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Kudari,

Professor,

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

B V B College of Engg. & Tech.,

HUBLI

email: skkudari@bvb.edu

CHAPTER-6

Systems with two degree of freedom

Recap

Mathematical modeling of two DOF system

Mathematical derivation of governing equations

Newton's method

Energy method (Lagrange’s method)

Solution to governing equations

Natural frequencies

Modal vectors and modal matrix

Mode shapes

Systems with two degree of freedom

Recap

Torsional systems

A turbo-generator system

Systems with two degree of freedom

Practice problems (Linear definite systems)

K Steps

K

(i) derive the equations of motion,

m (ii) setup the frequency equation and

x1

obtain the fundamental natural

K frequencies

(iii) obtain the modal vectors and modal

m

K matrix

x2

(iv) draw mode shapes of the system.

K

Systems with two degree of freedom

Practice problems Governing equations

Newton’s method

K Kx1 Kx1

K

m m1 m1x 1

x1

K K(x2-x1)

m m2 m2x 2

x2 K

Kx2 Kx2

K

. Force equilibrium diagram

Systems with two degree of freedom

Practice problems Lagrange’s method

K

K d ∂T ∂T ∂U x1

m

− + = Qi { xi } =

x1

dt ∂x i ∂x i ∂x i x 2

K

1 1

T = mx1 + mx 22

2

m 2 2

x2 K

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2

K

U = Kx1 + Kx1 + K 2 (x 2 − x1 ) + Kx 2 + Kx 2

2

2 2 2 2 2

Systems with two degree of freedom

Practice problems

x1 x2 For the systems shown in

K K K Figure

m m (i) derive the equations of

motion,

(ii) setup the frequency equation

and obtain the fundamental

K natural frequencies

K

x1

K

x2

K

(iii) obtain the modal vectors

m m and modal matrix

(iv) draw mode shapes of the

system.

Systems with two degree of freedom

Practice problems (Torsional semi-definite systems)

K

2K For the systems shown in

θ 1 θ 2 figure, obtain natural

frequencies and mode shapes

J1 J2

Gears

For the systems shown

K1 in figure, obtain natural

J3 Generator frequencies and mode

J1 Shaft-1

shapes

K2

Turbine Neglect inertia of gears

J4 J2

Shaft-2

Take K 1 = K 2 = K

J1 =J2 = J and n = 2

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

l1

m1

double pendulum shown in the figure.

l2

For simplicity take m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l

m2

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

l1 roads are in tension

T2 = m2 g

m1g T2 T1 = m1g + T2

l2 T1 = m1g + m2g = (m1 + m2 )g

T2

m2g oscillations

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

x1 x 2 − x1

sinθ1 = θ1 = sinθ 2 = θ 2 =

l1 l2

θ l

1 x1and x2 are generalized co-ordinates

1

T1

m1x 1 T1sinθ 1=

1θ1 11

T2 Mass 1 Tm x

l2 T2sinθ 2=

θ

T2 T2θ 2

x1 2 m2 x 2 m1x 1 + T1θ1 − T2θ 2 = 0

x2

x1 x 2 − x1

m1x 1 + T1 − T2 =0

Free body diagram l1 l2

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

x1 x 2 − x1

m1x 1 + (m1 + m2 )g − (m2g) =0

l1 l2

m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l

x1 x 2 − x1

mx 1 + (2m)g − (mg) =0

l l

3mg mg

m x1 +

x1 − x 2 = 0 1 Eqn. of motion

l l

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

x1 x 2 − x1

sinθ1 = θ1 = sinθ 2 = θ 2 =

l1 l2

θ l

1

1 T2sinθ 2=

T1

m1x 1 Mass 2 Tm

2 θ2x2

2

T2

l2

θ m2x 2 + T2θ 2 = 0

T2

2 m2 x 2

x1 x2 x 2 − x1

m2x 2 + T2 =0

l2

Free body diagram

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

x 2 − x1

m2x 2 + T2 =0

l2

x 2 − x1

m2 x 2 + m2g

= 0

l2

m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l

mg mg

mx 2 −

x1 + x 2 = 0 2nd Eqn. of motion

l l

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

Governing equations of motions:

3mg mg

m x1 +

x1 − x 2 = 0 1 Eqn. of motion

l l

mg mg

mx 2 − x1 + x 2 = 0 2 Eqn. of motion

l l

Solution to governing eqns.:

Assume SHM x1 = A 1sin( ωt + φ )

x 2 = A 2sin(ωt + φ)

The above equations have to satisfy the governing equations

of motions

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

3mg 2 mg

l − mω A

1sin(ω + φ) − A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0

l

mg mg 2

− A 1sin(ω + φ) − − mω A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0

l l

In above equations sin(ωt + φ) ≠ 0

The above equations reduces to: (characteristic equation)

3mg 2 mg

l − mω A

1 − A2 = 0

l

mg mg

− A1 − − mω 2 A 2 = 0

l l

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

3mg 2

∣ −m

ω

l . . . . . .. .

m g

∣−

l

m

g

−

l

m

g 2

∣ −m

ω

¿ l =0

¿

}

Solving, we get :

4m2ω2g 2m2 g2

mω −

2

+

4

Frequency equation

l l2

Systems with two degree of freedom

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

g g

ω1 = 0.27 ω2 = 3.73 radians/sec

l l

obtained by usual meaner

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

m1 m2

l1 l2 l3

system shown in the figure.

For simplicity take m1=m2=m and l1=l2=l3=l

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

x1

m1 θ1 =

m2

l

T

T x1 θ T x1 − x 2

θ x2 θ θ2 =

2

l

1

l l2 3

l3 x2

θ3 =

1

l

Free body diagram

the tension in the string (T) do not change

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

m1

T m2

T x1 θ T

θ 2

x2 θ

1 3

l1 l2 l3

T

m1 T m2

T θ 2 T

T θ

θ 1

T 2

θ 3

mx 1 mx 2

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems mx 1 + Tθ1 + Tθ 2 = 0

m1 T x1 x − x2

T

T θ mx 1 + T +T 1 =0

θ 1

T 2 l l

mx 1 2T T

m x1 +

x1 − x 2 = 0

l l

mx 2 − Tθ 2 + Tθ3 = 0

T

θ m2 x1 − x 2 x2

2 T mx 2 − T +T =0

θ 3

l l

mx 2 T 2T

m x 2 − x1 +

x 2 = 0

l l

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

Equations of motion

2T T

m x1 +

x1 − x 2 = 0 1 Eqn. of motion

l l

T 2T

mx 2 − x1 + x 2 = 0 2 Eqn. of motion

l l

Solution to governing eqns.:

Assume SHM x1 = A 1sin( ωt + φ )

x 2 = A 2sin(ωt + φ)

The above equations have to satisfy the governing equations

of motions

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

2T 2 T

l − mω A

1sin(ω + φ) − A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0

l

T 2T 2

− A 1sin(ω + φ) − − mω A 2 sin(ω + φ) = 0

l l

In above equations sin(ωt + φ) ≠ 0

The above equations reduces to: (characteristic equation)

2T 2 T

l − mω 1 l A 2 = 0

A −

T 2T

− A1 − − mω 2 A 2 = 0

l l

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

2T T

− mω 2

−

l l

........ =0

T 2T

− − mω2

l l

The above equation is referred as a characteristic determinant

Solving, we get :

4Tmω2 3T 2

mω −

2 4

+ 2 Frequency equation

l l

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

T 3T

ω1 = ω2 = radians/sec

ml ml

conditions it may vibrate with first or second frequency,

which are referred as principal modes of vibration

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

Characteristic equations of the system are:

2T 2 T

l − mω A 1 − l A 2 = 0

T 2T 2

− A1 − − mω A 2 = 0

l l

First principal mode of vibration

The system vibrates with first fundamental natural

frequency, i.e . ω = ω1

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

For vibrations under Mode-I, consider

A21 -amplitude of second mass (m2) due to frequency ω1

Characteristic equations of the system changes to:

2T 2 T

l − mω1 A 11 − l A 21 = 0

T 2T 2

− A 11 − l − mω1 A 21 = 0

l

A 21

Let = μ1 amplitude ratio

A 11

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

2T 2

−

A 21 l 1

mω

2T 2 T

l − mω1 A 11 − l A 21 = 0 μ1 = A = T

11

l

2T T

−

A 21 l

m

Substitute μ1 = = ml = 1

A 11 T

ω1

l

A 11 A 11 1

First modal vector { A} 1 = = =

A 21 μ1A 11 1

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

For vibrations under Mode-II, consider

A22 -amplitude of second mass (m2) due to frequency ω 2

Characteristic equations of the system changes to:

2T 2 T

l − mω 2 A 12 − l A 22 = 0

T 2T

− A 12 − − mω22 A 22 = 0

l l

A 22

Let = μ2 amplitude ratio

A 12

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor, BVB College of Engg. & Tech., Hubli

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

2T 2

−

A 22 l 2

mω

2T 2 T

l − mω 2 A 12 − l A 22 = 0 μ1 = A = T

12

l

2T 3T

−

A 21 l

m

μ1 = = ml = 1

Substitute A 11 T

ω2

l

A 12 A 12 1

Second modal vector { A} 2 = = =

A 22 μ2 A 12 − 1

Systems with two degree of freedom

String systems

A 11 A 12 1 1

Modal matrix [ A ] = [{ A} 1{ A} 2 ] = ... =

μ A μ A

1 11 2 12 1 − 1

Mode shapes of the system

m1 m2

l1 l2 l3

1 1

Mode I

1

Mode II -1

Summary

Linear systems

Torsional systems

Definite and semi-definite systems

Pendulum systems (double pendulum)

String systems

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