NANYANG

TECHNOLOGICAL

UNIVERSITY

M6102 Advanced Materials Eng i neeri ng

LECTURE NOTES (Modules 1 & 2)

Y2005-06 (I) Sunil C. Joshi mscjoshi@ntu.edu.sg; #6790 5954

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Teaching Plan

Week Lecture Topic
1 0/1 General! Mechanical Fundamentals
(3 hrs) 2 Metaflurgical Fundamentals
2 3 Alloy Steels
(3 hrs) 4 Superalloys & Composites
3 5 Corrosion & Wear F ai lures
(3 hrs) 6 Fatigue, H ig h Tem peratu re & Other
Failures
4 7 Material Serection in Desig n
(3 hrs) 8 Desig n Constraints & Implications
5 9 Case Studies & Revision (M ate rial
(3 hrs) Selection)
10 Case Stud;es & Revision (F al lu re
Analysis) Y2005-06 (I) Sunil C. Joshi mscjoshi@ntu.edu.sg; #6790 5954

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materi a 15 En gineerin g

MECHANICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Strength of materials! Assumptions and realitv

In strength of m ate rials ' approach:

It is always assumed. that the body, which is being analyzed, is continuous, homogeneous, and isotropic. A continuous body is one, which does not contain voids or empty spaces of any kind. A body is homogeneous if it has identical properties at all points. A body is considered to be isotropic with respect to some property when that property does not vary with direction or orientation. Stress in the material is assumed to be proportional to strain. Also it is assumed that the member being analyzed is in equilibrium. The equations of static equilibrium are applied to the forces acting on some part of the body in order to obtain a relationship betv .... een the external forces acting on the member and the internal forces resisting the action of the external loads.

In reality:

Engineering materials such as steel, cast iron, and al uminum rna y appear to meet the above conditions when viewed on a gross scale. However, it is readily apparent when they are viewed through a microscope that they are anything but homogeneous and isotropic. Most engineering metals are made up of more than one phase, with different mechanical properties, such that on a micro scale they are heterogeneous. Further. even a single-phase metal win usually exhibit chemical segregation. and therefore the properties will not be identical from point to point. Metals are made up of an aggregate of crystal grains having different properties in different crystallographic directions. The reason why the equations of strength of materials describe the behavior of rea] metals is that, in general, the crystal grains are so small that, for a specimen of any macroscopic volume, the materials are statistically homogeneous and isotropic. However, when metals are severely deformed in a particular direction, as in rolling or forging, tbe mechanical properties may be anisotropic on a macro scale. Other examples of anisotropic properties are fiber-reinforced composite materials and single crystals. Lack of continuity may be present in porous castings or powder metaHurgy parts and, on an atomic level, at defects such as vacancies and dislocations.

Elastic and plastic bebavior of materials

All solid materials can be deformed when subjected to external load. Up to certain limiting loads a solid will recover its original dimensions when the load is removed. The recovery of the original dimensions of a deformed body when the load is removed is known as elastic behavior. The limiting load beyond which the material no longer behaves elastically is the elastic limit. If the elastic limit is exceeded, the body wiU experience a permanent set or deformation when the load is removed. A body which is permanently deformed is said to have undergone plastic deformation. Once plastic deformation begins, only a small increase in stress usual1y causes a relatively large additional deformation. This process of relatively easy deformation is called

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Suni I C. Joshi

Fundamentals: l

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M6102 Advan-ced Materials Engineering

yielding. and the value of stress where this behavior begins to be important for a given material is called the yield strength.

For most materials, as long as the load does not exceed the elastic limit, the deformation is proportional to the load expressed as Hooke's law (stress is proportional to strain). Elastic deformations in metals are quite small and require very sensitive instruments for their measurement. For most metals there is only a rather narrow range of loads over which Hooke's law strict1y applies, This is, however, primarily of academic importance. Hooke's law remains a quite valid relationship for engineering design.

Large plastic deformations are often harmful and virtually alwa ys constitute failure. For example, collapse of a steel bridge or building during an earthquake could occur due to plastic deformation, However, plastic deformation can be relati vel y small but still cause mal function 0 f a component. For

example, in a rotating shaft, slight permanent bend results in unbalanced rotation, which in tum may cause vibration and perhaps early failure of the bearings supporting the shaft.

(a)

~1

At

I

p Stress: a- A

a-EI:

(b)

{c}

a

E

o

However, it does not necessarily follow that all materials whic h behave elastically will have a linear stressstrain relationship. Rubber is an example of a materia] with a nonlinear stress-strain relationship that stiH satisfies the definition of an elastic material.

Brittle and ductile bebavior of materials

Materials capable of sustaining large amounts of plastic deformation are said to behave in a ductile manner, and those that fracture without very much plastic deformation behave in a brittle manner. Ductile behavior occurs for many metals, such as low-strength stee1s, copper, and lead, and for some plastics. Brittle behavior occurs for g1ass, stone) acrylic plastic, and some metals, such as the high -strength steel used to make a me.

Tension tests are often employed to assess the strength and ductility of materials, The ultimate tensile strength (J u which is the highest stress reached before fracture, is obtained along with the

yi eld strength and the strain at fracture, e f' The latter is a measure of ductility and is usually expressed as a percentage, being ca11ed the percent elongation. Materials having high value of 0' u and s f are said to be tough) and tough materials are generally desirable for use in design.

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Sunil C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 2

Notes

0 a
Q ---"'"
Brittle
\
Ductile
~ \

t5
.
Q
e , Strain D'. "" fracture

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

A completely brittle material would fracture almost at the elastic limit. while a brittle metal, such as white cast iron, shows slight plasticity before fracture. Adeq uate ductili ty is an important consideration, because it allows the material to redistribute localized· stresses. When localized stresses at notches and other accidental stress concentrations do not have to be considered, it is possible to design for static situations on the basis average stresses. However, wi th bri ttle materials. loc alized stresses continue to bui ld up when there is no local yielding. Finally. a crack forms at one or more points of stress CODC entration, and it spreads rapidly over the section.

It is important to note that brittleness is not an absolute property of a meta1. Metal such a s tungsten, which is brittle a t room temperature, is ductile a tan e levated t emperature, A metal. which is brittle in tension. may bed uctile under compression. Furthermore, a metal which is ductile in tension at room temperature can become brittle in the presence of notches, low temperature. high rates of loading, or embrittling agents such as hydrogen.

Nominal stress, point stress and stress concentration

Nominal stress is the average stress (S).

S = P / A = P / wI for axial loading and

S = Mel! = M(w/2)/(tw3/12)=6Mjw2t in elastic bending. However. if yielding occurs, the actual stress distribution becomes nonlinear, and the stress (u) at the edge of the member is DO longer equal to S. For notched members, S is conventionally calculated from the net area remaining after removal of the notch.. (The tenn notch is used to indicate any stress raiser, including holes, grooves. fillets, etc.)

I~

"K',s - ..

. ~

. .

At some region near the discontinuity the stress will be higher than the average stress. Due to the stress raiser effect. S needs to be multiplied by an elastic stress concentration [actor, k, to obtain the peak stress (no yielding) at the notch. In addition to producing a stress concentration, a notch a1so creates a localized condition of biaxial or triaxial stress.

The effect of a stress raiser is much more pronounced in a brittle material than in a ductile material. In a ductile material. plastic deformation occurs when the yield stress is exceeded at the point of maximum stress. Further increase in load produces a local increase in strain at the

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Suni I C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 3.

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M61 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

critically stressed region with little increase in stress. Because of strain hardening, the stress increases in regions adjacent to the stress raiser, until, if the material is sufficiently ductile. the stress distribution becomes essentially uniform. Thus, a ductile metal loaded statically will not develop the fun theoretical stress-concentration factor. However, redistribution of stress will not occur to any extent in a brittle material, and therefore a stress concentration of close to the theoretical value win result. Although stress raisers are not usually dangerous in ductile materials subjected to static loads, appreciable stress-concentration effects will occur in ductile materials under fatigue conditions of alternating stresses. Stress raisers are very important in the fatigue failure 0 f metals.

Introduction to theory of plasticitv

The theory of plasticity deals with the behavior of materials at strains where Hooke's law is no longer valid. A number of aspects of plastic deformation make the mathematical formulation of a theory of plasticity more difficult. For example, plastic deformation is not a reversible process like elastic deformation. Elastic deformation depends only on the initial and final states of stress and strain, while the plastic strain depends on the loading path by which the flnal state is achieved. Moreover, in plastic deformation there is no easily measured constant relating stress to strain such as Young's modulus.

From the viewpoint of design, plasticity is concerned with predicting the maximum load, which can be applied to a body without causing excessive yielding, The yield criterion must be expressed. in terms of stress in such a way that it is valid for all states of stress. The designer is also concerned with plastic deformation in problems where the body is purposely stressed beyond the yield stress into the plastic region. For example. plasticity must be considered in designing for processes such as shrink fining, and the over-speeding of rotor disks. The consideration of small plastic strains allows economies in building construction through the use of the theory of limit design. The analysis of large plastic strains is required in the mathematical treatment of the p1astic forming of metals.

The flow curve for ductile metal

The stress-strain curve obtained by uniaxial loading and plotted in terms of true stress and true strain, is of fundamental interest in plasticity. A true stress-strain curve is frequently called «flow curve because it gives the stress required to cause t he metal to flow plastically to any given strain.

The conventional concept of unit linear strain ( e), namely, the change in length (M ) referred to the original unit length (Lo) and is satisfactory for elastic strains where g is very small, However, in plastic deformation the strains are frequently large. and during the extension the gage length changes considerably. Therefore, for the true or natural strain, (e). the change in length is referred to the instantaneous gage length. Thus

L -L L-L lJdL L

e = L I 0 +----+ ~ = - = In-=ln(e+1)

t, i; 4 L Lo

Since the volume change is zero for plastic deformation, G.( + C y + s , = s I + E 2 + e l = 0 . Because of constancy of volume t:=ln(ULoJ=ln(AoIA}, where A is the cross-sectional area. The true stress a is the load at any instant divided by the cross· sectional area over which it acts and

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Sum I C. Joshi

Fundamental s: 4

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

is related to the engineering stress or conventional stress S by a = S(e + 1). Note that this relationship is valid until the onset of necking. Beyond necking, the assumptions of constancy of volume and homogenous distribution of stain along the gauge length may not remain valid.

If the metal is strained to a point. w hen the load is released the total strain will immediately decrease from

8'1 to &2 by an amount alE (Figure I a). The strain

f _ f -"" decrease is c ailed the

(al tb~ [el recoverable elastic strain.

Figure I; Typical flow curves for a ductile metal How~v.er~. the t strain

remammg IS no all-

permanent plastic strain. Depending upon the metal and the temperature, a small amount of the plastic strain win disappear with time. This is known as anelastic behavior. Generally the anelastic strain is neglected in mathematical theories of plasticity. Usually the stress-strain curve on unloading from a plastic strain will not be exactly linear and parallel to the elastic portion of the curve (Figure 1 b). Moreover, on reloading the curve win generally bend over as the stress approaches the original value of stress from which it was unloaded. The hysteresis behavior resulting from unloading and loading from a plastic strain is generally neglected in plasticity theories. If a specimen is deformed plastically beyond the yield stress in one direction, e.g., in tension, and then after unloading to zero stress it is reloaded in the opposite direction, e.g., in compression. it is found that the yield stress on reloading is less than the original yield stress. Referring to Figure 1 C a b (q a' This dependence of the yield stress on loading path and direction is called the Bauschinger effect. The Bauschinger effect is commonly ignored in plasticity theory, and it is usual to assume that the yield stress in tension and compression are the same.

IT

It is common practice to devise idealized flow curves, which simplify the mathematics witho ut deviating too far from physical reality. Figure 2a shows the flow curve for a rigid, perfectly plastic material. For this idealized material, a tensile specimen is complete1y rigid (zero elastic strain) until the axi al stress eq uals a 0 , whereupon the material flows plastically at a constant flow stress (zero strain hardening). This type of behavior is approached by a ductile meta], which is in a highly cold worked condition. Figure 2b illustrates the flow curve for a perfectly plastic material with an elastic region. This behavior is approached by a material such as plain carbon steel, which has a pronounced yieldpoint elongation. A more realistic approach is to approximate the flow curve by two straight lines corresponding to the elastic and plastic regions (Figure 2c).

Figure 2: Idealized flow curves (a) Rigid perfectly plastic.tb) perfectly plastic with elastic region, (c) pi ecewi se linear (strain-hard en in g)

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Sunil C. Joshi

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M61 02 Advanced Material s Engi neeri ng

Th ree dim ens to nal states of stress an d stra i n

For a general state of stress. given by components

0' x' 0' y. (T: ' r "Y .• t y= , t =-' there is one choice of a new coordinate syste m whe re shear stresses are absent and where the max im urn and minimum normal stresses occur along with an intermediate norma Istre 5S. These special stresses are the p rinci pal normal stresses, (T l • (T 1 and 0' l. They may be obtained by so lvin g the 'f

cubic equation given by a determinant:

(ax-a) 1"xy

1".:1)' (rr , -0-)

1".'1;:

=0

If there is only one nonzero component of shear stress, such as t -0/' the principal normal stresses are:

[til

_ 0' x +uy + (CTJ: _uy)2 2

O'"a, - _ +r~.

,- 2 2 ~

and 0"3 = (1";.

The pri n cipal shear stresses occur on planes inc lined at 450 with respect to the principal normal stresses. The

absolute values of these are given by:

10" 2 -0'11 lUI -all 10"1 -0'21

'fl = • '2 == , Tl = '------'-

2 2 2

One of the values is the maximum shear stress that occurs for all possible choices of coordinate axes.

Oc1aI1oeodraJ plan,:

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The octahed ral norma! and shear stres ses occur on p Janes th at intercept the p ri nc i pal normal stress axes at eq ual d i stan ces from the

ori gin. Th eir va t ues are gi ven by:

and

-2

1 I( 2 ~ 2

r II = - "VaL - 0" 2) + (0- 2 - U l ) - + (0' 3 - a 1 ) , where a Jr \ s also

3

c aU ed the h ydrostati c stress.

Principal normal strains and principal shear strains occur in a manner analogous to principal stresses. The same equations apply by rep I ac i ng stresse s with stra ins as foll ows:

ux'O'y'O'r ~Er.Ey'&:

r; r ; Y::< ,~,,-r,~, r , 4-,-,-

-v .'. _. 2 2 2

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Fundamentals: 6

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M6101 Advanced Materi a ls En gineering

Failure criteria for homogenous materials:

Engineering components may be subjected to complex loadings in tension, compression, bending, torsion, or pressure, or combinations of these. so that at a given point in the material stresses often occur in more than one direction. If sufficiently severe, such combined stresses can act together to cause the material to yield or fracture. Predicting the safe limits for use of a materia1 under combined stresses requires the application of a failure criterion. Although both yield and fracture criteria should in general be employed, materia1s that typically behave in a ductile manner generally have their usefulness limited by yielding, and those that typically behave in a brittle manner are usually limited by fracture.

An alternative to fai1ure criteria based on stress is to specificaUy analyze cracks in the material using the special methods ofJracture mechanics.

a) Maximum~shear~stress or Tresca criterion

This yield criterion assumes that yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress teaches the value of the shear stress in the uniaxial-tension test.

In a uniaxi a] tension, 0"1 = a (l (yield strength); a 2 = a 3 = 0, and 1"0 ::: cr Q 2

(j 0 = MAX(la I - a 1 II (J'l - U J ~) or

:. at yielding: 2 2' 2 ,~.

to avoid the failure: a ~ > M4X~<T, - 0" 2 !.Ia 2 - a 11.10" 1 - 0"1 1)

b) Octa h ed ral shea r stress criterion

Another yield criterion often used for ductile metals is that yielding occurs when the shear stress on the octahedral planes reaches a critical value. This criterion also often called either the Von Mises or the distortion energy criterion

In a uniaxial tension, 0'1 = U Q (yield strength); U 2 = a 3 ::: O. and r ~o = 12u Q 3

..fi a 0 = !.. ~ ( a 1 - a 2 ) 2 + ( 0" 2 - a) ) l + (a l - a I ) 2 , or

3 3

1 f( 2 2 1

0"0 > J2 V U1 -(2) + (0"2 -u}) +(0") -crt)

:. at yielding:

to avoid the failure:

c) Maxi mu m normal st ress (fracture) c rite rion

The failure is expected when the largest principal normal stress reaches the urn axial strength of the rna terial,

i.e, at fracture:

Absolute values are used so that compressive principal stresses can be considered, and it is assumed that the ultimate (fracture) strength of the material is the same in tension and compression. Since this approach has its greatest success in predicting fracture of brittle materials, it should be considered to be a frac ture criterion, as distingui shed from a yield criterion.

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M6lO2 Advanced Materials Engineering

Introduction to Fracture Mecbanics:

The presence of a crack in a component of a machine. vehicle, or structure may weaken it so that it fails by fracturing into two or more pieces. This can occur at stresses below the material's yield strength, where failure would not be normally expected. Where cracks are difficult to avoid, a special methodology called fracture mechanics can be used to aid in selecting materials and designing components to minimize the possibility of fracture. In addition to cracks themselves, deep surface scratches or gouges. voids in welds, inclusions of foreign substances in cast and forged materials, and delaminations in layered materials may easily develop into cracks.

Consider an elliptical hole in a plate of material, which is small, compared to the width of the plate. and aligned with its major axis perpendicular to the direction of a uniform stress. S. applied remoteJy. The hole has its influence on the stress a y parallel to S. At the edge of the hole

. . . (semi - major aXis)

maximum (j}' occurs, which 15 equal to (7' y = S 1 + 2 .. .. Thus. at the edge of a

sem l - mmor axts

circular hole (jy = 3S. For a narrow ellipse where the semi-minor axis approaches zero, and

corresponds to an ideal slit-like crack, a y becomes infinite.

ml»al

~'''''''''~

~2ro

F· "1 C k-ti ,. I . 1 nevertheless nonzero radius.

igure s: rac -ttp openings m rea materia s H th t . 1

ence, e s ress I s no onger

infinite, and the crack is open near its tip by a finite amount, a, called the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD); see Figure 3. In other types of materia1, different behaviors occur that have a similar effect of relieving the theoretically infinite stress by modifying the sharp crack tip. In some polymers, a region containing elongated voids develops that contains a fibrous structure bridging the crack faces, which is called a craze zone. In brittle materials such as ceramics, a region containing a high density of tiny cracks may develop at the crack tip.

Behavior at crack tips in real materials

- - - Ideal crack

- nlat crack

J

:====-:- ~ .

An infinite stress cannot, of course. ex j st ina real material. In ductile materials, such as many metals, 1arge plastic deformations occur in the vicinity of the crack tip. The region within which the material yields is called the plastic zone. Intense deformati on at the crae k tip resu 11s in the sharp tip be in g b Junted to a small but

Effects of cracks on strength

lf the load applied 10 a member containing a crack LS too high. the crack may suddenly grow and cause the member to fail by fracturing in a brittle manner. mat is, with Ettie plastic deformation.

From the theory of linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), a quantity called the stress intensity factor. K, can be defined that characterizes the severity of the crack situation as affected

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Fundamentals: 8

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M61 02 Advanced Materials En gineeri ng

by crack size, stress, and geometry. A given rna terial can resist a crack wi thOUI brittle fracture occurring as long as this K is below a critical value K.;" which is a property of the materia1 caned the fracture toughness. Values of K; vary widely for different materials and are affected by temperature and loading rate, and secondarily by the thickness of the member.

Failure data for cracked plates of2014- T6 Al tested at -1951)C is shown in the adjacent figure. S~ denotes

the gro ss stress necessary to cause failure and a I represents the transition crack length, where the

SD fail ure stress pred icted by LEFM exceeds the yield

s stren gth. If erac ks of length aro und 0 r greater than a j so are present in the given material, fracture mechanics k5I should be employed in design.

4(1

L inchN

rO __ ~Or·S __ ~lr~ __ ~1r·S __ ~lr·O ~2·~100

Fracture modes

A crac ked body c an be loaded in anyone or a combination of the three displacement modes shown in the following figure. Mode I is caUed the opening mode and cons ists 0 f the crac k faces simp I y moving apart. For mode I1~ the sliding mode, the crack faces slide relative to one another in a direction normal to the Jeading edge of the crack. Mode III, the tearing mode, also involves relative sliding of the crack faces, but now the direction is parallel to the leading edge. Mode I is caused by tensile loading, whereas the other two are caused by shear loading in different directions.

Il, Crack iMlgt~. mm

Most cracking problems of engineering interest involve primarily Mode I. Some representative values of K tc are given in Table I.

T!,\BLE 1 F

h

d

·1

f,

. : racture tougi ness an tens; e properties or meta s at room temperature
Material Toughness Yield strength Ultimate strength
«, MPaFm (JQ~\1Pa CfuMPa
ASTM A470-8 (Cr-Mo- V) steel 60 620 780
ASTM AS17 -F steel 187 760 830
IS-Ni maraging steel (air melted) 123 1310 1350
Aluminum alloy 2014- T651 I 24 415 485
Aluminum alloy 2024-T351 34 I 325 470
Aluminum alloy 6061- T651 34 275 310
Aluminum alloy 7075- T651 29 505 570 Yl00S-06 (S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 9

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M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

if a crack is not normal to the applied stress, or if a complex state of stress exists, a combination of fracture modes I, II, and In exists. This situation is analogous to the need for a yield criterion for combined stresses. Several combined-mode fracture criteria exist, but there is currently no general agreement on which is the best. The general from of one of the empirical equations is shown below

Fibre reinforced laminated composites:

A laminate is two or more laminae bonded together to act as an integral structural element (see the figure). The two basic questions of1aminate analysis are: (1) what are the conditions that the laminae must meet to be a laminate? and (2) how will a laminate respond to load i ng, i.e, imposed forces and

tAIIIIIW! moments?

The various laminae are oriented with (Ioeal) principal material directions at different angles to the global laminate axes to produce a structural element capable of resisting load in several directions. The stiffnesses and strengths of such a composite material structural configuration are obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae.

St rain and Stress Va ria t ion in a Laminate

Knowl ed ge 0 f the varia t [0 n of stress and strain through the laminate th ickne ss is essenti al to the defin i tion of the extens i on a] and bending stiffnesses of a laminate. A hypotheti cal variat ion of a strain and stress through the laminate thickness is

shown in the adjacent figure. Since the stiffness of each lamina is different, stress variation through the laminate thickness is not linear, even though the strain variation is linear. Resultant forces (N) and moments (M) acting on a laminate (per unit width) can be obtained by integration of stresses in each layer through the lam i nate thickness.

C'IWYICTEftISTlC MODUU

Thus. with E'~, &~ and r~}' as middle-surface (refer to the adjacent figure) strains, and K;r' K~, and K,"r}' as middle-surface curvatures, the A'j as extensional stiffness, the B'j as the bending-extension coupling stiffness, the Dij as bending stiffness, and the Qij as reduced stiffness. the relationships can be written as -

t i

, --'--'11
~ 'I{'

~
T
.2: ~
II \:
t ~
H l!.AV&! .. LIMBER

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Sunil C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 10

Notes

M61 02 Advanced Materi als Engi neering

o E~

o 'Yxy

r~ -~
811 812 B16
B12 822 Sa
B18 826 By
- r 1'0
Mx 811 912 91& Ex
My = B12 au Bt, ~ +
Mxy S1e 928 By 'Y~
t ...
8ENDING-£XTENSION COUPUNG
where- and

+

QLI = QLl cos" B + 2(Ql2 + 2Q66) sin" Bcos2 B + Q12 sin" B; QL2 = (Q1I + Q22 - 4{k) sin2 B cos' f) + QI2 (sin" B + cos" B) ; Qn = Q u sin" B + 2(Q12 + 2Q66) sin 2 BCGS! B + Qn cos" B;

Ql' = (QI! - QI2 - 2Q~) sin B cos' B + (Q12 - Qn + 2Q66) sin] () cos f) ; Q26 = (Qll - Q12 - 2Q66) sin) B cos () + (Qu - Q22 + 2Q66) sin 8 cos' {} ; ~6 = (QI L + Q12 - Qll - 2Q6(j) sin" () cos' (J + Q66{sin 4 B + cos" 8) .

Where

The sign conventions for N and M are as follows~

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Sunil C. Joshi

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Fundamentals: l l

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M61 02 Advanced Materials Eng] neering

METALLURGICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Nature of metals

A metal can best be defined by the nature of the bonds between the atoms that make up the metal crystal s. Metal s can be defi ned as sol ids compri sed of atoms held together by a matrix of electrons as shown in the figu re (KGB. p 12). The electro ns assoc iated with each individual atom are free to move throughout the vo1ume of the crystal or piece of metal, This is why metals are good conductors 0 f e lectrici ty; current fl ow requ ires a flow of electrons. Other properties that distinguish metals from other materials are their malleability (their ability to deform plastically), their opacity (light cannot pass through them), and their ability to be strengthened.

• • ~AtQms. m-:~ .. -<D---::;.,....t'.l)--=---ID

•• • • • • • El.ectroo

It • _. ..' •• ~. "matrix"

..

. . . .

. . .

. ..

. .

-II • •• • •

. .

. . . ..

.. .

. .

• • #f

. .

Crystallization of metals

Metals have a crystalline structure and the ability to be formed. Crystallization is the transitional process, which takes place when a liquid changes into a solid state. The crystallization of metal occurs in two stages: 1) nucleation, and 2) crystal growth. Nucleation is the freezing of the first crystals from liquid metal into solids. Grains are individual crystals. Crystal growth, the second stage, continues in three dimensions around the nuclear crystals, without regard to the position or axes orientation. The random growth of these crystals as they touch one another causes a mismatch of crystal structure. These atom lattice mismatches are commonly caUed grain boundaries. The size ofthe grains in a crystallizing metal depends upon the rate of cooling. Slow cooling norma1ly produces large grains; faster cooling produces a finer grain structure. Within the same metal, the finer grain size always has higher strength and toughness.

Most metals shrink upon crystallizing from a liquid to a solid state. This accounts for the fact that there is a closely packed atomic structure in the sol id state. The isometric or cubic pattern is the simplest and the most common crystal pattern in metals. It has three axes of equal length, spaced exact1y 90 degrees apart. The axes are not actual lines, but are merely representative. The distances separating atoms are vast, compared with the actual atom

Bee size. The isometric crystal is the most common pattern in FCC

metals. This cubic crystal is cJassed in two types: 1) body-

centered cubic (BCC), and 2) face-centered cubic (FCC). BeC is a relatively "loosely" packed structure (atomic packing factor = 0.68) and can be termed a cubic lattice with a central atom with an atom at each of the comers of an imaginary cube. FCC is relatively "tightly" packed (atomic packing factor= 0.74) and is formally defined as a cubic lattice with an atom at each of the comers and one at the centre of each face. Some examples of metals having BeC crystal structure include iron, chromium, and tungsten. Metals having FCC crystal structure include aluminum. copper, nickel, and lead.

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Notes

M6102 Advanced Materi a ls Engi neering

A definite relationship exists between the atomic structure of a metal and its mechanical properties. Some crystal types are isotropic, have identical strength properties in an directions, Most metals, particularly as cast, are generally isotropic. As a mass of metal is worked, that is, extruded, forged, or rolled, the crystal structure becomes oriented in the direction of the mechanical work and the crystals become deformed. Therefore, the working of a metal results in anisotropy, or directional difference in strength properties in the entire mass of metal.

Dislocations in crystalline solids

When crystalline solids are subjected to loads, on the atomic scale, there is a tendency to pull the atoms apart. If the bonds between the atoms are very strong. there is a tendency to cleave the crystal s apart. I n metal s and so me other crystalline materials, the interatom ic bo nds are such that rather than causing cleavage, loading can cause atomic slip,

When planes of atoms slip, the line separating the slipped region from the unslipped region of the crystal is called a dislocation. When metals are deformed, the atoms making up the crystalline structure of the metal rearrange to accommodate the deformation by van ous mechanisms. Dislocation motion is a primary mechanism. The simplest type of dislocation, the edge dislocation, is shown schematically in the figure (KGB, p l3). When the dislocation reaches an outside surface of the crystal. it can cause a

slip step.

Dislocations can be produced by crystal mismatch in solidification. They can be introduced by external stresses such as plastic deformation, they can occur by phase transformations that cause atomic mismatch, or they can be caused by the atomic mismatch effects of adding alloy elements. The importance of dislocations to the metal user is that dislocation interactions within a metal are the primary means by w hi ch metals are strengthened. When metals deform by dislocation motion, the more barriers the dislocations meet the stronger the metal,

.... d_

hi

0.1

_d ..... _

Phase diagram

Metal alloy is mixture of a metal with oth er metals or non -rnetals, Ceramics can also be mixed to fonn alloys. In materials science. there may be only one gas and one liquid phase for an allo y at a gi yen temperature and composition, but there can be many solid phases. The term gas phase has no real reJevance. The solid phases are d ist i ngu i shed by different Gree k letters. difference between them being the nature of their atomic

f3 + LLQU!D

SLLVER

E

COPPER

Copper -S il ver phase diagram

Y2005-06 {S I}

Sunil C, Joshi

Fundamentals: 13

Notes

M6l 02 A dvanced M ateri a ls ETl gineering

arrangement, or crystal structure. A phase can exist over a range of temperatures and compositions, but its atomic structure win remain the same.

A phase diagram is a temperature· composition diagram for two or more elements giving the microstructure of the resultant alloy at any given temperature and composition; see the figure for a typical phase diagram for Copper-Silver.

With regard to phase diagrams, the alpha (a) phase is a mixture of the element on the left of the phase diagram and either the element on the right of the diagram (for a binary phase diagram) or an intermetallic compound. The beta (j3) phase is a mix.ture of the element on the right of the phase diagram and either the element on the left of the diagram (for a binary phase diagram) or an intermetallic compound. The gamma (y) phase is a commonly a mixture of an intennetaIlic solid and either another intermetallic solid or an element. Gamma is also used to signify a high temperature solid. In steels the gamma (austenite) phase satisfies both of these definitions. The theta (e) phase is a commonly a mixture of an intermetallic solid and either another intermetallic solid or an element.

Y2005-06 (S I )

Austenite is the gamma phase of stee1. In simple steels, it occurs at fairly high temperatures - above 723~C. It is a FCC structure of Iron with Carbon in solid solution, Carbon atoms sit in interstitial sites within the iron FCC lattice. As Carbon is too large to fit into the site the Iron atoms around it are distorted. This gives rise to so lid solution strengthening.

Ferrite is the name given to the a]pha phase of steel. It is a phase which occurs as a primary solid at compositions of carbon below the eutectic composition and at lower temperatures. Ferrite forms part of the eutectic solid (caned pearlite). It is ofBCC atomic arrangement and, more generally, ferritic steel is steel made main! y of ferrite.

Cementite is an intermetallic compound in steel alloys which has the chemical formula F el C. It is a phase which has a specific chemical formula unlike most phases which have ranges of chemical composition. Cementite is a hard brittle phase and steels containing high proportions of this win ha ve increased strength/hardness but lower ductili ty.

Pearlite is the name of a phase mixture in steel alloys - a lameUar mixture of ferrite (alpha) and cementite. Pearlite is so called because it looks like mother 0 f pearl when viewed under a micro scope.

Ledeburite is a common part of the cast iron alloys containing more than 2% carbon.

Sunil C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 14

, *

Notes

Strengthening meehanisms

M6102 Advanced Materials Engi neering

Solid sol talon strengthening

This term means that impurity atoms are added to a pure meta} to make an alloy, Solid solutions fall in two distinct classes: (l) substitutional and (2) interstitial solid solutions. In substitutional solid solutions, the solute atoms occupy lattice sites that would normally be occupied by the solvent atoms. The occupation can be either random or ordered. In the interstitial solid solution, the solute atoms occupy positions in the interstices of the solvent lattice.

If the atoms of the alloying element are significantly larger than the atoms of the host metal, these large atoms can impede the motion of disJocations and thus strengthen the metal.

Quench hardening

The most industrially important strengthening mechanism in metals is quench hardening. It is a heat treating process used to induce atomic strains into a metal latti ce. The strains are produced by q uenc h· induced trapping of solute atoms into the lattice. The trapped atoms actually change the atomic spacing. The distorted lattice and the action of the quenched-in so 1 ute atoms impede dl s location motion and thus strengthen the metal. The schematic is presented in the figure (KGB. p 15).

When steel is heated to its hardening temperature. it becomes austenitic. If it is cooled quickly, the

=-.::::-- _11U1JCI~ eq ui l ibri urn transformations into pearlite and ferrite or pearlite and cementite do not have time to take place.

rd~ ~ -niIIoII Instead, a structure caned martensite (appears as

needle-shaped crystals under microscope) is formed. This is the hardest structure that is possible to be produced in pial n carbon stee L

Mechanical working

Mechanical working strengthens

metals by multiplication of dislocations. The dislocations interact with each other and al so with grain boundaries, and thus movement of ind i v idual dislocations beco mes d i fflcul t and the metal is strengthened. Refer the schematic (KGB. p IS) for details.

__ iGoI~... Af1ot_I_~

[D~ --1I>t Cold working, often referred to as strain

hardening, occurs when metal is bent, squeezed or stretched to shape below the temperature of re-crystallization (minimum temperature at which reformation of grains occurs). Cold working results in distortion of the grain of the metal and. eventually, the metal becomes so stiff and brittle that it breaks. Metal that has become harder and stiffer as a result of cold working is said to be work hardened. The metal must not be allowed to become excessively work hardened or it will be prone to fracture.

Y2005·Q6 (5 I)

Suni I C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 15

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engi neering

Hot working occurs when metal is bent, squeezed or stretched to shape above the temperature of recrystallization, Examples of such processes are: forging. hot rolling and extrusion. Since the process temperature is above the temperature of recrystallization, the grains reform as fast as they are distorted by the processing. However, the initial temperature has to be limited so that overheating and "burning' of the metal does not occur or it win be excessively weakened. In any case, the temperature should not exceed the melting point of the metal,

Precipitation or age hardening

ItoInI iIllOluticlq . Halting 1:&1_ tM ~jl'\' _ to QOIra:. fpl'tCipitltwl lAd fllrm • ~ to !hi l1'IOtion IIf ,.,

lei PnciDitllitln """dwlf"CI

reheating, it is termed as artificial aging.

It is used to strengthen many non ferrous metals. By choosing a suitable alloying element, it is possibJe by heat treating techniques to get alloying elements to agglomerate with in the metal lattice as shown in the figure (KGB. pIS). The agglomerated alloy element atoms create atomic mismatches and strains that serve as barriers to dislocati on moti on and thus strengthen the metal.

When the precipitation process occurs naturaHy over a period of time, it is referred to as natural aging. If the harden ing process is speeded up by

Case hardening or surface heat treatment

Often components require a hard ease to resist wear and a tough core to resist shock loads, These two properties do not exist in a single steel since, for toughness, the core should not exceed 0.3- 0.4 per cent carbon whi 1st to give adequate hardness. the surface of the component should have a carbon content of approximately 1.0 per cent. The usual solution to this problem is case hardening.

As shown in the figure (RL T, P 127), this process have two distinct steps. The first is Carburising by which carbon is added to the surface layers of a low-carbon plain or low-alloy steel component to a carefully regulated depth, after which the component goes through successive heat-treatment processes to harden the case and refine the core.

l)'"Itdi=t.::tvr.es. • higil-Qtbo::w> ,!.eel

Y 2005·{l6 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Fundamental s: ! 6

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

~ i i I i

i

l

i

I I

Cyaniding. which is becoming increasingly popular in industry, yields a thin casing of high hardness with good wear resistance. This treatment is used to harden the surface of small parts made from low carbon steel. In cyaniding treatment. the steel is held for a time in a molten (790{lC to 870{lq bath containing approximately 30 percent sodium cyanide. after which it is water q uen ched.

Nitriding consists of heat treatment at between 4800DC and 6200°C with an ammonia gas atmosphere for 40 to 60 hours. Nitrogen is added to the steel surface. Nitriding penetration is s lower than earb uri zing penetration. Ni tri ding does not requ i re fast quench ing to ach i eve hardness. Because of the length of time required for this process, nitriding costs more than cyaniding.

Strain aging

Strain agfng is a type of behavior, usually associated with the yield-point phenomenon, in which the strength of a meta1 is increased and the ductility is decreased on heating at a re1ative1y 10w temperature after cold-working. This behavior can best be illustrated by considering the figure

(GED. p208). which schematically describes the effect of strain agin g on the flow curve of a low-carbon steel, Region A shows the stress-strain curve for a lowcarbon steel strained plastically through the yield-point elongation to a strain correspond i ng to po i nt X. The specirn en is then un 10 aded and retested wi thout appreciable delay or any heat treatment (region B). Note that on reloading the yi el d po in t does not occur, since th e dislocations have been tom away from the atm osphere of carbon and nitro gen atoms. Consider now that the specimen is strained to point Y and unloaded. if it is reloaded after aging for several days at room temperature or several hours at an aging temperature like 300°F (-135°C), the yield point win reappear. Moreover, the yield point will be increased by the aging treatment from Yto Z. The reappearance of the yield point is due to the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen atoms to the dislocations during the aging period to form new atmospheres of interstitials anchoring the dislocations.

t

A

c

... .. ..

!::

(I)

Straifl-

The occurrence of strain aging is a fairly general phenomenon in metals. In addition to the return of the yield point and an increase in the yield stress after aging, strain aging also produces a decrease in ductility and a low value of strain-rate sensitivity.

Fiber strengthening

Materials of high strength, and especially high strength-to-weight ratio, can be produced by incorporating fine fibers in a ductile matrix. The fibers must have high strength and high elastic modulus whi Ie the matrix must be ductile and non-reactive with the fibers. The fibers may be long and continuous, or they may be discontinuous. Metals and polymers have been used as matrix materials.

Y2005·06 (S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

F undarn entals: 17

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

An important distinction between fiber-strengthened and dispersion-strengthened metals is that in fiber strengthening the high modulus fibers carry essenti all y the entire load The matrix serves to transmit the load to the fibers, to protect fibers from surface damage. and to separate the individual fibers and blunt cracks that arise from fiber breakage.

Glossary of terms!

Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)R

It extends from the fusion tine to the parent metal where the temperature has not been raised sufficiently to change the original structure.

Macrostructure of single-run welds in mild steel is shown in the adj acent figure (RLT,p270)

( a) oxyacetyI ene weld; (b) metallic arc weld

Phase diagram: Temperature-composition diagram for two or more elements giving the microstructure of the resultant alloy at any given temperature and composition.

Liquidus: The line joining the points where solidification begins.

Solidus: The line joining the points where solidification is complete.

Eutectic! A point at which the liquid changes instantaneously into a solid, defined by eutectic temperature and eutectic composition.

References

(1) G. E. Dieter (GED). Mechanical metallurgy, McGraw·HiU. 1976 [TA 405 D565}

(2) N. E. Dow ling (1\'ED) , Mechanical behaviour 0 f materials- Engineering methods for deformation, fracture, and fatigue, Prentice Han, 1993. [TA 404.8 0747]

(3) D. V. Brown (DVB), Basic Metallurgy, Delmer Publishers, USA. 1981. {TN 665 8877}

(4) R. M. Jones (R1vU), Mechanics of composite materials, Taylor and Francis, 1999. [TA 418.9.C6178 1999]

(5) R. L. Timings (RLT), Engineering materials. VoL 1,Addison Wesley, Singapore, 1998. [TA403 T583e 1998-200}

(6) KG. Budinski (KGB), Engineering materials- Propenies and selection, Prentice Han, 1992. [TA 403 B927 1992)

(7) P.A. Thornton (PAT), V. 1. Colangelo. Fundametanls of engineering materials. Prentice Han, 1985. [TA 403 T514]

Y2005 -06 (5 I )

Sun i1 C. Joshi

Fundamentals: 18

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

CORROSION & WEAR FAILURES

Corrosion failures

Corrosion is the degradation of a material by reaction with its environments. All corrosion processes have electrochemical reactions as their basis. Corrosion is one of the important mechanisms leading to service failure. The types of corrosion can be classified as follows.

(1) General or Uniform Corrosion

General or uniform corrosion is characterized by more or less uniform attack over the entire exposed surface. with only minimal variations in the depth of the damage. The rusting of steel and the tarnishing of sil ver are typical examples of uniform corrosion. Changing the environment composition, concentration. pH and temperature or adding an inhibitor is an effective and appropriate method of controlling this type of general attack in some cases.

(2) Pitting corrosion

Pi tting is a form of localized corrosion in which the attack is confined to numerous small ca vities on the metal surface. Pitting occurs when a small area of a metal surface becomes anodic with respect to the rest of the surface. Some possible causes of pi tting include local inhomo genei ty on the metal surface. and mechanical or chemical rupture of a protective oxide coating.

Pitting is one of the most difficult to detect and insidious forms of corrosion. There is very little weight loss and the material can fail by through perforation. Pits are generally small and often get overlooked. Pitting can occur with a number of metals but the most common structural materials susceptible to this type of degradation are stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Pitting occurs most frequently in solutions of near neutral pll, containing chloride, bromide or hypochlorite ions. It occurs more in stagnant solutions than in moving solutions.

The best protection against pitting attack is to select a material with adequate pitting resistance or rather to avoid metals that are prone to pitting. As an example. stainless steels pit in salt water, so most designers tend to use either copper alloys, bronzes, brasses or 0 ther materials that have lower pitting tendencies. Some use carbon steels in salt water.

(3) Crevice Corrosion

Crevice corrosion is a type of corrosion attack which is associated with the confined spaces or crevices formed by certain mechanical configurations, such as tapped joints, gasket interfaces, tubular sleeves, and such overlapping components. The crevices must be dose fitting, with only a few thousandths of an inch gap, for crevice corrosion to occur.

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Failures & failure mechanisms: 1

Notes

M61 02 Advan ced Materials Engineering

Like pitting, crevice corrosion can be very destructive since the damage is much localized, Any layer of solid matter or deposit on the surface of a metal can cause this type of corrosion. In power-generation equipment, this type of corrosion occurs in condenser tubes cooled with seawater, as a resu1t of the formation of solid deposits or attaclunent of marine organisms to the tube wall. Rivetted or bolted joints are another possible site for this type of corrosion and thus they require careful attention in design and assembly to avoid crevices. Breaks in protective coatings or linings on vessels containing corrosion chemicals are a150 likely sites for the development of crevice corrosion.

The most e ffecti ve method for minimizing crevice corrosion i s the elimination 0 f t he crevice itself. This can be achieved by,

1. design changes incorporating welded butt joints in lieu of bolted lap joints,

2. using non-permeable gaskets or seals.

3. periodic removal and cleaning of sediment and debris from tank bottoms, and

4. insuring adequate adhesion of coatings.

(4) Galvanic Corrosion

When two dissimilar metals are in electrical contact in an electrolyte the less noble metal (anode) is attacked. This is known as galvanic corrosion and results from the existence of a potential difference between metals which causes a flow of current between them.

There are several contributing factors aiding gat v arne corrosion. Whenever a I arge cathode is coupled with a small anode. the current densities increase at the anode. that is. the corrosion rate increases. Thus breaks in organic protective coatings on an active metal component of equipment in which the remaining metal is made of a relatively noble or passive metal can result in extremely rapid galvanic attack.

To avoid galvanic corrosion problem, it is important to select, in the design stage, materials close together in the galvanic series. If the use of dissimilar metals cannot be avoided, galvanic corrosion can be minimized, by keeping the anode large in relation to the cathode or avoided by electrically insulating the members of the couple.

(5) Stress corrosion cracking (SeC)

Sustained tensile stress, either applied or residual, and chemical attack combine to initiate and propagate fracture in a metal part. 'This is known as stress corrosion cracking.

High purity metals are generally less susceptible to this type of cracking than most commercial grades of metals. In general, metals with a smaller grain size are more resistant to Sec. In some metals. sec follows crystallographic planes and so if the particular crystal plane is perpendicular to the potential plane of crack, resistance to sec is at a maximum. There is. in genera], a threshold stress below which the see is unlikely to occur. This threshold stress depends on temperature, composition and metallurgical structure of the alloy and on the type of the environment. In some metal-environment combination the sec has occurred at as low as 10010 of the yield strength; in some others it has required as much as 70% of the yield strength. The sec is very much dependent on the environment/alloy combination as shown below in Table I

Y2005-06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Failures & failure mechanisms: 2

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

T hi IE

till

kn

ki

a e nvironmen a 0 com mahan own to cause stress corrosion crac ng
Alloys susceptible to sec Damaging ions or substances Temperature
Austenitic stainless steel Chloride containing solutions Room
Carbon Steel Caustic solutions IOOue
Copper alloys Aerated aqueous NHJ and anunonium Room
salts in aqueous solutions
Copper alloys S02 gas with moisture Room
High strength low alloy steel Gaseous chlorine or H2 S gas Room sec can be minimized by -

(1) reducing the applied stress. which can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Applied stress can be reduced b y increasing the thickness 0 f t he section, 0 r by lowering the load. E ffecti ve tensile stress at the surface c an be reduced also by surface treatments. Residual stress can be eliminated/lcwered by stress-relief annealing, and! or

2) avoiding the susceptible material/environment combination. This is often the most expedient solution. Since control of the environment is often difficult, substitution of a susceptible alloy by one more resistant alloy is often practised.

(6) Intergranular Corrosion

This type of corrosion occurs at grain boundaries in metals. The cause is usually alloy segregation a t grain boundaries. T he most c omrnonly encountered e xample is sensitization 0 f stainless steels. Anytime the austenitic stainless ste els are heated in the temperature range of 400 to 850°C, chromium carbides tend to fonn in the grain boundaries. The carbides are formed from carbon and chromium that was in solid solution in the alloy. When chromium carbide forms along the grain boundary, it depletes the matrix material of Cr and its corrosion resistance drops. The chromium-depleted grain boundary regions then start corroding.

Susceptibility of stainless steels to intergranular corrosion may be minimized by.

1. Annealing stainless steels at 1050 -1100oC and immediately water quenching.

2. Using extra-low-carbon grade stainless steels.

3. Using type 347 or 321 grade stainless steels which contain Ti, Nb etc., to combine with all of the carbon in the steel.

Intergran ular attack also occurs in some high-strength aluminum allo ys and in some copper alloys. Some nickel alloys and titanium alloys also show similar attack under different environments.

(7) Dealloying (selective leaching)

This is a corrosion process whereby one constituent of a metal alloy is preferentially removed from the alloy. A number of alloy systems are susceptible to deaUoying (see Table II), but the most common example i s dezincification, which is the selective removal of zinc from yellow brasses. The net damage is usuall y a mechanical failure bee ause the metal remaining after dea lloying is usua By weak and spongy.

Y2005·06 {S l}

Sunil C. J05hl

Failures & fail ure rnechan isms; 3

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

a e oys prone 0 ea oymg
Alloy En vi ronment Element removed
Brasses Many waters, especially under stagnant Zinc (dezincification)
conditions
Gray iron Soils, many waters Iron (graphitization)
Aluminum bronzes Hydrofluoric acid. acids containing Aluminum
chloride ions
Copper nickels High heat flux and low water velocity (in Nickel
refinery condenser tubes) T bl HAll

t d 11

On many alloys deaHoying is not readily detected by visual examination. On dezincified copper alloys sometimes a copper flash is visible. An area where dealloying has taken place will sound dull when struck. However, none of these features alone can definitely indicate deaUoying. Micro-examination of the affected area is often required to confirm,

The solution to deaUoying problems is to avoid the environment and alloys that are susceptible to this form 0 fa ttack, As an example, dezincification is tackled b y using higher copper content copper alloys. the so-called red brasses (Cu over 85%). Yellow brasses containing small amounts of As, Sb or P also provide immunity from dezincification, In severely corrosive environments where dezincification is difficult to stop, it is better to change altogether from brasses to coppernickel alloys.

(8) Corrosi ... e wear

This is a catch-all category that includes the types of corrosion that require mechanical action to occur. Corrosion wear is materia] deterioration due to the joint action of corrosion and mechanical action. There are a number of forms to be concerned with:

a} Liquid impingement

b) Liquid erosion

c) Slurry erosion

d) Cavitation

e) Fretting

a) Liquid impingement frequently occurs in bends or turns of tubes or pipes. It generally shows up as deep. clean horseshoe-shaped pits with deep undercut ends pointed in the direction of fluid flow. Impingement corrosion attack can also occur due to partial blockage of a tube. A stone, a piece of wood, or any other obstruction can cause the main flow of liquid deflect against the wall of the tube. The impinging liquid can rapidly cause perforation. Steam or similar gases can a1so cause this effect. Streamlining of bends is useful in minimizing impingement. Flared tubing can be used to reduce problems.

b) Liquid erosion is similar to impingement except that the liquid/fluid flow is parallel to the surface. The liquid causes removal of the protective surface film and exposes new reactive surfaces. Liquid erosion is 0 ften characterized by grooves 0 r waves in the metal surface ina direction of fluid flow. Nearly all flowing or turbulent corrosive media can cause such attacks. The best remedy is lowering of the fluid velocity. Sometimes the diameter of the pipe can be increased which in turn will reduce velocity and turbulence. Most metals have a fluid velocity

Y2005-06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

F ai lures & fai lure rnec hani sms: 4

Notes

M61 02 Advanced Materi a Is Engineering

tolerance level, so it is possibJe to minimize liquid erosion by using metals that can tolerate high fluid velocities.

c) In slurry erosion, abrasive particles dispersed in a slurry cause metal removal. The presence of abrasive particles makes the removal of protective surface film easier and the process proceeds at an energetic pace. The best way for handling abrasive slurries is to use ceramics and elastomers. Ceramics can be hard enough to resist the action of abrasive compounds and elastomers deform to resist the cutting action of sharp abrasive particles. Ceramic- and elastomer-lined pumps and piping are commercially available.

d) Cavitation is material removal by the action of imploding bubbles, It occurs principally when relative motion between a metal surface and a liquid environment causes vapour bubbles to appear. When the bubbles collapse. the surrounding fluid rushes to fill the void with tremendous energy with consequential tearing away of metal. This corrosion process is often seen in turbulent flow areas in pumps and liquid propulsion systems. More recently. cavitation has become an important concern in ultrasonic agitating devices. Rapid cavitation attack often occurs on vessel walls where the ultrasonic transducers are attached Cavitation damage superficially resembles pitting, but the surface appears considerably rougher and h as many closely spaced pits. The effects of cavitation damage can be minimized by proper choice of materials. Materials that resist cavitation have tenacious passive films, high hardness and high strength. Titanium alloys, austenitic stainless steels, cobalt base and some nickel base alloys have good cavitation resistance in a wide range of environment. In an opposite approach, rubber and other elastorneric coatings have been used to minimize cavitation. The elastic nature of the surface allows the reflection of the shock waves without intense damage.

e) Fretting corrosion is material deterioration by oscillatory relative motion of small amplitude (20 - 100 um) between two solid surfaces in a corrosive environment, If oscillatory movement of very small amplitude occurs, the local bonding between surface asperities or surface roughness essentially fatigue off and form wear debris. With repeated oscillation, this wear debris is oxidized or forms a reactive product with the environment. Fretting corrosion commonly occurs under bearings, under gears and hubs pressed onto shafts and, on any machine component that experience vibration. The only effective way to prevent fretting corrosion is to prevent movement of parts that are butted together. Another approach is to plate one member with a soft electroplate such as cadmium or copper. The soft plating acts as a lubricant and minimizes asperi ty contacts.

(9) Hydrogen Embrlttlement

Hydrogen damage (commonly known as hydrogen embrittlement) is also a mechanicalenvironmental failure that results from the initial presence or absorption of excessive amounts of hydrogen in metals, usually in combination with residual or applied tensile stress. It occurs most frequently in high strength steels and certain other high-strength alloys. The damage may present itself in a number of forms, such as flakes or "fish eyes" or surface cracks.

The sources from which hydrogen comes into the metals are varied. A major source of hydrogen in steels results from water vapour reacting at high temperatures with the liquid iron. The water vapour may come from the scrap used to charge the furnace, the slag (waste matter left when

Y2005-06 {S l}

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Failures & failure mechanisms: 5

M51 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

metal has been separated from ore) ingredi ents or from the refractory lining materi als 0 f the furnace. The resulting hydrogen may become entrapped during solidification as solubility decreases. Hydrogen may also become available during electroplating. In welding, hydrogen may come from moisture in electrode coating. Similarly hydrogen may be generated as a corrosion product in certain environments and may cause embrittlement.

One of the most effective methods for removing hydrogen is to age the materia] at 125-200-OC. This "baking" treatment accelerates the escape of hydrogen from the meta] and restores ductility.

Wear failures

Wear is the loss of material from the surface by displacement or detachment. It implies a progressive Joss of weight and alteration of dimensions. Thus it is different from outright breakage. Although if carried to the extreme, worn parts may eventually break, it is more likely that the worn part will begin to perform unsatisfactorily and will have to be removed from service prematurely.

There are several types of wear. These are 1) Adhesive wear 2) Abrasive wear 3) Erosive wear 4) Corrosive wear and 5) Surface fatigue wear

I) Adbesive wear is also known as scouring, galling, seizing and scuffing. In this type of wear, the microscopic proj ections or asperities bond at the sliding interfaces under heavy local pressure. Later, the sliding forces tear the bonds producing cavities on one surface and projections on the other. It also results in loose wear particles.

2) A brasive wear is displacement 0 f material from surface by hard projections 0 n a. mating surface or with hard particles that are moving relative to the wearing surface.

3) Erosive wear is abrasive wear involving loss of surface material by contact with a fluid that contains particles.

4) In corrosive wear, chemical reaction with the environment or electrochemical action a150 contributes to the erosive wear.

5) Surface fatigue wear is a type of surface damage under high cyclic contact stresses causing pitting.

In analyzing wear failures, one concentrates on three aspects: surface damage, environmental conditions and wear debris. Wear can be combated by either of two methods a) altering the conditions of service to provide a less destructive environment, or b) by selecting a more wear resistant materia] for the worn component

Y2oo5-06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

F ai lu res & fail ure mec hani sms: 6

Notes

M6lO2 Advanced Materials Engineering

FA TIGUE, HIGH TEMPERATURE & OTHER FAILURES

F atig ue (ail ure

Fatigue is failure under repeated or fluctuating strains at stresses lower than the tensile strength of the material. There are generally three phase s in a fatigue failure: crack initiation, crack propagation and fracture. The process may be described as the formation of a crack because of repeated local plasticity, its progression until a critical size is reached, whereupon it fails. These phases are not always completely separable and overlap to some extent.

Fatigue failure occurs without any obvious warning. On a macroscopic scale the fracture surface is usually normal to the direction of the principal tensile stress. A fatigue failure can usually be recognized from the appearance of the fracture surface, which shows a smooth region, due to the rubbing action as the crack propagated through the section (top portion 0 f Fi gure 1), and a rough region, where the member has failed in a ductile manner when the cross section was no longer able to carry the load. Frequently the propagation of the fracture is indicated by a series of

Figure 1: Fracture Surface of a shaft due to fatigue. rings, or beach marks, progressing

inward from the point of initiation of the failure. Figure 1 also illustrates a fatigue failure usually occurs at a point of stress concentration such as a sharp comer of a keywa y in a shaft.

Three basic factors are nec essary to cause fatigue failure. These are (1) a maximum tensile stress of sufficiently high value (2) a large enough variation or fluctuation in the applied stress, and (3) a sufficiently large number of load cycles.

A great amount of equipment, such as automobiles, aircraft. compressors, pumps, turbines, etc., subject to repeated loading and vibration, and many a times, the fatigue accounts for at least 90 percent of all service fai1ures due to mechanical causes.

Y2005·06 (S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

Fai 1 ures & fai 1 ure mec h an isms: 7

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materi als Engineering

Elevated temperature failures

A material has lower strength at elevated temperature and life of a material at high temperature is usually lower. By general definition, elevated temperature for a metal starts at about one half the absolute melting temperature, 'hTm. The principal types of elevated temperature failure are.

l) Creep

2) Stress rupture

3) Elevated temperature fatigue

4) Thermal fat i gue and shock

5) Combination of the above and modified by environment

1) Creep

The progressive deformation of a material at constant stress is called creep.

To determine the engineering creep curve of a metal, a constant load is applied to a tensile specimen maintained at a constant temperature, and the strain (extension) of the specimen is determined as a function of time. The elapsed time of such tests may extend to several months, wh He some tests have been run for more than ] 0 years.

Curve A in Figure 2 illustrates the idealized shape of a creep curve. The slope of this curve ( do/ dt or &) is referred to as the creep rate. Following an initial rapid elongation of the specimen, e (), the creep rate decreases with time, then reaches essentially a steady state in which the creep rate changes little with time, and finally the creep rate increases rapidl y with time until fracture occ urs. Thus, it is natural to discuss the creep curve in terms of its three stages. The fi rst stage of creep,

Figure 2: Typical creep curve. Curve A constant-load test; known as primary creep. represents

Curve B constant-stress test a region of decreasing creep rate.

Primary creep is a period of predominantly transient creep in which the creep rest stance of the material increases by virtue of its own defonnati on . For 10 w tern peratu res and stresses, primary creep is the predom inant creep process. The second stage of creep, known also as secondary creep. is a period of nearly constant creep rate which results from a balance between the competing processes of strain hardening and recovery. for this reason, secondary creep is usually referred to as steady-state creep. The average value of the creep rate during secondary creep is called the minimum creep rate

(d e or i $ ). The min i m urn creep rate is the most irnpo rtan t desi gn parameter de ri ved from the

d(

creep curve. The stress to produce a creep rate of 1 % per 10,000 hrs is typical for jet-engine alloys, while the stress for a creep rate of l % per] 00,000 hrs is used for steam turbines. Thirdstage or tertiary creep mainly occurs in constant-load creep tests at high stresses at high temperatures. Tertiary creep occurs when there is an effective reduction in cress-sectional area

Primllt''1 creep l- ..... -----

...

Tim~ t

Y2005 -os (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Fat lures & fai I UTe mechanisms: g

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

either because of necking or internal void formation. which finally leads to failure. Hightemperature fracture frequently is sensitive to changes in microstructure brought about by heat treatment or mechanical processing. Materials subjected to combination of high temperature and stress; e.g., boiler tubes, steam and gas turbines, turbojet engines etc are prone to creep. It should be noted, however, that the degree to which these three stages are readily distinguishable depend s on the app lied stress and temperature.

Andrade found that the creep curve could be represented by the following empirical equation:

1

6 = 60(1 + f1 J )e.tr , where tis the time, and /3, k are emp irical constants. k represents extension

per unit length that proceeds at a constant rate. An equation that gives better fit than Andrade's equation! although has been tested on limited number of materials, was proposed by Garofalo:

C = Co + E s r + e, (1- e -/'I ); where r is the ratio of tran s ient creep rate to the trans i ent creep stain

and 61 is the limit for transient creep.

The third stage of creep is involved with the development of intergranular cracks and cavities. Two types of intergranular cracking occur in creep. these are wedge-type cracks (w-type) and round or elliptical cavities (r-type), The w-type cracks propagate along the grain boundaries which are roughly normal to the applied stress and initiate grain-boundary sliding. W -type cracks are associated with creep conditions involving moderate creep temperatures and higher stress levels. The r-type cracks form at the higher creep temperatures under lower stresses. Grainboundary sliding is necessary to initiate r-type cavities. As the temperature is raised, grainboundary sliding and the number of cavities per unit length of grain boundary increases.

2) Stress rupture

The stress-rupture test is basicall y s i m il ar to the creep test except that the test is always carried out to the failure of the material. Higher loads are used with the stress-rupture test than in a creep test, and therefore the creep rates are higher. Ordinarily creep test is carried out at relatively low stresses so as to avoid tertiary creep and emphasis is on precise determination of the minimum creep rate. in the creep test the total strain is often less than 0.5 percent, while in the stressrupture test the total strai n may be aro und 50 percent. The higher stresses and creep rates of the stress-rupture test cause structural chan ges to occur in metal s at shorter ti mes than would be observed ordinarily in the creep test, and therefore stress-rupture tests can usuall y be tenn i n ated in 1000 hours. It is particularly wen suited for determining the relative high-temperature strength of new alloys for jet-engine applications. Further, for applications where creep deformation can be to 1 erated bu t fractu re must be prevented, it has direct application in design.

t

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... ... til

0"1

Time, hr-

Figure 3 Effect of stress on creep curves at constant temperature (schematic)

Y2005-06 (S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

The information obtained from the stressru pture test j s th e time to cause fail u re at a

Failures & failure mechanisms: 9

l

j

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j

1

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1

,

Notes

M6102 Advanced Mateti a 1 s Engineering

given nominal stress for a constant temperature." Figure 3 schematically shows how the magnitude of stress affects the time to failure. The elongation and reduction of area at fracture can be also determined from the test.

3) Elevated temperature fatigue

The effect of temperature on fatigue strength is quite marked. Fatigue strength decreases with increasing temperature. An ex.ception is mild steel, which shows maximum fatigue strength at 190 to 30dle.

Fatigue tests at high temperature will depend on the frequency of stress application. It is customary to report the total time to failure as well as the number of cycles to failure. As the temperature is increased roughly above half the melting point temperature, creep becomes important and is the principal cause of failure. In general, the higher the creep strength 0 f a material, the higher is its high-temperature fatigue strength. However, the metallurgical treatment which produces the best high-temperature fatigue properties does not necessarily result in the best creep or stress-rupture properties. In genera], wrought alloys show somewhat superior fatigue resistance, while castings are often more resistant to creep.

4) Thermal fatigue and shock

Fatigue failure can be produced by fluctuating thermal stresses under conditions where no stresses are produced by mechanical causes. Thermal stresses result when the change in dimensions 0 f a member as the result 0 fat emperature change is prevented by 5 orne kind 0 f constraint.

If failure occurs by one application of thermal stress, the condition is called thermal shock. However. if failure occurs after repeated applications of thermal stress, of a lower magnitude, it is caned thermal fatigue. Conditions for thermal-fatigue failure are frequently present in hightemperature equipment. Austenitic stainless steel is particularly sensitive to this phenomenon because of its low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion.

5) Combinatwn of the above and modified by environment

An important factor in the performance of metals at elevated temperature service is the environment and the resulting surface-environment interactions. General oxidation can lead to premature failure. Grain boundary oxidation may produce a notch effect that can also limit life. Some environments may be more harmful than others may. Carburization of steel, particularly, stainless steel at elevated temperature furnace environments is common to many industrial applications.

Failures related to Cold Forming

Cold forming applies to working a metal or an alloy below its recrystallisation temperature. There are certain characteristics of cold - formed parts that may infl uene e their susc epti bili ty to failure. Cold forming severely deforms the metal grains, particularly, in locations of sharp bends or in areas 0 f cross-sectional change. Such deformed or stretched grains are more re arlit y attacked by corrosion and/or fatigue. Frequently, in areas of severe deformation, surface cracks form and although, for many applications such cracks are harmless, they help to initiate

Y2005 ·06 (S 1 )

Suni I C. los hi

Failures & fail ure rnec 11 ani sms: 10

NOleS

M61 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

corrosion and fatigue (See Figure 4). Other characteristics unique to cold forming are certain type of tool marks- specifically indentations at in s ide bend rad i it scoring due to deep drawing etc.

10081t«1

Measures li ke changing over to a different all oy composition, changes in desi gn, elimination of surface discontinuities and tool marks, heat treatment etc .• are often adopted as preventive measures. Selecting a metal having maximum formability is very important. Grain size is also of special importance. Generally, a fine-grained material possesses better formabi1ity.

\ '-Cr«1r.

.c.t ... o~ cSliit"

Figure 4 Fatigue cracking in the area of severe co1d deformation

Fail u res related to F orgin Ii!

In forging, a cast meta1 ingot is generally hot worked to produce a desired final shape. Many of the defects found in forging can be traced to the ingots. Given below are some of the common forgi ng- im perfect ions.

1. Ingot pipe: This is formed in the upper portion of a casting during the freezing of a metal. When the metal freezes it shrinks in volume and eventually there is insufficient liquid meta1 near the top end to feed the ingot. As a result. a cavity or a pipe forms, During forging, the ingot has to be cropped to e li m inate the pipe.

2. Forging Bursts: During forging, appreciable tensi1e stresses are produced in addition to the applied compressive stresses. If the materia] is weak, these tensile stresses can be sufficientJy high to tear the material apart internally. particularly if the forging temperature is too high.

3. Laps: Laps (a1so caned fo1ds) occur due to protrusion of hot metal being folded over and forged onto a surface. The oxide present on the intema1 surface of the lap prevents the metal from join ing.

4. Seams: These are closed up surface cracks and come from hot surface tears in the origina1

ingot. Seams may also result from defects in the ingots such as blowholes and embedded scales. 5. Non-metallic inclusions: These originate in the ingot and are carried on to the forging. Sometimes additional inclusions (specifically, oxides) may develop in the biHet or in subsequent forging stages.

The fai1ure mechanism for forging failures may be brittle fracture. fatigue, wear, corrosion and perhaps acorn binat i on of th e above.

Failures re1ated to Castings

Improper foundry practice and control can result in a number of casting defects. These are described below. However, many of the common causes of casting failures cou1d be due to reasons such as fau hy des i gn, fau lty mac hin in g or assem b Iy. ab usi ve use or en vironmenta I factors.

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Sunil C. Joshi

Failures & fail ure mechanisms: i 1

Notes

M61 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

Co ld shuts and S earns: These occur in a casting due to pouring the metal at to 0 low a temperature or running it over too long a distance. They may also occur when two streams of molten metal meet but do not completely merge. These defects often act as sites of stress concentration.

Hot Tears and Hot Cracks: These are fractures or cracks formed during solidification due to internal stresses and hindered contraction. Cracks are often produc ed in ex terna1 surfaces such as fillets, flanges or ribs when overall contraction of the casting is hindered by the mold. Normally, these defects are repaired by welding, depending on the size and location of the defects and weldabiHty of the alloy. Hot tears are irregular in appearance and generally discontinuous. Radiographically, hot tears are indicated by dark wary lines of irregular appearance.

Cold Cracks: These occur after the casting has cooled. Most cold cracks are generated by rough treatment or during cooling due to thermal shock. They are difficult to detect without nondestructi ve test techniques. Magnetic particle and dye penetration tests most often detect and reveal them cl earl y.

Pit and Sand Holes: Castings prepared in sand molds have dirt and sand inclusions on their surface. These are generaUy removed by blast cleaning. These defects occurring in critical areas may act as stress raisers. Otherwise, they are not generally considered to seriously impair casting properties.

Shrinkage Porosity: Solidification involves contraction. The contraction is due to a) cooling of the liquid b) change from the liquid to the solid and c) cooling of the solid. Usually, all these three volume changes are occurring simultaneously in various parts of the casting. Thus the last metal to solidify, usually near the centre of the main casting in heavier sections, bears the full impact of this contraction. The form of shrinkage may vary from massive elongated cavities of irregular shape to small voids. Shrinkage defects are best detected by r adiographlc inspection where they appear as dark irregular areas. Application of good foundry practices like using adequate numbers of gates and raisers in proper sizes and locations minimize shrinkage porosity. Lowering of pouring temperature can also minimize shrinkage.

Gas Holes and Porosity: These are caused by the evolution and entrapment of gas in the solidifying metal. In ingot sections, gas holes appear as round or elongated cavities of smooth contour. They may occur individually or in massive clusters, depending on the gas concentration. When gas holes appear in indeterminable number they are generally referred to as gas porosity. Pipe: It is a form of shrinkage occurring at the top of an ingot because of the contraction of a metal upon solidification from the molten state.

Failures of dies and tools

Dies and tools have two important features: 1) they are involved in the fabrication of other products, and 2) they have higher hardness than most manufactured parts.

There are many causes of die and tool failures.

1 . Poor desi gn

2. S electi on of material incompatible with the des ign and processing procedure

3. Incorrect heat treatment

4. Improper or lack of control of grinding and finishing operation

5. Improper operation, e.g .• overloading, misalignment etc.

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Sunil C. Joshi

Fai lures & fai lure mec han isms: 12

Notes

Failures of shafts and bearings

M6lO2 Advanced Materials Engineering

Shafts operate under a broad range of service conditions and loads. The causes of their failures are also many.

1) Commonest cause of failure of shafts is by fatigue.

2) Wear by bearings can also be a major contributor of failure.

3) Brittle fracture at low temperature or due to rapidly applied shock load, or

4) Ductile fracture due to accidental overload also causes shaft fai1ure.

5) Surface treatment can cause H2 to be dissolved in high strength steel shafts and cause embrittlement.

6} Creep at elevated tern peratu re can lead to fa ilure 0 fa sh a ft.

Fractures of shafts originate at points of stress concentration such as ends of keyways, edges, fillets at shoulders, edges of holes etc. Stress concentrators produced during fabrication are grinding damage, machining marks or quench cracks. Stress concentrators produced during forging of shafts include discontinuities, e.g., laps, seams! pits and cold shuts, and surface imperfections such as bursts. Also inclusions. pipes, shrinkage porosity are originators of failure, Some examples of shaft failures are shown be1ow.

(0.)

B

c

Y2 005-06 (S 1 )

1

(b)

(el

Crack types in a shaft under

unidi rectio na I bending

(d)

Su nil C. Joshi

Failures & failure mechanisms: l3

Notes

Crack types in a shaft under alternating bending

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M6lO2 Advanced Materi al s Engineering

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til) Y2005 -06 {S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

Failures & failure mechanisms: i 4

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Failures of Gea rs

Gears are machine elements that transmit motion and power. In contrast to plain bearing, gear tooth surfaces are not continuously active. Each part of the tooth surface is in action for only short periods of time. This continua] shifting of the load to new areas of cool metal and cool oil makes it possible to load gear surfaces to stress approaching the critical limit of the gear metal.

The maximum load that can be carried by gear teeth also depends on the velocity a f sliding between surfaces as well as with pressure. If both pressure and sliding speeds are excessive, the frictional heat developed can cause destruction of tooth surfaces. This pressure-velocity factor is important in determining gear failures.

A variety of materials are used in construction of gears. Steels, because their high strength and relatively low cost are the most widely used.

Gear failures have been grouped into four general classes: Wear, Surface fatigue, Plastic flow and Breakage. Wear in case of gears can be of many types such as "polishing-in" (normal slow loss of metal). moderate wear, destructive wear, abrasive wear, scratching (a severe form of abrasive wear). scoring. corrosive wear. flaking. burning etc. Surface fatigue is caused in gears by repeated surface and subsurface stresses that exceed the endurance limit of the material. It is often described as pitting. Plastic flow is a surface deformation due to heavy loads. It is often described as ripping. case-crushing etc. Breakage is fracture of an entire tooth, or a substantial part of a tooth. Often a gear fails due to a combination of these four modes.

Failure of Boilers. Pressure Vessels and Related Accessories

The causes of failure could be 1) Defective material 2) Overheating 3) Embrittlement 4) Corrosion 5) Fatigue 6) Erosion 7) Stress corrosion cracking etc.

Boiler design is inherently conservative; thus, even large defects may be present in some areas without causing failure until after a considerable period of operation. Some defects may be present without ever causing failure. Nevertheless, fabric ation, repair and inspection procedures should be aimed at producing detect-free systems.

Overheating ruptures/failures of tubes in a steam power plant is a serious failure. The steam generator must be shutdown immediately to minimize or avoid

1) erosion of adjacent tubes and furnace sidewalls from escaping steam,

2) overheating of other tube banks because of a loss of boiler circulation, and

3) damage to other components in the system resulting from loss of working fluid.

A tube rupture caused by overheating can be very sudden, occurring within a few minutes, or can take several years to develop. Usually, there is a smal1 amount of tube wall thickness reduction. Examination of transverse section through rupture usually reveals extensive secondary transverse cracking adjacent to main fracture and intergranular separation.

Y2005 -06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Failures & failure mechanisms: j 5

Notes

M6l 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

Rapid overheating of boiler-tubes made of carbon and low-alloy steels usually results in failure because of a decrease in yield strength.

Failure Modes in Composites

A great variety of defonnati on modes can lead to failure of composites. The operative failure mode depends, among other things, on loading conditions, environmentand the microstructure (fiber diameter, fiber volume fraction. fiber distribution) of a particular composite system.

Single and m uttiple fractures

In general. the fiber and matrix win have different values of strain at fracture. When the component that has the smaller breaking strain fractures, for example, a brittle fiber or a brittle ceramic matrix, the load carried by this component is thrown onto the other one. If the component with a higher strain of fracture can bear this additional load, the composite will show multiple fracture of the brittle component. A manifestation of this phenomenon is fiber bridging of the ceramic matrix (see Figure 5). Eventually, a particular transverse section of the composite becomes so weak that the composite is unable to carry the load any further and it fails.

1

t

t

abc d

Figure 5 a) original composites, b) fiber failure, c) composite fai1ure controlled by fiber failure, d) fiber-bridging of matrix cracks

If the fiber fracture strain is less than that of the matrix, the composite will then show a single fracture, e. g. a ceramic fiber in a metallic matrix. When the fibers break, the matrix. will not be able to support the additional load. This is commonly the case with composites containing a large quantity of brittle fibers in a ductile matrix. AU the fibers break in more or less one plane and the composi te also fails in that plane.

In the case where the fibers have a fracture strain greater than that of the matrix (e.g., a ceramic matrix reinforced with ductile fibers), we will have multiple fractures in the matrix.

Debonding~fdJer pullout, and delamination fracture

Suppose that a crack originates in the matrix and approaches the fiberfmatrix interface. In a discontinuous-fiber composite, fibers with extremities from the plane of the crack win debond

Y2005-06 (S I)

Sunil C. Joshi

Failures & failure mechanisms: 16

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M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

and pullout of the matrix. These fibers will not break. Continuous fibers invariably have flaws distributed along their length. Thus, some of them may fracture in the plane of the crack while others may fracture away from the crack plane. The final fracture of the composite will generally involve some fiber pullout, The broken fiber parts are pulled out from their cylindrical holes in the matrix during further straining. One should appreciate the fact that debonding must precede pullout.

For maximum fiber strengthening we would like the fiber to break rather than get pulled out of the matrix. From a toughness point of view, however, fiber pullout may be more desirable. Figure 6 shows schematic all y the fiber pullout in a continuous fib er composi te, while apractic al example of fiber pullout is shown in Figure 7.

Oebonding

Main -cracK direction

&

Figure 6 Schematic offiber pullout and Figure 7 Fracture surface ofSie! glass matrix

site fiber

One of the attractive characteristics of composites is the possibility of obtaining an improved fracture toughness behavior together with high strength. Fracture toughness can loosely be defined as resistanc e to crack propagation. Consider fi hre composi tes containing a crack transverse to the fibers. We c an then increase the crack propagation resistance by one of the following means, each of which involves additional work: 1) Plastic deformation of the matrix, 2) Fiber pullout, and 3) Presence of weak interfaces, fiber/matrix separation, and deflection of the crack.

For metal matrix composites, the work of fracture is the work done during plastic deformation of the matrix at failure. In the case of large-diameter fibers, the advancing crack will have to pass through a greater plastic zone of the matrix and will result in a 1arger work of fracture. Fiber pullout increases the work of fracture by causing a large deformation before fracture. In the case of discontinuous fibers. the work of fracture resulting from fiber pullout also increases with the fi b er length. In the case of continuous fi bers, the work to fracture increases with an increase in spacing between the defects. It would thus appear that one could increase the work of fracture by increasing the fiber diameter. Crack deflection along an interface frequently follows separation of the fiber/ matrix interface. If there were a fiber/matrix interface in front of the crack, the main crack would then deflect along the interface, that is, 900 from its original direction. Thus, the fiber/matrix interface can act as a crack arrestor.

Y2005-06 {S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

F ai lures & fai lure mechan isms: 1 7

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Another failure mode in laminate composites is the delamination. This fracture mode is a form of inter-laminar separation and is of importance in structural applications involving long-term use. for example, under fatigue conditions and where environmental effects are important.

The d elarn ination can be caused by;

Free edge effects: Geometric discontinuities such as holes. termination of plies, ply drop for tapering the thickness. lead to high interlaminar shear stresses near the free edges. Bolted or riveted joints cause local concentration of loads, which changes the magnitude of interlaminar

• EOoEI'I_MENT

Figure 8 Free-edge de]amination-suppression stresses in that zone. These interlaminar stresses and mismatch between Poisson's ratio of different laminae lead to edge delamination. Edge delamination can be arrested by edge reinforcement or by edge modification; see Figure 8 for some of the concepts in use.

Low velocity impact: In service. aircraft composite structures are subjected to impact damages like dropping tool. runway debris, hailstorm, which are, in general, low velocity impacts. Impacts at velocities less than penetration velocity lead to many fracture processes such as spallation, delamination and flexure fai1ures. For small span to depth ratio, delamination is the dominant fracture mode, in laminated composites; as compared to others. For larger span to depth ratios, flexure failure is most likely. High impact energy leads to fiber breakage.

Sh.arp edge impacts: Ply breakage is most obvious in sharp edge impacts (due to angular runway debris, sharp tools etc.). The intensified stress field ahead of crack tip within matrix layer tends to promote delamination growth.

Service environment: It has been experimentally shown that properties like strength and stiffness of polymer composites are adversely affected as a result of moisture absorbed from high humidity environment.

References

(1) G. E. Dieter, Mechanical metallurgy, McGraw-Hili, 1976 (TA 405 D565)

(2) K.G. Budinski, Engineering materials- Properties and select jon, Prentice Han, 1992. (T A 403 B927 ] 992)

(3) R. M. Jones. Mechanics of composite materials, Taylor and Francis, 1999. (TA 418.9.C6 178 1999)

(4) N. E. Dowl ing, Mechanical behaviour of materials- Engineering methods for deformation, fracture, and fatigue, Prentice Hall, ] 993. (TA 404.8 D747)

(5) P.A. Thornton, V. J. Colangelo, Fundametanls of engineering materials. Prentice Hall, 1985. (TA 403 T5l4)

Y2005·06 (S l )

Sunil C. Joshi

F ai lures & fail ure mec hani sms: 18

Notes

ALLOY STEELS

Stainless steels

M61 02 Advanced Materi als Engineering

Steels containing at least 10% chromium are called stainless steels, because they have good corrosion resistance, i.e. they do not rust. These alloys also often have improved resistance to high temperature.

Duplex stainless steel is a distinct class of stainless steel which possesses a two-phase microstructure; the predominant phases are austenite and ferrite. The two phases are present in substantial volume (in contrast to the situation where one phase is present as a fine precipitate within a maj or phase).

Stainless steels contain both austenite-forming elements [e.g., Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn), Carbon (C). Nitrogen (N), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu) etc.) as well as ferrite-forming elements [e.g., Chromium (Cr), Silica (Si), Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V). Titanium (Ti), Tantalum (Ta), Niobium (Nb), Aluminum (Al) Tungsten (W) etc.]. By properly balancing the composition of stainless steels by addition of austenitizers and ferritizers, different structures can be obtained in stainless steels. The Ni and Cr equivalents for austenite- and ferrite-forming elements are calculated re specti vel y as:

Ni- equivalent = (raNi) + (O/oCo) + G.5{YoMn) + O.3(%Cu) + 25(O/oN) + 30(%C) Cr . equivalent = (l/CCr) + 2('%Si) + 1.5ro/aMo) + 5(0/0'1+5. 5(D/oAl) + l. 75(O/aNb)

+ 1.5(D/&Ti) + 0. 75(O-1JW)

Dupl ex stainless steel after deformation at lOS0fiC

Y2005·06 (S1)

Duplex stainless steels could be both cast and wrought (shaped by hammering). Cast duplex stainless steels are predominantly austenitic but contain considerable amounts of ferrite. Wrought duplex stainless steels have a controlled composition which puts them in austenite and ferrite phase field at an elevated. temperature (typically l0000C - 1200°C) where they are hot worked. An example of the fine micro-duplex structure developed by hot working at this temperature is shown in the figure. The hot working generates a structure tha t c an be characterized as bands 0 f austenite and ferrite which are elongated in the direction of working.

Sunil C. Joshi

[I.·letal] i c & Composite Materials: I

Notes

M61 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

Influence of Duplex Structure on Hot Cracking

Single-phase stainless steels, especially austenitic stainless steels, have a high propensity of hot cracking or solidification cracking in castings and weldments. Solidification cracking results from rupturing of liquid films separating already solidified material. or the rupture of isolated solid bridges. Cracking is promoted when there is a large temperature range over which freezing occurs, since this extends the time over which liquid films or isolated solid bridges exist. Sulphur (S), phosphorus (P). Boron (B). Arsenic (As). Antimony (Sb) and Tin (Sn) can all promote hot cracking. It has long been known that the presence of some ferrite is required. to suppress hot cracking in austenitic stainless steels. Presence of ferrite helps to minimize grain growth and increase the grain boundary area thereby giving more area over which to distribute h.armfuI impurities. Presence of ferrite also helps reduce shrinkage stresses because of its smaller coefficient of thermal expansion, greater thermal conductivity and lower high temperature strength and in this way c an also reduce the tendency of hot cracking.

Duplex stainless steels because of their presence of ferrite show greatly reduced propensity of hot cracking.

Hot working and age hardening of duplex stainless steels

Hot working of duplex stainless steels can be complicated by the formation of edge cracks, which are believed to be nucleated by chrome carbides at 1-rJ. interfaces. The cracking can be eliminated by lowering the carbon content or by adding Ti to tie up carbides as TiC, thereby preventing the formation of deleterious CrnC6. With the elimination of Cr23C6 precipitation, crack-free hot working is possible even when a and 1 are present. The presence of1 and ct are important not only for the improved properties of the resultant duplex structure but also because it can make the steel deform superplastically at the hot working temperature. Superplasticity is characterized by large amounts of neck free elongation. This behaviour has been shown to exist in duplex stainless steels, provided there is no carbide induced cracking.

Superplasticity in a duplex stainless steel, which occurs at deformation temperatures of about 10000 C occurs with a micro-duplex structure. Such a structure is about j - 10 times finer than that illustrated in the previous figure. This structure develops because of the action of the y phase in preventing ct grain growth. To achieve this micro-duplex structure, it is necessary that the 1 precipitation accompanies or precedes recrystallization. Hot working in the a and y regions results in y precipitation accompanying recrystallization, Cold working prior to aging can also produce micro-duplex structures. In this case, the cold work results in the y precipitation in the a. and y regions, prior to recrystaHization. It is the presence of finely dispersed y that causes the superpiastic micro-duplex structure to develop.

Age hardening is another phenomenon which has been used to advantage in duplex stainless steels. In a duplex stainless steel. the a-phase field contracts with decreasing temperature and, therefore, conditions exist for age hardening. It is thus possible to make up an alloy which is completely (l at temperatures above 1200oC. but would have an equilibrium y + a structure at lower temperatures. Quenching such an alloy to retain the a presents the possibility of age hardening via '( precipitation at a lower temperature. The 1 precipitation is the hardening constituent. Such age hardening is not onJy theoretically possible but has been used in commercial duplex stainless steels.

Y2005·06 (S])

Suni 1 C. Joshi

Meta Hie & Composite Material s: 2

Notes

M6lO2 Advanced Materials Engineering

Mechanical Properties

In general, the yield strength of duplex stainless steels is about 2 - 3 times greater than that of single-phase austenitic stainless steels (400 ~ 500 MPa vs. 200 - 250 MPa), but the tensile strength is about the same. For example, alloy 2205 has twice the yield strength of standard austeni tic stainless steels such as types 304 and 3 16 and renders corro sion resistance similar to that of type 316. The high yield strength can cause a marked weight saving. The elongation of duplex steels, though adequate for most service conditions and for fabrication, is lower than that of the austenitic steels. The composition of some the commercial stainless steels are presented in Table 1. Table II illustrates the room-temperature tensile properties for some of them .

a e orne commerci mpJex tal ess tee s
Name Ccrnpcsi!ion. (~
Fe Cr Ni M" M~ Si C N P S Dlher Ferrit
If
329 Rest 2ti.O 5.0 1.5 - - 0.08 - ~ - . 0070
Ferralium 255 Rest 24127 4.51 2/4 :Q.O S2.0 ~.{J8 ~J SO 04 ~.04 Cu: -SO
6.5 1.314
7 Mo Rest 2J12S 2.512 112 ::s:L{1 SO.75 SO.08 . sO.04 SO.03 - -35
WO Rest 2M2 s.s/ 2/3 ::s:2.(1 SLO ~.(IJ S{J..2 sO.04 SO.03 Cu: 30-5()
8.5 {I.5
AF22 Rest 21123 4.51 1.5/ ~.O S'l.0 sO.(13 . ~ - - ss-ss
6.5 3.5
3RE60 Rest 1I.S 4.1 2.7 1.5 l.1 $Om - .s0.03 SO.03 - -50
SAF2205 Rest no 5.5 3.0 <2J} <:Q.S 0,0) 0.14 sO.G3 SO.02 - .-..45 T bl I

s

. a1 DlS·n1 S I

T bl II R

·1

DI Sin! S

a e oom- temperature tens! e properties or some upiex ta ess tee s
Alloys 0"(&=<1.2%) MFa O"(UTSl MPa ej(OA)
Ferralium 255 480 minimum 740 minimum 20 minimum
7Mo 565 683 31
USO 315 ~ 440 590 ~ 800 20 -25
3RE60 450 700 ~ 900 30
SAP 2205 410 -450 680 ~ 900 25 The toughness, as expressed by brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of the dup1ex steel, lies between the austenitic and ferri tic grades and is a function of fern te content, the orientation 0 f austenite-ferrite band and the cooling rate from the annealing temperature. Most commercial alloys contain about 50% fenite to maintain a fair1y good toughness because if the ferrite content exceeds 60 ~ 70%, the Charpy impact energy drops sharply.

Resistance to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SeC)

sec resistance of duplex stainless steels is substantially higher than that of common austenitic stainless steels such as type 316 because duplex structure renders severe difficulties in the propagation 0 f sec cracks. The critical stress for sec failures in boiling MgCh is high for duplex stainless steels. They generally have greater resistance to sec i n chloride-containing solutions and so1ved many practical problems by their use. These steels also show good resistance to corrosive fatigue wear, a property that is especially useful in rotating equipment and equipment subjected to frequent thermal cycling.

Y2005-06 (S 1 )

SunH C. Joshi

Me tall i c & Composite Material s: 3

t

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Applications

Dupl ex stainless steels combine t he toughness and weldability of austenite with t he strength, corrosio-n resistance, in particular, the SCC resistance of the ferrite. The pitting corrosion resistance of duplex steels is superior to that of type 304. Duplex steels with 25% Cr & 3% Mo have good resistance in seawater at room and elevated temperatures.

The optimal use of duplex stainless steels is in application of plate. bar and seamless pipe requiring high strength and toughness. One such application is the rapidly growing use of 2205 grade and AF 22 grade for production tubing in corrosive 0 il and gas wens with ] arge . installations already in place in the North Sea and North America.

In petrochemical industries. these steels are used as welded pipe products for handling wet and dry C02, and oil products. These alloys are also employed in chemical, electric power and other industries as welded tubing for heat exchangers. for handling chloride-containing coolants and for handling of brines and various organic chemicals.

The IGC (Inter Granular Corrosion) or sensitization of duplex steels depends primarily on the carbon content and the proportions of (l and y phases in the microstructure. Alloys that contain high proportions of carbon and a greater proportion of ferrite are prone to IGC and need annealing a fter welding. Duplex stainless steels with 10w carbon content ( <0.03%) and a bout equal amounts of ferrite and austenite possess good lGC resistance.

High Strength Low Allov (HSLA) steels! Micro-alloyed steels

These steels comprise a specific group of steels with chemical composition specially developed to impart higher mechanical property values than is obtainable from conventional carbon steels. These are generally produced with emphasis on mechanical property requirements rather than to chemical composition limits. AHoy content is generaUy low «5%). HSLA steels in their as-hotrolled condition can have yield strengths in 290-550 MPa range and ultimate tensile strengths in 415-700 MPa range. Because of their low carbon content, they are generally readily weldable, Their development was spurred by demand for strong, tough. weldable steels for natural gas transmission lines. ships. offshore driHing platforms and automobiles.

Strengthening mechanisms applied in HSLA steels include:

1. grain refinement

2. precipitation

3. dislocation substructure

4. solid solution strengthening

5. strain aging

Their production can involve:

L alloying with small amounts of strong carbide and nitride groups

2. controlled rolling

3. controlled cooling

4. inclusion shape control

These above factors can be used singly or in combination to produce the desired properties.

Y2005·Q6 (51)

Sunil C. Josh i

Metallic & Composite Materials: 4

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Grain Refinement in HSLA Steels

The yield stress, o , of iron and mild steel is related to grain diameter, d, in the following way:

I

cry = CFo+kyd 2

Typically, a coarse grained steel with a grain diameter of 0.04 mm would have a yield stress of 200 MFa; when, however, the grain diameter is reduced to 0.007 mm, the yield stress is raised to 380 MPa. Lower grain size also increases toughness and decreases transition temperature.

1~r---~----------~

Grain refinement in HS LA steels is accomplished by the addition of'Nb, V, Ti or Al. Of these elements, Nb is favoured because the solubility of Nb (C, N) in austenite is less than the solubility of V, Ti or Al carbides and nitrides; hence grain refinement can be achieved with a smaller addition. In Nb-containing HSLA steels, an Nb, C and N are in solution at the start of hot rolling of austenite, but precipitation occurs during the rolling as the temperature of the steel drops. The precipitate particles hinder growth of austenite grains and at still lower temperatures, the particles inhibit recrystallization of the deformed austenite grains. The effectiveness of microalloying elements in refining ferrite grain is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Effect 0 f micro-a llo y content on ferrite zrain size

Precipitation St,.engthening of HSLA Steels

Grain refinement is the preferred mode of strengthening in HSLA steels because it also improves toughness; precipitation strengthening is the next preferred mechanism. The particles that fonn at high temperatures in austenite, a1though they are effective in controlling grain growth, do not cause strengthening because they are too large and widely spaced. The strengthening particles are those that form at low temperatures in austenite at the y·a interface during transformation and in ferrite during cooling.

1 ~500 %

i

~400

~

'"

Q

~XKI >=

Figure 2: Strengthening effect of (a) niobium and (b) titanium

Y2005·06 (51)

Sunil C. joshi

Studies of precipitation in these steels show interphase precipi tation to take place. At the phase transformation 1·0., there is a discontinuous decrease in solubility of the carbide or nitride. Precipitate nucleation and growth occurs at y-o. interface. The spacing of the precipitate planes decreases as cooling rate increases. Interphase precipitation has been seen in steels containing Nb, Y, W,

M eta Hi c & Composite Materials: 5

Notes

M6 102 Advanced Materi als Engineering

Mo, Ti and Cr. The particles fanned during interphase precipitation, or in ferrite after the phase transformation, can be very small, of the order of 5nm, and are thus very effective as strengthening agents. Figure 2 illustrates the strengthening that can be attained by additions of Nb or Ti to hot-rolled strip. Niobium is a more effective strengthener at low concentrations than Ti. Cold rolling lower the strength ofNb steel by agglomeration of carbide particles. The Ti steel suffers less from this proc ess, The precipitates that strengthen HSLA steels need not be confined to carbides or nitrides. Steels can be made with Cu contents between 1.0 and 1.5% so that hardening occurs by the clustering of Cu atoms in ferrite.

Controlled rolling and controlled cooling

The purpose of controlled hot rolling and cooling in ferrite-pearlite HSLA steels is to develop a fine, uniform ferrite grain size coupled with precipitation hardening. Having fine austenite grains is a prerequisite for fine ferrite grains In microailoyed steels. In controlled roHing several important variables need close attention:

1. temperature at each pass

2. amount of deformation per pass

3. time between passes

4. final roiling temperature

5. rate of cooling after final pass

Typically, normal hot rolling results in ferrite grain sizes in the final structure between 40 and 2001-Ull. Controlled rolling, on the other hand, leads to final grain sizes of less than lOJ,.lm.. Most controlled rolling demands heavy deformation and low finishing temperatures in the austenite region. below 950°C. If roUing continues down to the two-phase austenite- ferrite region, certain consequences follow, not all of them desirable. Hot working in the two-phase region can produce sharp increases in strength, but these are accompanied by increases in notch-impact transition temperature because of the dislocation substructure retained in the ferrite. In contrast, as the finishing temperature is lowered in the austenite range, subsequent yield strength increases and the transition temperature decreases because of grain refinement. Steels roHed in the two-phase region are also subject to s plitting fracture because 0 f enhanced banding and development 0 f preferred texture in ferrite.

Controlled rolling/cooling is not a unique process - its parameters can vary widely and a whole series of structural changes take place as follows which determine the final structure and mechanical properties of the steel:

1. hot deformation of austenite

2. recrystallization 0 f austeni te

3. grain growth in austenite

4. precipitation of nitrides and carbonitrides in austenite

5. transformation of y.a.

6. precipitation of alloy carbides during y-o. transformation

7. precipitation of alloy carbides in ferrite

C ontrol of mechanical properties

• 1\1lJ is most effective in controlling grain size because of the relatively low solubility of NbC in austenite.

Y2005-06 {Sl)

Sunil C. Joshi

Metallic & Cornposi te Materials: 6

Notes M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

• AI, V and T i are effective in steels with high N because c arboni trides form,

• VC is more soluble (than NbC) in austenite and subsequently precipitates during y-a transformation and thus more effective in raising yield strength by precipitation. Therefore, Nb and V are used in combination. NbC provides grain refinement while VC by precipitation raises yield strength.

• Inclusion - shape, size, distribution and volume fraction adversely affect ductility and toughness of HSLA steels, For example, Zr additions make MnS incl usions brittle; so these inclusions remain globular and do not deform flat during rolling .this provides ductility and minimize directionality of properties.

Dual-phase HSLA Steels

Dual-phase HSLA steels are steels with structure of islands of martensite or lower bainite in ferrite. They are of interest primarily to users of high strength steel sheet, either hot or cold roUed. A typical dual-phase HSLA steel could have l.5%V. The sheet is hot rolled, cold rolled, then continuously annealed in the a+y region (in the neighbourhood of 760°C), then cooled so that islands of austenite transform to martensite or lower bainite. The transformation produces a dispersion of hard phase in a matrix of ferrite.

Dual-phase HSLA steels generally have low yield stress, continuous yielding, a high rate of work-hardening and a large uniform elongation. A typical steel can have a yield strength of 370tvlPa, ultimate tensile strength of 665MPa and a uniform elongation of 22%. These are desirable characteristics for cold fanning. Dual-phase steels strengthen rapidly during deformation because of their high work-hardening rate. They can be further strengthened by strain-aging.

Maraging steels

Introduction

Maraging steels are a special class of low carbon ultra-high strength steels which derive their strength not from carbon but from precipitation of intermetallic compounds. The original development of the maraging steels was carried out on 20 and 25% Ni steels to which small additions of AI. Ti and Nb were made. The conunonl y a v ailab le maraging steels contain 17 -19% nickel. 8-12% cobalt, 3-5% molybdenum and 0.2-1.6% titanium.

Salient F eatures

Maraging steels possess a number of special advantages over conventional martensitic steels.

i) They offer the best available combination of ultrahigh yield and tensile strength, ductility and fracture toughness 0 f any ferrous materi al s,

ii) They can retain strength at least up to 350{lC.

iii) Being a very low-carbon martensite, the structure is soft enough to be readily machinable and may be cold rolled to as much as 80-90% without cracking prior to aging treatment. Hot deformation is also possible.

Y2005 -06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materials: 7

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materi als Engineerin g

i v) There i s very little dimensional change after aging treatment so that it is possible to finish -machine before aging.

v) Simple heat treatment cycle; solution treatment, air cooling and subsequent aging followed by air cooling. Quenching is thus not required and decarburization, distortion and warpage are no problems. Parts uniformly harden throughout the entire section because the steels have high hardenabi1ity.

vi) They exhibit good weldability even in the fully heat-treated condition. Pre-heating is not required and the properties of the heat affected zone (HAZ) can be restored by a post-weld aging treatment.

vii) Since ductile FeNi martensites are formed upon cooling from austenitizing range, cracks are non-existent or negligible.

vi ii) They can be surface hardened by ni triding.

IX) The corrosion, stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement characteristics of rnaraging steels are considered to be good compared to steels of similar strength levels. However, these steels require surface protection, which is usually provided by cadmium plating or phosphating.

Types of maraging steels

A range of Ni-Ce-Me maraging steels and the compositions of the principal commercial grades are given in Tab1e r.

a e : omma omposi nons 0 aragmg tee s
Grade Composition, weight per cent
Hi Co Mo Ai Ti C
18 Ni 1400 18 8.5 3 0.1 0.2 0.03 max
18 Ni 1700 18 8 5 0.1 0.4 0.03 max
18 Ni 1900 18 9 5 0.1 0.6- 0.03 max
18Ni 2400 17.5 12.5 3.75 - 1.8 0.03 max
17 Ni 1600 (cast) 17 10 4.6 - 0.3 0.03 max T b1 IN· 1 C

fM

s

Note: The terminology used here distinguishes the grades by the nominal 0.2 per cent proof Stress in SI units, but in the USA the corresponding designation is in ksi; thus 18 Ni grade 1400 is referred to as 18 N i 200 in USA

Heat treatment

The heat treatment c yc1e of m araging steel is simple. The typical heat treatment of this alloy consists of so1ution annealing treatment, usual1y at 820°C for a minimum period of 15-30 minutes for thin sections and for I hour per 25 mm thickness for heavy sections, to ensure the formation of a fully austenitized structure. This is followed by air cooling to room temperature to form a soft, but heavily dislocated iron-nickel martensite throughout the section. In this stage it develops approximately the following mechanical properties:

Y2005·06 (51)

S uni 1 C. Joshi

Metalli c & Composite Materials: 8

Notes

M6lO2 Advan ced Materials Engi neering

0.2% proof stress 800-830 MPa elongation 17-19 %
tensil e strength 1000~1150 MPa hardness 27~35 Rockwell C Subsequent aging for several hours (usuaUy 3 hrs) in the temperature range of 480-500{lC produces a fine dispersion of Ni-Mo, NhTi or Ni, (Mo, Ti) intermetallic phases along dislocations or boundaries left by martensitic transformation. The properties after aging treatment are approx.imately the following:

Grade 18Nil400 18Nil700 18Nil900 18Ni2400
0.2% proof stress, lvIPa 1310·1550 1650·1830 1790-2070 2390
tensile strength, MPa 1340·1590 1690-1860 1830-2100 2460
elongation, % 6·12 6·10 5·10 8
hardness, Rockwell C 44A8 48·50 51·55 56-59
impact value, Charpy V -notch, J 35·68 24·25 16·26 11 Strengthening Mechanism

The important age-hardening constituents in the above heat treatment are molybdenum and titanium. Molybdenum forms orthorhombic NiJMo. which precipitates as rods and tends to prevent the formation of harmful grain boundary precipitates that would otherwise degrade toughness. Titanium forms NiJ"Tl. Nb (Ti, Al), or Ni, (Mo, Ti) and renders extra hardening. Titanium also aids in eliminating residual carbon and nitrogen by forming Ti(C, N). Nickel forms the carbon free martensite matrix as well as the intermetallics during aging.

If the alloys are properly h eat treated, the tensile strength attained will be in the range 1400· 2400 MPa and will have excellent fracture toughness. However, if the alloys are improperly heat treated, severe toughness degradation characterized by a complete intergranular fracture behaviour win be produced. Examples of improper heat treatment include: very high solution annealing temperature followed by slow cooling or intermediate annealing treatment in the austenite phase field. This phenomenon is known as 'thermal embrittlernent" and is attributed to the segregation and/or precipitation of alloy carbide TiC or carbonitride TiCN at the prior austenite grain boundaries.

Unlike hardened carbon steels, it is not practical to heat treat maraging steels to a wide range of strength levels; usually, optimum properties cannot be attained by either under-aging or overaging treatments. These restrictions have resulted in the development of several different compositions, each with a specific strength level, Whenever a different yield strength level is required, it is better to use a different composition designed for that strength instead of manipulating the heat treatment by trial and error. The cost of maraging steel is high, due mainly to a) the cost of the high-alloying elements involved and b) the high purity required which is attainable by single or double-vacuum melting,

Y2005~06 (S 1 )

Suni 1 C. Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materials: 9

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Applications

Maraging steels have found applications where lightweight structures with ultrahigh strength and high toughness are essential and cost is not a maj or concern.

Typical applications are: in the aerospace and aircraft industry for critical components such as large rocket-motor casings, load cells, helicopter flexible d rive shafts, jet-engine drive shafts, shock absorber for Lunar Rover,landing gear. wing binge for swing-wing planes and so forth. In the too] manufacturing industries for drive shafts, pistons, springs, forging and casting and moulding dies and so on. The higher grade. e.g, 18 Ni 2400. is primarily used as material for tools, tool fixtures, fasteners etc. The hardness and the elevated-temperature capabilities of this grade make it suitable for use in bearings.

SUPERALLOYS & COMPOSITES

Superallovs

Introduction

In genera], superalloys are heat-resistant alloys, They are expected to maintain structural. surface and property stability at elevated temperatures. under high stress. and in severe environments. Generally, superalloys must exhibit good resistance to corrosion, creep, fatigue, thermal fatigue. thermal shock, impact, cavitation and erosion and must also have good fracture properties, They a lso need to have good forming characteristic s and weldabili ty.

They are iron, cobalt and nickel-base alloys that contain chromium for resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion and that contain other elements for strength at elevated temperatures.

The high temperature applications of superalloys are extensive, including components for aircraft, chemical plant equipment and petrochemical equipment. They a re also used in steam power plants, in space vehicles and in heat treating equipment. In many applications, components must be in service for prolonged periods of time and long-term structural stability is important The maximum service temperature for conventional superalloys in structural applications does not exceed about 950°C. In applications where the component does not bear a load, the temperature may exceed 1200(lC.

Wrought (shaped by hammering) superaHoys may be c1assified as follows:

1. Conventional superaUoys, as wrought.

2. Alloys prepared by powder metallurgical techniques.

Manufacturing techniques are increasingly making use of powder metallurgy (PM). hot isostatic pressing (HIP). superplastic forging and other sophisticated means to produce components of unusually fine grain size imparting exceptionally good properties.

Y2005-06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Metall ic & Composite Materia Is: W

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineerin g

Metallurgy of SuperalJoys

Superalloys are strengthened by the following mechanisms: solid solution strengthening. precipitation hardening, and oxide-dispersion strengthening. Solid solution and precipitation hardening alloys are considered conventional alloys, Oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, a new breed of superalloys, enjoy only limited commercial use.

Table I reviews briefly the roles that various alloying elements play in strengthening of superaUoys. Primarily. the alloying elements can be classified as a) solid solution strengtheners, which affect only the matrix, b) elements which form carbides or intermetaUic compounds in grain boundaries or within grains and c) elements which form a coherent gamma-prima phase in nickel base alloys.

a e o eo e emen m super o--'ys
Eflect (a) Fe-base Co-base Ni-base
Solid. so t uti on stren~heners Cr,Mo Nb, o, Mo, Ni, W. Ta Ca, o, Fe, Mo, W, Ta
Promotes general precipitation of carbi des P . -
Oxidation resistan ce Cr Al,Cr AI. Cr
lmpro-',Ie hot corrosi on resi stance La, Y La. Y. Tb La, Th
lmproves creep properti es B . B
Increases rupture strength B 8,Zr B T bI I R 1 f I

ts

all

Some of the oxide-dispersion-strengthened superalloys are listed in Table Il,

Table II Oxide-Di~ersion-Strengfuened s1!l!eralloys---.CODS)
Alloy Ni Cr Y,OJ tt Ai C Fe Other«
lncone 1 MA. 754 Rest 20 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.05 . -
Incoloy MA 956 20 0.5 0.:5 4.5 . Rest -
lnconelMA6000 E Rest 15 t.t 2.5 4.5 0.05 . 2 Mo, 4 W. 2 1a. 0.15 z-, 0.1 B
HDA8077 Rest 16 - . 4.0 - - .
rN 738 + Y20) Rest l6 1.3 3.4 3.4 0.17 - 1.7 Mo, 1.7 Ta, 2.6 W,O.9 Nb, 8.5 Co,
0.1 Zr a) Iron-base superailoys

Many iron-base superalloys have a FCC matrix and form the phases with abnonnaHy short interatomic distances. Various elements are added such as Ni, AI, Ti & Nb which precipitate intermetallic phases from the matrix by suitable heat treatment. FCC alloys are also often hardened by addition of carbon (up to 0.5%) to form general carbide precipitate; nitrogen and phosphorus sometimes are added to enhance this effect. Elements in solid solution add some limited degree of strengthening; the most potent are interstitia] in nature.

Iron-base superalloys hardened by intennetaHic-compound precipitation have found primary usage in gas-turbine engines as blades, discs, casings and fasteners. A-286 forging and Incoloy 903 alloys are quite well used in turbine engines. Solid solution strengthened alloy N-155 is used extensively for furnace hardware and for industrial fans that operate in high temperature environments.

Y200S -06 (5 l}

Sunil C Joshi

Metalli<: & Composite Materials: 11

Notes

M6102 Advan ced Materia Is Engineering

b) Cobalt-base superalloys

Cobalt-base solid solution superalloys can be subdivided into three simple groups on the basis of use: a) alloys for use primarily at temps between 650-1 150°C, e.g., Haynes 25, Haynes 188, Haynes 556, UMeo-50 and S-816; b) fastener alloys tvIP 35N and MP 159 for use up to 650°C and c) wear-resistant Stellite 6B. The solid solution alloys in their heat treated condition have FCC structure. The alloys also contain secondary carbide phases, e.g.,1v4C, M2JC6 etc.

Of the high temperature group, alloy S-816 originally was extensively used in turbochargers and gas turbine wheels, blades and vanes but has since been largely replaced by higher-strength lower density nickel-base alloys with improved resistance to adverse environment. Haynes 25 is another well known cobalt-based superalloy and has been widely used for hot sections of gas turbines, for nuclear-reactor components, for surgical implants and in the cold worked condition for fasteners and wear pads. Haynes 188 is specially designed for sheet-metal components such as combustors and trans i tion ducts in gas turbines.

MP 35N and MP 159 were specially designed to be work-hardened and both alloys have high strength and relatively high ductility in the work-hardened condition. MP 35N and NIP 159 are used predominantly as fasteners; MP 159 has an approximate upper limit on service temperature of 650°C.

Stellite 6B is characterized by high hot hardness and relatively good resistance to oxidation. The latter property is obtained chiefly from high Cr-content (-30%) whereas the hot hardness is obtained through f'ormation o f c ornplex carbides of the Cr7C3 and M2JC6 types. SteUite68 is widely used for erosion shields in steam turbines, for wear pads in gas turbines and for bends in systems carrying particulate matter at high temperatures and high velocities.

Nickel-base superaUoys

The combination of nickel and chromium gives these alloys outstanding oxidation resistance. As a class, nickel-base sugeranoys exceed stainless steel in mechanical strength, especially at temperatures above 650 C. Solid solution alloys such as Inconel 600, Inconel 601 and RA 333 are frequent1 y used for furnace p arts and other heat treating equipment They are also used in high-temperature chemical processing equipment such as hydrocarbon reformers and crackers. Power generation equipment is another area where nickel base superalloys are used extensively. These include super-heater tubing, ash handling systems, stack gas scrubbers and other parts that must resist heat and corrosion.

Solid solution nickel base superalloys are normally annealed (In annealing, parts are heated to certain temperature, held for an extended time and then slowly cooled in still air or furnace at a controlled rate); the annealing treatment depending on the properties required. A low annealing temperature of 870 to 980(lC is used to produce high tensile strength and fatigue properties. Higher annealing temperatures produce better creep rupture properties. Precipitation-hardening nickel-base superalloys contain AI, Ti 0 r Nb to cause precipitation of a second phase during appropriate heat treatment. The precipitated phase, usually gamma type, substantially increases the strength and hardness 0 f t he a no y. For example, l nconel X -750, a precipitation-hardening version of Inconel 600, has yield strength of about 3 time that of Incone1 600 at 54rfC.

Y2005-06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materials: 12

Notes

M61 02 Advan ced Materials Engineering

Precipitation-hardening Nimonic 80A shows a similar increase over its solid-solution counterpart Nimonic 75.

Heat treatment for the precipitation-hardening alloys generally consists of a solution treatment at 970 to 1 175°C fo Howed by one or more pre<: ipitation treatments at 600 to 8150 C.

Processing of Sup era Uoys

Superalloys are most often electric furnace melted. Secondary re-mel ting is often done to eliminate gases, non-metallic and metallic impurities and inclusions. High sulphur levels are injurious tot he workability and properties 0 f many wrought h eat-resisting a lloys, particularly high-nicked alloys. Many superaUoys are produced by powder metallurgy processes. Powder metallurgy processing of superalloys allows

1) rapid cooling of small powder particles eliminating segregation and producing more homo geneous material than cast ingots,

2) fine grain structure improving hot workability,

3) production of componen ts with dimensions and shapes appro aching finished products.

Reinforced composites

Introduction

A composite material is made by combining two or more materials that are mutually insoluble by mixing or bonding them in such a way that each maintains its integrity. A reinforced composite consists of a matrix. of one material that surrounds particles or fibers of a second material as shown in Figure la, Some composites involve layers of different materials. and the individual layers may themselves be composites; see Figure lb. Similar to ARALL hybrid laminate of Kelvar-Aluminum, GLARE consists of Aluminum-glass fibre reinforced composites.

(I.

fb) Figure l a: (a) particulate, (b) short fiber, and Figure lb: (a) Quasi-isotropic, and

(c) continuous fiber composites. (b) ARALL hybrid laminate.

Man-made composites can be tailored to meet special needs such as high strength and stiffness combined with lightweight, The resulting high performance (and expensive) materials are being increasingly used in aircraft, space, and defense applications. More economical composites, such as glass reinforced plastics, are continually finding new uses in a wide range of products, such as automotive components. boat hulls. sports equipment, and furniture. Wood and concrete of course continue to be major construction materials. Various classes of composite materials and their uses are Ii sted in Tab le L

Y2005-06 (51)

Sunil C. los hi

Metanic & Composite Materials: 13

Notes

M61 02 Advanced Materials Engineering

a e epresentanve types an examples 0 compos l te matena s
Reinforcing Type Matrix I'J;Re Example Typical Use
(a) Particulate composites
Ductile polymer or Brittle polymer Rubber in polystyrene Toys, cameras
elastomer
(b) Short fiber, whisker composites
Strong fiber Thermosetting plastic Chopped glass in Auto body panels
po lyester resin
Ceramic Ductile metal SiC whiskers in A1 Aircraft structural
alloy panels
(c) Continuous fiber composites
Ceramic Thermosetting plastic Graphite in epoxy Aircraft wing flaps
Ceramic Ductile metal Boron in AI aHcj' Aircraft structure
Ceramic Ceramic SiC inSbN4 Engine parts
(d) Laminated composites
Stiff sheet Polymer Foam or honeycomb Floor boards
sandwich panels
Composite Metal Kevlar/ epoxy and A1 Aircraft structure
ano~ layers (ARALLt T b1 I R

d

I f

. l

a) Particulate Composites

Particles can have various effects on a matrix material depending on the properties of the two constituents. Ductile particles added to a brittle matrix increase the toughness as cracks have difficulty passing through the particles. Particles of a hard and stiff (high E) material added to a ductile matrix increase its strength and stiffness, however, generally decrease the fracture toughness of a ductile matrix . An example is carbon black added to rubber.

In a metal matrix, a desirable strengthening effect can be achieved by sintering the metal in powder form with ceramic particles of size of the order of 0.1 !-l m. This is caned dispersion hardening. The volume fraction of particles seldom exceeds 15%, and the amount may be as small as 1%. Alwnlnum reinforced in this manner with AhO) has improved creep resistance. Tungsten is similarly dispersion hardened with small amounts of oxide ceramics, such as AhOl. Si~~ and K20~ so that it has sufficient creep resistance for use in light-bulb filaments.

(b) Fibrous Composites

Strong and stiff fibers can be made from ceramic materials that are difficult to use as structural materia1s in bulk form, such as glass, graphite (carbon), boron, ararnid (kevlar) and silicon carbide (SiC). When these are embedded in a matrix of a ductile materia], such as a polymer or a metal, the resulting composite can be strong, stiff. and tough. The fibers carry mo st 0 f the stress ~ whereas the matrix holds them in place. Fiber diameters are typically in the size range of 1 to 100 J.UTI.

Short, randomly oriented fibers result in a composite that has similar properties in all directions. Chopped glass fibers used to reinforce thermoplastics are of this type. Whiskers are short fibers that consist of tiny elongated single crystals that are very strong because they are dislocation free. Diameters are 1 to 10 urn or smaller, and lengths are 10 to 100 times larger than the

Y2005-Ck) (Sl)

Sunil C. Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materia ls: [4

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

diameter. F or example, randomly oriented SiC whiskers can be used to strengthen and stiffen aluminum all 0 ys.

f

f

I I

l

,

i ~

Long fibers can be woven into a cloth or made into a mat of intertwined strands. High performance composites are often made using long straight continuous fibers. Continuous fibers all oriented in a single direction provide maximum strength and stiffness parallel to the fibers. For such composite la yers, the el astic constants can be derived using micro-mechanics approach.

Elastic COHSWniS {micro-mechanics approach):

The elastic constants for transversely isotropic composite can be estimated from the properties of the constituent materials as -

Longitudinal modulus (fiber direction) Transverse modulii

E u = Ell Y f +E(It V'"

Em

Shear modulii

Poisson ratios

Vl2 ::::: vn = V 112 V f + v'" v",;

E

v :::::_22 __ 1

21 2G

23

Since such a materi a] is weak if stress ed in the transverse direction. several thin la yers with different fiber orientations are usually stacked into a laminate as shown in Figure lb. The layers may differ as to the fiber orientation, or they may consist of different materials. Plywood is a familiar example of a laminate. Composites with a thennosetting plastic matrix.., often epoxy. are also as semb 1 ed in till s manner using partially cured sheets, which are called prepregs because they have been previously impregnated 'With the epoxy resin. Appropriate heat and pressure is applied to complete the cross-linking reaction while at the same time bonding the layers into a solid laminate. Where stiffness in bending is needed along with light weight, layers of a strong and stiff material may be placed on either side of a lightweight core. Such sandwich materials include alum.in urn or fibrous composite sheets bonded on each side 0 f a core that is made of stiff foam. Another possibility is a core made of a honeycomb of aluminum or other material.

Due to the limitations of the matrix, polymer matrix composites have limited resistance to high temperature. Composites with an aluminum or titanium matrix. have reasonable temperature resistance. For high temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are being developed.

Multi-layer Insulation (MLD blankets for spacecraft

rv1LI blankets are used either to prevent excessive heat loss from a component or excessive heating from environmental fluxes, rocket plumes, etc. Most spacecraft flown today are covered with MLI blankets, with cutouts provided for radiator areas to reject internally generated waste

Y 2005-06 (S 1)

Sunil C Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materials: 15

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

heat. They are also typically used to protect internal propellant tanks, propellant lines and solid rocket motors.

Multilayer insulation is composed of multiple layers of low-emittance films. MLI blankets typical 1 y consist of three to thirty 1 ayers 0 f metalized plastic sheets. The inner layers are typically as thin as practical (114 mil) to minimize weight and are usually made of aluminized Mylar, which is mass produced for commercial applications and is inexpensi ve. The innennost and outermost layers of the blanket, however, are usually made of 1- or 2-mil aluminized Kapton which is much more rugged than the Mylar and provides protection during installation and handling. Mylar cannot be used as an outer layer materia1 since it disintegrates WIder prolonged UV exposure. The aluminized Kapton also provides a desirable absorptivity/emmitivity ratio for the exposed outside layer of the blanket. Aluminized Kapton should also be used for the inner layers in applications where blanket temperatures are between lOOCC and 270°C for long periods, or up to 385ilC for short periods. Sometimes glass-fiber cloths such as Beta Cloth or Astroquartz are used for the outer layer of blankets. Astroquartz is a fabric constructed of woven quartz fiber that is white in appearance and can withstand very high temperatures, which makes it ideal for protection against rocket-motor plume heating. Beta Cloth is similar to Astroq uartz except that the glass fibers are coated with Teflon, which increases their emittance. Both Beta Cloth and Astroquartz, however, are difficult to dean and work with, and can be a significant source of contaminants on orbit.

In order to evacuate the air trapped between blanket layers before launch vent paths have to be provided. This is done either by making ail blanket layers from a material with small perforations or by leaving one or more edges of the blanket unsealed.

The many layers of an MLI blanket are typically held together by either stitching around the edges or the use of small tabs or buttons spaced at some regular interval. In addition, the blanket edges are typically finished off by taping them closed (Kapton tape with acrylic, not silicone, adhesive). unless they are being used as a vent path. The blanket is then usually attached to the spacecraft using Velcro strips.

! .. Wtih)"C'l bulmou BlaoI.:rn: To Pre",-m: MI' e.~~ ~ 'pa=nft:!11114 ~=...&.If http://w ......... '. phys i~s,hku,"k!e'·enl5lgudent_ activities/Report. pdf

Y200;·06 (S])

Sunil C. Joshi

M etall ic & Composite Materi a 1 s: 16

Notes

M6102 Advanc ed Materi als Engineering

References

(1) R.A. Lula (editor), Duplex Stainless Steels, American Society for Metals 1983.(T A479.S7D936)

(2) R.M. Darison et. al., «A Review of Worldwide Developments in Stainless Steels" in Speciali ty Steels and Hard Materials. Proc. Intl, Conf. on Speciality Steel ~ Ed. Comins and Clark, Pergamon Press, 1983. (TA472.I61)

(3) A.K. Sinha, Ferrous Physical Metallurgy, Butterworths, 1989. (TN693.I7S617)

(4) 8.Z. Weiss, "Maraging Steels - Structure! Properties and Applications" in Speciality Steels and Hard Materi als, Proc. IntI. Conf on Speciality Steels, Ed. Comins and Clark, Pergamon Press. 1983. (TA472.I61)

(5) W.e. Leslie. The Physical Metallurgy of Steels. McGraw Hi11 Co., 1982. (TN693.I7L637)

(6) R.W.K. Honeycombe, "Microstructural Design in Low Alloy Steels", in Speciality Steels and Hard Materials, Proc, Intl. Conf. on Recent Developments in Speciality Steels. Ed. Comins and Clark, Pergamon Press 1983. (TA472.161)

(7) N.E. Dowling, Mechanical behaviour of materials a Engineering methods for deformation, fracture and fatigue. Prentice-Hall inc., 1993. (TA404.8 0747)

(8) R.M. Jones, Mechanics of composite materials, 2nd edition, Taylor & Francis, Inc., 1999. (TA418.9.C6J78)

(9) Gilmore D.G., editor, Satellite thermal control handbook, The aerospace corporation press, California, 1994. (TL900.S253)

(10) URL: http://www.webelements.coml

Glossa", of terms

Rockwell Hardness Test:Jn this test, a diamond point. called a Brale indenter, or a steel ball is employed as the indenter. Rockwell tests differ from other hardness tests in that the depth of the

indentation is measured, rather than the size. The hardness number HRX ::::; M - ~; where

0.002

t1h is in millimeters and M. the upper limit of the scale, is equal to 100 for all scales using the diamond point (A, C. and D scales). generally for hard metals and alloys, The hardness numbers are designated HRX. where X indicates the scale involved, such as 60 HRC for 60 points on the Cscale.

Periodic table of the elements (KG Budinski, p4):

Shown on the next page ...

Y2005-06 (51)

Sunil C. Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materials: \ 7

Notes

Y2005-06 (S 1 )

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

~ I
Ot .
... ~ ..
J zi -
I: :::: III

1

E

c o z

t ::!

::

.. ill... .a

rr ~ wi j ~

01-'·· ~ .~.>r. . 0.· ... ·· • '" -., I CD I~~

! •

.5:. ! BL : l; )~

~

..

J

I

J

J ~

I

!

! :r··-II :r"-·IE :~-·i; ". =:··"·r; ...... 11

>L: ; uL~ I: ~L·; ¥ iIl:L. i~!L I~

Sunil C. Joshi

Metallic & Composite Materials: I g

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materia 1.5 Engineering

MATERIAL SELECTION & CASE STUDIES

Some useful concepts

A beam of uniform section. loaded in simple tension by a force F. carries a stress a = F / A where A is the area of the section. Its response is calculated from the appropriate constituti ve equation. Here the important characteristic of the section is its area, A. For other modes of loading. Jrigher moments of the area are involved. Those for various common sections are given on the facing page. They are defined as follows.

The second moment I measures the resistance of the section to bending about a horizontal am (shown as a broken line), It is

1= r . y2b(y)dy 1=000

where y is measured vertically and b(y) is the width of the section at y. The moment K measures the resistance of the section to twisting. It is equal to the polar moment J for circular sections. where

J = f _ 21f?dr

j,et:.t.J.oa

where r is measured radially from the centre of the circular section. For non-circular sections K is less than J.

The secti on modulus Z = L] y", (where y".. is the normal distance from the neutra1 axis of bending to the outer surface of the beam) measures the surface stress generated by a given bending moment, M:

My", M

(7=--=-

I Z

Finally, tile moment H, defined by

H = 1 . yb(y}d)'

secuoa

measures the resistance of tile beam to fully-plastic bending. The fully plastic moment for a beam in bending is

Mp = Hcry

Thin or slender shapes may buckle before they yield or fracture. It is this which sets a practical limit to the thinness of tube walls and webs.

Y2005--06 (S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

M ateri al selecti on & case studies: l

Notes

M6! 02 Advanced Materials Engin eering

Table: Information on various sections

Section Shape A(m2) I ... (m") K(m~) _Z{'!:Il) Q(m3)
-- ~r4 -' :!,... ~,--3 ~ ~~
rrr -
- --
4 2 4 'f 2
r~ I? b' O.14b4 &J D.21b1
- -
-11- II 6
2~ .!a1b 1ralt? '" 2b 1fa'b
rrab 4 (al + bl) '4a 2
1--2b---l J.a < b)
I~ W b'h \ b) bJil Jilh1
i!- bl? - '3 1 -0.:58;;- -
12 6 3h + l.8b
-11- h > b) (h:> b)
~~ ./3az a4 a4J3' W a3
32../3 - -
4 80 32 20
1-----1
~.r rr{r; - rf) n- ~ r1 ,. ~ 4 1£ 4 4 ,.
-{r~ - j) -( - r.) 4r" {r~ -rj}, -(r"-r')
~2~ 4 2" , 21'"~" I
::lO 2Jrn ::l::: rr? t ::l::: 2rrr]r ::>.:: ,.?t ~ 2n"r21
ID 2 -«.n 4 2i?r (1 - ~r
4bt -lh -Jr:
3 3
-o~
re- jT 1 (1 3b) 4:rr(ab?t2t rral, ( 3b) 2Jrt(~b}ltl
2C --- n{a + b)l -a t +- (a2 + b2) - 1+-
4 a 4 a
l--ib--4 (b> a)
fI::!! b{h" - 11;) t2 (h~ - hi) l!....-W - Al)
- 6h~ ~ 1 -
}
...... II~ :<::: lbl ~ -bo2 ::::::: blh.,
2 "
DI~J 1 ( 3b) b h2r ( 3b)
2t(h + b) fih3, 1 + h - 1+-
) 3 h 11\
!-~ ...... 5-11...,j -
:J.
X ~
~'
~rHf H
21(h +b} iW +4b:2) ...!..-W +4btz) ~)
3h
~ ~ll-l h
~
[~ ( n2dl) O.dl O.d
o. 1 + 4)",2 - - -
I--l~ 8 4 Y2005-06 (S 1 )

Sunil C. Joshi

Materi al sel ection & case studi es: 2

Notes

M6102 Ad vanced Materi als Engineer] ng

Case study 1: Materials for table legs

Problem statement: A furniture designer conceives of a lightweight table of daring simplicity: a flat sheet of toughened glass supported on slender, unbraced, cylindrical legs (Figure 1.1). The legs must be solid (to make them thin) and as light as possible (to make the table easier to move). They must support the tabletop and whatever is placed upon it without buckling, What materials could one recommend?

Design requirements: Lightness and slenderness are independent design goals, both constrained by the req u i rement that the le gs must not buckl e when the table is loaded. Thus:

Function:

support compressive loads (Column)

(a) Minimize mass (b) Maxi m ize slenderness

(a) Length I

specified

(b )Must not buckle under design loads (c)Must not fracture

if accidentally struck radius r

--

Objective

Constraints

A fierthou ght

Free variable

- .

The model: This is a problem with two objectives: weight is to be minimized, and to be slenderness maximized. There is only one constraint: res i stance to buck lin g. C heck whether the ob j ecti ves are conflicting.

--

-

-

(1) Consider minimizing weight first: The leg is a slender column of material of density p and modu lus E. Its length is I and the max im u m load it must carry is P. These are all fi xed parameters and determi ned by design. The radius r of a le g is a free variable. We wish to minimize the mass m of the leg, given by the objective function

m = Alp = ;rr21p (U)

subject to the constraint that it supports load P without buckling. The critical elastic load P of a column of length I and radius r with one end fixed and the other end simply supported is

tr1 £1 ;rJ Er 4 ;rr4

P . = --= for 1=- (1.2)

,mica/ 12 4/2 4

where 1 is the second moment of area of column. For load P not to exceed P critical, solving (1.2) fo r free variab I e r, we get

Figure 1.1 A lightweight table with slender cy I i ndrical legs

substituting (1.3) into (I. I) m:

( 1.3)

]

m=( 4:~7'P

Re-arranging in FGM (Functional, Geometrical and Materials) format

Y2005-06 (S1)

Sunil C. Joshi

(l .4)

Materi al seleeti on & cas e studies: 3

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

(1.5)

The material properties are grouped together in the last pair of brackets. The weight is minimized by selecting the subset of materials with the greatest value of the material index

M, -( :~J

(1.6)

(2) Consider now s1endemess from buckling point of view;

. Inverting equation (1. 2) for the thinnest leg, which will not buckle, we get

r = (4PI2)~

;r] E

Re-arranging (1.7) in FGM (Functional, Geometrical and Materials) format

r=(:::y(l~ X~)~

(1.7)

(1.8)

The thinnest leg is that made of the material with the largest value of the material index

M2 = E (1.9)

Material selection: We seek the subset of materials, which have high values of MJ and Mz. (nonconflicting objectives). Figure 1.2 depicts the chart: Young's modulus plotted against density. A guideline of slope 2 is drawn on diagram; it defines the slope of the grid of lines for values of MI. The guideline is displaced upwards (retaining the slope) until a reasonably small subset of materials is isolated above it; it is shown in dark at the position MJ = 6 GPa/l2I(MglmJ). Materials above this line have higher values of MI. They are identified on the figure: woods (the traditional material for table legs), composites (particularly CFRP) and certain special engineering ceramics. Polymers are out; they are not stiff enough. Metals too; they are too heavy (even magnesium alloys, which are the lightest).

The choice is further narrowed by the requirement that. for slenderness. E must be large. A horizontal line on the diagram links materials with equal values of M]; those above are stiffer, Figure 1.2 shows that placing this line at M2 = 100 GPa eliminates woods and GFRP. lithe legs must be really thin, then the shortlist is reduced to CFRP and ceramics: they give legs, which weigh the same as the wooden ones but are much thinner,

Ceramics, we know. are brittle: they have low values of fracture toughness. Table legs are exposed to abuse - they get knocked and kicked; common sense suggests that an additional constraint is needed, that of adequate toughness. It eliminates ceramics, leaving CFRP as the best choice.

The cost ofCFRP may cause concern, however it was not one of the original constraints.

Y2005·06 (5 I}

Sunil C Joshi

Materi a 1 selecti on & case studi es: 4

Notes

M6lO2 Advanced Materials Engineering

Ranking: It is a good idea to layout the results as a table, showing not on1y the materials which are best, but those which are second-best - they may, when other considerations are involved become the best choice. The following table shows one way of doing it.

,

I

I

I

I

,

I E

I

,

I

I

I

I

I

I

Material MI M2 Commeru
(GPal/2m3/Mg) (GPa)
Woods 5-8 4-20 Outstanding M I; poor M 2.
Cbeap, traditional, reliable.
CFRP 4-8 30-200 Outstanding M, and M1• but expensive.
GFRP 3.5-5.5 20-90 Cheaper than CFRP. but lower M. and Mr..
Ceramics 4-8 150-1000 Outstanding M I and M 2. Eliminated by
brittleness. -0_3 r.o 3 10

Density. p (Mglm3 )

Figure 1.2 Modulus-Density chart

protecting the legs from abuse, or by pre-stressing them in compression.

Y200S-06 (S 1)

Suni I C Jo shi

Material selection & case studies: 5

Postscript: Tubu1ar legs, may be another option as they are li ghter than solid ones. But they will be fatter. S a it depends on the re I ati ve importance the desi gner attac hes to his two ob j ecti ves: lightness and slenderness. If

tubi ng can be

cons idered, the

material choice may be di fferent. (Materi als se lection with shape factor) Ceramic legs were eliminated because of low toughness. If (improbab Iy) the goal was to desi gn a light. slenderlegged table for use at high

tern pe ratures, ceram ics she uld be recons i dered. The bri ttl eness prob 1em can be by-passed by

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Case study 2: Safe, thin-walled, spherical pressure vessels

Problem statement:

Suggest suitable materials for small as well as large, thin walled (thickness t). spherical (radius R) pressure vesse ls to contai n internal pressure p.

Design requirements: Pressure vessels are designed, for safety, to yield or leak before they break. The details of this design method vary. Small pressure vesseJs are usually designed to allow general yield at a pressure still too low to cause any crack the vessel may co ntain to propagate (' yield before break .); the distortion caused by yie I din g is easy to detect and the pressure can be released safely. With large pressure vessels th is may not be poss i b Ie. Instead. safe design is achi eved by ensuring that the smallest crack that will propagate unstably has a len gtb greater than the thickness of the vessel wall C leak before break'); the

leak: is eas ily detected. and it re I eases pressure gradually and thus safely. Thus. the design requirements could be -

Press ure yes se I = co ntai n pressure p

Maximum safety (tolerable crack size, and pressure intensity) with minimum mass

(a) Must yield before break, or

(b) Must leak before break

Wa n thickness t

t

Fi gu re 2.1 A press ure vessel co ntain ing a flaw

Function Objective

Constraints

Free variab I e

t

The model: This is a problem with two objectives: weight is to be minimized, and safety to be assured. There is only one constraint: either (a) or (b). Check whether the objectives lead to conflict i ng material ind ices to each other.

(1) AHowable crack size; To establish that the vessel contains no crack or flaw of diameter greater than 2 a., then the stress req ui red to make the crack propagate is:

KIc

a = r::::::- (2.1 )

v7rQ~

Safety can be achieved by ensuring that the working stress is less than this; but greater security is obtained by requiring that the crack will not propagate even if the stress reaches the genera] yield stress - for then the vessel will deform in a stable way which can be detected. This condition is expressed by setting (1 = a f' giving

a, ~ ~ ( !; r (2.2)

The tolerable crack size is maximized by choosing a material with the largest value of

Y100S-06 (S 1)

Sunil C. Joshi

M ateri al selecti on & case studies: 6

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materi als Engineering

M, =( :;)

(2.3)

(2) Leak-before-break: The safety can be further ensured by arranging that a crack, just large enough to penetrate both the inner and the outer surface of the vessel, is still stable, bee ause the

leak caused by the crack can be detected. This is achieved by substituting a(: = !.- in (2.1).

2 .

x;

Uj=g

1f-

2

However, the wall thickness (t) of the pressure vessel should be designed to contain the pressure (P) without yielding. The stress in the wall of a thin-waned spherical pressure vessel of radius R is given by

(2.4)

pR

a=-

21

(2.5)

Thus, the minimum thic kness should be

pR

t=--

2aj

(2.6)

Substituting (2.6) into (2.4), we get

at = f!!;'CR ::::::> 7f--

4o"j

The maximum pressure is 'C arried most safely by the materi al with the greatest value 0 f 1

M _KJe

2 -

at

Both MJ and At] could be made large by making the yield strength of the Wall, very small. However, it would mean a comparatively large-thickness vessel for containing pressure. However, the vessel waH must be as thin as possible, both for economy of material. and to keep it light. The thinnest wall, from equation (2.6), is that with the largest yield strength. Thus we wish also to maximize

K

2

npR Kfc

--=--

4

(2.7)

(2.8)

u, =aj narrowing further the choice of material.

(2.9)

Material selection; These selection criteria are applied by using the chart shown in Figure 2.2: the fracture toughness plotted against strength The three cri teri a appear as lines 0 f slope 1, 1/2 and as lines that are vertical (no conflict).

Take 'yield-before-break' as an example. A diagonal line corresponding to M, links materials with equal performance; those above the line are better. The line shown in the figure at MJ ~ 0.6 mIl] excludes everything but the toughest steels, copper and aluminum alloys, though some pol ymers nearly make it (pressurized lemonade and beer containers are made of these polymers). A second selection line at Mj= 100 MPa eliminates aluminum alloys.

Y1005-06 (S1)

Sunil C. Joshi

Materi a 1 sel ecti on & case studies: 7

Notes

M61 02 Advanced Materials Engi neering

Large pressure vessels are always made of steeL Those for models (a model stearn engine, for instance) are copper; it is favored in the small-scale application because of its greater resistance to corros i on.

Ranking: Looking at the further details, a few materials can be identified and ranked as shown in the foU owin g tab Ie.

Malerial MI = K1c (m1/2) M~ =(1'1 Comme1ll
af
(MPa)
Ioagh steels >0.6 300 These are the pressure-vessel
steels. standard in this application.
Tough copper alloys >0.6 120 OFHC Hard drawn copper.
Tough Al- alloys >0.6 80 } 000 and 3000 series Al-alloys.
Tl-alloys 02 700 High yield but low
High- strength 0.1 500 safety. margin.
Al-alloys Good for light
GFRPICFRP 0.1 500 pressure vessels. Postscript: Nowadays boiler faiJures are rare. When safety margins are pared to a minimum (rockets, new aircraft des is, res sure vesse I s st i 11 occas i anal] rai L

Y2005 -06 (S l)

1,j_1!1d""~Y~ ~ i:4nm1co _ GIu5o.: Com", •• _

~:TlMiIo~ Prooeu Z<HIII 0lIl.,.. _ J(~",~,

0.1)1 L- __ ........... -"-'....c.~L......L ................. .aJ......--'---'-.........,;=:I'----'--..I-..J....L..Uu..a..---"--'-...J-L.LUJ..j

0.1 1 a 100 1000 10QO:l

Slnmglh '-'i (MPa)

Figure 2.2 Fracture toughness-strength chart

S uni I C. Joshi

Material selection & case stud ies: 8

I

1

J

Notes

M6 W2 Advan ced Materia Is Engineering

Case study 3: Hvdraulic ram explodes at the launch of the great eastern

Introduction: In December 1853 contracts were signed for the construction of the Great Eastern, the biggest ship that had ever been built, with dimensions of 692 x 83 x 58 feet and a: displacement of 22,500 tons. The ship was powered by three sets of steam engines driving a pair of paddles and a single 20-foot propeller. The Great Eastern was designed to carry 4000 passengers and would have been able to make a return voyage from the UK to Australia without refilling the coal bunkers en route. The designer was one of the most gifted and charismatic engineers of all time-Isambard Kingdom BruneI.

The Great Eastern was built at MiHwall on the River Thames. At this point the water is only 1000 feet wide. If the vessel had been launched in the conventional way it would probably have buried itself in the opposite bank BruneI originally envisaged that the ship would be constructed in a dry dock but to save money it was decided to lay the keel on the shore 330 feet in from the high-water mark and to go for a sideways launch into the river. Brune} then recommended that the ship should be built on a mechanical slipway, which would in turn rest on a large number of rollers. The complete unit could then have been run down the gentle slope of the foreshore in an easily controlled manner. This method was turned down as being too expensive and the ship was built straight on the launching ways; it was to prove a bad mistake.

The Great Eastern was to be launched on 3 November 1857, two hours before high water. The operation called for perfect co-ordination between the slipway gangs and had to be done in complete silence. It was a fiasco. The directors of the Construction Company had sold thousands of tickets to people who had flocked from all over London to see the great event and the noisy throng invaded every part of the shipyard. A gang operating one of the cable drums was distracted and one of them was killed outright by the spinning handles. The launch was aborted after the ship had moved only a few feet. Bee ause the initial movement had been arrested it was to take an immense amount of effort to get the ship off again.

The country was scoured for hydraulic rams, which could be set up to apply a horizontal thrust to the s ide of the hulL Among them was the jack used for lifting the tubular girders of Robert Stephenson's Britannia Bridge at Menai Straits. With a total force of 5500 tons the huge vessel was gradually inched down the slope until, on 31 January 1858, she was floated off by the tide and towed to her fitting-out berth at Deptford. There is always a greater risk of accident when people are working under pressure and the protracted launching operation had its fair share of incidents. The Times reported as follows:

"It was something unheard of in the history of mechanics. In fact the accident to a windlass, when a side 0 fits massive i ron drum was crushed} ike a nut. was not only never knO\VTI before, but until yesterday such a breakage was considered almost impossible. Through the sides of a hydraulic ram, ten inches in diameter, the water was forced through the pores of the solid iron like a thick dew, until the whole cylinder ripped open from top to bottom with a noise like a dun underground explosion. The iron of this cylinder averaged six inches in thickness and stood a pressure upward 0 f twelve thousand pounds per square inch before it gave way. The massive cast-iron slab against which the base of another ram rested was split like a board, but this of course was a mere bagatelle among the other mishaps, which are not

Y2Q05·06 (Sl)

Sunil C. Joshi

Materia 1 selecti on & case studies: 9

\

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineeri ng

only expensive in themselves but by the delays they give rise to, occasion an expenditure in which the cost of the repair is a mere item."

Failure Analysis: Figure 3.1 is a schematic diagram of the hydraulic ram. The cylinder is an example of a thick-walled pressure-vessel, The relevant parameters (converted to SI units) are as follows,

External radius a = 279 mm. Internal radius b = ]27 mm.

Internal pressure at fracture p - 83 MPa. Force on ram at fracture F -429 tonnef. Ratio alb = 2.20.

l'

-

The cyl inder was alma st certain l y a casting

t and the materia1 was probably grey cast iron. The account in The Times that "the water 1I.i:;'~.an was forced through the pore s of the so lid iron W"&", l"'''' like a thick dew" is consistent with this: if the molten metal was not degassed proper1y before it was poured into the moul d then th e final casting could wel1 have contained interconnected porosity through which the water would have been forced under the immense pressure gradient. Casting would

Figure 3.1 Schematic of the hydraulic ram have been the obvious method for forming

the cy I inder: the bore wou I d have been cast to shape by inserting a core into the mould and would only have required a final machining operation to bring it to the correct dimensions.

The inference is that the hoop stress at the inner surface of the cylinder reached the tensile strength of the cast iron and that the cylinder failed by brittle fracture.

The eq uati on fo r the hoop stress for a th ick -wa Hed tube under i ntem al press ure pb1(a2+r2)

0"1 = ~ ~ ~ (3 1)

r-(a- - b<) .

can be re-written in the form

(3.2)

to show that the hoop stress is a function of the dimensionless groups alb and rib.

It can be seen from Figure 3.2 that the hoop stress falls off rapidly with distance from the inner wall of the cylinder. Because of this we might think that fracture should initiate at the surface of the bore, where the failure stress is - ].52 x 83 MPa = l26 MFa. The reality is not as simple as this.

Y2005-06 (S I)

Sunil C. Joshi

Material selection & case studies: 10

Notes

r .. b

r .. a

Figure 3.2 Hoop stress in the wall of the cylinder

M6102 Advanced Materi als Engineer] ng

The strength of grey cast iron is determined largely by the shape and size of the graphite flakes which in tum are controlled by the rate at wh ich the iron cools from the solidification temperature. The cooling rate is limited by the size of the casting: thin sections cool faster than thick ones and have a higher tensile strength as a result. As an example a 15-mm bar of Grade 14 i ron (nominal strength 14 tons/square inch) has a strength of -275 MFa; a ISO-mm bar of the same material has a strength of only - 110 MPa. The weakest cast iron normally specified is Grade 10. This has a strength of - 200 MPa in a lS·mm bar, and - 50 MPa in a ] 50-mm bar.

The wall of the cylinder is - } 50 mm thick. However, because it has a smaller surface-to-volume ratio than a round bar, it will cool more slowly. We should therefore expect it to have an average strength less than 50 MPa if it had been made of Grade 10 iron. Near to the inner wan of the cylinder, on the other hand, the cooling rate during casting will increase and we would expect strength levels of 200 I\.1Pa and more if Grade] 0 iron had been used. This is a lot more than the value of - 126 MPa, which we estimated at the bore of the cylinder: this means in fact that fracture should not have started at the inner wall,

[f we move out from the inner wall by 38 mm (a quarter of the wall thickness) the value of rib increases to 1.30 and, as Figure 3.2 shows, adp drops to 1.00. Then GJ - 83 lvlPa. The quarterwall position is approximately where one would expect the actual strength to be equal to the average strength .of the whole cross-section,

This means that if the cylinder wall had been made from Grade 10 iron with an average strength of less than 50 MPa} then failure should have initiated roughly a Quarter of the way through the waH with a margin of - 30 MPa to spare.

Once fracture initiates. the crack will travel through the foil t hie kne ss of the cylinder wall. This is because (a) cast iron has a low fracture toughness (- 10 }.VfPa Wr) and (b) the stress intensity a/the crack increases rapidly as jt grows.

Y2D05-06 (S I)

Sunil C. Joshi

Material sel ection & case studi es: 11

Notes

M6102 Advanced Materials Engineering

Postscript: Could failure have been avoided by having a thicker wall? The answer is, only up to a point. Figure 3.3 shows how the hoop stress at the inner wall depends on the ratio alb. As we have already seen, when alb == 2.20, (J"I (b) == I. 52p. If we increase the wall thickness to give alb == 3.00, then (II (b) = 1.2jp. This 18% decrease in hoop stress is achieved

at the expense of a 108% increase in the vo 1 ume, weight and cost of the casting. Further increase s in alb are even less attractive.

~.O -

I.S =.--_.

I

- - - .... -

1.0 - - +L _.J

t 2t ]

4 ~

alb

6 t 1

E.ILrl.ll;]Dn die

A better solution is to use a material with a higher strength, solution not feasible at the time.

l.S r-'

r~. \

4.~

~.O

2.0 ~

rim

The fai1 u re coul d have been avo i ded by carrying out a hydrauli c test on the c yl i nde r and then fi tting a pressure relief valve set to blow at - 50% of the test pressure.

. . -- -

Figure 3.3 Hoop stress as a function of wall thickness

References

(1) M. F. Ashby, Materials selection in mechanical design, Butterworth Heinemann, ]999 (TA403.A823m)

(2) M. M. Farag, Material selection for engineering design, Prentice Hall, 1997. (TA 174 F219m)

(3) D. R. H. Jones, Engineering Materials: Materials FaiJure Analysis - case studies and des i gn imp I i cation s, Perg amon Press, 1993. (T A 409 176)

Y 200Hl6 (S I)

S unil C. Josh i

Material selection & case studies: 12

Bibliography

M6102 Advanced Materi a Is En gineering

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