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# Dr. S. K.

Kudari,
Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
B V B College of Engg. & Tech.,
HUBLI

email: skkudari@bvb.edu
CHAPTER-6
Systems with two degree of freedom
Recap
Mathematical modeling of two DOF system
Mathematical derivation of governing equations
Newton's method
Energy method (Lagrange’s method)
Solution to governing equations
Natural frequencies
Modal vectors and modal matrix
Mode shapes

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

Recap

Torsional systems

## Definite and semi-definite systems

A turbo-generator system

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Practice problems (Linear definite systems)

K Steps
K
(i) derive the equations of motion,
m (ii) setup the frequency equation and
x1
obtain the fundamental natural
K frequencies
(iii) obtain the modal vectors and modal
m
K matrix
x2
(iv) draw mode shapes of the system.
K

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Practice problems Governing equations
Newton’s method

K Kx1 Kx1
K
m m1 m1x 1
x1

K K(x2-x1)

m m2 m2x 2
x2 K
Kx2 Kx2
K
. Force equilibrium diagram

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Practice problems Lagrange’s method

## The Lagrange’s equation is :

K
K d  ∂T  ∂T ∂U  x1 
m
  − + = Qi { xi } =  
x1
dt  ∂x i  ∂x i ∂x i x 2 
K
1 1
T = mx1 + mx 22
 2

m 2 2
x2 K
1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2
K
U = Kx1 + Kx1 + K 2 (x 2 − x1 ) + Kx 2 + Kx 2
2

2 2 2 2 2

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Practice problems
x1 x2 For the systems shown in
K K K Figure
m m (i) derive the equations of
motion,
(ii) setup the frequency equation
and obtain the fundamental
K natural frequencies
K
x1
K
x2
K
(iii) obtain the modal vectors
m m and modal matrix
(iv) draw mode shapes of the
system.

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Practice problems (Torsional semi-definite systems)

K
2K For the systems shown in
θ 1 θ 2 figure, obtain natural
frequencies and mode shapes
J1 J2
Gears
For the systems shown
K1 in figure, obtain natural
J3 Generator frequencies and mode
J1 Shaft-1
shapes
K2
Turbine Neglect inertia of gears
J4 J2
Shaft-2
Take K 1 = K 2 = K
J1 =J2 = J and n = 2
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

l1

## Obtain the natural frequencies of the

m1
double pendulum shown in the figure.
l2
For simplicity take m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l

m2

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

## T1 Due to self weight of masses, the pendulum

T2 = m2 g
m1g T2 T1 = m1g + T2
l2 T1 = m1g + m2g = (m1 + m2 )g
T2

m2g oscillations

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
x1 x 2 − x1
sinθ1 = θ1 = sinθ 2 = θ 2 =
l1 l2
θ l
1 x1and x2 are generalized co-ordinates
1
T1
m1x 1 T1sinθ 1=
1θ1 11
T2 Mass 1 Tm x
l2 T2sinθ 2=
θ
T2 T2θ 2
x1 2 m2 x 2 m1x 1 + T1θ1 − T2θ 2 = 0
x2
x1 x 2 − x1
m1x 1 + T1 − T2 =0
Free body diagram l1 l2

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
x1 x 2 − x1
m1x 1 + (m1 + m2 )g − (m2g) =0
l1 l2
m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l

x1 x 2 − x1
mx 1 + (2m)g − (mg) =0
l l

 3mg   mg 
m x1 + 
  x1 −   x 2 = 0 1 Eqn. of motion
 l   l 

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
x1 x 2 − x1
sinθ1 = θ1 = sinθ 2 = θ 2 =
l1 l2
θ l
1
1 T2sinθ 2=
T1 
m1x 1 Mass 2 Tm
2 θ2x2
2
T2
l2
θ m2x 2 + T2θ 2 = 0
T2
2 m2 x 2
x1 x2 x 2 − x1
m2x 2 + T2 =0
l2
Free body diagram

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
x 2 − x1
m2x 2 + T2 =0
l2

 x 2 − x1 
m2 x 2 + m2g
  = 0
 l2 
m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l

 mg   mg 
mx 2 − 
  x1 +  x 2 = 0 2nd Eqn. of motion
 l   l 

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
Governing equations of motions:
 3mg   mg 
m x1 + 
  x1 −   x 2 = 0 1 Eqn. of motion
 l   l 
 mg   mg 
mx 2 −   x1 +   x 2 = 0 2 Eqn. of motion
 l   l 
Solution to governing eqns.:
Assume SHM x1 = A 1sin( ωt + φ )
x 2 = A 2sin(ωt + φ)
The above equations have to satisfy the governing equations
of motions
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
 3mg 2 mg
 l − mω A
 1sin(ω + φ) − A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0
l
mg  mg 2
− A 1sin(ω + φ) −  − mω  A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0
l  l 
In above equations sin(ωt + φ) ≠ 0
The above equations reduces to: (characteristic equation)
 3mg 2 mg
 l − mω A
 1 − A2 = 0
l
mg  mg 
− A1 −  − mω 2  A 2 = 0
l  l 
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)
3mg 2
∣ −m
ω
l  . . . . . .. .
m g
∣−
l
m
g

l
m
g 2
∣ −m
ω
¿ l  =0
¿
}

## The above equation is referred as a characteristic determinant

Solving, we get :

4m2ω2g 2m2 g2
mω −
2
+
4
Frequency equation
l l2

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

## Natural frequencies of the system

g g
ω1 = 0.27 ω2 = 3.73 radians/sec
l l

## Modal vectors and the mode shapes can be

obtained by usual meaner

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems

m1 m2

l1 l2 l3

## Obtain the natural frequencies of the string

system shown in the figure.
For simplicity take m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l3=l

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
x1
m1 θ1 =
m2
l
T
T x1 θ T x1 − x 2
θ x2 θ θ2 =
2
l
1
l l2 3
l3 x2
θ3 =
1

l
Free body diagram

## For small angular oscillations, it can be assumed that

the tension in the string (T) do not change

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
m1
T m2
T x1 θ T
θ 2
x2 θ
1 3
l1 l2 l3

T
m1 T m2
T θ 2 T
T θ
θ 1
T 2
θ 3
mx 1 mx 2

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems mx 1 + Tθ1 + Tθ 2 = 0
m1 T x1 x − x2
T
T θ mx 1 + T +T 1 =0
θ 1
T 2 l l
mx 1  2T  T
m x1 + 
  x1 −   x 2 = 0
 l  l

mx 2 − Tθ 2 + Tθ3 = 0
T
θ m2 x1 − x 2 x2
2 T mx 2 − T +T =0
θ 3
l l
mx 2 T  2T 
m x 2 −   x1 + 
 x 2 = 0
l  l 
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
Equations of motion
 2T  T
m x1 + 
  x1 −   x 2 = 0 1 Eqn. of motion
 l  l
T  2T 
mx 2 −   x1 +   x 2 = 0 2 Eqn. of motion
l  l 
Solution to governing eqns.:
Assume SHM x1 = A 1sin( ωt + φ )
x 2 = A 2sin(ωt + φ)
The above equations have to satisfy the governing equations
of motions
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
 2T 2 T
 l − mω A
 1sin(ω + φ) − A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0
l
T  2T 2
− A 1sin(ω + φ) −  − mω  A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0
l  l 
In above equations sin(ωt + φ) ≠ 0
The above equations reduces to: (characteristic equation)
 2T 2 T
 l − mω  1 l A 2 = 0
A −

T  2T 
− A1 −  − mω 2  A 2 = 0
l  l 
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
2T T
− mω 2

l l
........ =0
T 2T
− − mω2
l l
The above equation is referred as a characteristic determinant
Solving, we get :

4Tmω2 3T 2
mω −
2 4
+ 2 Frequency equation
l l

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems

T 3T
ml ml

## As the system has two natural frequencies, under certain

conditions it may vibrate with first or second frequency,
which are referred as principal modes of vibration

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
Characteristic equations of the system are:

 2T 2 T
 l − mω  A 1 − l A 2 = 0

T  2T 2
− A1 −  − mω  A 2 = 0
l  l 
First principal mode of vibration
The system vibrates with first fundamental natural
frequency, i.e . ω = ω1

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
For vibrations under Mode-I, consider

## A11 -amplitude of first mass (m1) due to frequency ω1

A21 -amplitude of second mass (m2) due to frequency ω1
Characteristic equations of the system changes to:
 2T 2 T
 l − mω1  A 11 − l A 21 = 0

T  2T 2
− A 11 −  l − mω1  A 21 = 0
l 
A 21
Let = μ1 amplitude ratio
A 11
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
 2T 2 

A 21  l 1 

 2T 2 T
 l − mω1  A 11 − l A 21 = 0 μ1 = A =  T

11
 
 l 
 2T T 

A 21  l 
m
Substitute μ1 = = ml  = 1
A 11  T 
ω1  
 l 
A 11  A 11  1
First modal vector { A} 1 = = =
A 21  μ1A 11  1

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
For vibrations under Mode-II, consider

## A12 -amplitude of first mass(m1) due to frequency ω 2

A22 -amplitude of second mass (m2) due to frequency ω 2
Characteristic equations of the system changes to:
 2T 2 T
 l − mω 2  A 12 − l A 22 = 0

T  2T 
− A 12 −  − mω22  A 22 = 0
l  l 
A 22
Let = μ2 amplitude ratio
A 12
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli
Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
 2T 2 

A 22  l 2 

 2T 2 T
 l − mω 2  A 12 − l A 22 = 0 μ1 = A =  T

12
 
 l 
 2T 3T 

A 21  l 
m
μ1 = = ml  = 1
Substitute A 11  T 
ω2  
 l 
A 12  A 12  1 
Second modal vector { A} 2 = = = 
A 22  μ2 A 12  − 1

## Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom
String systems
 A 11 A 12  1 1 
Modal matrix [ A ] = [{ A} 1{ A} 2 ] =  ...  = 
μ A μ A
 1 11 2 12   1 − 1
Mode shapes of the system
m1 m2

l1 l2 l3

1 1
Mode I

1
Mode II -1

Summary

## Analysis of various 2DOF systems such as:

Linear systems

Torsional systems
Definite and semi-definite systems
Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

String systems