 1% concentration at 2 or 3 stages.

Direct seeded crop: Blanket recommendation: 90:45:45 kg NPK /ha.


Foliar spray of Micronutrient:

Optimum plant population : 45x15cm, 1,48,000 plants/ha for both direct and transplanted crop. ? For raising intercrop, paired row system, 60//30x15cm may be adopted. Raise one row of pulses in between 60cm row spacing.

Thinning and gap filling : In the direct sown crop, thin one seeding per hill and gap fill the thinned out seedlings 10 to 15 DAS, maintaining a spacing of 15cm between plants. Weed management ? Apply pre emergence herbicide Atrazine 50 WP at 500 g/ha (atrazine 0.25 kg/ha) on 3 days after sowing using high volume sprayer followed by one hand weeding on 30 to 35 DAS. Sorghum is slow growing in the early stage and is adversely competition. Keep the fields free of weeds up to 45 days. If pulse crop is raised as intercrop, do not use atrazine. If herbicide is not used, for transplanted crop, two hoeings and weedings on 10 day and 30 to 35 th day after planting. In the case of direct seeded crop, 15 to 20 DAS. Striga control.

? ? ? ? ?

affected by weed

day and second weeding on 35 to 40

Water management i) ii) iii) Total water requirement : 450-500 mm. Irrigation at 50% depletion of available soil moisture 0.6 IW/CPE ratio is sufficient.

Critical stages : 1) Seedling 2) Vegetative 3) Flowering iv) Dough stage. Stress at one week before and one week after flowering is very critical. Under moisture stress condition, 5 irrigations are sufficient. For normal condiiton, 8 irrigations are to be given . i.e. on Ist day, 4 th day, 15th, 28th, 40th, 53nd, 64th,76th and 88 th days. Stop irrigation after 88 to 90 DAS. Contingent plan: Spraying 3% Kaolin (30 g in one litre of water) during periods of stress will mitigate the ill effects. Harvesting and processing ? ? ? When the crop matures, leaves turn yellow and the grains are hard and firm and moisture content will be less than 25%. At this stage, cut the earheads separately dried for 2 to 3 days and threshed using mechanical thresher and dry the grain to 12% moisture for safe storage. Cut the straw after a week, allow it to dry and then stack.


Cropping system : In Tamil Nadu Sorghum – Ragi, Sorghum – Cotton, Sorghum – Onion, Sorghum – Greengram. Intercropping : Sorghum + Cowpea Sorghum + Greengram


AGRO-TECHNIQUES FOR SWEET SORGHUM 1. Syrup production – HFSS 2. Jaggery production 3. Ethanol production Syrup production (HFSS): The sweet sorghum variety with relatively high reducing sugar (glucose, fructose) may be more suitable, when TSS (Total Soluble Solids) reaches above 14 degree at Rahuri. eg.:40 tons of green cane yields about 15,000 to 18,000 l/ha of juice.T.S.S. 19 ? (brix) . It gives 4 to 5 t of syrup. (or) If it is used for Jaggery, 3.0 to 3.5 t/ha, and crushing efficiency is 50-60%. The approximate stage for crushing is when the crop reaches 18 ? brix. The syrup can be as table syrup, bread spreads and in salad dressing, cakes, biscuits, ice cream topping. 2. Jaggery production : High TSS and ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars greater than 9 gave good quality Jaggery. Sweet sorghum varieties : SSV 84 (105 days), RSSV 16, NSS 104 Sweet Stalk Varieties SSV 84 Green cane yield (t/ha) Grain yield (t/ha) Juice Brix Jaggery yield (t/ha) Ethanol yield (l/ha) 36.0 2.3 8 3.0 1851 RSSV 16 38.0 2.3 19 3.1 1948 NSS 104 41.0 2.0 20 3.3 2101

Production of starch : 592 kg/ton of grain (Glucose = Starch x 1.11) Glucose production : 657 kg/ton of grain Alcohol production : 380 lit/ton of grain. Technology : Seed rate, population, manures and fertilizers and irrigation are similar to irrigated crop/ similar to rainfed crop. Time of harvest: Harvest the earhead at physiological maturity and dry it. The green stalk or cane should be harvested within 12 hours after harvest of earhead and crushed immediately. Physiological maturity is the stage at which net photosynthesis is zero or there is no translocation of carbohydrate to sink.


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR RATOON SORGHUM 1. Varieties for ratooning : CO25, CO26, CSH5, K.Tall. Sorghum is highly amenable for ratooning. 2. Ratooning technique i) Harvest the main crop leaving 15cm stubble ii) Remove first formed two sprouts from the main crop and allow only the latter formed two sprouts to grow. Allow two tillers per hill. 3. Hoeing and Weeding i) Remove the weeds immediately after harvest of main crop. ii) Hoe and weed on 15 th and 30th day after cutting. 4. Application of fertilizers : 100:50:0 kg NPK /ha. i) Apply 100 kg N/ha in two splits doses. ii) Apply Ist dose on 15 th day after cutting and second on 45 th day after cutting. iii) Apply 50 kg P 2O 5 along with first application of N. 5. Pest and disease management : Since the ratoon crop invites pests and diseases in early stages, plant protection measures have to be resorted to. 6. Water management i) Irrigate immediately after cutting the main crop. ii) Irrigation should not be delayed for more than 24 hours after cutting. iii) irrigate 3 rd or 4 th day after cutting. iv) Subsequent irrigation once in 7 to10 days. v) Stop irrigation 70 to 80 days after ratooning. 7. Harvest : Similar to sown crop but duration is 10 to 15 days lesser than main crop. 8. Yield : equal or slightly higher than sown crop.


FINGER MILLET (RAGI, MANDUA) Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn. Cultivated mainly in Asia and Africa and is predominantly grown in the Peninsular Indian sta tes of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Importance 1. Staple food crop in many hilly regions of the country 2. Grown both for grain and forage 3. In Northern hills grains are eaten in the form of chapaties 4. In South India grain flour is used for preparing gruel, cakes or puddings, porridges, sweets etc. 5. Germinating grains are malted and fed to infants and good for 6. Considered as nutritive food for adults of different ages 7. Grain contains 9.2% protein, 1.29% fat, 76.32% carbohydrates, 2.24% minerals 3.% ash and 0.33% Ca. Contain vitamins A and B with small amount of P. 8. Good for persons suffering from diabetes. 9. Green straw suitable for making silage. Origin: India Distribution: India, Africa, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, China and Japan Area and Production India: Area Area: (In lakh ha) Production: (In lakh tones) 19.1 lakh ha Karnataka 9.64 Karnataka 16.3 Production 27.62 lakh t > Orissa 2.29 > TN 3.16 TN 1950 > Karnataka 1690 > UP > TN 1.62 > UP Productivity 1440 kg/ha > UP 1.38 > Orissa > AP > AP unleavened pregnant woman. bread,

Average Productivity: (In kg/ha) Soil And Climatic Requirement ? ? ? ? ?

Grown wide variety soils and thrives best in well-drained loam or clay loam Tolerates salinity better than other cereals Tropical and sub-tropical crop, grows from sea level to 2100m on hill slopes Grown in areas having average rainfall 50 to 100cm In higher rainfall areas raised as transplanted crop.

Season: Kharif, Rabi and summer. Kharif and Rabi crops are rainfed while summer crop is irrigated. In Karnataka, AP and TN, grown in Rabi (Sep to Oct) as irrigated crop. Varieties: Godavari, Indaf 5, Sarada, PR 202, BR 407, EC 4840, Co 7, Co 11, Co 12 Particulars Duration (days) Grain yield Kg/ha Straw yield Kg/ha (Irrigated) (RF) (Irrigated) (RF) Indaf 5 105-100 4000 2500 7500 5200 Co 11 90-95 4750 3250 8750 6250 Co 12 110-120 4750 3250 8750 6250 Co 13 95-100 3600 2300 10000 7500

Growth Stages Stages Vegetative Phase (Nursery) 80 days crop 1 to 16 100 days crop 1 to 18 120 days crop 1 to 20


Vegetative Phase (Main field) Flowering phase Maturity phase Nursery Management a. Seeds and sowing ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1 to 18 19 to 40 Beyond 40

1 to 20 21 to 55 Beyond 55

1to 22 23 to 69 Beyond 69

Seed rate: 5 kg/ ha for transplanting and 8-10kg for direct sowing 12.5 cents (500 m2) nursery area required/ha Prepare land and mix 37.5kg super phosphate and 500 kg FYM or compost Form raised beds of 3.0x1.5m with 30cm channels Seed treatment with fungicides done 24 hours prior to sowing Azospirillum seed treatment @ 3 packets/ha seed rate (600g/ha) Make rills of1cm depth, broadcast and cover the seeds with 500kg powdered FYM Do not sow the seeds deeply as germination will be adversely affected

b. Schedule the irrigation as given below for nursery No. of irrigations 1 st 2

Red soil Immediately after sowing 3 day after sowing 7 th day after sowing 12 th day after sowing 17 th day after sowing

Heavy soil Immediately after sowing 4 th day after sowing 9 th day after sowing 16 th day after sowing

3 rd 4 th 5 th

c. Pulling out seedling: Pull out on 17th 20 th day of sowing Main Field Preparation Manuring And Planting ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Plough the field thoroughly to get a good tilth Incorporate 12.5t/ha of FYM or compost or composted coir pith Apply NPK as per soil test or adopt a blanket recommendation of 60:30:30 kg/ha of NPK Apply half N and full P and K basally and incorporate in last ploughing Apply 10 packets/ha (2000g) by mixing with 25 kg sand and 25kg FYM before transplanting Form beds of 10 or 20 m2 with suitable irrigation channels Apply 12.5 kg micronutrient mixture with enough sand and do not incorporate Let water in to the bed and level the bed Plant 18 to 20 days seedling, 2 per hill at a depth of 3cm spacing 15x15cm Root dip for 15 to 30 minutes with Azospirillum 5 pkts (1000g) in 40 lit water Top dress the remaining half N in two equal splits on 15th and 30th day after transplanting coinciding the weeding Aged seedlings beyond 21 days increase the seedlings to 3/hilland increase nitrogen by 25% to reduce the loss

Water Management: Regulate irrigation according to growth phases. Stages Days No. of irrigation Crop duration 80 Days 100 Days 120 Days

Heavy soils Establishment 1-7 1 2 1 st day 5 th day 1 st day 5 th day 1 st day 5 th day


Vegetative phase Flowering phase

8-20 21-55

1 2 1 2 3

18 th day 31 day 41 st day 51 st day 61 st day

20 th day 33

20 th day 30 th day 37 th day 44 th day 63 rd day 78 th day 93 rd day


42 nd day 52 nd day 62 nd day

Maturity phase


1 2 Light soils



1 2

1 st day 5 th day 15 th day 26 th day 36 th day 45

1 st day 5 th day 16 th day 28 th day 36 th day 45

1 st day 5 th day 16 th day 28 th day 36 th day 45 th day 54 th day 78 th day 93 rd day

Vegetative phase Flowering phase

8-20 21-55

1 2 1 2 3



54 th day 58 th day 70

Maturity phase Stop irrigation there after.


1 2

69 th day


Critical stages: Tillering and pre -flowering Weed Management ? ? ? Apply Butachlor 2.5 l/ha or Fluchloralin 2 l/ha or pendimethalin 2.5 l/ha as pre -emergence and if sufficient moisture is not available irrigate immediately If pre emergence is not applied hoe hand weed on 15 th and 30 th day after transplanting For rainfed directed seeded crop apply post emergence herbicide 2,4-DEE or 2,4-D Na salt at 0.5 kg/ha on 10 th day after sowing depending on moisture availability Intercropped with legumes such as field beans, cowpea, fodder sorghum or occasionally with other millets 4 to 5 rows of ragi with a row of field bean is very common in Karnataka and AP Sequenced with groundnut, horse gram, cotton, tobacco or sesame Does not mature uniformly and hence two stage harvest done Ear head of main shoot and 50% of ear heads turn brown first harvest made Dried ear heads dried, threshed and cleaned Seven days after first harvest cut all the ear heads including green ones Ear heads cut with sickles first then the straw is harvested Cure by heaping the harvested ear heads in shade for one day without drying to make greener ear heads mature Then dry, thresh and clean Harvested heads are threshed using conventional beating with sticks and treading under the feet of animals. Machine threshing is also common

Cropping System ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?



PEARLMILLET (or) BAJRA (P.glaucum) Tamil : Cumbu Of the 150 sps of Pennesitum, P.glaucum is the cultivated species for grain and P.purpurea is the forage species. Origin:- Africa Economic importance ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? It is a stable food crop of about 100 million peoples in rural areas of India and Sub Saharan Africa. Roti or Chapati, which are unleaved flat breads prepared using pearlmillet flour are common in Asia. Porridges and cooked grains are also used. In Northern India, it is prepared during winter while wheat becomes common in Summer diet. Fried preparations, foods such as fermented products and beer. Variety of pan cakes are prepared using pearlmillet flour in Africa and pearl millet beer is used throughout Africa. Fura or cheese are the traditional African snacks prepared using steamed pearl millet flour and cream. It is used as fodder in Africa and Asia. Oxalic acid content is very high. So it is not relished by cattle. Quality of grain: Rich in protein (12.6%) and rich in fat (5%), fibre 1.2% and 60.70% of Carbohydrate. Normally rich in Ca, Vit.Riboflavin and rich in Carotenoides In Central America, it is mainly cultivated for forage purpose. It is grown as pasture grass.

Area, Production and Distribution World : It is largely grown in India. The important pearl millet producing countries are India, Africa, Pakistan, China, Sudan and Egypt. In India (1996-97) Area : 10 m.ha, Production: 7.9 m.t and Area Rajasthan > (4.7 m.ha) Production Rajasthan > Maharastra > Gujarat > TN > UP Tamil Nadu Area :2.3 l.ha, Production: 2.5 l.ton and Productivity: 1226 kg/ha. In Tamil Nadu, it is grown in all the districts, except Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur and Nilgiris. Stages of Crop growth 1. Seedling stage 2. Tillering stage 3. Flowering phase 4. Maturity phase : : : : 1-18 days 19.35 days 36-55 days 56-85 days Maharastra (1.95 m.ha) > Gujarath (1.0 m.ha) > UP (0.8m.ha) Productivity: 791 kg/ha

Climatic requirement: It is a rapid growing, warm weather crop. It has high degree of resistance for drought. The best temperature for the growth of bajra is between 20? and 28? C. It can withstand even desiccation. It is suitable for the areas having rainfall ranges from 400-750 mm. Even 150 mm of rainfall is sufficient for the productivity. Rainfall during vegetative phase is highly favourable, while


rainfall at flowering is not conducive, as it washes off the pollen and there is poor seed setting. The crop does better in light showers followed by bright sunshine. Usually bajra is grown, where it is not possible to grow sorghum because of high temperature and low rainfall. It is grown as kharif crop in Northern India, while in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Punjab, it is grown under irrigated condition during summer. Edaphic requirement : It is grown in a wide variety of soils, but being sensitive to water logging, It does best on well drained sandy loams. It is sensitive to acidic soil. It is grown successfully on black cotton soil, alluvial soils and red soils of India. Time of sowing : India Kharif (rainfed) Winter (rainfed) Summer(rainfed) : : : June to October Nov to Feb March to June

During summer, it is grown in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab and Gujarat as an irrigated crop. Hybrids: Under All India Co-ordinated Research project many hybrids have been developed. Using Cytoplasmic male sterile line (CMS line) five hybrids have been developed. Among them HB3 is the best. But all hybrids are susceptible to downy mildew. To overcome the downy mildew, CMS line MS.5071 was used and five New Hybrid bajra were developed. Among them, NHB.5 is the best for disease resistance and wide adaptability besides giving higher yield. In Tamil Nadu, using CMS line MS 5141 A, two hybrids X6 and X7 were evolved and are recommended for cultivation. X6: 90-100 days. Irrigated crop : 3236 kg/ha. Rainfed condition : 2394 kg/ha. Resistant to downy mildew. 1000 grain weight: 7.7 to 8.8 g X7: 90 days, both irrigated and rainfed. Irrigated crop : 3295 kg/ha. Rainfed : 2513 kg/ha. Resistant to downy mildew. 100 grain weight 8-9g. Composite : WC.C 75 (World Cumbu Composite developed at ICRISAT, Hyderabad). Suited for both irrigated and rainfed. Duration : 95 days. Irrigated crop : 3.0 t, Rainfed 2.0 t/ha. Variety : Co7 : 90-100 days, Rainfed : 2.5 t/ha. Irrigated 3.5 t/ha. Resistant to downy mildew. K3: 85 days. Tamil Nadu : Season and Varieties I Irrigated Crop 1. March – April: (All district except Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur and Nilgris) 2. Jan – Feb : WCC 75, CO7, X6, X7. (except Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur and Nilgris) II Rainfed 1. June – July : 2. Sept – Oct : WCC 75, k3, Co7, X6, X7, K4HB ------ do ------Variety and Hybrids WCC 75, K3, CO7, X6, X7.

Method of raising Crop 1) Irrigated condition : a. Raising seedling in the Nursery and transplanting. b. Direct sowin g. 2) Rainfed crop: Seed rate : Direct seeding either broadcasting or sowing behind country plough. Direct sowing : 5 kg/ha. Transplanting : 3.75 kg/ha. Seed Treatment 1) Using salt solution (1 kg of NaCl in 10 lit of water) remove ergot affected seeds and sclerotia to prevent primary infections and shade dry. 2) Seed treatment with fungicides 2g/kg of seed . 3) Azospirillum seed treatment (3 pockets or 600 g/ ha seed rate)


Nursery preparation for transplanted crop :Nursery area required is 7.5 cent (300 m2) for one ha. Plough the land and bring it to fine tilth. Apply 750 kg of FYM or compost and incorporate. Form raised beds of 3.0 m x 1.5m with 30 cm channel. Open small rills not deeper than 1cm on the raised bed. Sow 3.75 kg of seeds in 7.5 cents at the rate 0.5 kg/cent and cover the seeds and sprinkle 500 kg of FYM or compost for covering the seeds. Irrigation I

Light Soil immediately after sowing 3 rd DAS 7

Heavy Soil immediately after sowing 3 rd DAS 9 th day 16 th -----

2 nd 3 5


4 th

12 th day 17

Field preparation for both irrigated and Rainfed crop i) ii) Deep ploughing with Iron plough and with country plough twice to bring fine tilth. If there is hard pan, use chisel plough.

iii) Incorporate 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost during last ploughing. iv) Apply Azospirillum to the soil @ 10 packets/ha (2 kg). Land Shaping: For irrigated crop (transplanting) either form ridges and furrows at 45cm apart or beds of convenient size depending upon the water availability. For rainfed crop,flat sowing is followed. For rainfed crop, Pora method of sowing is better than Kera method. Transplanting *Optimum age of seedling for planting is 15-18 days ? ? Adopt spacing of 45 x 15cm for all the varieties except Co7. For Co7, spacing is 35 X15cm. (similar row spacing is adopted for rainfed crop also) * Dipping the roots in bio-fertilizer Slurry (dissolve 5 pockets of Azospirillum in 40lit of water) for 15-30 minutes. * Plant one seedling per hill to a depth of 3 to 5 cm Direct sown crop * Soaking the seed is 2% potassium chloride or 3% NaCl for 6 hours followed by shade drying for 5 hours. ? ? Adopt spacing of 45 x 15cm for all varieties except Co7 and for Co7, adopt 35 x 15 cm row spacing. If pulse is intercropped, adopt spacing of 35 x 15cm for cumbu and 30 x 10cm for cowpea and other pulses.

* Seed rate 5kg/ha. Optimum population : 1,45,000 plants/ha. Fertilizer management: If soil test recommendation is not available, follow the blanket recommendation. Irrigated crop : Rainfed crop: Hybrids Varieties 80 : 40 :40 kg N : P 2O 5 : K2O/ha. 70 : 35 : 35 kg N : P 2O 5 : K2O/ha. 40 : 20 : 0 kg N : P 2O 5 : K2O/ha.

Apply 50% and 100% P and K as basal at 5cm depth and the remaining 50%N at 15 days after planting for transplanted crop and 30 DAS for direct sown crop. Bajra removes about 90 kg N, 20 to 25 kg P 2O 5 and 160 kg K2O. Micronutrient: For Zn deficient soil, apply ZnSo 4 at 25 kg/ha. Iron deficiency occurs in saline and calcareous soil. Based on the level of deficiency, 12.5 to 25 kg of FeSo 4 is recommended. If it is not applied basally, foliar application of FeSo 4 at 1% concentration at vegetative phase is recommended. Water management : Highly drought tolerant crop. Water requirement : 300 to 350 mm.


Irrigation at available soil moisture of 50% Optimum IW/CPE ratio 0.4 is sufficient. Critical Stages: Tillering and Flowering. Normally 5 irrigations are recommended. Tillering, Panicle irrigation, Flag leaf, Flowering, Dough stage in addition to sowing irrigation. Under limited m oisture condition : 3 irrigations can be recommended. Panicle initiation, Flag leaf, Flowering in addition to sowing irrigation. Thinning and gap filling : In the direct sown crop, after Ist weeding at the time of irrigation gap fill and thin the crop to a spacing of 15cm between plants. In rainfed crop, thinning should be done 10 to15 days after sowing. Weed Management : It reduces the yield by 50% crop weed competition is up to 35 days. Pre-emergence application of atrazine 500 g/ha (atrazine 0.25 kg/ha) followed by hand weeding on 30 to 35 days after transplanting or sowing. If the herbicide is not used, hand weed on 15 th day and again between 30 and 35 days after transplanting. For direct sown crop, hoeing and weeding may be done on 20 to 25th day and second weeding on 35 th to 40 th day after sowing. *Atrazine should not be used for intercropping systems. Cropping system : Some of the important crop rotations are 1. Bajra - Barly 2. Bajra - Wheat 3. Bajra - Gram 4. Bajra - Pea 5. Bajra - Potato Intercropping system in North India Bajra + Groundnut Bajra + Blackgram Bajra + Greengram Bajra + Castor Bajra + Cowpea Harvesting and Threshing:When the leaves turned yellow colour and when the seeds become hardened and having 20% moisture. Harvesting is done by removing the earheads first and cutting down the plants latter on. The earheads after harvesting should be dried well in sun before threshing. The grains are separated either by beating the earheads by sticks or by trampling by bullocks. The threshed grain should be cleaned and dried in the sun to bring the moisture to12-14% for safe storage. Yield Irrigated : Rainfed : Grain Yield 3.0 to 3.5 t 1.2 to 1.5 t Stover Yield (t/ha) 10.0 t/ha 7-7.5 t/ha


SMALL MILLETS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Also called as minor millets Have potentiality to grow even under adverse ecological condition Successfully grown under very poor agro-climate where main food crops cannot be grown Area : 18.52 lakh ha. Production : 8.22 l t Productivity: 440 kg/ha Area: MP (10.0) > UP > TN > Maharastra Production: MP (2.51) > UP (1.38) > TN > Maharastra Average yield: Arunachal Pradesh (1230)> UP > TN The five small millets are 1. Italian millet (Thenai, Kakun, Fox tail): Setaria italica 2. Kodo millet (Varagu): Paspalum scrobiculatum 3. Common millet (Panivaragu, Cheena): Panicum millaceum 4. Little millet (Samai): Panicum milliare 5. Barnyard millet (Kudiraivali, Sawan): Echinochloa frumentacea ITALIAN MILLET (Thenai, Kakun, Fox tail) Setaria italica Importance ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Generally grown as rainfed crop Grains cooked like rice and utilized Grain flour used in the form of chapaties Grain contains 12.3% protein, 4.7% fat, 60.6% carbohydrates and 3.2% ash Grains are fed to cage birds Straw is thin stemmed and is liked by cattle (not good for horses) In China it is important next to rice and wheat and provides approximately 15-17% of the total food consumed in China.

Origin: China Area and Distribution ? ? ? ? ? ? ? India, China, Eastern Europe, Southern parts of USSR and some extent in African and American countries In India cultivated in Karnataka, AP, MP and UP It can grow in poor soils but requires fairly fertile soils for good yields Light soils including red loams, alluvial and black cotton soil are all suitable for its cultivation but it thrives best on rich, well drained loam soils. Cultivated in tropical and temperate regions up to 2000 m altitude Requires moderate temperature and grows successfully with 50-75 cm rainfall Although water requirement is less has no capacity to recover after long spell of drought KODO MILLET (Varagu) Paspalum scrobiculatum Importance ? ? ? ? ? Coarsest food grains covered with horny seed coat which should be removed before cooking and highly drought resistant crop Immature and molded grains are poisonous Easily preserved and proves as good famine reserve Recommended as a substitute for rice to patients suffering from diabetes Grain contains 8.3% protein, 1.4% fat, 65.6% carbohydrates and 2.9% ash

Soil and Climatic requirements


Origin: India Area and Distribution ? ? ? ? ? ? Grown mostly in AP, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and UP Grown from gravelly and stony upland poor soils to loam soils Adverse conditions in poor soils yield some grain & straw Thrives best on sandy loam to loam soils which are well drained Makes rapid growth in warm and dry climate & req. rainfall of 40 to 50 cm. Highly drought tolerant can be grown in areas where rainfall is scanty and erratic COMMON MILLET (Panivaragu, Cheena, proso millet) Panicum miliaceum Importance ? ? ? ? ? ? Evade drought by its quick maturity Offers better prospects for intensive cultivation in dry land areas Grain contains high protein (12.5%), 1.1% fat, 68.9% carbohydrate, 2.2% crude fibre and 3.4% ash Rich in lysine (4.6%), which is inadequate in most cereals Used as cooked grain, flour for making chapaties, perched grains etc. It makes good poultry feed and straw is good fodder soil and climatic requirement

Origin: India Area and Distribution ? ? ? ? ? ? Grown extensively in India, Japan, China, Egypt, Arabia and Western Europe India largely grown in MP, Eastern UP, Bihar, TN, Maharastra, AP and Karnataka Well drained loam or sandy loam free of kankar and rich in organic matter ideal Can be grown both in rich and poor soils having variable texture ranging between sandy loam to clays of black cotton soils Warm climate crop grown extensively in warm regions of the world Highly drought resistant and can be grown in areas where there is scanty rainfall and withstand water stagnation also to some extent BARNYARD MILLET (Kudiraivali, Sawan) Echinochloa frumentacea Importance ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Very drought resistant & also capable of withstanding water logging condition Grains consumed just like rice Used in making rice pudding Grain contains 6.2% protein, 9.8% crude fibre, 65.5% carbohydrates, 4.4% ash Mostly eaten by poor class people Sometime brewed for beer Used as feed for cage birds & straw makes good fodder for cattle

Soil and Climate requirement

Origin: India Area and Distribution ? ? ? Grown in India, China, Japan, Malaysia and east Indies and some extent in Africa and USA In India grown in MP, UP, TN, AP, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Bihar Can be grown in soils of marginal fertility and partially waterlogged condition

Soil and climate requirement


? ? ?

Thrives best on sandy loam to loam soil Grown from sea level to 2000 m on the Himalaya slopes Warm and moderately humid climate is good

Cultivation details of small millets Particulars Italian millet (Thenai) Kodo millet (Varagu) Common Millet (Panivaragu Littlemillet (Samai) Barnyard Millet (Kudiraivali)

Season and varieties (Rainfed)

June-July K1, CO3, PV196&162,K1, CO2, CO3 APK1, CO2, CO3, CO4 K1, CO3 Niwas1, Pali and K2 IP149, VL1 CO1, K1, UPT8, IP149

CO5,K3, CO6 Sep-Oct CO4, CO5, CO6, K2 Seeds rate Line planting: 10kg/ha and broadcasting: 12.5kg/ha Seed drill Gorru seed drill is recommended Seed treatment 2 g Thiram or Carbendazim FYM Nitrogen Phosphorus Spacing Weeding Thinning Harvesting Yield kg/ha


12.5 t/ha (Basal) 44 kg/ha(Basal) 22 /ha(Basal) 22x10 cm 45x10cm 25x10 cm 25x10 cm 25x10 cm 15 th DAS – First 40 th DAS - Second 20 DAS Whole plant or earhead is sickled, staked and dried and threshed with stone roller or trampling under feet of bullocks 1200-1800 1500-1800 1200-1500 700-1300 1250-1750


PULSES Importance of pulses ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? India largest producer and consumer Dried edible seed of a cultivated legume is known as pulse. Legume derived from Latin "legere" means "to gather" Constitutes 10 to 12% of Indian diet. WHO recommend 80 g/day/person ICMR recorded 47g but actual is 30-35g Used as fodder, food crops, green manure, cover crop, catch crop N fixation improves soil fertility and Leucaena leucocephala aid in reclamation Protein content ranges from 17 to 25% (Soybean : 40 to 43%) Provides thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B complex and ascorbic acid. Early maturity, relative thermo and photo insensitivity and better canopy structure (nonspreading) makes them included in multiple cropping

Area and distribution ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Accounts 33% area and 22% production of world Mostly grown as rainfed only 8% of pulse area is irrigated in India. In 1996-97 pulse Area 22.39 m ha, Production 14.24 m.t, Productivity 623 kg/ha. Area: MP(5.1m ha)>Rajasthan>Maharastra MP>UP>Maharastra>Rajasthan Production:

Average productivity: Nagaland>UP>Haryana Yield potential: 2500-3500kg ha -1 but Indian productivity is 550 to 625 kg ha-1 as against 1600 kg in USA, 1400 kg in China and world average is 900kg ha -1. Production (1997-98) : 13.5 m.t. India imported 9.97 l.t valued Rs.1184 crores

CAUSES FOR LOW PRODUCTION OF PULSES a) Ecological factors ? ? ? ? ? Mostly rain fed and only 8% irrigated and depend on residual soil moisture Pulses are sensitive to excess soil moisture, salinity, alkalinity and acidity Grown with poor management and Lack HYV (HI 0.1 to 0.2 and for wheat 0.5) Improper sowing time, inadequate seed rate and defective method of sowing Break through in production possible if HYV / hybrid developed with synchronous flowering, multiple resistance to pests a nd diseases and response to inputs. Grown by resource poor farmers often as catch crop mixed crop or in rotation with commercial or high yielding cereal crop, Un assured market

b) Lack of agronomic management

c) Basic research factors

d) Socio-economic constraints ?

e) Constraints in post harvest technology Pulses in India (1996-97) Pulse Chickpea (Gram) White chickpea Area (m.ha) 7.1 Production (m t) 5.75 0.6 Productivity (kg/ha) 810 Major states MP > Rajastan > UP > Maharastra > Haryana > Karnataka Guntur and Prakasam dt. of AP


Pigeon pea Urd bean Moong bean Lentil Horse gram Moth bean Peas (Dried) Khesari (Chicklig pea) Rajmash (red)

3.61 3.15 3.04 1.14 1.07 1.46 0.74 0.95

2.7 1.33 1.17 0.8 0.42 0.4 0.63 0.58 0.25

747 423 386 702 393 273 860 609

Maharastra>UP>Karnataka> MP > Gujarat > AP MP > Maharastra > AP > TN > UP > Orissa Maha > AP > Raj > Orissa >Bihar > Karnat > TN UP > MP > Bihar Karnataka > Maha > MP>TN > AP Rajasthan(80%) > Maha >Gujarat UP > MP > Bihar > Assam > Orissa MP > Bihar AP > Kashmir > Maha > HP > UP > MP

RED GRAM (Cajanus cajan) C.cajan var. flavous –Tur (Early), Importance a. Primarily used as dal, while the tender green seeds are consumed as vegetable, crushed dried seeds as animal feed and green leaves as fodder. b. Stems used as fuel wood and t o make huts and baskets, Used for paper pulp c. Leaves can be used to feed silkworm and plants are used to culture lac insect d. Serves as wind break and live fence, Canned for export by freezing e. Venezucla local soft drink known as 'Chicha' is made. f. Accounts for 12% pulse area, g. 17% pulse production and 90% world production h. After gram second most important pulse crop Origin: India Area and Distribution ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Africa, West Indies, Ceylon, Australia and Malaya, India, Indo China India States : Area 3.61 mha Production 2.7mt Productivity 747 kg/ha (1996-97) Maharastra (16.5lha) > UP(5.0lha) > Karnataka > MP > Gujarat > AP Maharastra > UP > Gujarat > MP Haryana > UP > Bihar Area : 1.40 l .ha, Production :1.20 l. t C.cajan var bicolour – Arhar (late)

Production Productivity: Tamil Nadu

Productivity : 864kg/ha Grown wide range of soil from sandy loam to clay loams. Best soils are fertile and well drained loamy soils, Suitable pH range is 5 to 8 Grows 1500m and well distributed rainfall 500 to 900mm in tropics and subtropics Temperature ranges 10 to 40?C and the optimum is 20 to 28?C. Kharif: June-Aug Rabi : Sep-Nov

Soil and Climate requirement

Season and Varieties CO5, CO6, Vamban 1, Vamban2 (resistant to sterility mosaic) BSR 1,SA1 and CO4 – Suitable for bund planting. Hybrids: ICPH 8 from ICRISAT, yields 4 t/ha, COH1, COH2 Seeds and sowing (Depth of seeding : 5cm) Vertisols: Broad Bed Furrows are best with 90cm beds and 60 cm shallow furrow.


Long and medium duration varieties Short duration Rain fed Seed rate Bund planting SEED TREATMENT ? ?

:75x30 cm : 45x30 cm : 90x30cm : 20 to 30kg/ha : 50g/100 metre row

Canbendazim or Thiram @ 2g/kg seed 24 hours before sowing (or) Trichoderma virdie @4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg Fungicide treated seeds should be again treated with 3 pockets bacterial culture 15 minutes before sowing

APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ? ? ? For a production level of 2 t grain, 6 t stalks redgram removes 132 kg N, 20 kg P 2O 5 and 53 kg K2O per ha. P is the most limiting & Response is about 6 to 10 kg grain/kg of applied P. Apply fertilizers basally before sowing Rain fed: Irrigated: ? 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5/ha 25kgN + 50 kg P 2O 5/ha.

Soil application of 25 kg DAP/ha and foliar application of 25 kg DAP/ha with 25 kg sulphur as gypsum (110 kg/ha) or 2% urea in two sprays at flower commencement and 15 days after may be given.

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? Spray Fluchloralin 1.5 l/ha (or) Pendimethalin 2 l/ha 3 DAS + one hand weeding may be given on 30 to 35 days after sowing. If no herbicide is applied, give two hand weeding on 15 and 35 DAS

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? ? WUE legume 500 kg water/kg DMP while cereals 300 to 350 kg water/kg DMP. High plant densities water requirement is 50 to 60 cm To produce 1 ton of grain, 20 to 25 cm water is used Irrigate immediately after sowing, 3 rd day after sowing, bud initiation, 50% flowering and pod development stages, Water stagnation should be avoided.

CROPPING SYSTEMS Intercropping Sorghum + redgram, Ragi + redgram, Redgram + Urd, Redgram + groundnut Crop rotation Maize/rice – redgram, Redgram - wheat HARVESTING THE CROP Harvest the plants when 80% of the pods are mature. Stack the plants for a few days. Separate the pods with sticks and grains are separated from husk and dried to optimum moisture level (10-12%) YIELD Yield of sole crop ranges from 2 to 4 t/ha


BENGALGRAM (Gram, Chickpea) Cicer arietinum TWO TYPES Kabuli types: Large seeds (>26g/100g seeds) more or less rounded, pale cream colour, constitutes 15% production Desi types IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Most important pulse crop of India, constitutes 37% area and 50% production of pulses & nearly 75% in acreage and production Predominantly consumed as dhal or for preparing variety of snack foods, sweets and condiments Fresh gram serves as vegetable and eaten raw Bhusa used as cattle feed Husk and split beans are useful as livestock feed Contains 17 to 21% protein, 4.5% fat, 61.0% carbohydrate An acidic liquid from glandular hairs of the plant are collected at night, which contain 94% maleic acid and 6% oxalic acid has medicinal value and used in preparation of vinegar : Smaller seeds (17 to 26g/100 seeds) irregular shapes and various colors, constitutes 85% production

ORIGIN: South west Asia, probably Afghanistan and/or Persia DISTRIBUTION ? ? India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Ethiopia, Turkey States in India are Bihar, Haryana, MP, Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan, UP

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Grown on wide range of soils from medium to heavy black soils, mixed red and black soils or in alluvial soils but requires well drained loam or sandy loam Generally grown in areas which receive annual rainfall is 800mm Grown from sea level to 1800 m The pH range is between 5.5 to 8.6 ,Optimum pH range is 5.7 to 7.2 Does not withstand water logging, saline alkaline conditions Long day plant and optimum temperature is 24 ?C to 32 ?C Rainfall requirement is 60 to 90cm/annum

FIELD PREPARATION ? ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels To tide over surface soil crusting apply lime @ 2t/ha along with 12.5t/ha FYM or composted coir pith to get additional yield of 15 – 20%

SEASON AND VARIETIES: Mid October to early November is the optimum time of sowing in India Desi varieties Kabuli varieties : Radhey, G-24, BR-78, RS-11, Ujjain-24, Chaffa, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4 : HC-3, K-5, C-104, L-550, L-144

SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? Chemical seed treatment with carbendazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertiliser with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing


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Instead of chemical treat with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10g/kg followed by biofertilizer Seed rate Kabuli type 80 to 100kg/ha and desi type is 60 to 75 kg/ha Seeds soaked in 1% KH2PO 4 for 4 hours and then shade dried before sowing

FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? Apply fertilizers basally before sowing Rainfed: Irrigated: 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha 25.0 kg N + 50 kg P 2O 5 / ha

SOWING ? ? ? Spacing Kabuli type 45x10 cm and Desi type 30x10 cm Depth of sowing suggested is 10cm Pora method is better than broadcast and furrow covering should be followed with plank

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? Grown mostly as rainfed crop Flowering and pod filling stages are critical periods of irrigation Avoid water stagnation especially at all stages

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? Spray fluchloralin 1.5l/ha or pendimethalin 2.0 l/ha as pre -emergence 3DAS followed by one hand weeding 30DAS If herbicides are not applied give two hand weeding on 15th and 30 th DAS

CROPPING SYSTEMS ? ? ? In Tamil Nadu intercropping after paired row planting one or two rows of coriander give higher net return Intercropped with cotton, wheat barley and sunflower is common Rotations are Paddy-chickpea, Maize-chickpea, Groundnut-chickpea, chickpea, sesame -chickpea and black gram-chickpea green gram-

HARVESTING ? ? Harvesting the plants when all the pods are matured and stack and thresh the pods and extract seeds Present average yield is 0.7 t/ha. A good crop of desi variety can yield 1.5 to 2.0t/ha while Kabuli varieties can yield 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha. TN varieties yield 1.0 t/ha


GREEN GRAM (Vigna radiata) (Moong, Mung, Golden gram) IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Relished for easy digestibility as dhal or split seeds and green pods used as vegetables Haulms used as fodder Husk and split beans are useful as livestock feed It makes a good cover crop and soil binder Excellent green manure easily decomposed when incorporated (Biomass has 1.5% N) Contains 24% protein, 1.15% fat, 62.6% carbohydrate Seeds are boiled and used in soups, made into porridge with rice or wheat Sprouted seeds consumed as salad which are rich in vitamins Flour is used in cakes and deserts Starch is used in making noodles The low content of oligosaccharides result in low flatulence Being short duration fit well in many intensive crop rotations

ORIGIN India and Central Asia DISTRIBUTION ? ? India (45% world production), Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indo-China, Indonesia, China States in India are AP, Orissa, MP, Maharastra, Bihar and Gujarat

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? ? ? ? Ideal soils are well drained loam or sandy loam and saline alkali soils are not suitable Annual rainfall is 60-75cm Grown from sea level to 2000 m Can be grown in temperature 20 ?C to 40 ?C and optimum temperature is 28 ?C to 30 ?C Short day plant Optimum pH range is 6.5 to 7.5

FIELD PREPARATION ? ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels To tide over surface soil crusting apply lime @ 2t/ha along with 12.5t/ha FYM or composted coir pith to get additional yield of 15 to 20%

SEASON AND VARIETIES Grown as Kharif and summer crop in north India but is South and South west it is also grown as rabi crop In Tamil Nadu Season Kharif (Adipattam) Rabi (Purattasipattam) Rice fallows Summer Month June – July Sept - October January - February February - March Varieties Co4, Co5, KM2, T9, VBN1, Paiyur 1 K1, Co5, KM2, VBN1, Paiyur 1 ADT2, ADT3 Co4, KM2, Paiyur 1


Other important varieties in India: Type 44, Pusa Baisakti, Jawahar-45, K-851, Sheela, PS-16, Pant Mung-1, Mohini (S8) SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? ? Seed rate 20kg/ha for pure crop, 10kg/ha for mixed crop, Rice fallows 25kg/ha and for bund sowing 50g/100m length Chemical seed treatment with carbandazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertiliser with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing Instead of chemical treat with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10g/kg followed by biofertilizer


FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? ? 1 ton of green gram removes43 kg N, 3-4kg P and 10-12kg K Apply fertilizers basally before sowing as below Rainfed Irrigated 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha 25.0 kg N + 50 kg P 2O 5 / ha

SOWING ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Dibble the seeds adopting spacing of 30x10cm Rice fallows broadcast in the standing crop 5-10 days before the harvest uniformly at optimum moisture condition (seeds should get embedded in the waxy mire) On wetland bunds dibble at 30 cm spacing Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by life irrigation on the third day Irrigate at interval of 10-15days depending on soil moisture conditions For wetland bunds pot water daily for a week after sowing Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods of irrigation Avoid water stagnation at all stages


FOLIAR SPRAY OF DAP AND NAA (Rice fallows) ? ? Spray 2% DAP at the time of first appearance of flower and 15 days later Spray 40ppm NAA at the time of first appearance of flower and 15 days later

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? Spray fluchloralin 1.5l/ha or pendimethalin 2.0 l/ha as pre -emergence 3DAS followed by one hand weeding 30DAS If herbicides are not applied give two hand weeding on 15th and 30 th DAS

CROPPING SYSTEMS ? ? Intercropping is common practice where one or two rows of black gram with maize, pearl millet, sorghum, pigeon pea, cotton and sugarcane Rotated with wheat, potato

HARVESTING: Harvesting the plants when 80% of the pods are mature and stack the plants for few days before sowing Yield : Rainfed :700 to 900 kg/ha, irrigated: 1500 kg/ha and rice fallows: 500 kg/ha


BLACKGRAM (Urd) Vigna mungo IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Consumed as dhal or split seeds, husked and unhusked Chief constituent of 'papad' Haulms used as fodder Husk and split beans are useful as livestock feed Possesses deep root system binds soil particles and prevent erosion Also used as green manure crop Contains 25% protein, 1.83% fat, 61.0% carbohydrate Peculiarity is when ground with water develop muscilagenous character giving additional body to the mass Husked dal is ground into a fine paste and allowed to ferment with rice flour to make 'dosa' and 'Idli' Being short duration fit well in many intensive crop rotations

ORIGIN: India DISTRIBUTION ? ? India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka States in India are MP, Maharastra, AP, TN, UP, Orissa

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? ? Ideal soils are well drained loam or sandy loam Generally grown in areas which receive annual rainfall is 800mm Grown from sea level to 1800 m Optimum pH range is 5.5 to 7.5

FIELD PREPARATION ? ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels To tide over surface soil crusting apply lime @ 2t/ha along with 12.5t/ha FYM or composted coir pith to get additional yield of 15 to 20%

SEASON AND VARIETIES Grown as Kharif and summer crop in north India but is South and South west it is also grown as rabi crop In Tamil Nadu Season Kharif (Adipattam) Rabi (Purattasipattam) Rice fallows Summer Month June – July Sept - Octo January February February - March Varieties Co4, Co5, KM2, T9, VBN1, VBN2 K1, Co5, KM2, VBN1, VBN2 ADT2, ADT3, ADT4, ADT5, TMV1, Co4, Co5, KM2, T9, TMV1, ADT5

Other important varieties in India: Type-9, Type-27, Type-56, Pusa-1, Mosh-48, Pant-430, Gwalior-2, Khargone-3, Ujjain-4, Naveen, Krishna, Sarla, UG218 SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? Seed rate 20kg/ha for pure crop, 10kg/ha for mixed crop, Rice fallows 25kg/ha and for bund sowing 50g/100m length



Chemical seed treatment with carbandazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertiliser with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing Instead of chemical treat with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10g/kg followed by biofertilizer For Pre-monsoon sowing seeds treated with paste made of ash (500g/kg of seeds) plus 3% gum followed by 5 hrs drying is recommended

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FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? Apply fertilizers basally before sowing Rainfed Irrigated 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha 25.0 kg N + 50 kg P 2O 5 / ha

SOWING ? ? ? Dibble the seeds adopting spacing of 30x10cm Rice fallows broadcast in the standing crop 5 to 10 days before the harvest uniformly at optimum moisture condition (seeds should get embedded in the waxy mire) Wetland bunds dibble at 30 cm spacing

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? ? ? ? Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by life irrigation on the third day Irrigate at interval of 10 to15days depending on soil moisture conditions For wetland bunds pot water daily for a week after sowing Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods of irrigation Avoid water stagnation at all stages Apply KCl at 0.5% as foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is moisture stress

FOLIAR SPRAY OF DAP AND NAA (Rice fallows) ? ? Spray 2% DAP at the time of first appearance of flower and 15 days later Spray 40ppm NAA at the time of first appearance of flower and 15 days later

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? Spray fluchloralin 1.5l/ha or pendimethalin 2.0 l/ha as pre -emergence 3DAS followed by one hand weeding 30DAS If herbicides are not applied give two hand weedings on 15 th and 30 th DAS

CROPPING SYSTEMS ? ? Intercropping is common practice where one or two rows of mung bean is intercropped with maize, pearl millet, sorghum, pigeon pea, cotton and sugarcane Rotations are Maize-wheat-urd, Maize-potato-urd, Paddy-wheat-urd

HARVESTING ? ? Harvesting the plants when 80% of the pods are mature and stack the plants for few days before sowing Yield: Rainfed :600 to 700 kg/ha, Irrigated 1000 to 1300 kg/ha and Rice fallows: 500 kg/ha


HORSEGRAM (kulthi) Macrotyloma uniflorum IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Predominantly a South Indian crop and termed as poor man's legume here Serves the farmer excellently under subsistence farming conditions Suited to marginally poor soils and those deficient in Nitrogen Richer in protein source and utilized for human consumption Cooked seeds possess an earthy fiavour and the soups are nutritious Roasted grains are salted and consumed as confectionary items Greater use as animal feed particularly horse and cattle, boiled, salted and fed Freshly cut plants are excellent fodder source in South India Contains 22% protein, 1.0% fat, 62.0% carbohydrate

ORIGIN: India DISTRIBUTION ? ? ? South East Asian crop predominantly grown in South India States in India are Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu Less frequently grown in central states and in the hilly slopes of HP and UP

SOILAND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? Has excellent adaptability to drought and harsher environments prevailing in semi-arids Grown scanty rainfall of less than 750mm Grown on wide range of soils such as sandy, loamy or even deep vertisols and first crop on marginal lateritic soils

FIELD PREPARATION ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth and in general kept to minimum to save investment

SEASON AND VARIETIES ? ? ? ? October - November Tamil Nadu: Co-1, Paiyur-1, Paiyur-2 Other states: Hebbal Hurali-2, HPK-2, VZM-2PGH-9, BGM-1 Chemical seed treatment with carbendazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertilizer with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing Seed rate 20-25 kg/ha and if grown primarily for fodder use 40 kg/ha



FERTILISER APPLICATION ? Apply 12.5 t/ha of compost or FYM and 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha fertilizers basally before sowing

SOWING ? Spacing 30x10 cm Dibble the seeds at 30 cm row spacing and thin it to 10 cm in the row

WEED MANAGEMENT ? One hand weeding and hoeing between 20 to 25 DAS


HARVESTING ? Matured pods suitable for harvest are slightly brittle and straw coloured. Plants are uprooted at harvest, stacked for few days to dry, later threshed by beating to separate the grains by winnowing Yield range from 0.5 to 0.8 t/ha. Green fodder yield is 10t/ha



COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata) (Lobia, Black eyed pea, China pea) IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Grains used for human consumption and green pods used as vegetables Being rich in protein and other nutrients known as vegetable meat It makes a good cover crop and prevents soil erosion The leaves and haulms are rich sources of fodder and hay is more digestible than alfalfa Excellent green manure Contains 23.4% protein, 1.8% fat, 60.3% carbohydrate. Also rich in Ca and Fe Alternate pulse crop for dryland farming

ORIGIN: Africa (Nigeria) DISTRIBUTION ? ? ? Mainly grown in Africa (90%) and Nigeria is the world's largest producer Cultivated through out Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, Latin America, Australia and the USA Mainly grown in central and peninsular India and in Northern India it is grown in UP, Punjab, Delhi and Haryana

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? ? Ideal soils are well drained loam or sandy loam and saline alkali soils are not suitable Thrives best between temperature of 27 ?C to 35 ?C Optimum pH range is 6.0 to 7.5 Withstand drought to certain extent

FIELD PREPARATION ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels

SEASON AND VARIETIES Grown in Kharif, Rabi and summer crop In Tamil Nadu Season Kharif (Adipattam) Rabi (Purattasipattam) Summer Month June – August Sept November February March Varieties Co2, Co3, Co4, Co6, KM1, Paiyur 1 Co2, Co3, Co4, Co6, KM1,VBN1&2, Paiyur 1 Co2, Co4, VBN2

Other important varieties in India: C-152, Pusa Sawani, Gujarat Cowpea1 and 2, PTB1(Kanakamani), PTB2(Krishnamani), Highly valued vegetable cowpea is 'Pusa Baisaki' SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? Seed rate 20kg/ha for pure crop, 10kg/ha for mixed crop, Fodder and green manure crop 40kg/ha



Chemical seed treatment with carbendazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertilizer with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing Instead of chemical treat with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10g/kg followed by biofertilizer


FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? ? Apply fertilizers basally before sowing as below Rainfed Irrigated 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha 25.0 kg N + 50 kg P 2O 5 / ha

Application of 20kg K2O/ha is beneficial for lateritic soils in increasing the yield

SOWING ? Dibble the seeds adopting spacing of 30x15cm or 45x15cm depending on variety

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? ? Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by life irrigation on the third day Irrigate at interval of 10 to15days depending on soil moisture conditions For wetland bunds pot water daily for a week after sowing Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods of irrigation

FOLIAR SPRAY OF DAP AND NAA (Rice fallows) ? ? Spray 2% DAP at the time of first appearance of flower and 15 days later Spray 40ppm NAA (Planofix) at the time of first appearance of flower and 15 days later

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? Spray fluchloralin 1.5l/ha or pendimethalin 2.0 l/ha as pre-emergence 3 DAS followed by one hand weeding 30 DAS If herbicides are not applied give two hand weeding on 15th and 30 th DAS

CROPPING SYSTEMS ? ? Usually mixed with maize, sorghum, millets, cassava Maize-wheat-cowpea, Paddy-wheat-cowpea, Cowpea-wheat-cheena, Jowar+cowpeaberseem-maize+cowpea

HARVESTING ? ? Harvesting the plants when 80% of the pods are mature and thresh after drying Yield :1000 to1500 kg/ha and if raised for fodder yields 25 to 35t/ha green fodder


GARDEN LAB LAB (Avarai) Lab lab purpureus var. typicus IMPORTANCE ? ? ? Mostly the green pods used as vegetables Grains are also used for human consumption The leaves and haulms are also used as fodder

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? Ideal soils are well drained loam or sandy loam and saline alkali soils are not suitable Thrives best between temperature of 27 ?C to 35 ?C Optimum pH range is 6.0 to 7.5

FIELD PREPARATION ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels for bushy types and pits of one cubic foot for Pandal types

SEASON AND VARIETIES Grown in Kharif, Rabi and summer crop Season Kharif (Adipattam) Rabi (Purattasipattam) Summer Month June – August Sept - November February - March Varieties CO3, CO4, CO5, CO6, CO8, CO9, CO10, CO11, CO12, CO13 -do- + CO7 -do-

SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? ? ? Seed rate :CO3, CO4, CO5, CO7, CO6, CO8 : 4kg/ha Seed rate CO9, CO11, CO12 : 20kg/ha and for Co10 and Co13: 25kg/ha for pure crop, 50% for mixed crop Chemical seed treatment with carbendazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertilizer with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing

FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? ? Apply fertilizers basally before sowing as below Rainfed Irrigated 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha 25.0 kg N + 50 kg P 2O 5 / ha

For pandal varieties, 115 g each in Ammonium sulphate and superphosphate may be applied

SOWING ? ? ? ? Dibble the seeds adopting the fo llowing spacing CO3, CO4, CO5 : 90x90 cm (Climber) CO6, CO7, CO8, CO9, CO10, CO11 and CO12 : 45x15 cm CO13 : 45x30 cm

WATER MANAGEMENT ? Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by life irrigation on the third day


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Irrigate at interval of 15 to 20 days depending on soil moisture conditions Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods of irrigation

WEED MANAGEMENT ? Give two hand weeding first between 20 to 25 DAS and second at 45 DAS

PRUNING TECHNIQUE ? ? ? ? ? ? Spacing of 10 feet between lines and four feet between plants is adopted Pits are dug (one cubic foot) and two to three seeds are sown in the middle of the pit One healthy seedling allow to grow and rest removed The vine is propped with a stick When the vine reaches the pandal the terminal bud is nipped Allow the branches to trail over the pandal. Each branch may be pruned at three feet length so that pandal is cover with vines. Branches arising on the main vine below the pandal are removed. When flowering starts, prune the tip of the branches bearing the inflorescence having three nodes from the productive axils. Continue the procedure through out the reproductive phase

HARVESTING ? ? ? ? Pick the pods when they are completely dry. Thresh the pods and clean the beans Pick the tender pods once in a week for vegetable use Yield of grain 5.0 to 7.5 t/ha and green pod yield 10 to15 t/ha


FIELD LAB LAB Lab lab purpureus var. lignosus (Mochai) IMPORTANCE ? ? Grains are also used for human consumption and found to possess all the aminoacids required for disease resistance The leaves and haulms are also used as fodder

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? Ideal soils are well drained loam or sandy loam and saline alkali soils are not suitable

FIELD PREPARATION ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth

SEASON AND VARIETIES Grown in Kharif, Rabi and summer season Season Kharif (Adipattam) Rabi (Purattasipattam) Summer Month June – August Sept - November February - March CO1 and CO2 CO2 CO2 - All through the year Varieties

SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? ? ? Seed rate CO1 : 20 kg/ha for mixed crop 10 kg/ha Seed rate CO2 : 25 kg/ha for mixed crop 12.5 kg/ha Chemical seed treatment with carbendazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertilizer with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing

FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? Apply fertilizers basally before sowing as below Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P 2O 5 / ha 25.0 kg N + 50 kg P 2O 5 / ha Irrigated :

SOWING ? ? ? Dibble the seeds adopting the following spacing Co1 : 90x30 cm and mixed crop 200 x30 cm Co2 : 45x15 cm and mixed crop 200 x15 cm

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by life irrigation on the third day Irrigate at interval of 15 to 20 days depending on soil moisture conditions Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods of irrigation

WEED MANAGEMENT ? Give two hand weeding first between 20 to25 DAS and second if required at 40 DAS


HARVESTING ? ? Dry pods may be collected for grain purpose Green mature pods may be collected and extracted for vegetable purpose


SOYBEAN (Bhat, Ramkulti) Glycine max IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Soybean serves as an important fat and protein source for large population residing in Asia and American continents China and USA together contributes 60% of world production Contains 20% o il and 40% high quality protein Large number of Indian and Western dishes are prepared using soybean Soybean oil is used for making vanaspathi and several other industrial products Used for making high protein food for children Widely used in the industrial production of antibiotics Builds up soil fertility by N fixation (as high as 160 kg/ha Average 100kg/ha) Can be used as fodder, forage can be made into hay and silage Cake are excellent nutritive foods for livestock and poultry Soybean is the richest, cheapest and easiest source of best quality protein and fat and having a vast multiplicity of uses as food and industrial products and hence called as wonder crop.

ORIGIN: Eastern Asia or China DISTRIBUTION ? ? Grown in USA, China, Brazil, Mexico and USSR In India restricted to MP, UP, Maharastra, Gujarat and also grown in HP, Punjab

SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENT ? ? ? ? ? Well drained fertile loam soils with pH 6.0 to7.5 are most suitable Saline and sodic soils inhibit germination while acidic soils require lime application Water logging is injurious Optimum temperature is 26.5 to 30 ?C and grown in wide range 5 ?C to 40 ?C Grows well in warm and moist climate

FIELD PREPARATION ? Prepare the land to get fine tilth

SEASON AND VARIETIES ? ? ? North India soybean can be planted from third week of June to first fortnight of July Grown in Kharif, Rabi and summer crop in Tamil Nadu Rice fallows sow from middle of January to middle of March

Season Kharif (Adipattam) Rabi (Purattasipattam) Summer (Masipattam) Rice fallows

Month June – August Sept - November February - March Jan - March Co1, Co2


Co1(Irrigated), Co2 ADT1 (Rice fallows), Co1, Co2 UGM21, UGM37, ADT1

SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT ? Seed rate Co1 : 80 kg/ha


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Seed rate Co2 : 60 to 70 kg/ha Chemical seed treatment with carbendazim or thiram @ 2g/kg of seed then after interval of 24 hours treat with 3 packets (600g) suitable strains of Rhizobium biofertiliser with rice gruel 15 minutes before sowing Coat the seeds with ZnSO4 @ 300mg/kg using 10% maida solution as adhesive (250ml/kg) or gruel and arappu leaf powder (250 g/kg) as carrier to increase the field stand


FERTILISER APPLICATION ? ? ? ? Apply 20 kg N, 80 kg P2O 5 and 40 kg K2O along with 40 kg of S as gypsum (220kg/ha) per hectare as basal dressing Give 40 kg P 2O 5 as foliar spray (2% DAP) on 40 DAS Salicylic acid at 100 ppm (50g/500 t/ha) as foliar spray on 30th and 45 th day to increase the yield For rainfed 20:40:20 NPK kg/ha as basal

SOWING ? ? Dibble the seeds adopting spacing of 30x5 cm and for rainfed 30x10 cm Depth of sowing is 2 to 3 cm

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? ? Irrigate immediately after sowing followed by life irrigation on the third day Irrigate at interval of 7 to 10 days during summer and 10 to 15 days in winter days depending on soil moisture conditions Should not suffer due to water stress from flowering to maturity To alleviate moisture stress spray Kaolin 3% or liquid paraffin 1% on the foliage

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? ? Fluchloralin 2.0 lit/ha or pendimethalin 3.3 lit/ha 3 DAS followed by one hand weeding on 30 DAS If herbicide is not applied give two hand weeding first at 20 DAS and second at 35 DAS In case of labour availability restricted for timely weeding use fluchloralin 1kg ai/ha or alachlor 2.0 kg ai/ha

MICRO NUTRIENT APPLICATION ? ? For Zn deficient soils apply 25 kg ZnSO 4 along with 12.5 t FYM basally For Mn deficient soils apply 25 kg MnSO 4 along with 12.5 t FYM basally and if basal application is not given spray 1% MnSO 4 on 20 to 30 DAS and 40 DAS

CROPPING SYSTEM ? ? Recommended for intercropping with sugarcane, maize, soghum cotton Rotated with wheat/potato/gram/tobacco and potato - wheat

HARVESTING ? ? ? ? Yellowing of leave and shedding indicate the maturity Cut the entire plant when most of the pods have turned yellow Dry the pods adequately in sun and thresh with sticks to separate the grain Hand thresh for seeds purpose and dried to 8% moisture, treated with Thiram @ 2g/kg and packed in 300 gauge thick poly lined gunny bag or ordinary gunny bag to maintain germination of 70% for 8 months


MOTH BEAN (Dew gram) Phaseolus aconitifolius IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? Important pulse crop in desert region and drought tolerant Suited to arid and semiarid Grown for fodder, as green manure, as cover crop Improves soil fertility India


India, Thailand, China, Africa and Southern USA In India states are Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat

SEASON: July VARIETIES ? ? ? ? Majority are local Spreading habit and indeterminate Viny and late maturing Prone to shattering and susceptible to yellow mosaic Rajasthan : Gujarat : Fodder type: SOIL AND CLIMATE ? ? ? Sandy loam with neutral pH Saline and alkali soils are not suited Warm weather crop and grown in summer Jadia Baleswar 12, Mevi J 3, RMO 40

FIELD PREPARATION ? ? Needs minimum land preparation Pre-sowing irrigation for proper germination

SEED RATE AND SPACING ? ? ? ? ? Pure crop Mixed crop Fodder 12 to 15kg/ha 4 to 5 kg/ha 20 to 25 kg/ha 40 to 50 cm between rows 10 to 15 cm between plants

Seed treatment may be done as per other pulses Sowing behind the country plough with depth 4 to 5 cm

MANURES AND FERTILISERS ? ? FYM: 8 to10 t/ha, 15 to 20 kg N and 40 to 45 kg/P 2O 5 as basal For saline soils 15 to 20 kg Zn SO4/ha once in 3 years

WEED MANAGEMENT ? ? Fluchloralin @ 1kg ai ha as pre -emergence or Hand weeding twice 20 to 25 and 30 to 35 DAS


CROP ROTATION Rainfed Sorghum – moth bean – barley moth bean – pearl millet – mustard moth bean – gram moth bean - mustard YIELD: 600 to 800 kg/ha Irrigated Moth bean – potato – wheat Moth bean – radish – wheat Moth bean – toria - potato


PEAS Pisum sativum (Garden pea and Field pea) Garden pea : P. sativum var. hortense ? ? ? ? Also known as table pea Harvested in immature condition to be cooked as green vegetables White flowered Seeds are bold and wrinkled with yellowish, whitish or bluish green in colour

Field pea : P. sativum var. arvense ? ? ? ? ? Mature seeds are used as whole or split Grown as forage crop for cattle As green manure crop for soil improvement and cover crop to reduce soil erosion Flowers are coloured Seeds are rounded and little angular with grayish to brown / green / yellow in colour

ORIGIN: ? Mediteranean region of S. Europe and Western Asia

DISTRIBUTION: ? ? China (ranks first), USSR, Ethiopia, USA. Indian states are UP (major area), MP, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana

SOIL AND CLIMATE ? ? ? ? Well-drained soil with pH range of 6.0 to7.5 and optimum 6.5 Highly sensitive to water logging Requires cool growing season with moderate temperature Can be successfully produced in temperate and semi-arid zones

SEASON AND VARIETIES ? ? ? ? ? Rabi season crop. Field pea Garden peas Table varieties Filed pea varieties : Second fort night of October : First fortnight of November : Arkel, Bonnville. Early Badger, Early December : Type 163, PG 3, Aparna, Hans, Swarna Rekha Under North Indian conditions

FIELD PREPARATION Prepare a well pulverized seed bed SEED RATE ANDS SPACING Pea type Field peas Garden peas Varieties All Early maturing and dwarf Late maturing and tall WEED MANAGEMENT Seed rate (kg/ha) 60-80 100-125 75-80 Row spacing 30 cm 20 cm 30 cm



Fluchloralin 0.75 kg ai/ha or hand weeding twice

CROPPING SYSTEMS ? ? Peas mixed with wheat, barley, oats, rape seed and mustard Rotation after Maize, paddy, cotton, jowar, bajra

YIELD Green pods: 10 to 12.5 t/ha Field pea: 2 to 3 t/ha


LENTIL (Lens culinaris) IMPORTANCE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? It is an important rabi pulse. One of the oldest and most nutritious pulse It has the potential to cover the risk of rainfed farming. It is also used as a cover crop to check soil erosion. It is eaten as dal. The split dal are deep orange (or) orange yellow in colour. It contains protein 25.0%, carbohydrate 60.0% and Fat 1.8% It is rich in calcium, iron and niacin. Being a leguminous crop fix atmospheric nitrogen and improve soil fertility. Whole pulse is known as Malka masoor.

ORIGIN: Eastern Mediterranean consists of Asia Minor, Greece and Egypt. DISTRIBUTION ? ? ? India, Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Spain, and Bangladesh. India ranks first in Area and Production followed by Turkey. In India, it is mostly grown in central and eastern parts of India, i.e. M.P, U.P, Bihar and West Bengal.

Classification 1. Small seeded group 2. Bold seeded group sub sp. microspermae (masuri) sub sp macrospermae (malkamasur)

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? It requires cold climate sown in winter season. Can be cultivated up to 3000m above MSL. Not affected by rain at any stage. Can be raised with moisture conserved during monsoon period. It is a very hardy plant Can tolerate frost and severe winter Requires cold temperature during vegetative growth and warm temperature at the time of maturity. Optimum temperature for growth is 18 to 30C. North India-Light loams and alluvial soils, M.P and Maharashtra - Well drained, moderately deep, light black soils, Punjab-undulated lands. The crop can with stand moderate amount of alkalinity. Acid soils are not suitable.

VARIETIES Pusa varieties Pusa1 100-140 days Pusa4 130-140 days Pusa6 130-135 days Punjab varities L912, LL56 150-160 days. UP varieties Type 8 : 120-125 days Type36: 130-140 days


LAND PREPARATION ? ? Soil should be made friable. Proper moisture in soil for proper germination

SEED RATE AND SOWING ? ? ? ? ? ? Normal sown: 30 to 40 kg/ha Late sown: 50 to 60kg/ha Seed treatment with Fungicide and Bacterial culture Time of sowing Second fortnight of October Delayed sowing Heavy yield reduction after 15th November Yield reduction can be minimized by Closer spacing Higher seed rate. METHOD OF SOWING ? ? ? ? Line sowing Broad casing Late sown condition Depth of sowing : : : : 30cm row spacing (behind country plough) just like rice fallow pulses 20cm spacing 2 to 3 cm

WATER MANAGEMENT ? ? ? 1 to 2 irrigation 1 st irrigation : 40 DAS 2 nd irrigation : at flowering (or) pod formation

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ? ? ? N: P: 20 to 25 kg/ha 50 to 60 kg/ha

Whenever cultivated after rice 0.5% ZnSo4

WEED MANAGEMENT ? Fluchloralin 0.75kg ai/ha as pre -planting spray (or) Hand weeding twice at 30 DAS and 60 DAS

HARVESTING ? When the plants dry up, pods mature and moisture reaches 12%.

YIELD: 1.8 to 2.0 t/ha


GREEN MANUURING Why green manuring? ? ? ? ? ? ? Asia in last 20 years changed from a region of food scarcity to food sufficiency by increased fertilizer use with subsidized prices But use of organic manures including green manure, declined substantially Inorganic fertilizers are becoming more expensive Sustainability of soil productivity become a question Hence, alternate sources to supplement inorganic fertilizers are thought Green manuring low cost but effective technology in minimising cost of fertilizers and safeguarding productivity

Green manure crops Crops grown for the purpose of restoring or increasing the organic matter content in the soil are called Green manure crops Green Manuring Use of Green manure crops in cropping system is called 'Green Manuring' where the crop is grown in situ or brought from outside and incorporated when it is purposely grown. Green leaf manuring Consists of gathering green biomass from nearby location and adding to the soil. Objectives of green manuring To add N to the companion or succeeding crop and to add to or sustain organic matter in the soil. Subsidiary objective a. Catch Crops Legumes are inter-sown in standing crop before or after harvest, to utilize nitrates or the left over moisture b. Shade crops Sown in young orchards with the object of shading the soil surface and, preventing the rise of temperature. Otherwise tender roots of fruit plants may be affected by the high soil temperature. In plantation like tea and coffee, Glyricidia is used as shade crop first and incorporated as green manure. c. Cover crops Green manure crops grown with the objective of clothing the surface with a vegetative cover, especially in hill slopes during the rainy season to avoid soil erosion and run off. d. Forage crops Legume are grown for taking cutting of green fodder for cattle in early stages and later as GM. Pillipesara seeds are broadcasted in the standing rice crop (3-5 days before harvest) in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Advantage of green manuring ? ? ? Has positive influence on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Helps to maintain the organic matter status of arable soil. Serves as source of food and energy for the microbes multiplies rapidly not only decompose the GM but also result in release of plant nutrients in available forms for use by the crops. Improves aeration in rice soils by stimulating activities of surface film of algae and bacteria Additional use as source of food, feed and fuel.

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Soil Structure and tilth improvement ? ? ? ? Green manuring builds up soil structure and improves tilth Promotes formation of crumbs in heavy soils leading to aeration and drainage Increases the water holding capacity of light soils. Form a canopy cover over the soil and reduce the soil temperature and from erosive action of rain and water

Fertility improvement of soils ? ? ? ? Absorb nutrients from the lower layer and leave them in surface when ploughed Prevent leaching of nutrients to lower layers. Harbour N fixing bacteria, rhizobia, in root nodules and fix atmospheric N (60 to 100 kg N/ha) Increase the solubility of lime phosphates, trace elements etc., through the activity of the soil microorganisms and by producing organic acids during decomposition.

Amelioration of soil problems ? ? Sesbania aculeata (daincha) applied to sodic soils continuously for four or five seasons improves the permeability and helps to leach salts & fit to grow crops. Argemone mexicana & Tamarindus indica has a buffering effect when applied to sodic soils.

Improvement in crop yield and quality ? ? Increases the yield of crops to 15 to 20 % Vitamin and protein content of rice increased

Pest control ? Pongamia and Neem leaves have insect control effects.

Classification of green manures Green manures Legumes Green manure (eg)Daincha Sunhemp Kolinji Green leaf manure (eg) Gliricidia Cassia Pongamia glabra Green manure (eg) Sunflower Buck wheat Non-legumes Green leaf manure eg) Calotropis Adathoda Thespesia

Characteristics desirable in legume green manure crops ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Multipurpose use Short duration, fast growing, high nutrient accumulation ability Tolerance to shade; food, drought and adverse temperatures. Wide ecological a daptability Efficiency in use of water Early onset of biological nitrogen fixation High N accumulation rates Timely release of nutrients Photoperiod insensitivity High seed production


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High seed viability Ease in incorporation Ability to cross-inoculate or responsive to inoculation Pest and disease resistant High N sink in underground plant parts.

Leguminous green manures Local name Sesbania Dhaincha Sunhemp Wild Indigo Pillipesara Cowpea Cluster bean (Guar) Green gram (Mung bean) Black gram Berseem Madras Indigo Botanical name Sesbania speciosa Sesbania aculeate Crotalariajuncea Tephros purpurea Phaseolus trilobus Vigna unguiculata (Syn. V sinensis) Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Vigna radiata (Syn Phaseolus aureus) Vigna mungo (Syn. Phaseolus mungo) Trifolium alexandrinum Indigofera tinctoria

Common shrubs and trees used as green leaf manures Cassia auriculata Derris indica Ipomoea cornea Jatropha gossypifolia Tephrosia candida Thepesia populnea Azadiracta indica Glyricidia maculata Cassia tora Vitex negundu Leucaena leucocephala Calotropis gigantea Delonix regia Cassia Occidental Hibiscus viscosa

Non-conventional green manures ? ? ? Leguminous or non-leguminous annuals, shrubs and trees providing large biomass and can supply considerable quantity of plant nutrients Initial set back may be seen in crops after the incorporation of organic residues with wide C-N ratio High lignin content which resist easy decomposition and release of higher proportion of organic acids during decomposition adversely affect establishment of young seedlings can be overcome by extra addition of N or use suitable microbial inoculants.

Nutrient content of non-conventional green manure Green manure Trees (leaves or twigs) Azadirachta indica Delonix elata Delonix regia Peltophorumferrugenum Cassia nigricans Weeds Adathoda vesica Parthenium hysteroph orus Eicchornia crassipes T portulacastrum Ipomoea cornea Calotropis gigantea Cassia pistula Total N (%) 2.83 3.51 2.76 2.63 2.73 1.32 2.68 3.01 2.64 2.01 2.06 1.60 C:N Ratio 70:1 27:1 32:1 34:1 60:1 30:1 29:1 32:1 43:1 64:1 120:1 Total P (%) 0.28 0.31 0.46 0.37 0.18 0.38 0.68 0.90 0.43 0.33 0.54 0.24 Total K(%) 0.35 0.13 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.15 1.45 0.15 1.30 0.40 0.31 1.20


Criteria for selection green manure Criteria High biomass production Deep rooting system Fast initial growth More leaf than wood Low CN ratio Nitrogen fixing Good affinity with mycorrhiza Efficient water use Non-host for crop related pests and diseases No rhizomes Easy and abundant seed formation Useful by products(e.g. fodder, wood) Forms of green manuring ? ? ? ? ? Improved fallow, i.e. replacing natural fallow vegetation with green manure Alley cropping quickly growing trees, shrubs (usually legumes) or; grasses are planted in rows and: are regularly cut back Integration of trees into crop land, as is found in several traditional farming systems, Relay fallowing by sowing bush legumes among the food crops Live mulching, in which the rows of food crops are sown into a low but dense cover crop of grasses or legumes, strips of the cover crop are removed by hand or killed by herbicides when the food crops are to be sown, thus reducing soil tillage operations to zero; Shaded green manures (in fruit orchards, coffee plots, multistory kitchen gardens etc); Nitrogen content and accumulation of green manures Local name Sithagathi Dhaincha Manila agathi Sunnhemp Pillipesara Wild Indigo Botanical name Sesbania speciosa Sesbania aculeata Sesbania rostrata Crotalaria juncea Phaseolus trilobus Tephrosia purpurea N (%) 2.29-3.10 2.55-3.21 3.20-3.37 2.80-3.15 2.16-2.77 2.90-3.22 N accumulation 115-160 kg/ha 130-185 170-220 80-130 85-125 70-115 Biomass 20.2 t/ha 26.3 24.9 16.8 17.6 16.8 Effects Mobilisation of nutrients from soil into vegetation; suppression of weeds Pumping up of weathered and/or leached nutrients from soil layers not occupied by roots of main crop Quick soil cover for effective soil protection; suppression of weeds Easy decomposition of organic matter Leading to enhanced availability of nutrients for succeeding crops; easy to handle during cutting and/or incorporation into the soil. Increased nitrogen availability Mobilisation of phosphorus leading to improved availability for crops. Possibility to grow after main cropping season on residual soil moisture or with less rainfall Decrease in pest and disease populations Controllable growth Propagation in fanner's fields Integration of animal husbandry and forestry


Constraints of Green Manuring ? ? ? In intensively cropped areas, farmers do not wish to set apart 6 -8 weeks exclusively for growing a green manure crop with no direct cash benefit . When rice is grown after wheat, farmers find it difficult to do the farm operations in the intense heat of May and June. The most costly item in green manuring is the seed. Inadequate availability of quality seeds of desired species at reduced cost is one of the major problems in the adoption of green manuring practice. Benefits of green manuring are not perceptible to the farmers because it is not directly visible as in the case of fertilizer N. Intercropped green manures compete for growth resources of main crop.

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AGRONOMY OF GREEN MANURE CROPS Sithagathi (Sesbania speciosa) Season Soil Seed rate Seed treatment Spacing Irrigation Harvest Yield Grown all seasons, March – April sowing best Grown in all types of soil conditions 30 – 40 kg/ha for green manure, Seed purpose 15 kg/ha Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha Broadcasted, for seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm Once in 15 – 20 days Incorporate the green mater 45-60 DAS & for seed collect the seeds 130 DAS Green biomass – 15-18t/ha, Seed – 400-600 kg/ha

Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) Season Soil Seed rate Seed treatment Spacing Irrigation Harvest Yield Grown all seasons when sufficient moisture is available, March – April sowing best for seeds production Grown in all soil conditions 50 kg/ha for green manure, Seed purpose 20 kg/ha Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha Broadcasted, for seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm Once in 15 – 20 days Incorporate the green mater within 45-60 DAS & collect seeds from 100 DAS Green biomass – 25 t/ha, Seed – 500-600 kg/ha

Manila agathi Sesbania rostrata ? ? ? ? Aquatic leguminous crop has nodules both on the stem and roots Introduced to India in 1980's from the IRRI, Philippines Tropical legume thrives well under flooded and water logged conditions Naturally propagated by seeds, seedlings and root stem cuttings can also be used as planting material. Grown all seasons February-May sowing biomass yield is more, March – May sowing best for seeds production Black & red soils suitable, Saline alkaline soils not suitable 40 kg/ha for green manure, Seed purpose 7-8 kg/ha Seeds to be scarified with concentrated H2SO 4 (100 ml/kg) by soaking for 10 minutes then wash thoroughly(10-15 times). Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha Broadcasted, for seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm Once in 15 – 20 days For seed purpose it should be done 60 DAS to increase branching and seed yield Incorporate the green mater within 45-50 DAS & Seeds can be collected from 100 DAS (3-4 harvest) Green biomass – 20 t/ha, Seed – 500-600 kg/ha

Season Soil Seed rate Seed treatment

Spacing Irrigation Nipping Harvest Yield


Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) ? ? Quick growing green manure -cum-fibre crop Does not withstand heavy irrigation or continuous water logging Grown in all seasons, March – April sowing best for seeds production Loamy soils are suitable 25-35 kg/ha for green manure, Seed purpose 20 kg/ha Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha Broadcasted or 30x10cm, seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm Once in 30 days Incorporate the green mater within 45-60 DAS & for seed collect the seeds from 150 DAS Green biomass – 13-15 t/ha, Seed – 400 kg/ha

Season Soil Seed rate Seed treatment Spacing Irrigation Harvest Yield

Wild Indigo (Tephrosia purpurea) ? ? ? Slow growing green manure crop not grazed by cattle If continuously raised for two to four seasons in the same field, it becomes self sown in the subsequent years and there is no need of any fresh sowing Hardy and drought resistant and suited for summer fallows Grown all seasons, March – April best for seeds production Grown all soils, sandy soils are suitable 15-20 kg/ha for green manure, Seed purpose 10 kg/ha Soak the seeds in concentrated sulphuric acid (100 ml /kg seed) for 30 minutes and then thoroughly wash the seeds in water for 10-15 times and shade dry Broadcasted, for seed purpose adopt 30 x 10 cm Once in 30 days Incorporate within 60 DAS & for seed collect from 150 DAS Green biomass – 6-7 t/ha, Seed – 400 - 500 kg/ha

Season Soil Seed rate Seed treatment

Spacing Irrigation Harvest Yield

Pillipesara (Phaseolus trilobus) ? ? ? Dual purpose crop yielding good fodder and green manure Herbaceous creeper grows into a short dense cover crop if sown thick Does not produce a bulky yield, it is capable of being cut twice or thrice before being ploughed into the field Grown in all seasons, March – April best for seeds production Rice fallow clay soils are suitable 10-15 kg/ha for green manure, Seed purpose 10 kg/ha Broadcasted, for seed purpose adopt 30 x 10 cm Once in 25-30 days Incorporate the green mater within 60 DAS & for seed collect the seeds from 150 DAS Green biomass – 6-7 t/ha, Seed – 400 - 500 kg/ha

Season Soil Seed rate Spacing Irrigation Harvest Yield


AGRONOMY OF GREEN LEAF MANURE CROPS Glyricidia (Glyricidia maculata Syn. G.sepium) ? ? ? ? Introduced shrub & spread by massive campaign in India during 1950s Under favourable conditions of soil and climate, it takes up a tree habit Quick growing tree and often used for shade and green leaf manure in tea, coffee and cocoa plantations It can be planted on alternate field bunds of wetland, 1 to 2 m apart, or as a thick hedge by close planting in three to four rows at 0.5 m spacing or along field border as tall shrubs giving support to the fence line or along farm roads on both sides for the production of green leaf For green leaf purposes, the shrub could be kept low by pruning or lopping at convenient heights The shrub is pruned two to three times a year and it withstands repeated lopping and the height is restricted to 2 - 3 m Do not affect the growth of cultivated crops with their shade effect. Glyricida can be propagated by planting stem cuttings or seedlings Each plant gives 5 to 10 kg of green leaves annually

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Pungam (Derris indica Syn. Pongamia glabra) ? ? ? ? ? Leguminous, moderate sized ever green tree It grows in coastal forests, on river banks and on tank bunds mostly along streams, wastelands and road sides Trees are established by means of planting two to three months old seedlings, 4 to 5 m apart Lopping may be taken once or twice a year A tree yields approximately 100 to 150 kg of green material per lopping.

Ipomoea cornea ? ? ? ? ? Quick growing, profusely branching and highly drought resistant weed It gives abundant green leafy material in short time It is multiplied by means of mature stem cuttings Two to three lopping can be taken in a year Each plant will give about 5 to 7 kg o f green matter per lopping.

Neem (Azadirachta indica) ? ? ? ? ? Profusely branching, large ever green tree and gives plenty of foliage It comes up in all types of soil The trees are grown along field borders, rivers banks, roads, waste lands and also in garden lands and homestead gardens. Trees are established by planting seedlings at a spacing of 5 to 6 m One or two lopping in a year are taken in favourable seasons, each lopping weighing about 150 to 200 kg of green matter.


Vadanarayan ? ? ? ? Tropical ever-green tree which thrives in all types of soils It is propagated by stem cuttings Two or three lopping of green leaves are taken in a year during favourable seasons Tree possess medicinal value


AGRONOMY OF FORAGE CROPS AND GRASSES The term forages or forage crops denote plants either cultivated or wild that are used as stock feed for domestic animals, which are allowed to graze or fed with cut grasses in stalls. Forage crops include pastures, which is used for grazing animals, straw, haulms, foliage of trees and shrubs. Although forages and fodder crops are synonyms, yet often latter is termed to the cultivated crops like cereals and legumes. The term fodder is generally applied to non traditional forage crops used for livestock feed eg. maize, sorghum, bajra, guar etc are primarily the grain crops, but also raised as soiling crop (Greed fodder, which is cut and fed to cattle). Hay : Dried green fodder Silage : The green fodder is cut and is preserved or ensiled under anaerobic condition and fed to the cattle w ith out loss in nutrient. Green fodder 1. 2. Estimated forage production Actual requirement 513 m.t 1083 mt. Dry forage 400 mt. 676 mt.

Forages account for 4.4 % of total arable land in the country. Cereal fodders/ forages belong to family Poaceae and legumes belong to family Fabaceae. The gap of demand and supply of forages needs to be bridged by maximizing forage production. 1. in space and time (intensification) 2. identifying new avenues of forage production 3. integration of forage crops in existing cropping 4. utilization of marginal, sub marginal degraded and problem land for forage production through pastures, and sylvipasture 5. enrichment of poor quality roughages and by products. 6. conservation of seasonal surplus fodder. Forage crops are divided into 6 groups for ease of understanding 1. Grass (Perennial) fodder : i) Hybrid cumbu Napier grass or Elephant grass ii) Guinea grass iii) Para (water)grass or buffalo grass iv) Kolukattai grass / Blou buffel grass 1. Summer Cereal fodder i) Sorghum ii) Bajra iii) Maize iv) Teosinte 2. Winter cereal fodder : Oats i) Annual summer fodder eg. Cowpea ii) Annual winter fodder eg. Berseem iii) Perennial – summer fodder eg. Desmanthus, Stylosanthus iv) Perennial winter legume eg. Lucerne eg. Subabul (Lucaena) Acacia sp. (Velvel, Karuvel) Agathi etc. Sorghum, Cumbu, Paddy, Maize, Ragi straw Most farm products except straw and hays – eg. sugarcane tops, amaranthus and number of non conventional fodder and feed.

2.Cereal fodder (Annual)


3.Legume fodder


4.Tree leaf fodder 5. 6. Dry fodder Miscellaneous fodder

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Ant nutritional factors or toxic constituents in forages Hydrocynic acid (HCN) poisoning : It causes sudden death with in 1-2 hours. Etiology: It is found in sorghum, cynodon, Johnson grass and Sudan grass. Young leaves contains more than 500 ppm. Critical level: Less than 20 mg HCN / 100 gram of feed material (<200 ppm) ? ? ? Harvest for fodder at heading stage / 50% flowering. Drying or hay making Ruminants are more susceptible than horse and Figs.

Nitrate poisoning: Forage that accumulated more than 1.5% of NO 3 (0n dry matter basis are classified as potentially toxic). Causes: Salivation, teeth grinding, high pulse rate abdominal pain, difficult breathing and finally death of ruminants . Etiology: Found in immature green oats, Hybrid cumbu Napier grass, rye, Para grass etc. Management practices ? ? ? ? ? Irrigation management to prevent long spell of drought Dilution of high NO 3 water and cattle shed washings Avoid 'N' fertilizer application particularly during drought period Delayed cutting – allow over maturity Application of FYM / Compost.

Oxalates: Oxalic acid present in Napier grass and rice straw (contain 1.5 to 1.6%). Young leaves of bajra contains more oxalic acid than matured leaves. Young leaves contain upto 7%.Toxic limit : 3% Symptom ? ? ? Causes negative 'Ca' balance Precipitation of calcium in the blood Impairs P, Mg and Na nutrition.

Management ? ? ? Ensiling or hay making the napier grass Combine with legume fodder Supplemental with chalk or supernated lime water at 1.0 lit / animal may be given along with drinking water.

Mimosine : Atoxic aminoacid found in subabul and mimosa pudica. Critical level : <0.75%. Symptoms: Infertility, goiter, low birth weight and death of new born.


Control : Mixing with other cereal forages / feeding 1% FeSo 4 in the diet / supplemented with Iron. Saponins: Biologically active glycosides of steroid rich in Lucerne, berseem – bloating in ruminants) feeding dry roughage prior to feeding b) spraying oil. Tanins : Sorghum, Subabul, Acacia reduce digestibility of protein. Forage grasses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Napier or Elephant grass Guinea grass Water or Para grass or Buffalo grass Blou Buffel grass (Neelakollukattai) Dennanath grass NAPIER GRASS 1. Cumber Napier: (P. glaucum) It is a tall growing (200-300 cm) erect, stout, deep rooted perennial hybrid grass derived from P. glaucum x P. purpureum). Origin: Native of Rhodessia and South Africa. Distribution: It is widely distributed in tropical and sub tropical regions of Asia, Africa, Southern Europe and America. In India, it is grown in Punjab, UP, Haryana, Gujarat, MP, Bihar, Orissa and W .B. Climate : It grows best under warm tropics. Soil : Loamy soil with good drainage. It can with stand saline condition to some extent. Crude Protein : 10.1% Season : Through out the year under irrigation. Varieties BN 2 (Green fodder yield: 250 t/ha/year) NB21 (Green fodder 250 to 225 t/ha/year) CO 1 (250 to 300 t/ha/year) CO 2 (350 to 385 t/ha/year) CO 3 (380 to 400 t/ha) higher foliage. Low oxalic acid content 2.8 to 2.9% Non lodging, profuse tillering, more leafy. Seeds: Vegetative propagation by two noded stem cutting or by root slips. For sole crop: 40,000 slips or stem cuttings / ha. For inter cropping with one row of Desmanthus : 30,000 slips/ha. Field preparation: Plough the field with Iron plough 2 or 3 times to obtain good tilth. : : : : : Pennisetum glaucum Panicum maximum Brachiaria mutica Cenchrus glaucus Pennisetum pedicerllatum


FYM : Apply and spread 25 t/ha of FYM / compost and incorporate. Forming ridges : Form ridges and furrows using ridge plough (Ridger), 6m long and 50 cm apart. Application of fertilizer: Apply as per soil test recommendation. If it is not done, follow blanket recommendation of 50:50:40 of NPK kg/ha. Apply full dose of NPK before planting by opening furrow 5cm deep on the side of the ridges and cover. Transplanting ? ? ? Irrigate through furrows and plant one rooted slip per hole and at a depth of 3 to 5cm on the side of the ridges Maintain spacing of 50x50 cm with 40,000 slips/ha As a mixed crop, 3 rows of cumber Napier hybrid and one row of Desmanthus can be raised to increase the nutrient value.

Water Management: Give life irrigation on 3 rd day and there after once in 10 days,. Sewage or waste water can also be used for irrigation. After cultivation: Hand weeding and hoeing on 30th day thin and gap fill to maintain plant population. Subsequent weeding as and when required. Earthing up once after 3 cuts and remove dried leaves once a year. Harvest: First harvest on 60 th day after planting and subsequent harvests at interval of 45 days. Top dressing: After each harvest, apply 100 kg N/ha. Note I : Quartering has to be done every year or whenever the clumps become un widely and large. Note II : Wherever necessary to countermand the ill effects of oxalates in this grass, the following steps are suggested. ? ? ? feeding 5 kg of leguminous fodder per day per animal along with these grasses. Provide calcium, bone meal or mineral mixture to the animal or Giving daily half litre of superannuated clear lime water along with the drinking water or sprinkling the water on the seed.

Green fodder yield : 380 t/ha /year. Inter cropping 1. CNH + Desmanthus 3:1 2. CNH + Lucerne + oat 3. CNH + Velvet beans 4. CNH + Cowpea + berseem


GUINEA GRASS ( Panicum maximum) It is a tall growing, vigorous, tufted perennial grass. Origin : Tropical and sub tropical Africa Propagation: By rooted slips and mostly by seeds. Germination of fresh seed is low, but can be increased by storing the seed in dry condition for 6 months. Variety : CO1 Importance 1. High tillering and more no. of leaves 2. Easily digestible and high yielding (250 to 280 t/ha) 3. Can be grown with mixed crop with Desmanthus (Velimasal) 4. Comes up well under coconut garden 5. Not toxic to animals Quality : Crude protein : 10%, Ca : 0.56%, P :0.33% Soil and Climate: All type of soils with good drainage ? ? loamy soil is preferred wide range of climate from tropical to sub tropical and spread even to humid tropics and sub tropics

Season Irrigated : Throughout Rainfed : Monsoon season (June – July to Sept – October) Field preparation: Apply 25 t FYM/ha. Plough once with Iron Plough and twice with country plough, form ridges and furrows at 50 cm apart. Manures and Manuring: FYM / Compost 25 t/ha NPK on STL recommendation. followed, adopt NPK at 50:50:40 kg/ha at the time of planting. If not

Seeds and Sowing: Seeds: 2.5 kg/ha or Rooted slips: 40,000/ha plant the rooted slips to a depth of 3 cm on the side of ridges adopting 50x50 cm spacing. After cultivation: Hoeing and weeding on 30 th day thin and gap fill to maintain spacing. Earthing up once after three cuts. Remove dried tillers once in a year. Irrigation: At the time of planting / sowing and life irrigation on 3 rd day. There after once in 10 days or as required. Harvest: First cut 80 days after planting and subsequent cuts : once in 45 days. Green fodder yield : 250 to 280 t/ha/year. Top dressing: After each harvest, apply 50 kg N/ha.


Cropping system ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Guinea grass + Cowpea Guinea grass + Velvet bean Guinea grass + Lucerne Guinea grass + Berseem Guinea grass + Desmodium Guinea grass + Stylosanthus Guinea grass + Rice bean.

PARA GRASS (water grass) Brachiaria mutica (Buffalo grass) Origin : Tropical Africa and Tropical South America and spread over to tropics and sub tropics. Importance: It is a perennial grass and grows to a height of 2.5 m. height. Grows on moist soils and withstands prolonged flooding or water logging. Crude protein: 6.9%. Season ; Irrigated: Throughout the year Soil : All type of soils Field preparation : Same as in Guinea grass Manures and manuring: FYM or compost 25 t/ha. NPK at 20:40:0 kg / ha. Apply entire dose prior to planting.Top dressing N : Apply 20 kg N / ha after each cutting. Seeds and sowing: Form ridges and furrows at 50 cm apart. Propagated by stem cuttings. Number of rooted slips required for planting one ha: 40, 000/ha. Spacing : 50x50 cm. Plant to a depth of 3 cm on the side of ridges. After cultivation and Irrigation: Harvest: Similar to that of Guinea grass.

First cut 60 days after planting Subsequent cut : Once in 45 days Green fodder yield : 200 to 240 t/ha/year

Cropping system ? ? ? ? ? Para grass + cowpea Para grass + velvet bean Para grass + berseem Para grass + Lucerne Para grass + rice bean.


BLOU BUFFEL GRASS ( Cenchrus glaucus) It is a promising green grass type which perform well in dry lands under raifned condition. Two species, C. ciliaris (white kollukottai) and C. setigerus (Black) are two commonly grown species, but are low yielding. C. glaucus (Neela Kollukattai) is the type which yields better than other two species. Origin : North East Africa and India Importance : Drought resistant, perennial pasture grass, 4-6 cuts a year. Adapted arid and semi arid tropical climate with long dry spell. ? ? ? ? Contains 9.06 % Protein, 0.59 % Ca, Easily digestible As mixed crop with Stylosanthus scabra at 3:1 ratio Best suited for hay of silage making.

Variety : Co 1 Season : Rainfed : monsoon season (June – July) or (Sept – Oct) Soil : Well drained soil with high calcium or calcarious soil. Field preparation: Plough the field twice or thrice to obtain good tilth. Seeds and Sowing : Seed rate : 6 to8 kg / ha Spacing : 50x30 cm Manures and Manuring : FYM 12.5 t/ha and NPK at 25:40:20 kg/ha Entire dose as basal. Top dressing: After each cut, if sufficient moisture is available " N "at 25 kg/ha should be applied. Seeds and Sowing: Adopt a spacing of 50x30 cm. Seeds are t be sown at a shallow depth o (1cm) and cover with soil. Care to be taken for the seeds not to be blown away by wind while sowing. Seeds are mixed with soil and used. After cultivation : One HW on 30 DAS Harvest : First cut on 70 to75 days and subsequent 4 to 6 cuts depending on the growth. Note: Intercropping with Stylasanthus, or Clitoria or Sirato or Desmantus will help to improve fodder quality. Yield: Pure crop yield 40 t/ha/year in 4 to 6 cuts.


CEREAL FORAGE CROPS FODDER SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor) It is a favorite fodder in many parts of the country. To improve the nutritive value, it should be grown mixed with leguminous fodder crops like cowpea, cluster bean, green gram etc. Utilization: Crude protein content 9.2 to 9.8%. Used as green fodder, stover, silage and hay. It is an excellent silage crop. Since it contains HCN, it should be harvested at 50% flowering. Origin: Africa. After wards China and India. Tropical or sub tropical climate Season 1. Irrigated (Jan to Feb and April to May in al the districts) 2. Rainfed (June - July : S.W monsoon) (Sept - Oct : N.E monsoon) Varieties Irrigated : CO 11 (37 t/ha), CO 27 (44 t/ha) Rainfed : K7 (33 t/ha), CO 27 Soil: All soils, but loamy soils with good drainage are best suited.

Field preparation: Plough once with Iron plough and twice with country plough for rainfed crop Field should be prepared is advance taking advantage of early showers. Apply FYM @ 12.5 t/ha to be the crop and incorporated Apply 10 pockets of Azospirillum (2kg/ha) for irrigated crop. Forming ridges and furrows for irrigated crop 1. 2. 3. From ridges and furrows of 6 m long and 30 cm apart Form irrigation channels across the furrows using a ridge If ridges and furrows are not made form beds of size 20m2 depending on the availability of water.

Application of fertilizer For irrigated crop Basal Top dress on 30 DAS Total: N 30: 30: 60: P 40: 40: K kg/ha 20 20

For rainfed crop: 40:20:0 kg/ha. Entire dose as basal Seed rate Irrigated crop : 40 kg /ha Rainfed crop : 75 kg /ha Treat the seeds with 3 pockets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) Spacing : 30 x15 cm for both the crops. Irrigated crop: Sow the seeds to a depth of 3 cm and cover the seeds


Dry Crop: Use seed drills for sowing at 5 cm depth or use country (pre monsoon sowing) plough and sowing behind the country plough. Water management for irrigated crop: Irrigated immediately after sowing, life irrigation on 3 rd day and there after irrigated once in 10 days. Weed management: Along with hand weeding, thin the seedling and use it for gap filling and maintaining the spacing of 15 cm between plants. Ist weeding : 20 DAS IInd weeding : 30-40 DAS if necessary. Harvesting: If it is a single cult, it should be harvested at 60 to 65 days (50% flowering) and if it is a multicut variety, the first cut is at 60 DAS and a second cut 40 days after Ist cut. Yield: First cut : 45 t/ha (green) IInd cut : 25 t/ha (green).


FODDER MAIZE (Zea mays) Origin :Africa Salient Features: Quickly growing, emerging fodder, suited to wide of range of climate, No HCN content. High yield and digestibility obtained when harvested at 50% flowering to dough stage. ? ? Highly palatable and nutritious Suitable for high altitude. Irrigated through out the year. Rainfed : Kharif / NE monsoon season. Field preparation: Like fodder sorghum. Soil: All soils with good drainage. Manures and Manuring: FYM/compost : 25 t/ha N Basal Top dress on 30 DAS Total: 30: 30: 60: P 40: 40: K (kg/ha) 20 20 kg/ha


Form ridges and furrows using ridger, 6m long and 30 cm apart / form beds depending on the availability of water. Varieties/ Hybrid 1.Green fodder yield 2. Crude protein % Seed and Sowing: Spacing : 30 x 15 cm Seed treatment: Treat the seeds with 3 pockets (600 g) Azospirillum inoculant before sowing. Weed management: Hand weeding on 20th day and subsequent weedings if necessary.
rd Water management: Irrigate immediately after sowing and life irrigation on 3 day and thereafter once in 10 days.

African Tall

Ganga –5

42 t/ha 9.8 %

34 t/ha 10.6 %

Maintain seed rate of 40 kg/ha and dibble one seed to spacing of 15 cm between the seeds in the row to a depth of 4 cm

Harvesting: Harvest the crop when the cob is in the milling stage (50% flowering to dough stage). Green fodder yield : 40 to 45 t/ha When mixed with cowpea , fodder quality will be better.


FODDER CUMBU / Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum) Origin : Africa Variety : CO 8 Features ? ? ? ? High yielding, sweet stemmed, high tillering At any stage, cut and fed to animals (free of toxic) Short duration, fall growing, drought resistant Non lodging.

As a rainy season crop, it is grown in well drained light soils of TN, AP and Punjab. It is one of the quick growing crops and it responds to multicut. Hence it has to be cut before flowering stage, so that 2 to 3 harvests can be taken. The fodder is not as paltable as that of sorghum or maize. But recently evolved Co8 is palatable and sweet. CO 8 contains high protein of 12.56%. Seed rate : 10 kg/ha Spacing : 30 X 10 CM Manures and Manuring FYM : 25 t/ha, NPK : 50:40:20 kg/ha. 25:40:20 kg/ha applied as basal prior to sowing. And the remaining 25 kg N as top dressing on 25 th day. Seed and Sowing: Sow the seeds to a depth of 2 to 3 cm and cover / broad cast and cover with country plough. Hand weeding: 20 DAS and subsequent as and when required. Irrigation: At sowing + Life irrigation + Once in 10 to15 days Top dressing N: 25 kg N/ha on 25 to 30 days Harvest: Ist cut 40 to 45 after sowing at b oot leaf stage. Yield: 30 to 35 t/ha/cut. 3 to 5 cuts can be taken in CO 8. It can be intercropped with fodder cowpea to improve the fodder quality.

TEOSINTE (Euchlaena mexicana) This is relative to maize (monocious) and introduced from Central America. It is a tall, succulent annual growing to a height of 1.8 to 3.6m in large clumps with numerous branching tillers. The leaves are 90cm long and 5.0t to 7.5cm broad. It was first introduced to India in 1881. It is un affected by any serious pests or diseases. The seeds are about 8 m.m long, some what angular and vary in colour from dark brown to creamy white. It is also used for hay and silage making. In Punjab, it is recommended for growing during fodder scarcity month of May to June and October to November.


Climate: Being a tropical species can be grown in warm humid regions with annual rainfall of >1000m.m. Soil: It needs rich well-drained loamy soil for best growth. Season: Usually grown in kharif season. Best time of sowing in North India is June 25 th to July15th . It is also grown in rabi season. Sowing: Seed rate 40kg/ha. Either board cast or drill sowing adopting 30cm row spacing. Manures and Manuring: 12.5t/ha or FYM. NPK at 20:40:40 kg/ha Entire NPK at basal before sowing.. After cultivation: One intercultivation. It requires higher water compared to maize 4 to 5 irrigations are grain. Harvest: At 110 to 120 days. Sometimes second cut after 6 to 7 weeks after Ist is also taken. Fodder yield: 40 to 50 t/ha.


LEGUME FORAGES Fodder legumes also referred as masals have immense value in animal nutrition, because of their higher protein content (19-24%), vitamin’s specific minerals like P, Calcium etc. and rich in crude protein content. Legume forages are near equal to concentrates and are lkely to be i substituted for the latter. Importance 1. Short duration in nature 2. Raised as catch crop in between two crops 3. Improve soil fertility by way of ‘N’ fixation 4. Suitable for inter or mixed cropping 5. Dual purpose green manure and fodder value Eg.) Sunhemp, Berseem 6. Increase intake of fodder by improving fodder availability 7. Rich in protein, calcium, ‘P’ and minerals 8. Capable of replacing concentrates in animal rations and save feeding costs. In India, important leguminous forage crops are


Summer growing Eg. Cowpea Stylosanthus hamata ( annual)

Winter growing Eg. 1. Berseem 2. Lentil

Perennial 1. Desmanthus 2. Lucerne 3. S. Scabra 4. S. hamata (perennial)


COWPEA: (Vigna unquiculata) Origin: India Variety: Co5 (only for fodder purpose) Salient features ? ? ? Grown in irrigated / rainfed conditions Withstand shade It has 19% crude protein, 2.13% ca.

Season Irrigated throughout the year Rainfed: September - October Soil: All soil types with gored drainage. Field preparation Plough 2 or 3 times and form ridges and furrows at 6m.long and 30cm apart or beds of 20m2. Manuring FYM or compost: 25t/ha NPK at 25:40:20 kg/ha Band application prio r to sowing is preferred. Seeds and sowing Seed rate: 40kg/ha Spacing: 30 X 10cm Seed treatment: Rhizobium: 3 Pockets Sowing: Sow to a depth of 3cm on the side of the ridges. After cultivation: Hoeing and weeding on 20DAS. Subsequent weeding as and w hen required. Irrigation: Sowing + life irrigation + once in 10 days

Harvest: 50-55 days (50% flowering) Green fodder yield: 20-25 t/ha Note: Mixed or intercropping with sorghum/maize or cumbu will help to improve fodder yield as well as quality.


BERSEEM or EGYPTIAN CLOVER (Trifolium alexandrinum)

Origin: Indigenous to Egypt and introduced to India (1904) In India, it is an important rabi forage crop in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajesthan, Gujarat, UP etc., Importance ? ? ? ? ? ? winter forage crop 20% crude protein / 70% drymatter digestibility Rich in Ca and P Used as green mane for improving physical, chemical and biological properties of soil Decrease bulkdensity and better soil aggregation Very good fodder for milch animals and horses

Climate requirement: Requires dry and cool climate. When the temperature goes around 30 to 33?C, regrowth after cutting is not possible. It cannot with stand drought and frost. It cannot be grown in damp and heavy rainfall areas. Soil: All type of soils except very sandy soils. Well-drained medium loam soils rich in ‘P’ and calcium. It performs well in acid soil. Field preparations: Once with Iron plough and thrice with country plough and marke it to fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows / beds. Varieties 1) Diploid i) Mescari (C.10) : 6.0 to 7.0 t/ha. Adapted in Punjab, Haryana, H.P. ii) Berseem Ludhiana 1: (BL.1). A week earlier than Mescari. 0t/ha 2) Tetraploid Winter Hardy, quick growing. Vey leafy and succulent. However regrowth after cutting is not possible if temperature goes > 27?C. eg.) i) Pusa Giant : from IARI :10-15% more yield than Mescari, winter hardy and frost resistant. Manners Manuring: FYM 15 t/ha and NPK: 25:60:0 kg/ha entire basal.

Seeds and Sowing: Seed rate: 20 to 25 kg/ha. Late/ early sowing: 30 kg/ha to 35 / kg/ha Rhizobium treatment should be given. Time of sowing: Ist fortnight of October. For better growth and yield, diploid and tetraploid varieties should be mixed with 1:1 or 2:1 ratio. Sowing: Broad cast, mixed and covered. For getting higher yield of good quality fodder, mix 1.8kg of mustard seed with full rate of berseem seed. Irrigation: Sowing and life irrigation and then once in 15 to 20 days. Weed control: Pre plant incorporation of Basalin 1.0 lit/ha in 500 lit of water/pre emergence


Harvesting: Ist cut: 60 days old crop. Subsequent cuttings 25 to 35 days interval depending on vegetable growth (After taking two cuttings, allow it for seed production) Yield: 8 to 11 t/ha of green fodder with 18 to 20% of Dry matter.


HEDGE LUCERNE (Desmathus virgatus) Veli masal It is introduced from South America. It is a perennial fodder legume. With stand repeated cuttings. Better suited for growing as mixed crop with Cumbu Napier Hybrids. ? ? Contains 19.2% crude protein. 27% dry matter, No toxic principles.

Season: As an irrigated crop, it can be grown through out the year. Under rainfed condition, it can be grown during June to October. Soils: All types of soils. Field preparations: Plough 2 times to obtain good tilth. Form ridges and furrows at 50cm apart. Manuring: Apply 12.5 t FYM / ha. Rhizobium : 3 pockets/ha as seed treatment NPK: 10:60:30 kg/ha and entire dose as basal. Seeds and Sowing Seed rate: 20Kg/ha. Spacing: 50cm X solid sowing. Sowing: Soak the seeds in hot water for 4 minutes (80?C) and then soak in cold water overnight. Deep sowing will results in lower germination. Plan to a depth of 1.0 to 1.5 cm. Irrigation: Immediately after sowing, life Irrigation and then once in a week. After cultivations: Hoeing and weeding on 30th day. There after HW after each cut. Harvest: First cut at 90 days at 50cm height and, subsequent cut at an interval of 40 days. Green fodder yield: 125 t/ha STYLOSANTHES (Muyal Masal or Stylo) Origin: South America Varieties: Stylosanthes hamata (Perennial) Stylosanthus scabra (Perennial) Stylos are drought resistant pasture legumes coming up well in areas receiving a minimum rainfall of 450 to 840 mm annually. These can be grown in a wide range of soil. ? ? Crude protein content ranges from 15 to 18% Suited for inter crop or mixed crop with blou – buffel or guinea grass

Season: Through out the year (irrigated) June – July / September – October( Rainfed)


Field preparation: Plough 2 to 3 times to obtain good tilth. Manures and Manuring: FYM or compost: 10t/ha. NPK: 20:60:15 kg/ha and the entire dose as basal. Seed rate: 10kg/ha Spacing: 30 X 15 cm. Seed treatment: Soak the seeds in hot water (80?C) for 4 minutes and soak it in cold water over night. Sowing: Sow to a depth of 1cm. Deep sowing should be avoided. After cultivation: Weeding on 25 th day. Irrigation: For Irrigated crop: Immediately after sowing, life irrigation , + 7 to 10 days internal / Rainfed Crop. Harvest: First cut on 75 th day at flowering and s ubsequent cut depending upon the growth. Green fodder Yield: Irrigated: 50t/ha. First year yield will be poor. Second and subsequent years: 30 to 35 t/ha. LUCERNE or ALFALFA: Medicago sativa (Kudirai masal) ? ? ? ? It is a perennial leguminous plant and may supply green fodder for 3 to 4 years from the same field. Being a deep rooted crop, it extracts water from deeper zone. High crude protein (20 to 24%) with 72% digestibility. amount of vitamin A, B and D, and Calcium. 1.5% Ca and 0.2% P. High

Lucerne crop supplies green fodder for a long period (November to June)

Origin: South West Asia. Distribution: USA, Canada, Argentina, India. In India, it is mostly grown is irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, UP, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu. Climate: It thrives best under ward, dry and sunny condition up to 2500 m altitude . It can withstand fairly low temperature. Soil: Febrile loamy soil with good drainage.

Season: Throughout the year for irrigated condition and middle of October is the best time of sowing. Varieties: CO1, IGFRI.112 (for all areas), Anand 2,3 and Anand1 (for hills)


Manures and Manuring: FYM or compost 25t/ha, NPK: 25:120:40 kg/ha. Band placement is preferred prior to planting. Lucerne requires high ‘P’. Seeds and sowing Seed rate :15 to 20 kg/ha. Spacing: 25cm X solid line Rhizobium seed treatment: 3 pockets. Sowing: Sow to a depth of 2cm on the sides of the ridges or above the fertilizer band. After Cultivation: Hand weeding on 20DAS, thin and gap fill. Subsequent weeding if necessary. Irrigation: Harvest: Sowing + life irrigation +once in a week. Ist cut, on 60 days after sowing and subsequent cut: 25 to 30 days interval.

Green fodder yield: 80 to100t/ha (in 12 to 13 cuts) Seed yield: 150 to 200kg/ha.


TREE FODDERS Importance of Tree fodder ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Fodder trees provide nutritious top feed in the form of legumes and pods rich in proteins and minerals to livestocks. Provides variety of products such as fuel, timber fiber, human fund, medicine etc. Provide shade for grazing animals. Source of organic matter to soil and increasing soil N besides improving soil structure. The fodder trees can serve as fence / hedge. Serves as windbreak. Prevent soil erosion and conserve soil moisture. Provide shade for shade loving plants. Increase the yield and improve the quality of grasses. Eg.) 1. Acacia sp (velvel, karuvel etc.) 2. Agathi, sithagathi, subabul (Leucanea leucacaphala)

SUBABUL/SOUNDAL (Leucaena leucocephala) Variety: Co1 Salient features ? ? ? ? Leaves and pods are nutritious Crude protein 26%, Easily digestible (45%) Crude fibre is low Withstand drought/quick growing/fixes atmorpheric ‘N’

Season: Irrigated : June to July, Rainfed: September to October. Soil: Soil with high Ca and P is preferred. furrows at 100cm

Field preparation: Plough the field 2 or 3 times and form ridges and spacing. Manuring: FYM or compost :25t/ha ,NPK at 10:60:30 kg/ha For rainfed crop: ½ the dose of NPK. Seed rate: 10kg/ha Spacing: 100 X 30cm

Seed Treatment: Soak in hot water (80?C) for 5 minutes and then over night in cold water. Irrigation: For better establishment, the soil should be sufficiently moist for 5 to 6 months. In summer, irrigation once in 6 weeks is adequate. Harvest: 1) Irrigated crop: First cut 6 months after sowing. Subsequent cut in 45 to 60 days interval


2) Rainfed crop: First cut 2years after sowing. Subsequent cut 60-80 days Green fodder yield: Irrigated: 75 to100 t/ha Rain fed: 40t/ha Average farmers yield : Actual yield obtained by the farmer

Gap I Research gap Gap II Extension gap Gap III Socio economic constraints

Potential yield

Research yield

Potential farmers yield

Average farmers yield


PASTURE MANAGEMENT Terminologies 1. Agrostology: A science which deals with the study of grasses, their classification, management and utilization. 2. Forage crops: Crops which are primarily grown for live stock feed for making hay or silage or utilized as green fodder or grazed by animals. 3. Fodder crops: Crops which are harvested and used for stall feeding. Mostly these cops are grown for both fodder as well as grain purpose eg) fodder sorghum, fodder maize, fodder cowpea, horsegram etc. 4. Silage: It is the product obtained by packing fresh fodder in a suitable container and allowing it to ferment under anaerobic conditions with out under-going much loss of nutrients. 5. Ensiling: The process of making silage 6. Hay: It can be defined as conversion of green forage in to dry farm without affecting the quality of original material. 7. Ley farming: Annual arable crops are rotated with biennial / perennial pastures, which is used for soil moisture conservation and sorghum – pasture – caster. I year -II & III year – IVth year. 8. Quartering: Removal or thinning of excess tillers from the clump is called quartering. It is generally done from 3 rd year on wards is grasses like cumber Napier grass and CN Hyderabad. 9. Soiling: Feeding harvested fodder directly to cattle. 10. Paddock: Small forced field used for grazing purpose. Pasture Management: Pastures may be 1. Natural pastures 2. Seeded pastures Pastures are the grass lands where domestic animals are allowed to roam about and graze for them selves. Native pastures are highly degraded ones. Their improvement and management involves a set of technical and social interventions. The important technical interventions are 1. Identification and introduction of suitable grass and legume species. Suitable pasture species for drought prone areas. Sl.No. 1. Pasture species Soil type Light soil Medium to heavy soil Vertisols Red and black soil Vertisols – All types Light to Medicaid soil Light to Medium soil Seed rate (kg/ha) 3 to5 4 to5 5 to6 7 to 8 8 to 9 5 to 7 4 to 6 7 to 8 Dry forage yield (t/ha) 3.5 t/ha 2.5 t/ha 4.0 t/ha 2.5 t/ha 3.0 t/ha 3.5 t/ha 2.5 t/ha 2.8 t/ha

Sewan grass (Lasiurus sindicus) 2. Marvel grass (Dicanthium annulatum) 3. Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) 4. Sain grass (Sehima nerrosum) 5. Dinanath grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Perennial legumes Stylo. Stylosanthus hamata S. scabra Siratro: Macroptilium atropurpureus


2. Improved moisture conservation Forming contour furrows (60cm wide and 22cm deep) at a distance of 8 to 10m across the slope of the grassland increased forage production of perennial grass by 130% over non furrowed grass lands. 3. Using suitable establishment techniques a) Re seeding: Due to poor germination of seeds of Sewan and Marvel grass, the sowing of mixture of seeds of Cenchrus species and Sewan grass and of Cenchrus species and Marvel grass was found advantages for large scale development of pasture in arid region of Rajasthan. b) Transplanting: The establishment of Sewan grass and Marvel grass was found more assured by transplanting of rooted slips, or seedlings compared to direct seeding. c) Dry seeding: Cenchrus ciliaris seed sown in dry soil before on set of rain gave 36% higher forage yield over monsoon sowing. d) Pelleting forage seeds for higher seed germinations: Pellets are prepared by mixing grass seeds with cow dung, clay and sand in proportions of 1:1:3:1 using sufficient quantity of water for preparing round pellets of size of about 0.5cm diameter. 4. Fertilization in pasure lands Application of fertilizers to pasture grasses increased the forage yield as well as seed yield. Application of 20 kg Nto Cenchrus pastures resulted in 83% increase in dry forage yield. In well rainfall distributed area, application of NPK at 40:20:0 is recommended. For stylo, application of "P" at 30kg/ha is recommended. The protein content of fertilized pastures was higher than that of unfertilized ones. 5. Regulating the grazing pressure and using an optimum stocking rate: The access of line stock to pastures should be controlled, so that grazing pressure could be managed. Carrying Capacity : The native pasture can carry only 2 sheep/ha. But improved pasture, can carry up to 6 sheep/ha in a continuous grazing system. The quality of pasture can be evaluated in terms of number of lambings and lamb weight at birth. The improved pastures produced more number of lambs (2.78) than natural pastures (1.56), because of better quality of forages. 6. Rotational grazing: It is one in which the pasture land is divided in to number of compartments The sheep are allowed to graze first in one compartment. After completion of grazing in the first compartment, the sheeps are allowed to graze in the second compartment and then in third compartment. This is recommended for the grassland having annual grass species.. But this system requires additional investments. This system has several advantages. 1. There is no wastage compared to continuous grazing. 2. The pastures get enough of re-growth period. 7. Increasing the grazing period through introduction of top feed tree species: A major shortcoming of most of common pastures is lack of production during hot summer lean period. A traditional way to over come this is to use tree leaf fodder during this period. In the pasture lands, lot of trees are seen growing. It these are replaced with top feed species, that would prolong the grazing period and improve carrying capacity of pasture. Top feed trees suited for sylripastoral system: 1. Semi arid regions: a) Acacia senegal


b) Acacia aneura c) Acaeia nilotica d) Leucaena (Subabul) 2. Arid regions: a) Prosophis cineraria b) Zizyphus nummularia c) Acacia totilis d) Acacia senegal 8. Improving the quality of fodder by inclusions of legume pasture: Preservations of fodder: With availability of high fodder yielding varieties of season-bound and perennial fodder crops, there is a glut/abundance of fodder availability during peak-periods of growth (rainy season/monsoon season) and scarcity during other periods. The best way to regulate the supply of palatable and nutritive fodder during the lean period of October and November and May to July is to conserve the surplus fodder in the form of 1) Hay (Hay making) 2) Silage (silage making) I. Hay Making: Hay can be defined as the conversion of green forage in to dry form with out affecting quality of original material.

It is the most common, easy and safe method of preserving the excess green fodder (grasses) for long time.The quality of hay largely depends on the a) species b) the stage of harvesting and c) freedom from moulds and bacteria. Steps for making hay: 1. Good quality hay is prepared by adopting the following procedure. a) quality of hay is mainly depends on the stage of harvest: The fodder crops namely cowpea, velvet bean, guar, moth bean, Jowar, Bajra, Teosinte and oats should be cut at flowing stage for hay making. b) Pasture and cultivated grasses are cut at 50% flowering or slightly earlier to prevent the lignifications of cellulose, losses of protein and palatability. c) Lucerne and Berseem are cut for hay making at 30 to 40 days interval.

2. The fodder crop should not be harvested immediately after irrigation. They should be harvested in the after noon and before applying irrigation. 3. Though the fodder species may be dried as such in the field it self, the best quality hay is made by chaffing in to small pieces by hand driven machine or with a power drivers chaff. Either chaffed or un chaffed material is spread evenly in their layers and is turned two or 3 times daily. In the evening half dried material is raked and collected or heaped in the form of cone so as to prevent exposure of the material to dew fall at night. On the second day, the material is again spread evenly after the dew has disappeared. The material is turned frequently depending on the climatic conditions. During summer, the hay of lucerne, cowpea, berseem etc., may preferably be made in shade so that bleaching action may be reduced to the minimum. 4. The hay made by adopting above steps and possessing about 15% moisture is finally transported to the hay-barn. It should retain green colour, good aroma and flavour.


5. It should be preferably stored at low temperature and humidity so as to prevent the losses owing to oxidations of carbohydrates. For rainy seasons, hay curing sheds are recommended. 6. In order to minimize the space for storage and for effective long term storage, the hay is turned in to bales of suitable sizes with manually operated or power drivenhay-bales. Losses of fodder quality: ? ? ? ? Shattering of leaves (mostly in legumes) Fermentation ; Normal loss is about 6% of dry matter Oxidation leads to loss of carotenes Leaching : Loss of protein, N free extract minerals and vitamins. There by crude protein increases and digestibility decreases.

II. SILAGE MAKING Silage is a product obtained by packing fresh fodder in a suitable container (Silo) and allowing it to ferment under anaerobic conditions with out under going much loss of nutrients. Fermentation under anaerobic condition preserves the nutritive value and enhances the keeping quality of the fodder. The process of conserving the green fodder in this way is termed as ‘Ensiling’. Methods/ Systems of Hay making 1. Hay curing structures: In some countries, hay making is done in hay barns, which are specially designed structures in which hot air is circulated for drying the material quickly. However, in India, the most prevalent systems are as fallows Fence method: In this method, fodders are cut and spread evenly and thinly over the fences of the paddocks or fields or specially erected fences. This method helps to dry the material quickly and turning of the material after every 2 or 3 hours daily can be avoided. Tripod method: In this system, tripods of convenient heights are erected by using local materials. Eg: wood or galvanized iron poles. In between these poles, horizontal supports are erected to increase the carrying capacity. Un chapped fodders are dried in the manner described under the fence method.. Gable s haped structure: The gable shaped structures are made by using galvanized woven-wire fencing material of desired width and angle iron poles. The fencing material is fixed in such a way as to provide a slopping support and good ventilation for quick drying. This system also permits the excessive shedding of leafy material with less handling unlike the ordinary ground method. The structure can be made economical further by using netted ropes of medium diameter and wooden poles. Hay curing shades: Hay curing s hades of convenient size of 18m X 9m X 3m with a slanting rod supported by pillars are constructed with corrugated asbestos. Chain like fencing of 5cm X 5cm mesh and 1 to 1.2m in width is arranged length wise in a 4 or 5 tier system. This type of sheds are good for making hay during the monsoon and summer. The cost is further reduced by thatching the roof and by using wooden poles for support. Ground method: In this method, the chaffed or un chaffed material is thinly and evenly spread over a pucca floor so as to prevent soiling. The material is turned 2 or 3 times daily till it dries completely.






Qualities of good silage a) A good silage should be greenish or yellowish brown, with pleasant odour, possess high acid content (pH ranges from 3.5 to 4.2)


b) Silage having acidic taste and odour, being free from butyric acid, moulds with ammoniacal “N” less than 10% of the total nitrogen. Crops suited for silage making ? ? ? ? Generally, the fodder crops rich in soluble carbohydrates and low to medium in protein conte nt are ideally suited for silage making. High content of soluble carbohydrates provides excellent growth medium for the anaerobic bacteria to form abundant acids which increases the keeping quality of the silage. Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Guinea grass, Para grass and Napier grass are highly suitable for making good quality silage. On the other hand, leguminous fodders, which normally have high moisture and high crude protein and low soluble carbohydrates, are not considered fit for silage making.

Types of silos: 1. Tower silos: They are permanent type and are costly. They are constructed above the ground level in the form of cylindrical towers. The diameter and height vary according to the needs. The loss of dry matter in such silos is 5 to 10% only. 2. Bunker silos: These silos are constructed on the surface of the ground. They should always built on firm soils having good surface and sub surface drainage. 3. Pit or Trench silos: Pit silos are less costly than tower silos and are widely adopted for silage making. Pits of desired sizes are dug according to the availability of green fodder. Pits silos are not suited where there is higher water table areas. Steps for making silage 1. A pit size of 20’ x 20’ x 20’ is sufficient for 50 to 55 t green fodder. 2. The fodder crops should be harvested and chaffed at proper stage of growth. The early harvesting of crops affects the production of different acids. Thus the green fodder should have about 30 to 35 % dry matter. 3. In silo pits, their bottom and sides should be carpeted with dry grass or long straw of grasses or cereal crops etc, so as to make 5 to 6 cm thick carpet all around. This carpeting helps to prevent the direct contact between fresh chaffed material and soil. 4. The fodder to be ensiled should be chaffed in the small pieces (1 to 2 cm) by using the chaff cutter. 5. The silo pits must be filled very quickly (say with in 3 to 4 days) and the materials must be compacted in such a way as to remove as much air as possible through constant pressing either by manual labour or bullocks or using tractor. The exclusion of air causes fermentation under anaerobic condition. 6. The level of chaffed material should be about 1 to 2 metre above the ground level. During the course of fermentation, the material will gradually settle down. 7. Urea at the rate of 3 to 4 kg per tonne of chaffed material is mixed with or sprinkled evenly on different layers if the chaffed material happens to be very low in protein content in the case of cereal fodder. 8. The silo pits after filling and compacting the material carefully, should be given a dom – like shape for drainage of rain water. 9. Then thick layer of straw is put on the chaffed material from all sides and over the straw a thick layer of moist soil (10 to 12 cm) is spread. The surface is covered either by mud plaster or polythene or Alkathene sheets.This avoids contact of atmospheric ‘N’ with ensiled material which prevent the anaerobic fermentation. 10. The silage is ready after 2 to 3 months


11.A silo pit is opened and the material is removed daily by exposing little surface area to prevent sunlight. 12.The feeding of the silage should be regulated in such a way that the silage is used with in a reasonable period. Otherwise long exposure causes drying and deterioration in keeping quality. 13.Silage may be fed in small quantities (4 to 5 kg per cow) to start with and later quantity may be increased to 15 to 20 kg. 14.Under ideal condition, it can be stored easily for 1 year. Advantages 1. It is more suited in those lean seasons when weather is not conducive for hay making 2. Thick stemmed crops like sorghum and maize are better utilized 3. Weeds are used as fodder, consequently the weed seeds are destroyed 4. Highly palatable and nutritious 5. Organic acids produced during ensiling are similar to those organic acid produced in the digestive tract of the animals (ruminants) and used in the same manner. (Lactic acid 3 to 13% and Butyric acid 0.2 to 0.5 %). EFFICIENT CROP ZONE It is the zone / area where the productivity of a crop is higher and also stable due to prevalence of optimum condition for crop growth and yield. Rice Zone : 49% rainfed and 51% irrigated. In India, Punjab, TN and AP are the potential zone for irrigated / low land rice. North eastern part of the country (Assam, WB, Tiripura, Mahalaya, Orissia and Bihar is the potential area for upland / rainfed rice. In Tamil nadu major rice growing zones are: 1. Cauvery delta zone (Trichy and Thajavur) 2. North Eastern Zone (South Arcot and Chengleput district) 3. Western Zone (LBP command area) 4. Souther Zone (Vaigai command and Thambirabarani command areas) Semi dry rice at chenleput and Ramanad district. Wheat zone : Efficient wheat zones are UP, Punjab, Haryana, MP and Bihar. Higher production of wheat from UP, but Punjab recorded the highest average productivity. Now 85% of the wheat is grown under irrigated condition. Sorghum zone: Nearly 94% of sorghum is grown under rainfed condition. In India, potential zone for rainfed sorghum are Maharastra, MP, Karnataka, AP and TN. Irrigated sorghum is raised is le sser extent is southern part of India. In TN, concentration of sorghum is more 1. North Western zone (Salem and Dharmapuri) 2. Western Zone (Coimbatore and Periyar ) 3. Southern zone (Tirunelvelli and Madurai districts). Sorghum yields are higher in Southern zone (zone 5). Some area under sorghum in black soils, are diverted for more remunerative crops such as sunflower in zone 5 and maize in zone 3. (Western zone). Maize zone : In India, 85% of area is under rainfed. Efficient zones are Karnataka, UP, Rajasthan, Bihar and MP. The average productivity is higher in Karnataka. Area under maize is in increasing trend in Western Zone of TN (Coimbatore and Periyar), North Western zone and


Southern Zone. In TN, it is mainly grown as irrigated crop during Dec – Jan and July and August months for higher yield. During Sept – Oct it is grown as rainfed crop. Bajra zone : More than 95% of the area is under rainfed condition. It is cultivated is drought prone low rain fall and shallow soil. The potential area is North Western part of India (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharastra and Part of UP). Rajasthan is the potential area for bajra. In TN, it is largely grown in North Eastern, Western and Southern zones. Finger millet (Ragi): It is an important course cereal in Karnataka. It is extensively grown in Karnataka, TN, AP, Orissia, Bihar and in hilly areas of UP. In TN, it is largely grown as rainfed crop in Dharmapuri District. It is also grown as irrigated crop in SA, Chengleput, Coimbatore and Erode districts. Pulse zone: India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world and accounts 33% of world area and 22% of world production. Nearly 90% pulses are grown under rainfed condition. In India, potential production of pulses is from MP, UP , Maharastra, Rajasthan and Karnataka. In, TN, Cauvery delta zone is the efficient area for the production of rice fallow pulses viz green gram and black gram. The other areas / zone are North Western Zone, Western and Southern zone of TN. Chick pea : MP, Rajasthan and UP. In, India, Western zone. Red gram (Pigeon pea): Karnataka, Maharastra, AP. In TN, Southern zone , Western zone and North Western zone. Green gram: Efficient area are maharastra, AP, UP. In TN, Cauvery Delta zone, Southern zone and western zone. Black gram: In India, Maharastra, AP, TN, Orissia. In TN, Cauvery Delta zone and Southern zone. Horse gram : Karnataka, TN, Maharastra. In India, potential area is North Western zone and Western zone. Forage crops : Efficient areas and Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar and Gujarat. In TN, it is largely cultivated / grown in North Western and Southern Zones. Potential productivity and constraints in crop production Potential Yield : It is the maximum possible economic yield for a crop from a unit land, when all the factors affecting the crop growth and yield are available with out any constraints. (OR) This is the maximum possible yield that could be obtained under controlled condition. Here all the environmental factors are provided to the crop to express the full potential.


Average farmers yield : Actual yield obtained by the farmer

Gap I Research gap

Gap II Extension gap

Gap III Socio economic constraints

Potential yield

Research yield

Potential farmers yield

Average farmers yield

Research Yield : The yield obtained in the research station under correct management and super vision by the scientist. Hence all the technologies are being used by scientists to get maximum yield. Potential farmers yield: The yield obtained by the progressive farmers under the guidance of scientists using new techniques. Gap – I: The latest technologies developed by the scientists are not completely transformed to the extension agency. The extension agency should fill up the gap by advocating the farmers by acquiring themselves with these improved method of cultivation. Gap – II: Here there is no input constraints and only environmental constraints exist. Gap – III: Variation in management of field and crop. Only few farmers get higher yield . Gap can be filled up by improving the socio-economic condition of the farmers. Constraints in crop production

I. Ecological 1. Weather 2. Pollution 3. Desertification

II. Production 1. Variety 2. Weed 3. Pests and Diseases 4. Soil health (Problem soils) 5. Water (poor quality) 6. Farm machinery 7. Post harvest technology

III. Socio-economic constraints 1. Cost and return 2. Credit 3. Risk uncertainty 4. Traditional attitude 5. Knowledge 6. Input availability 7. Institution 8. Market facilities


Yield Gap Model in Rice (Gomez, 1971)

Gap II 1. Experimental station yield 2. Potential farmer’s yield 3. Actual farmers yield




Gap – I : The yield obtained in the research station is due to better management and optimum inputs under favourable environment. Gap – I is caused by environmental differences between exprimental research station and potential farmer’s land. The variety / technology may not be suitable to that environment or it is not economical for that station. Gap – II: This caused by biological / production constraints such as 1. Variety / Improved seed 2. Weeds 3. Pests and Diseases 4. Problem soil 5. Water 6. Soil fertility 7. Cultured practices Socio – economic constraints 1. Cost and return 2. Credit 3. Traditional attitude 4. Knowledge 5. Input availability 6. Institution 7. Risk 8. Market facilities. The main aim should be to fill or bridge the gap I and II. Here the role of extension agency is more important and has to effectively transfer the viable technologies among the farmers


Crops Redgram Bengalgram G.G. B.G. Horsegram Cow Pean Garden lab lab Field lab lab Soybean Moth Pean Lentil Napien Gui Para Blou Cereal forzes Fodder sorghum Fodder maize Fodder Teori Legumes Cowpea Bersean Hegelians Stylosan Lucer Tree fodder Lucerne 118 121 124 127 130 132 139 138 check 140 143 145 147 164 166 168 169 171 173 175 176 177 178 180 182 183 184 186



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