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1. Phn tch c im ca mng cm bin khng dy.

- S lng nt cm bin l kh ln -> khng th xy dng mt quy tc cho a ch ton cc khi trin
khai v phn iu khin cho vic thit lp ID l cao.
- Hu ht cc ng dng ca mng cm bin yu cu truyn s liu cm bin t nhiu ngun ti mt nt
gc.
- Cc nt cm bin b hn ch v cng sut, kh nng x l v dung lng nh.
- Cc nt trong WSN thng c v tr c nh (mt s ng dng: cc nt c th di ng).
- Cc mng cm bin thng ph thuc vo ng dng .
- V tr ca cc nt cm bin ng vai tr quan trng v vic la chn s liu thng da vo v tr .
- S liu c la chn bi cc nt cm bin trong WSN thng da vo hin tng chung, do s
c d tha.

2. C nhng loi cm bin no? Nu s khc nhau gia cc loi cm bin ?
- Cm bin n hng, th ng: o i lng vt l nt cm bin m khng cn iu khin mi trng
bng cch tm kim hot ng, theo hng ny n c gi l th ng. Hn na, mt s cc cm bin ny cn
c ngun nng lng ring, tc chng c th c nng lng cn thit t mi trng nng lng ch cn
khuch i tn hiu tng t. Khng cn quan tm n phng hng trong cc php o ny
VD: nhit k, cm bin nh sng, dao ng, micro, m
- Cc cm bin chm hp, th ng: Cc cm bin ny cng l th ng nhng phi xc nh c phng
hng ca php o.
VD in hnh l camera, n c th thc hin cc php o theo hng cho, nhng n cng c th quay
nu c yu cu.
- Cc cm bin ch ng: Nhm cm bin cui cng tm kim mi trng mt cch ch ng,
VD nh cm bin siu m hoc radar v mt s loi cm bin a chn, n to ra cc sng xung kch bng cc
ting n nh.

3 .So snh hai mng MANET v WSN.so snh Fieldbuses v tuyn v WSN
Nhiu s tng ng: t t chc, hiu sut cao, (thng) a bc nhy v tuyn
T t chc: t tnh ton cu hnh (a ch, nh tuyn, k NL,)
Tnh a chng
Nhiu: Mi trng ma, gi, vt cn,
Bo mt: Rt kh do khng kh
Nhiu khc bit :
- Cc ng dng, trang thit b: MANETs mnh hn nhiu (c: t ) thit b c gi thit, thng
l loi ng dng con ngi trong mt vng kn, tc d liu cao hn, nhiu ti nguyn hn
- ng dng chuyn dng: WSNs ph thuc mnh vo cc ng dng chuyn dng; MANETs tng i
ng u
- Tng tc mi trng: li ca WSN, khng c MANET
- Phm vi: WSN c th ln hn nhiu (mc d cn ang tranh ci)
- Nng lng: WSN c cc yu cu v nng lng v cc vn bo dng cht ch hn,
- S ph thuc/QoS: trong WSN, cc nt c th c th b b qua (vn mng), QoS khc nhau do cc
ng dng khc nhau
- Trung tm d liu khc vi mng trung tm l id
-Tnh di ng: node MANET di ng, thng WSN c nh (di ng node, di ng b thu)

So snh Fieldbuses v tuyn v WSN
- Loi mng c pht minh cho truyn thng thi gian thc VD: cho vic t ng ha nh my
- Quan im c hu v cm bin/o lng v iu khin
- Fieldbus v tuyn: truyn thng thi gian thc thng qua sng v tuyn
C s tng ng ln
S khc nhau :
- Phm vi WSN: thng d nh cho phm vi ln
- Thi gian thc WSN: thng khng d nh cung cp s m bo thi gian thc (cng) nh
fieldbuses



4. Trnh by cu trc phn cng ca node cm bin.
- B iu khin: B iu khin x l tt c d liu c lin quan theo m nh phn.
Ni thu nhn dl t cc sensor, quyt nh thi gian gi dl (gt lin lc), ra lnh cho cc c
cu chp hnh.
L li ca nt, s dng cc b vi k (FPGA, ASIC)
- B nh: lu tr chng trnh v d liu, b nh chng trnh v b nh d liu thng tch bit
nhau tun theo kin trc Havard.
- Cm bin v c cu chp hnh: y l giao din vi mi trng vt l. Cc thit b ny c th quan
st hoc gim st cc thng s vt l ca mi trng.
- Thit b lin lc: Cc nt trong mng i hi mt thit b gi v nhn thng tin qua knh v tuyn.
Mi node s c c b thu v pht sng kt ni vi nhau
L b phn truyn thng cc nt, bin i cc dng dl t b k thnh sng radio
Cc node mng s dng sng radio bi kh nng truyn i xa, truyn d liu vi t l li
chp nhn c. Tn s sng radio thng dng: t 433MHz ti 2.4GHz.
- Ngun cp: Cung cp NLcho cc node mng, q s sng node .C kh nng tm kim NL mi trng
ngoi b phn NL mt Thng thng, khng c sn ngun cp in nn cn phi c pin cung cp
nng lng, thm ch c pin c th xc t mi trng (pin mt tri)..
- >Mi b phn ny phi hot ng sao cho m bo lng tiu th nng lng l t nht c th, ng
thi phi hon thnh tt c cc nhim v t ra.



5. So snh cc giao thc MAC phn chia c nh v cc giao thc MAC phn chia theo yu cu.

C nh Yu cu
phn chia Ti nguyn
c sn cho nt
Ti nguyn di hn cho nt do
trnh nguy c xung t
Ngn hn cho nt
C k/n xung t
Time s dng Vi pht or 1h or lu hn 1burst d liu
Cc giao thc chnh TDMA,FDMA,CDMA,SDMA Tp trung v Phn b
S dng ti nguyn
trn nt
Nt sd ti nguyn ring ca
n=> ko c nguy c xung t
Nt tp trung gi yu cu n
nt trung tm=>thc hin trn
c s tranh chp,sd giao thc
truy cp ngu nhin
Khi c thay i B tr li ngun ti nguyn cho
cc nt v Cu hi t ra y
l kh nng m rng ca cc
Cc nt thng mang theo cc
yu cu trong cc gi d liu
c truyn trong cc khe thi
giao thc ny. gian ring ca chng ,Trnh c
vic truyn ring cc gi tin
mang thng tin yu cu




6. So snh cc giao thc MAC da trn s ganh ua v cc giao thc MAC da trn lch trnh.
- MAC da trn lch trnh
+ Tn ti mt lch trnh, iu chnh thnh vin no c th s dng ti nguyn no ti thi im no
+ Ti nguyn in hnh: bng tn trong mt khng gian cho (vi mt m cho, CDMA)
+ Lch trnh c th l c nh hoc c tnh ton da trn yu cu
+ Thng thng: s khc nhau pha trn c nh/theo yu cu l mt trong cc thang tgian
+ Thng thng, cc xung t, nghe ln (overhearing), nghe lc ri th khng c vn
+ Cn thit: ng b thi gian!
- Cc giao thc da trn s ganh ua
+ Nguy c cc gi tin b xung t cn c cn nhc
+ Hy vng: chi ph tng hp c th c tit kim, dn n ci thin hiu sut tng th
+ Yu cu cc c ch x l/gim kh nng xy ra/tc ng ca cc xung t
+ Thng thng, vic ngu nhin ha c s dng bng cch no

Cu 7: So snh giao thc ALOHA v CSMA trong giao thc MAC khng dy thng thng.
Giao thc ALOHA:
-iu chnh truy cp vic chia s ng truyn gia cc user ang tranh chp.
-Khng i hi iu khin trung tm, thm bt node d.
-Nguyn l:
+ Ti node pht: Sau khi pht d liu, node lng nghe trong khong thi gian quy nh
trc.
+ Ti node thu: Nu nhn c d liu gi bn tin xc nhn ACK v node pht trc khi
ht khong thi gian ch. Qu trnh truyn thnh cng.
+ Pht khng nhn c ACK, cho rng d liu mt do li ng truyn hoc ng ,
truyn li. Sau 1 s ln, d liu vn sai, khng pht li.
Pure ALOHA:
o Node pht dl ngay khi n sn sng
o Truy cp knh bt ng b: chiu di gi khc nhau, knh tt chia thnh cc khe
thi gian khc nhau. Thi gian ng tng do c gi di.
o Dng cho lu lng ti thp, node truy cp trong tg ngn (ti tng, s ng
tng, gim cht lng) .
Slotted ALOHA (phn khe):
o Knh truyn c gh truy cp
o Cc node tt ng b: Knh tt chia thnh cc khe thi gian bng nhau, di
cc gi bng nhau. Thi gian ng gim.
Hn ch: Ti tng, cn c s pht trin giao thc truy cp mi trng mi. Node
c dl cn pht trc khi truyn phi lng nghe xem knh truyn c bn khng?
Giao thc CSMA a truy nhp cm nhn sng mang
Node nghe ngng mi trng- cm nhn sng mang
Giao thc gim can nhiu gia cc gi
Ph thuc vo gii thut dng ch trng thi knh truyn chuyn t bn sang
ri.
C 2 loi giao thc:
o Nonpresistent-khng lin tc, khng kin tr.
o Presistent-lin tc, kin tr.
Giao thc truyn khng lin tc:
o Node c dl v sn sng pht s nghe trng thi knh truyn.
o Nu knh ri, node pht gi dl, node ch gi xc nhn ng ACK
o Nu knh truyn bn, ch khong tg nh trc, cm nhn li knh truyn
o Qu trnh lp cho ti khi pht thnh cng.
Giao thc truyn lin tc:
o Nu knh truyn bn,lng nghe lin tc , knh va chuyn sang ri node
pht gi ca mnh.


8. Trnh by v gii php m o n tong giao thc PAMA .
PAMAS: kt hp cc m bo bn vi RTS / CTS
- Kt qu l trnh nghe trm mt cch chi tit, v khng quan tm n vic nghe ri
- S dng ring bit knh d liu v knh iu khin
* Th tc
- Node A truyn RTS trn knh iu khin, khng cm nhn knh
- Node B nhn c RTS, gi CTS trn knh iu khin nu n c th nhn c v khng bit g
v cc truyn dn ang din ra
- B gi m bo bn khi n bt u nhn d liu
+Gi s mt nt C trong vng ln cn ca A ang nhn mt gi tin khi A khi ng vic gi RTS
V A gi RTS m ko cm nhn sng mang nn n khng bit l C ang nhn d liu, B nhn c
RTS ca A(v B xa C) B gi li CTS cho A. CTS xung t vi m bo bn ca C nn A ko nhn c
CTS do n hy vic truyn tin
* Th tc
- A gi RTS cho B
- C ang gi m bo bn (khi n nhn d liu)
- CTS v m bo bn xung t nhau, A khng nhn c CTS nn khng gi d liu
Tng t nh vy: vic truyn dn ang din ra gn B ph hng RTS bng m bo bn


9. Gii thch vn
xy ra trong hnh v
a,b.



















Nh m t trn, nt A v C c th ng thi pht ra gi RTS n B. Tuy nhin, trong trng
hp ny, cc gi RTS b mt v khng c khung d liu di no c truyn.
Trong phn bn tri ca hnh, Cc nt A v B chy chui RTS-CTS-d liu-phn hi v gi
CTS ca B cng n c C. Tuy nhin, cng thi im , nt D cng gi gi RTS n C
v xy ra xung t gia n vi gi CTS ca B ti nt C. Do , C khng c c hi gii m
trng khong thi gian ca gi CTS v t bin NAV. Sau khi gi RTS b li, D gi li gi
RTS n C v C tr li bng gi CTS. C lm vy l do n khng bit g v qu trnh truyn dn
ang din ra A v khng c s nhp vo NAV mt cch ng n. Gi CTS ca C v gi d
liu ca A xung t B. Trong phn bn phi ca hnh v, vn ny sinh khi C bt u truyn
gi RTS ca n n D ngay trc khi n cm nhn c gi CTS ca B v do , C khng th
gii m mt cch ng n c. Mt gii php c a ra, l m bo rng cc gi CTS
di hn cc gi RTS. Gii thch iu ny bng cch quan st phn hnh bn phi, y thm
ch nu gi CTS ca B n C ngay sau khi C bt u RTS ca n th n cng di C c c
hi iu chnh b thu pht ca n v ch thu v cm nhn tn hiu ca B. Mt lut giao
thc na l nt C hon bt c qu trnh truyn dn tip theo no trong mt thi gian di
nhn mt gi d liu c di cc i. Do , gi d liu gia A v B c th c truyn m
khng b mo. Khng kh nhn ra rng vn trong phn bn tri ca hnh 5.3 cng
c loi b.


13. Trnh by v giao thc nh tuyn thc l FLOODING.
- L k thut nh tuyn thng c s dng trong cc mng c dy v khng dy ad hoc
- K thut n gin, khng i hi cu hnh mng tn km v cc gii thut nh tuyn phc tp
- S dng phng php reactive (phn ng li): khi mi nt nhn c mt gi iu khin hay d liu,
n s gi n tt c cc nt xung quanh n
- Mt gi i theo tt c cc ng truyn c th
- Mt gi s n c ch, tr khi mng b mt kt ni
- Khi cu hnh mng thay i, gi tin s c truyn theo nhng tuyn mi
- Flooding dng n gin nht c th lm cc gi tin b sao chp mt cch khng gii hn khi i qua
cc nt mng

*Hop count:
- ngn chn mt gi tin i lng vng khng xc nh trong mng, mi gi tin c mt gi tr hop
count (m bc nhy)
- Ban u, hop count c thit lp gi tr xp x vi ng knh mng
- Khi gi tin i qua mng, mi khi gi c truyn qua mt bc nhy, gi tr hop count gim 1
- Khi hop count bng 0, gi tin b b i
*Time to live:
- S dng trng time to live (thi gian sng) ngn chn mt gi tin i lng vng khng xc nh
trong mng
- Trng ny ghi li s n v thi gian mt gi tin c php tn ti trong mng
- Ht thi gian ny, gi tin khng c truyn i na
*Giao thc Flooding ci tin:
- Xc nhn cc gi d liu duy nht
- Mi nt mng b i tt c cc gi m n chuyn tip
- Yu cu duy tr t nht mt lch s lu lng, theo di cc gi d liu no c chuyn tip
*u im:
- Quy lut hot ng n gin
- Ph hp vi cc mng c yu cu chi ph thp
*Nhc im:
- Gp nhiu vn khi p dng cho WSN
- Traffic implosion (bng n lu lng) Cc nt tip tc gi gi tin n cc nt ln cn ca n, mc d
cc nt ln cn c bn sao ca gi tin ny
- Overlap (chng ln) D tha d liu
Hin tng chng ln xy ra khi hai nt c chung vng ph cng gi cc gi tin cha d liu nh nhau
ti cng mt nt
- Resource blindness (m ti nguyn) B qua cc rng buc v ti nguyn
Quy lut chuyn tip n gin trong flooding khng xem xt n hn ch v nng lng ca cc nt
cm bin
Nng lng ca cc nt c th b suy gim nhanh chng, gim ng k thi gian sng ca mng
y l nhc im nguy him nht


14. Trnh by v giao thc nh tuyn SPIN.
- SPIN: Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (Cc giao thc nh tuyn da trn tha
thun)
- Thuc h cc giao thc da trn tha thun
- nh tuyn tp trung d liu
- Mc ch chnh ca SPIN l pht cc thng tin thu thp c bi cc nt cm bin ring l mt cch
hiu qu n tt c cc nt khc trong mng
* Tha thun d liu:
- Cc nt phi hc ni dung d liu trc khi truyn ti cc nt khc trong mng
- SPIN khai thc vic t tn d liu, nh cc nt kt hp metadata vi d liu chng to ra
- Cc nt s dng d liu m t ny thc hin tha thun trc khi truyn d liu thc t
- nhn c d liu, my thu phi gi yu cu ti nt ngun th hin s quan tm n ni dung d
liu
- Tha thun ny m bo d liu ch c gi ti cc nt quan tm, nh hn ch c bng n lu
lng, ng thi gim ng k thng lng d liu d tha trong mng
- S dng m t d liu (metadata) hn ch hin tng chng ln, v cc nt ch yu cu d liu chng
quan tm
* Thch ng ti nguyn:
- Kh nng thch ng ti nguyn cho php cc nt chy giao thc SPIN iu chnh hot ng theo trng
thi nng lng hin c
- Mi nt trong mng c th theo di s tiu th nng lng ca n trc khi pht hoc x l d liu
- Nu mc nng lng xung thp, nt c th gim hoc hn ch hon ton cc hot ng nht nh, v
d lm trung gian chuyn tip cc gi m t v gi d liu ti nt khc
- Kh nng thch ng ti nguyn ca SPIN cho php cc nt ko di thi gian sng ca nt cng nh
thi gian sng ca mng
* SPIN s dng tha thun gii quyt cc vn ca Flooding
- Bng n d liu: cc nt tha thun trc khi truyn d liu
- Chng ln: cc nt tha thun trc khi truyn d liu
- M ti nguyn: theo di tiu th nng lng thc t iu chnh nh tuyn v hot ng truyn
thng tin
* SPIN s dng metadata m t ngn gn v hon chnh v d liu
* Cc yu cu i vi metadata
- D liu m t c kch thc nh hn rt nhiu so vi d liu thc t
- Hai khi d liu thc t khc nhau phi c m t khc nhau
* Hot ng c n
- Nt A (ngun d liu) pht gi ADV (cha m t d liu) qung co d liu ca n ti nt trung gian
B
- Nt B gi gi REQ n nt A, th hin s quan tm vi d liu c qung co yu cu nhn d
liu
- Nt A gi d liu n nt B
- Sau khi nhn c d liu, B gi gi qung co ADV n cc nt ln cn ca n
- Ch cc nt C, E, G quan tm n d liu c qung co v gi yu cu nhn REQ n B
- B ch gi d liu n cc nt yu cu
- Qu trnh din ra tng t cho n khi gi d liu n c ch

15. Trnh by v giao thc nh tuyn LEACH.
- Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Phn cm thch nghi nng lng thp)
- Kt hp vi giao thc iu khin truy nhp knh truyn lp MAC
- Gi thit cc nt u cm c th giao tip trc tip vi trm gc (b thu)
- Cc nt u cm c nhim v truyn gi d liu ti b thu
- Cc nt u cm c nhim v tp hp d liu loi b thng tin d tha
* Mc ch ca LEACH:
- Ko di thi gian sng ca mng
- Gim nng lng tiu th ti cc nt mng
- Tp hp d liu gim s thng ip cn truyn
- LEACH chia mng thnh cc cm, mi cm c qun l bi mt nt chnh gi l nt u cm
- Cc nt u cm c la chn ngu nhin v quay vng vai tr ny phn u ti nng lng gia
cc nt trong cm
* Nhim v ca nt u cm:
- Thu thp d liu t cc nt khc trong cm, thc hin theo chu k. Sau khi thu thp d liu, nt u
cm nn d liu ny gim d tha gia cc gi tr c tng quan
- Truyn d liu nn ti b thu, thc hin thng qua mt bc nhy
- To lch trnh da trn TDMA, nh mi nt trong cm c n nh mt khe thi gian truyn
d liu. Nt u cm qung b lch trnh ti tt c cc nt trong cm
- gim xung t gia cc nt trong v ngoi cm, cc nt s dng c ch CDMA truyn thng
tin
*Hot ng
Pha thit lp
- Mt s nt trong cm (P nt) t quyt nh s tr thnh nt u cm
- Mt nt (nt n) chn mt s ngu nhin trong khong t 0 n 1 v so snh vi gi tr ngng T(n)
- Nt u cm sau khi c la chn s pht qung b thng bo n tr thnh nt u cm mi ti
tt c cc nt trong mng
- Cc nt khc nhn c thng bo s quyt nh tr thnh thnh vin ca cm no m chng
mun, quyt nh ny da trn cng ca bn tin thng bo
- Cc nt khng phi l nt chnh gi thng bo l thnh vin ca cm ti nt u cm tng ng
m n chn
- Sau khi nhn tt c cc thng bo t cc nt mun tham gia cm, da trn s lng cc nt cm,
nt u cm s to lch trnh TDMA, n nh cho mi nt cm mt khe thi gian pht thng tin
- Lch trnh c qung b ti tt c cc nt trong cm
- M CDMA c la chn cn thn gim can nhiu gia cc cm
* Pha n nh trng thi:
- Cc nt cm cm nhn thng tin v truyn d liu v nt u cm
- Sau khi thu thp v tp hp d liu, cc nt u cm truyn d liu v trm gc
- Sau mt khong thi gian xc nh, mng quay tr v pha thit lp v bt u mt vng la chn
cc nt u cm mi









16. Trnh by v giao thc nh tuyn theo v tr.
- Geographic routing hoc location based routing (position based routing)
- c s dng khi cc nt c th xc nh v tr (gn ng) ca chng
- Cc nt s dng thng tin v tr lp quyt nh tuyn
- Nt gi phi bit v tr ca n, nt ch v cc nt ln cn
- Dng thng tin v v tr tm ra tuyn lin lc hiu qu t ngun n ch
- Ph hp vi mng cm bin do:
- Chi ph tnh ton v truyn thng tin thp
- Ch yu cu thng tin v ng truyn n bc nhy (v tr nt ln cn ph hp nht) c quyt
nh chnh xc
- Ph hp vi nhng mng c nng lng hn ch v kh nng m rng cao
* Cc dng nh tuyn theo v tr:
- Mt chiu (unicast): mt ch
- a chiu (multicast): nhiu ch
- Geocast: d liu c truyn n cc nt trong mt vng v tr nht nh
* nh tuyn theo v tr Chin lc
- Geocasting:
+ Dng thng tin v v tr tm ra ng i tt nht t ngun ti ch
+ Khng cn pht flooding cc gi yu cu
+ Gi d liu c gi n mt nhm nt trong mt vng v tr nht nh
+ Vng gii hn do nt ngun hoc cc nt trung gian quyt nh loi tr kh nng cc gi b
truyn lng vng trong mng
+ Cc nt trung gian hiu bit hn v v tr nt ch s gii hn tt hn vng chuyn tip tm
c hng i trc tip n ch
- Position based routing:
+ Ch yu cu mt nt bit thng tin v cc nt ln cn trc tip ca n
+ Truyn ch trong mt chng
+ Gim chi ph v nng lng tiu th
+ Hiu qu ph thuc vo nhiu yu t: mt mng, v tr chnh xc ca nt, quy c chuyn
gi n ch
* nh tuyn theo v tr Chuyn tip
- Quy c chuyn gi n ch cui cng
- Trong position based routing: mi nt quyt nh bc k tip da vo v tr ca n, v tr cc nt
ln cn v v tr nt ch
- Cht lng giao thc ph thuc vo hiu bit ca nt v cu hnh ton mng
- Nu ch hiu bit v cu hnh ni ti c th to ra cc tuyn khng ti u
- Hiu bit cu hnh ton h thng khng ph hp trong WSN, do nng lng hot ng b gii hn














11. Cho cu hnh lin kt mng nh hnh v di y, tong cc vng tn ch phm vi truyn thng
v can nhiu ca mi nt, ngha l mi nt c th nghe thy cc nt ln cn ngay st bn tri v bn
phi.

Hy trnh by mt tnh hung u cui n v mt tnh hung u cui hin c th xy ra trong cu
hnh lin kt mng ny.
- y ta c ba nt A, B v C c sp xp nh sau: A v B cng di, B v C cng di nhng A v C khng
th nghe ln nhau. Gi s A bt u truyn tin n B v mt lc sau, C cng quyt nh truyn tin. Hot ng
cm nhn sng mang C cho bit mi trng ri v C khng th nghe cc tn hiu t A. Khi C bt u truyn
tin th B xy ra s xung t ca hai gi tin v c hai gi tin u khng s dng c. Bng cch s dng
CSMA n gin u cui n s trnh c cc xung t khng mong mun ny.
- Trong tnh hung u cui hin, B truyn tin cho A v mt lc sau, C mun truyn tin n D. Mc d iu ny
v mt l thuyt l c th do c A v D s nhn cc gi tin khng c mo, hot ng cm nhn sng mang c
thc hin bi C s ngn cn vic truyn ca C v di thng s b b ph. S dng CSMA n gin trong u
cui hin s trnh c vic i ch khng cn thit.

12. Cho cu hnh lin kt mng nh hnh v di y, tong cc vng tn ch phm vi truyn thng
v can nhiu ca mi nt, ngha l mi nt c th nghe thy cc nt ln cn ngay st bn tri v bn
phi.

Hy trnh by gii php RTS/CTS s dng trong chun IEEE 802.11 v v hnh minh ha?
Hy trnh by gii php RTS/CTS s dng trong chun IEEE 802.11 v v hnh minh ha?
Bt tay RTS/CTS c s dng trong IEEE802.11 da trn giao thc MACAW v c m t nh trong hnh
trn. N ch s dng mt knh v hai gi iu khin c bit. Gi s nt B mun truyn d liu n nt C. Sau
khi B truy nhp c knh truyn (v d nh sau khi cm nhn c knh ang ri), n s gi gi yu cu
gi (RTS - Request To Send) n C gm khong thi gian cn li ca ton b giao dch (c ngha l cho n
khi B nhn phn hi v gi d liu ca n). Nu C nhn ng gi RTS, n s gi li gi chc chn gi (CTS
- Clear To Send). Khi B nhn gi CTS, n bt u truyn d liu v cui cng, C tr li bng gi phn hi.
Phn hi c s dng ni vi B v s thnh cng ca qu trnh truyn dn. Thiu phn hi th s c hiu
l c xung t. Nt A v D nghe c gi RTS hoc CTS hoc gi d liu hoc gi phn hi s thit lp mt b
nh thi ni b, cn c gi l vector nh v mng (NAV - Network Allocation Vector) khong thigian
cn li c biu th trong khung tng ng v trnh vic gi tin cho n khi b nh thi ny cha kt ht hiu
lc. c bit, nt A v D khng gi gi tr li CTS ngay c khi n nhn c ng gi RTS. Do , qu trnh
truyn dn ang thc hin khng b sai.

Cu x1: Nu nguyn l hot ng ca mt node cm bin?
Ton b node cm bin c nui bng mt b ngun ring. B ngun c nhim v cung cp
ton b nng lng cho cc khi trong node cm bin hot ng. B iu khin thc hin 2 chc
nng chnh l x l v lu tr d liu. Theo s trn ta thy, cm bin trong node s nhn tn hiu
phi in t mi trng bn ngoi,sau n bin i tn hiu ny thnh dng tn hiu in gi ti b
iu khin. ng thi, h thng nh v v thit b lin lc cng gi d liu v b iu khin. Sau
khi x l cc d liu c a v, b iu khin lu tr d liu ny li ng thi gi cho tn hiu
iu khin cho cc thit b lin lc v khi cm bin/c cu chp hnh thc thi.
Cu x2: Nu cc trng thi hot ng ca b thu pht trong node cm bin?
Cc trng thi hot ng ca b thu pht
Truyn: L phn pht c kch hot, anten bc x nng lng
Nhn: L phn thu c kch hot.
Ngh: L trng thi thu d liu v tt ch theo di
Ng: Cc phn quang trng c tt. Lin quan thi gian hi phc v NL khi ng
Tit kim NL thc ch thng tin. Lng ph NL khi to h (khng truyn, nhn). iu
khin NL phc tp.
Cu x3: Phn tch cc loi chuyn ng trong WSN.
Nt di chuyn
o Gim st chn nui (nt trn sc vt)
o T y i hoc bng ngoi lc; c mc ch hoc ngu nhin
B cha (thu) di ng
i tng di chuyn
B cha (thu) di ng
o L nt di ng nhng li khng phi l mt phn ca WSN
o Ngi yu cu thng tin qua PDA di ng
i tng di chuyn (giao thc ph hp)
o S kin, i tng c gim st di chuyn xung quanh (hoc m rng, co li)
o Cc nt WSN khc nhau tr thnh c trch nhim gim st mt s kin nh vy.
Cu x4: So snh mng truyn thng n c nhy v mng a c nhy.
So snh mng n v a bc nhy
Mt vn chung: phm vi thng tin v tuyn b hn ch
o Ch yu l do hn ch v CS truyn dn, suy hao ng truyn, cc vt cn
Ty chn: cc mng a bc nhy
o Gi cc gi ti mt nt trung gian
o Nt trung gian gi tip gi ti ch
o Mng a bc nhy Lu v gi tip
Cu x5: Phn tch node n, node hin trong giao thc MAC ,nh hng node n, node hin

Node n: L node nm trong vng node thu, nm ngoi vng node pht

A gi dl B theo CSMA(A cm nhn knh truyn, ri gi)
A cha hon thnh pht gi B th C pht B.
C dng cm nhn knh CSMA, A v C ngoi tm nhau, C khng nghe c tn hiu t
A(A ang gi cho B). C thy knh ri nn pht gi.
Kt qu B nhn ng thi 2 gi, ng xy ra ti thu, c 2 gi u hng.

Node hin: Node nm trong vng node pht, nm ngoi vng node thu

B gi dl cho A theo CSMA (B cm nhn knh truyn, ri gi) nhng ang gi
sang C.
C cng gi dl cho D theo CSMA, lng nghe trng thi knh truyn.
C thy B ang gi cho mnh, dng pht sang D, s tr l khng cn thit v D nm
ngoi B, nn C truyn sang D c.
Nu nh hng node n, node hin
- Gy ng , xung t d liu xy ra ti node pht hoc node thu, lm hng gi d liu.
- Gy lng ph nng lng do phi gi li gi tin b hng trong mng.
- Gy kh khn trong cu hnh mng.
Cu x6. Da vo yu t no a a nh tuyn ngang hng v phn cp? M t yu t ny?
Da vo cu trc mng
+) ngang hng
Cc nt u ngang hng, ng nht trong hnh dng v chc nng.
Cc nt giao tip vi BS qua multihop, s dng cc nt ngang hng lm b tip sng
Nt no gn BS s lm b tip sng vi lng ln ngun n.
+) phn cp
Mng chia thnh cc cm, mi cm c mt nt ch cm.
Nt trong cm thu thp dl, gi singlehop hoc multihop ti nt ch cm
Cc nt to thnh h thng cp bc, mi nt mt mc xc nh thc hin cc nhim v nh sn.
Cu x7 K tn cc thch thc v kh khn ca cc mng cm bin khng dy?
- Lu tr d liu: cc cm bin ly mu t mi trng lin tc, vi kh nng lu tr hn ch ca cc cm bin trn
mng d liu ko c lu tr vnh vin.
- Vn v nng lng: l vn quan trng ca mng cm bin, khi m mng c quy m ln vic gim st v
cung cp nng lng cho mng l ko th thc hin
- Kh nng chu li: mt s nt cm bin c th ko hot ng na do thiu nng lng, do h hng vt l hoc do
h hng mi trng.
- nh v: xc nh v tr hay di theo cc s kin ang l vn c quan tm hin nay.nu s dng GPS th vn
v nng lng v chi ph rt kh khn
- Kh nng m rng: khi nghin cu 1 hin tng, s lng cc nt cm bin c trin khai c th n hng trm
nghn nt, ph thuc vo tng ng dng con s ny c th vt qua hng triu
- An ninh: cc thng tin v nhit i vi ng dng gim st mi trng dng nh v hi nhng vic gi b
mt rt quan trng.WSN cn c kh nng gi b mt cc thng tin thu c, bo mt thng tin.
Cu x8 So snh mng truyn thng vi mng cm bin khng dy?
- S lng node trong mt mng cm bin ln hn nhiu ln so vi nhng node trong cc mng truyn thng.
- Cc node cm bin thng c trin khai vi mt dy hn
- Cc node cm bin d hng, ngng hot ng.
- Cu trc mng cm nhn thay i kh thng xuyn
- Mng cm nhn ch yu s dng truyn thng qung b, trong khi mng truyn thng a s l im-im
- Cc node cm bin c gii hn v nng lng, kh nng tnh ton v b nh
- Nhng node cm bin c th ko c s nh dng ton cu (ID)
- Truyn nng lng hiu qu qua cc phng tin ko dy
- Chia s nhim v gia cc node ln cn
Cu x12 Nu t nht 4 kh khn cho vic chn ng trong WSN?
- do s lng nt cm bin l kh ln nn khng th xy dng mt quy tc cho a ch ton cc khi trin khai v
phn iu khin cho vic thit lp ID l cao. V vy, cc giao thc da trn IP truyn thng c th khng p dng
c cho WSN.
- hu ht cc ng dng ca mng cm bin yu cu truyn s liu cm bin t nhiu ngun ti mt nt gc.
- cc nt cm bin b hn ch v cng sut, kh nng x l v dung lng nh.
- trong hu ht cc ng dng, cc nt trong WSN thng c v tr c nh.
- cc mng cm bin thng ph thuc vo ng dng.
- v tr ca cc nt cm bin ng vai tr quan trng v vic la chn s liu thng da vo v tr.
- s liu c la chn bi cc nt cm bin trong WSN thng da vo hin tng chung, do s c d tha.
cu x13 Nu 5 lnh vc ng dng ca WN tong i sng? Mi lnh vc cho v d?
Cc hot ng cu tr thm ha
- Th cc nt cm bin t mt my bay ln khu vc c chy rng
- Mi nt o nhit . To ra mt bn nhit
Lp bn a dng sinh hc
- S dng cc nt cm bin gim st ng vt hoang d
Cc ta nh (hoc cc cy cu) thng minh
- Gim s lng ph n/lng bng vic iu khin m, thng gi v iu ha (HVAC) ph hp
- Cn cc tham s o v thi gian chim gi phng, nhit , dng khng kh,
- Gim st stress c hc sau cc trn ng t
Qun l tin ch
- Pht hin xm nhp vo cc khu vc cng nghip
- Gim st nhng r r trong cc nh my ha cht,
Gim st my mc v bo dng phng nga
- Nhng cc chc nng cm bin/iu khin vo cc khu vc trc khng i cp
- Vd: gim st p sut lp xe
Cu x9 Nu tm tt 5 cng ngh thng c dng trong cc mng cm bin khng dy (WSN)?
Giao tip v tuyn a c nhy: Khi giao tip v tuyn l k thut ct li, thng tin trc tip gia ngi gi v
ngi nhn s phi i mt vi mt s hn ch. c bit, giao tip ng di ch thc hin c khi s dng cng sut
pht rt cao. Vic s dng cc nt trung gian nh cc tr c th lm gim tng nng lng yu cu. Do , vi nhiu loi
WSN, ci gi l giao tip a bc nhy l mt thnh phn cn thit.
S dng nng lng c hiu qu: tiu th nng lng khng ng u to nn cc "im nng - hotspot"
T cu hnh: WSN s phi t cu hnh cc thng s hot ng ca n, vic ny c lp vi cu hnh bn ngoi S nt
cng t cng tt v b tr n gin l yu cu trong hu ht cc ng dng.( nhng trong mng cm bin c kh nhiu nt)
ngoi ra n cn phi "t nh v -self-locationkhi c cc node mi hay b hng
S cng tc v x l trong mng: Trong mt s trng hp, mt cm bin khng th quyt nh c vic liu s kin
c xy ra hay khng nhng nhiu cm bin cng tc vi nhau s cung cp thng tin lm iu . Thng tin c
x l trong mng theo cc cch thc khc nhau c c s cng tc ny.
Trung tm d liu: Vn quan trng y l bn thn d liu nhn c ch khng phi l nt cung cp d liu
. Do , xu hng hin nay l chuyn t m hnh trung tm a ch sang m hnh trung tm d liu trong vic thit k
kin trc v giao thc truyn thng.
Cu x10 i ao vic nghe ln l mt vn i vi mng cm in khng dy v gii thch PAMA l nh th
no vi vn ny?
Nghe ln l mt vn i vi mng cm bin khng dy: Cc khung truyn thng n hng c mt ngun v
mt nt ch. Tuy nhin, mi trng v tuyn l mi trng qung b nn tt c cc ngun c trng thi nhn cnh
nhau u c th nghe tin d khng mun. Nhng nt ny c gi l nghe ln tin. Cc nghin cu ch ra cng trnh c
vic nghe ln cng nhiu th cng tit kim c nhiu nng lng. Mt khc, nghe ln i khi li l mong mun, v d
nh khi la chn thng tin ln cn nhau hoc nh gi lu lng ti hin ti cho mc ch qun l.
Cu x11 Gii thch lm th no m o n tong dng giao thc PAMA li gip tnh c hin tng
u cui n?
Cc giao thc cm nhn sng mang d b nh hng bi vn u cui n do nhiu b thu khng th pht hin bi b
pht. Vn ny c th gy ra xung t cc gi tin. Nng lng s dng trong cc gi tin b xung t l lng ph v
chng phi c truyn li. c mt s gii php c a ra nhm gii quyt hoc t nht cng lm gim vn u
cui n l gii php m bo bn v bt tay RTS/ CTS.
Trong gii php m bo bn, hai knh tn s khc nhau c s dng, mt cho cc gi d liu v mt cho knh iu
khin. Ngay khi nt bt u nhn gi tin c d nh truyn cho n, n pht ra mt sng khng c iu ch ln knh
iu khin v kt thc iu ny khi vic nhn gi tin c hon tt. Mt nt mun truyn tin th trc ht n phi cm
nhn knh iu khin xem c m bo bn khng. Nu nghe c iu g th nt s ch truyn theo mt s thut
ton, v d nh tng t vi CSMA khng lin tc. Nu khng nghe thy g th nt bt u truyn trn knh d liu. Giao
thc ny gii quyt c vn u cui n v u cui hin bng cch dng tn hiu m bo bn. Nu m bo bn qu yu,
nt trong di v tuyn ca b thu c th bt u truyn d liu v lm hng tn hiu ca b thu. Nu m bo bn qu
mnh, s c nhiu nt hn cn thit b cm truyn. Knh iu khin khng cn nhiu bng thng nhng knh bng thng
hp yu cu phi ng b tn s tt. Gii php vi hai m bo bn, mt s c gi bi b thu v mt c gi bi nt
pht.