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LI NI U
Cng vi s pht trin ca khoa hc k thut, k thut truyn hnh
cng pht trin c nhng bc tin b khng ngng. T truyn hnh en
trng pht trin ln thnh truyn hnh mu vi ba h mu c bn NTSC,
SECAM, v PAL.
Hin nay, vi nhng u vit tuyt i ca cng ngh s, cng ngh
truyn hnh cng chuyn sang mt bc ngot mi. Qu trnh bin i t cng
ngh Analog sang cng ngh Digital (Trasnition From Analog to Digital
Technology) vi s xut hin ca k thut truyn hnh s nh truyn hnh cp,
truyn hnh s mt t v truyn hnh qua v tinh.
K thut truyn hnh ng gp mt vai tr quan trng trong i sng
con ngi. N l cng c sc bn trong vic tuyn truyn chnh sch ca ng
v Nh Nc, l mn n tinh thn khng th thiu c ca mi gia nh...
Trong nhng nm qua ng v nh nc u t v pht trin khng ngng
c v chiu rng ln chiu su cho ngnh cng ngh truyn hnh, cng vi s
hnh thnh trung tm truyn hnh v thp truyn hnh Vit Nam ti th H
Ni. Tuy nhin, tt c cng ngh truyn hnh hin nay m Vit Nam ang s
dng u s dng vo truyn hnh tng t l ch yu. Mc d rt cn nhiu
nhng kh khn trc mt nh iu kin kinh t cn eo hp, nn cng nghip
v trnh khoa hc k thut cn non tr. Nhng chng ta khng th s dng
mi k thut Analog c bi khi cng ngh truyn hnh khng th kt
hp ti c vi cc cng ngh khc c bit l cng ngh thng tin.
S pht trin khng ngng ca k thut s xm nhp vo hu ht tt
c cc lnh vc trong c c lnh vc truyn hnh.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG

TRN NGUYN HONG NAM LP TVT K6
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Vy ho nhp c vi s pht trin chung ca ton th gii v
phc v cho cng cuc " cng nghip ho, hin i ho t nc" th ngnh
truyn hnh phi l lnh vc tin phong. Do vy, chuyn i cng ngh t
Analog sang cng ngh Digital l mt iu tt yu. Tuy nhin thc hin
c, ngoi kinh ph, thi gian cn phi i hi mt i ng cc cn b, k
s, cc chuyn vin v cc nh khoa hc th mi c th lm c.
L mt hc sinh c s hng dn ca cc thy c gio khoa TVT,
trong bn bo co ny em xin trnh by v mt kha cnh nh trong lnh vc
thu-pht truyn hnh mu em xin trnh by mt ti:
Mch qut dng trong my thu hnh mu JVC C1490M
Vi kin thc hn ch v ti liu tham kho cn t cho nn trong bn
bo co ny khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Knh mong cc thy c
gio ch bo em hon thnh c tt hn.
Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio khoa TVT c bit thy
gio Nguyn Minh c tn tnh hng dn em hon thnh bn bo co
ny.
Em xin chn thnh cm n!
Sinh vin thc hin :

TRN NGUYN HONG NAM
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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MC LC
LI NI U. 1
PHN I: NGUYN L TRUYN HNH ..................... 7
CHNG I: NGUYN L TRUYN HNH MU................................ 7
1.1. Gii thiu....................................................................................................... . 7
1..2. Nguyn l truyn hnh mu.............................................................................10
1.2.1. S khi h thng truyn hnh mu.................................................12
1. 2.2. Khi nim v mu sc.......13
1.2.3. Cm nhn mu sc ca mt...............................................................14
1.2.4. L thuyt ba mu........18
1.2.4.1. Th gic mu....18
1.2.4.2 Cc mu c bn.....19
1.2.5. H thng thit b thu tn hiu mu......................................................20
1 2.6. Tn hiu hiu mu...............................................................................22
CHNG II: CC H TRUYN HNH MU.......................................23
2.1. H truyn hnh mu NTSC................................................................................23
2.1.1 c im ca h truyn hnh mu NTSC.............................................23
2.1.2. S khi b m ho truyn hnh h NTSC...28
2.1.3 S khi gii m mu h NTSC........................................................30
2.1.4. Kt lun..32
2.2 H truyn hnh SECAM (Sequentiel Couleur A Meorire..33
2.2.1 c im ca h truyn hnh mu SECAM....34
2.2.2 S khi m ho mu h SECAM....................................................36
2.2.3. S gii m truyn hnh mu h SECAM.......................................38
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2.2.4.Kt lun..............................................................................................39
2.3 H truyn hnh mu PAL.................................................................................39
2.3.1 c im............................................................................................39
2.3.2. S khi b m ho mu h PAL...................................................42
2.3.3. S khi b gii m mu h PAL..................................................44
2.3.4. Kt lun.............................................................................................46
PHN II: GII THIU CC THNG S,CH TIU
K THUT CA MY THU HNH MU
JVC C1490M 47
1.1. Cc thng s,ch tiu k thut..47
1.1.1.Thu t i pht v u video thng dng47
1.1.2.Thu t u video thng dng...47
1.1.3.Thu t a t.47
1.1.4.Tn s sng thu47
1.1.5.Ngun in li ..48
1.1.6.Cng sut tiu th48
1.1.7.Tn hiu A/V48
1.1.8.Cng sut ting ra....48
1.1.9.Loa...48
1.1.10.Tr khng u vo ngten.48
1.1.11.Kch thc..48
1.1.12.Trng lng....48
1.1.13.iu khin t xa.48
1.1.14.n hnh.48
2.2.S khi my thu hnh mu v nhim v chc nng cc khi..48
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2.2.1.S khi.48
2.2.2.Nhim v v chc nng cc khi.51
2.2.2.1.Khi chuyn knh RF..51
2.2.2.2.Khi khuch i trung tn IF...51
2.2.2.3.Khi tch sng hnh.....51
2.2.2.4.Khi giI m mu.....51
2.2.2.5.Khi khuch i hnh...51
2.2.2.6.Khi tch xung ng b. .52
2.2..2.7.Khi qut dng....52
2.2..2.8.Khi qut mnh...52
2.2..2.9.Khi to i cao p v in p trung gian..52
2.2.2.10.Khi ngun.52
2.2.2.11.Khi vi x l...52
2.2.2.12.Khi AGC...52
2.2.2.13.Khi iu khin t xa.53
2.2.2.14.Khi ng ting53
PHN III: MCH QUT DNG TRONG MY THU
HNH MU JVC-C1490M54

1.1.S khi b qut dng-nguyn l hot ng...54
1.1.1.B to dao ngVCO54
1.1.2.B chia tn s ...54
1.1.3.Mch tch xung ng b dng.55
1.1.4.Tng m dng.55
1.1.5.Tng cng sut dng55
1.1.6.Bin p cao p...55
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1.1.7.Cc mch ph tr.55
1.2.Phn tch mch qut dng trong may thu hnh mu JVC C1490M...56
1.3.Cc s c thng xy ra khi qut dng trong my thu hnh mu
JVC C1490M......... 60

KT LUN ....63












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PHN I : NGUYN L TRUYN HNH
Chng I : NGUYN L TRUYN HNH MU
1.1. GII THIU
Trc kia khoa hc pht trin cn mc thp th con ngi thng m
c c mt phng php thn k no c th truyn a tin tc (m
thanh v hnh nh) i xa. c m ny c thc hin khi A Lc Xng
P - Pp. Ngi Nga sng ch ra chic my pht v tuyn in u tin trn
th gii vo ngy 7 thng 5 nm 1895 v n l bc m u cho k nguyn v
tuyn in t cho nhn loi.
Vi s pht minh ra n in t cng vi s pht hin ra hin tng
quan in vo cui th k 18, Va L - di mia Cu d - mich D - v - R
kim ngi Nga chnh thc khai sinh ra h thng truyn hnh in t u
tin trn th gii. Tuy nhin, vi s pht trin rt nhanh chng cho n hin
nay n pht trin sang giai on pht trin th 3 ( th h th nht: n in
t, th h th 2: Transistor, th h th 3: Vi mch).
u tin truyn hnh xut hin l truyn hnh en trng n c nghin
cu v ch to hon chnh vo nm 60. Ngy nay truyn hnh en trng
c s dng hu ht cc nc trn Th gii. Tuy nhin vi s pht trin rt
nhanh chng ca cng ngh in t v n nh ngy cng cao ca cng
ngh in t, k thut truyn hnh cng khng ngng pht trin, cho php
thc hin c truyn hnh mu. Nh vy truyn hnh mu l bc pht trin
tip theo ca truyn hnh en trng bi v mc ch ca truyn hnh l ghi cc
hnh nh ca cc cnh vt thin nhin, cc sn phm nhn to y mu sc
sng ng trong thc t ri truyn i xa. lm c iu ny truyn hnh
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mu phi da vo kt qu nghin cu c im th gic ca mt ngi v to
thuyt 3 mu c bn. Theo thuyt ba mu, phn ln cc mu sc trong t
nhin c th phc hi c qua vic trn mu l: mu (k hiu R), mu
lc ( k hiu G), mu lam ( k hiu B).
Nu ta cng cc mu tip tm, l, lc, lam, vng, cam, vi cng
mt nng lng nh nhau th ta c nh sng trng. Nhng theo thuyt ba
mu v th gic th tt c cc mu u do s trn mu ca ba mu c bn. Do
vy nu ta dng n chiu qua knh lc mu to nhng vng trn sng trn
mn nh th ta s c kt qu.

Hnh 1.1. S trn mu
Tc l:
Lc + = vng
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Lc + lam = l
Lam + = thm
+ lc + lam = trng
+ lc = cam ( nu nng lng ln hn nng lng lc)
+ lc = vng ( nng lng bng nng lng lc)
Khi xy dng h truyn hnh mu, cn phi gii quyt sao cho my
thu hnh en trng c th thu c truyn hnh mu vi hnh nh nhn
c l en trng. Mt khc, phi gii quyt vn ngc li, l dng
my thu hnh mu c th thu c chng trnh en trng. chnh l kt
hp ca truyn hnh mu.
m bo tnh tng hp ny, u tin h thng truyn hnh mu xut
hin l NTSC (vit tt t ca National Television System Committee, U ban
truyn hnh quc gia) vo nm 1953 ti M. Nhng nm sau truyn hnh
c xut hin nhanh chng v khi cht lng nh hng ca truyn hnh
mu h NTSC cha phi l tt nht, v tn hiu trong h trong h NTSC rt
nhy cm mo pha v mo bin . H truyn hnh mu NTSC c thc
hin nghim cc nc Chu u k c Lin X, nhng cng gp nhng nhc
im trn. Ngi ta chuyn sang nghin cu, tm ra cc dng m ho tn
hiu khc, sao cho mo pha v mo bin xut hin trong knh truyn, nh
hng nh nht n nh hng mu c khi phc my thu hnh mu.
Nm 1956, Php xut hin truyn hnh mu SECAM (vit tt
Sequentiel Couleurs A Memorre - Sequentiel Color With Memory, Tun t
cc mu vi b nh) do Henry De France nghin cu v thc hin. Nm 1962
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Gio s Walter Bruch Ty c cng b truyn hnh mu PAL (Phase
Altemation Line, thay i pha theo tng dng).
Cc h truyn hnh mu pht trin nhanh chng v dn dn thay th
hon ton truyn hnh en trng.
1.2. NGUYN L TRUYN HNH MU.
Nguyn l truyn hnh mu a vo nhng cm th mu sc ca mt
ngi v thuyt ba mu c bn. Do , khi pht tn hiu mu bn pht nh
my Camera phn tch nh mu thnh cc tn hiu. ng vi ba mu c bn R,
G, B ba thng tin mu ny c iu ch vo sng cao tn ri pht x ra
ngoi khng gian. My thu hnh mu c nhim v thu tn hiu cao tn mu
c iu ch sau tch sng ly ra ba thng tin mu R, G, B ri dng
phng php trn mu c li hnh nh mu sc hin trn mn hnh.
Trong h thng truyn hnh en trng, nh truyn i biu hin sng
ti cc im trn tng dng. My nh (Camera) c nhim v bin i sng
ti thnh nhng mc in p khc nhau. m bo nh thu c ng b
vi nh pht i, ta cn pht i xung ng b dng v xung ng b mnh.
Nh vy dng sng truyn hnh en trng bao gm tn hiu hnh, xung xo
dng, mnh v xung ng b. V vy trong truyn hnh en trng ch c mt
thng tin v sng ti ( chi) biu th tn hiu hnh.
Nhng trong h thng truyn hnh mu ta phi truyn i thng tin v
mu, ng vi mi im hnh cn t l vi ba mu c bn. Mu (Red),
mu lc (Green) v mu lam (Blue) v mu bao gm sc v chi do ta
ch cn truyn i vi ba tn hiu mu l m khng cn truyn i tn hiu
v chi. Nh vy trong truyn hnh mu dng sng y tn hiu mu
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bao gm xung xo, xung ng b v thng tin v chi c thay th
bng thng tin tn hiu mu.
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1.2.1. S khi h thng truyn hnh mu

Hnh 1.2. S tng qut h thng truyn hnh mu
Hnh nh cn truyn i qua Camara truyn hnh mu c bin i
thnh ba tn hiu mu c bn U
R
, U
G
, U
B
nh (hnh 1.2). Cc tn hiu mu c
bn ny c a qua cc mch hiu chnh gamma, cc mch ny s dng b
mo gamma do ng thu pha bn thu gy nn. Cc tn hiu b mo U
R
,
U
G
, U
B
c a vo ma trn to ra tn hiu chi U
Y
v hai tn hiu mang
mu U
R
, U
B
. Cc tn hiu U
R
v U
B
iu ch dao ng tn s mang ph to ra
tn hiu mang mu cao tn U
C
. Trong b cng, cc tn hiu U
Y
v U
C
c
trn vi nhau tr thnh tn hiu truyn hnh mu tng hp U
M
= U
Y
+ U
C
,
tn hiu U
M
ny c truyn n bn thu bng cp, h thng vi ba hoc my
thu, pht v tuyn in.
Qu trnh bin i cc tn hiu mu c bn U
R
, U
B
thnh tn hiu mu
tng hp U
M
gi l qu trnh m ho tn hiu mu.
Pha bn bin i U
M
nhn c (sau tch sng video) bin thnh cc
tn hiu mu c bn U
R
, U
G
, U
B
qu trnh bin i ngc gi l qu trnh
gii m tn hiu mu.
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Qu trnh gii m thc hin trong phn tn s video ca my thu hnh
mu. Tn hiu truyn hnh mu tng hp U
M
nhn c sau tch sng, c
lc ra thnh tn hiu chi U'
Y
v tn hiu mang mu cao tn U
C
. Sau b tch
sng mu ta thu c tn hiu mang mu U
R
v U
B
l tn hiu hiu s mu.
Nh c mch ma trn, t tn hiu U'
Y
, U
R
, U
B
to ra tn hiu mang mu
c bn U'
R
, U
G
, U
B
(hoc tn hiu U'
R
- U
Y
, U
G
U
Y
, U
B
U
Y
) phn t
cui cng ca h thng l my thu, y bin i cc tn hiu mu thnh hnh
nh phc tp.
1. 2.2. Khi nim v mu sc
Cho mt chm tia nh sng mt tri xuyn qua lng knh thu tinh,
dng mt trng chn chm sng qua lng knh, nhn c mt di mu theo
th t: , cam, vng, lc, l, lam, tm. Di mu c gi l ph mu. Ph
mu ca nh sng gi l ph lin tc, t mu ny chuyn dn qua mu khc,
khng c ranh gii r rng tuy nhin mi mu chim mt khong nht nh
(Hnh l.3)
T ngoi Tm Lam L Lc Cam Vng Hng ngoi
Hnh 1.3. Bc sng ca cc mu trong ph mu
T thc nghim ny ta thy rng, nh sng c bc sng khc nhau tc
dng ln mt ta, ta s cm thy mu sc khc nhau.
Vy mu sc l mt thuc tnh ca dao ng in t m mt ngi cm
nhn c. Mt phn b nng lng ca ngun bc x nh sng v tnh
cht th gic mu ca mt u nh hng ti mu sc cm th c. Do
mu sc cm th c cn quyt nh bi hai yu t vt l v sinh l.
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Khi quan st nhng vt th t pht ra nh sng th mu sc cm th
c quyt nh bi ph phn b nng lng bc x ca n, cn khi quan st
nhng vt th phn x hoc cho thng qua nh sng th mu sc ca vt m
chng ta cm nhn ph thuc vo.
* Ph phn b nng lng ca ngun sng s cp ri ln vt .
* Tnh cht phn x hoc thng qua nh sng ca vt
Nu vt th ch phn x (hoc thng qua) mt s thnh phn no ca
ph nh sng ri ln n v hp th cc thnh phn cn li, th khng nhng
quang thng phn x (hoc thng qua) khc quang thng ri ln n, m s
phn b ph nng lng ca chng cng khc nhau. Vy chnh nh sng phn
x t vt quan st (hoc khi thng qua vt quan st) to cho chng ta cm gic
v mu sc ca vt phn x thng qua nh sng.
Nu ch thay i quang thng ca ngun sng s cp ri ln vt quan
st, th ch quang thng phn x (hoc thng qua) thay i, ch ph phn b
nng lng ca nh sng phn x (hoc thng qua) khng thay i, do mu
sc ca vt quan st m chng ta cm nhn c khng thay i.
Ngc li, nu dng cc ngun sng s cp c ph phn b nng lng
khc nhau ri ln cng mt vt quan st, th mu sc ca vt th m chng ta
cm nhn c s khc nhau.
1.2.3. Cm nhn mu sc ca mt
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Hnh 1.4. Cu to ca mt
Vng mc ca mt (Hnh 1.4) cha cc phn t th cm, cc phn t
ny ni lin vi hai na bn cu no bng cc dy thn kinh th gic. Cc
phn t th cm gm hai loi t bo hnh que v t bo hnh nn. T bo
hnh que chim mt s lng rt ln khong 120 triu t bo tri khp vng
vng mc, t bo hnh que c tc dng lm cho mt nhn c cc chi tit
sng ti vi nhy kh cao, do khi nh sng l m (cng nh sng
nh) mt vn cm nhn c cnh vt.
Tuy nhin, t bo hnh que khng c tc dng cm nhn mu sc. T
bo hnh nn c khong 6,5 triu t bo tp trung vng hong im v
quanh vng hong im. T bo hnh nn c tc dng lm cho mt cm nhn
c mu sc, nhng phn gii ca mi i vi mu sc km hn nhiu so
vi sng ti, nn khi chi tit ca nh mu qu nh hay vi nh sng l m
mt khng phn bit c mu sc. Do cc t bo hnh nn nhy cm vi mu
sc ch tp trung hong im v vng xung quanh, nn mt ch phn bit cc
chi tit mu sc tt nht khi nh ngay trc mt (trn trc th gic).
Do cc mu c bc sng khc nhau. Nn nh ca cc cnh mu khng
cng ngay trn vng mc, m n hin cc vng khc nhau chung quanh
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vng mc. Th d ta nhn thy mu: (R), l (B), lc (G) k st gn nhau v
iu tit mt thy mu lc (mu lc nm trn vng mc) th mu l hin
trc vng mc v mu hin sau vng mc. V vy mt khng c kh nng
cm nhn ng thi nhiu chi tit mu sc tinh vi.
nhy ca mt khng ng u i vi nh sng c cc bc sng
khc nhau. Qua thc nghim ngi ta v c biu (Hnh l.5) th hin
nhy cm ca mt ph thuc vo nh sng c bc sng khc nhau vi cng
sut bc x nh nhau. T biu (hnh l.5) ta c nhn xt sau.
Mt c nhy ln nht i vi nh sng mu lc G (mu lc G c =
525575 nm), sau mu vng v mu lam.
nhy ca mt i vi nh sng mu ch t 20% so vi mu lc
(mu R c = 650 nm).
nhy ca mt i vi nh sng mu l ch t 10% (mu l B c =
450 nm).
T bo hnh nn nhy cm vi mu sc, t bo hnh nn gm ba loi
nhy cm vi ba mu khc nhau: mt loi ch nhy cm i vi nh sng ,
loi th hai nhy cm i vi nh sng lc v loi th ba nhy cm i vi
nh sng l.

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Hnh 1.5. nhy ca mt i vi nh sng mu
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1.2.4. L thuyt ba mu
1.2.4.1. Th gic mu
C th nhn c gn nh tt c cc mu sc trong thin nhin bng
cch trn ba chm sng mu , mu lc, mu lam theo cc t l xc nh.
gii thch iu ny, cho n nay, nhiu nh khoa hc ra cc thuyt khc
nhau v c bn cm th ca mt ngi. Trong thuyt ba thnh phn cm
th mu, trn vng mc tn ti ba loi phn t nhy cm vi nh sng l cc t
bo hnh chp. Cc loi phn t ny c phn ng khc nhau i vi nh sng
c bc sng khc nhau. Do c im ca ba loi t bo ny nn bt k mu
sc no cng c th tng hp c t ba mu c bn. Cho n nay tuy khoa
gii phu vn cha xc minh c ba loi t bo nhy cm vi nh sng c
bc sng khc nhau nhng qu trnh thc nghim li rt ph hp vi l
thuyt ny nn vn c s dng.
Trong thc t, tuy nh sng ng thi kch thch ba t bo hnh chp,
nhng tu theo bc sng, cc dng t bo hnh chp c kch thch khc
nhau. S cm th mu c quyt nh bi mc kch thch ca ba t bo
hnh chp.
Cc thc nghin a li kt qu v mi quan h v nhy ca mt
ngi vi bc sng nh sng kch thch i vi tng loi t bo hnh chp
(Hnh 1.6b).Gi tr ny ph hp vi c tuyn ph ca mt ngi. Mt
ngi nhy cm nht vi nh sng c bc sng = 550nm (hnh 1.6b).
Khi chiu sng thp, c tuyn nhy v

dch v pha tri ( nh) nh


ca c tuyn dch n ch = 510 nm lc ny ch c t bo cm quang
hnh tr lm vic.
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Hnh 1.6. c tuyn nhy ca mt v c tuyn ph nhy ca
ba t bo hnh chp
Cc t bo hnh chp nhy cm ng vi ba mu c bn c v trn
hnh l.6b, cc c tuyn v
R
(),v
G
(),v
B
() khng c ranh gii r rng, c
on li gi ln nhau. Do khi c mt bc x n sc tc dng vo mt th
khng nhng ch c mt loi m c hai hoc ba loi ng thi kch thch
to ra dng in tn hiu, gi tr cng tn hiu khng u nhau trong cc
loi t bo to nn cm gic mu khc nhau trong thn kinh th gic.
T nhng hiu bit trn chng ta c th ni rng h thng th gic ca
ngi c kh nng phn tch mu nh s so snh dng in tn hiu xut hin
trong ba loi t bo nhy cm vi ba mu c bn.
1.2.4.2 Cc mu c bn.
tiu chun ho vic o mu trn th gii, da vo kt qu thc
nghim CIE quy nh ba mu c bn v ngy nay c s dng rng ri
trong cng ngh truyn hnh, gi l h s mu R, G, B.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


TRN NGUYN HONG NAM LP TVT K6
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Mu (R) Red, c bc sng l
R
= 700 nm.
Mu lc (G) Green, c bc sng
G
= 564,8 nm
Mu lam (B) Blue, c bc sng
B
= 435,8 nm
l nhng mu quang ph. Bc sng ca cc mu c bn l cc
vch ph c trong vch ph bc x ca hi thu ngn.
1.2.5. H thng thit b thu tn hiu mu
Hnh 1.7. l s khi ca thit b thu tn hiu mu. Anten my thu
nhn tn hiu cn thu c tn s sng mang f
ov
, cc tng khuch i cao tn,
i tn, khuch i trung tn v tch sng, li ly ra di tn ca knh truyn
hnh mu.

Hnh 1.7. S khi ca my thu hnh mu
Tn hiu ca knh truyn hnh mu c a ti b lc khuch i lc
gii ly ring ba tn s mang mu iu ch f
R
, f
B
, f
G
, tn s mang mu
c a ti b tch sng ly ra ba tn hiu mu ring bit R, G, B. Tn
hiu mu c khuch i v cung cp cho ba n hnh mu tng ng. nh
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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sng ca n hnh mu s cp qua thu knh v n trn mu trn mn nh v
ti to li cnh vt y mu sc. Tn s qut dng v tn s qut mnh c
s dng nh trong h truyn hnh en trng.
+ Kt lun:
H thng truyn hnh mu trn khng c ng truyn chi
(Y) ring bit do khng p ng c khi thu chng trnh truyn
hnh en trng.
Di thng ca tn hiu mu kh rng (19 MHz), do khng ph hp
vi truyn hnh en trng (di thng 6 MHz).
thc hin c tnh tng thch gia h thng truyn hnh mu v
truyn hnh en trng ta phi to ra c ng truyn chi ring bit v
nn di thng ca tn hiu mu xung 6 MHz cho ph hp di thng tn hiu
truyn hnh en trng.
+ Tn hiu chi
Ta bit c tnh ca mu gm hai yu t: Sc v chi, v vy khi
chi ca mt im mu thay i th ba mu s cp cng thay i, nhng t
l gia chng khng i. Da vo ng thc nghim (hnh 1.5) v nhy
ca mt ngi i vi nh sng mu, ta xc nh chi (tn hiu chi
chnh l tn hiu hnh trong truyn hnh en trng) theo cc mu s cp c
tnh bng biu thc sau:
Y = 0,30 R + 0,59 G + 0,11 B
i vi mu trng th R = G = B = 1 do Y= 1
i vi mu en th R = G = B = 0 do Y= 0
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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T biu thc trn ta c th to c chi t ba mu c bn bng
mch ma trn nh (hnh 1 .8).

1 2.6. Tn hiu hiu mu
m bo tnh kt hp gia h thng truyn hnh mu vi h thng
truyn hnh en trng, trong h thng truyn hnh mu ta truyn i thng tin
v chi v ng thi truyn vi thng tin v mu. n gin ta khng
truyn i thng tin v tn hiu mu c bn R, G, B m truyn i tn hiu hiu
mu (R -Y), (G -Y), (B-Y). Vi cch truyn ny, khi thu chng trnh en
trng th R, G, B v Y c bin nh nhau nn cc tn hiu hiu mu bng 0,
do ch cn thng tin v chi .
Trong thc t ta khng truyn c ba thng tin tn hiu hiu mu vi
chi, m ch truyn i hai thng tin tn hiu mu vi chi cng m bo
lng thng tin v mu. Ta c th suy ra c thng tin mu th ba t lng
thng tin truyn i, hai lng thng tin tn hiu hiu mu l (R-Y) v (B-Y).
V vy trong h thng truyn hnh mu kt hp tt vi truyn hnh
en trng ta truyn i thng tin: chi v tn hiu hiu mu (R-Y), (B-Y).
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Vi cch truyn ny nhm gim nhiu do tn hiu mu sinh ra trn mn nh
truyn hnh en trng hoc trn cc mng trng ca truyn hnh mu.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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CHNG II:
CC H TRUYN HNH MU
2.1. H TRUYN HNH MU NTSC
Cui nm 1953 , u ban h thng truyn hnh quc gia ca M
chnh thc cng b h thng truyn hnh ca mnh vi tn l NTSC (National
Television System Committee - U ban truyn hnh quc gia).
2.1.1 c im ca h truyn hnh mu NTSC
Tn hiu chi Y l tng hp tt c tn hiu mu c bn c tnh theo
biu thc: Y = 0,3 R + 0,59 G + 0,11B
C rng ri tn l 4,2MHz (tiu chun 525 dng)
Tn hiu mu: Hai tn hiu mu c truyn ng thi sang pha thu.
Thng tin mu c truyn i trong h NTSC khng phi l tn hiu mu (R -
Y) v (B - Y) m l tn hiu I v Q (Hnh 2.l) l th vc t mu, mi mu
sc c biu th bng mt vc t v gc pha . Hai trc vung gc (B - Y)
v (R - Y) c dng vi gc to (- 1 n + 1 ). Trc (B - Y) c chn
lm quy chiu cho gc . Trong h NTSC ta chuyn h trc to (R - Y) v
(B - Y) thnh h trc to I v Q, h trc I v Q lch vi h trc (R - Y) v
(B - Y) mt gc 33
0
.
Kt qu nghin cu cho thy ch cc mu nm theo hng Q (Hnh
2.1) lch pha 33
0
so vi trc (B - Y) (mu ta thin v l) l mt ngi phn
bit km nht v gii tn tng ng ch cn 0,5 MHz. Cn li tt c cc
hng khc, di thng tng ng u xp x 1,5 MHz v vy h NTSC
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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khng ch s dng h trc (R - Y) v (B - Y) m tn hiu mu theo h trc to
I v Q. V vy tn hiu mu I v Q c tnh theo biu thc:
I = 0,9(R - Y)cos33
0
- 0,5(B - Y)sin 33
0

Q = 0,9(R - Y)sin33
0
- 0,5( B - Y)cos 33
0

I = 0,74(R - Y) - 0,3(B - Y)
Q = 0,49(R - Y) - 0,41(B - Y)

Hnh 2.1. th vc t mu
Vic xoay h trc i 33
0
nh trn gip gii tn tn hiu Q ch cn 0,5
MHz v gii tn tn hiu I theo l thuyt l 1,5 MHz, nhng trn thc t cng
ch truyn 1,2 MHz. Vi cch chn trc nh vy cng gim bt ti a s ph
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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ri ca tn hiu sc vo tn hiu chi, ng ngha vic thu hp gii thng tn
hiu sc cng nhiu cng tt.
Hai tn hiu hiu mu c iu ch vung gc trn cng mt tn s
mang mu ph f
C
(tiu chun FCC th f
C
= 3,58 MHz, tiu chun CCIR th f
C
:
4,43 MHz) ngha l tn hiu I v Q cng mt iu ch bin trn cng mt
tn s f
C
nhng dch pha mt gc 90
0
.
iu bin nn: Trong h truyn hnh en trng cng nh trong h
truyn hnh mu, i vi tn hiu iu bin ta khng truyn i c sng mang f
0

v hai gii bin tn trn, bin tn di m tit kim tn ph, ta ch truyn i
sng mang v ton gii bin tn trn vi mt phn bin tn di. Trong h
NTSC tn hiu mu I v Q cng c iu ch bin vo sng mang f
C

nhng ta khng truyn i sng mang (sng mang khng mang ni dung thng
tin) m ch truyn i hai di bin tn trn v bin tn di, phng php ny
gi l truyn thng tin song bin trit tn s mang (DSB SC). I
m
l tn
hiu song bin ca I, Q
m
l tn hiu song bin ca Q.

Hnh 2.2. iu ch vung gc
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Hnh (2.2) l dng ph ca tn hiu song bin trit tn s mang (c khi
ta ch pht i mt gii bin tn trit tn s mang ta gi l n bin trit tn s
mang SSB SC).

Hnh 2.3. Ph ca tn hiu song bin
Tn hiu ng b mu: Do tn s mang mu f
C
b nn hon ton, bn pht
khng truyn sang pha thu v vy my pht phi truyn i tn hiu ng b
mu (hay cn gi l lo mu colour burst), my thu phc hi tn s sng
mang mu f
C
ng tn s pha ban u nh pha pht nhm m bo cho mu
sc ca nh truyn hnh khi thu c ging nh mu sc ca nh nh pht i.

Hnh 2.4. V tr ca tn hiu ng b mu trong h NTSC
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Tn hiu ng b mu c tn s ng bng tn s mang mu f
C
= 3,58
MHz c t t sn sau ca cc xung xo dng gm t 8 11 chu k c
bin nh bng 0,9h (h l chiu cao ca xung ng b dng. Hnh 2.4)
V tr ca tn hiu ng b mu trong h NTSC ph ca tn hiu mu
trong h NTSC bao gm chi (Y) v sc (C) gm tn hiu I iu bin tn s
f
C
, truyn i gii bng tn di v ch mt phn gii bin tn trn, tn hiu Q
iu bin vo cng tn s f
C
nhng b dch pha 90
0
, truyn i c hai bin tn
trn v bin tn di, hai tn hiu I
m
, Q
m
to thnh tn hiu sc C: C = I
m
+ Q
m

* Ph tn ca tn hiu truyn hnh mu y h NTSC
Tn hiu mu y trong h NTSC bao gm tn hiu chi, tn hiu
hiu mu, xung tt y , xung ng b y v tn hiu ng b mu. Ph
tn tn hiu truyn hnh mu y c v trn (hnh 2.5). Di tn ca tn
hiu chi (0 4,2) MHz, ca tn hiu hiu mu U
Q
t (3 4,2) MHz, ca tn
hiu hiu mu U
I
t (2,3 4,2) MHz, c hai di bin tn ca tn hiu U
Q
u
c truyn sang pha thu cn tn hiu U
I
b nn mt phn bin tn trn.

Hnh 2.5. Ph tn ca tn hiu truyn hnh
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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2.1.2. S khi b m ho truyn hnh h NTSC
Hnh 2.6. l s khi n gin ca b m ho mu h NTSC. Trong
s ny khng v cc mch khuch i, mch ghim, mch vi phn...

Hnh 2.6. S m ho mu h NTSC
Mch ma trn: Nhn in p tn hiu mu c bn U
R
, U
G
, U
B
to ra
cc tn hiu chi U
Y
v hai tn hiu mu U
I
, U
Q
.
Tn hiu chi .U
Y
c di tn rng (0 4,2) MHz nn phi qua dy
tr lm chm tn hiu li, sau qua b khuch i U
Y
khuch i in
p tn hiu ln cung cp cho b cng.
Tn hiu U
I
sau khi qua mch lc thng thp c di tn t (0 l,3) MHz,
di tn ny rng hn di tn ca tn hiu U
Q
, nn cng phi a qua dy tr,
ri a ti b khuch i U
I
khuch i in p ln.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Tn hiu U
Q
sau khi qua mch lc thng thp c di tn hp nht t (0
0,6) MHz, do tn hiu ny khng qua dy tr a ti thng b khuch
i in p U
Q
.
B to sng mang ph f
SC
: y l b dao ng t kch c nhim v to
ra tn s sng mang f
SC
= 3,58 MHz. Tn s sng mang ph c a trc
tip ti b iu ch bin tn hiu Ul, ng thi tn s sng mang ph c
a qua b tr pha 90
0
ri a ti b iu ch bin tn hiu U
Q
.
B iu bin nn c nhim v ly tn hiu sc iu ch bin vo
sng mang ph sau nn tn s mang ph v ch a ra hai di bin tn trn
v di bin tn di.
+ B iu bin nn 1 c nhim v ly tn hiu mu U
I
iu bin nn vo
tn s mang mu ph, cho ra tn hiu song bin nn tn s mang.
+ B iu bin nn 2 c nhim v ly tn hiu hiu mu U
Q
iu bin
nn vo tn s mang mu ph tr pha 90
0
, cho ra tn hiu song bin
nn tn s mang.
B cng c nhim v tng hp tt c cc tn hiu chi, tn hiu sc,
xung ng b dng, xung ng b mnh v xung ng b mu to thnh
tn hiu tng hp U
M
.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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2.1.3 S khi gii m mu h NTSC
S chc nng b gii m mu h NTSC trn hnh 2.7


Hnh 2.7. S chc nng b gii m mu h NTSC
B khuch i tn hiu mu tng hp nhn tn hiu mu tng hp U
M

ri khuch i, u ra ca b khuch i ta ly c hai tn hiu: Tn hiu
chi v tn hiu sc.
Knh chi: Dy tr di rng c di thng tn 4,2 MHz v thi gian tr
khong (0,3 0,7 ) s, cho tn hiu chi v cc tn hiu hiu mu ca mt
phn t nh n mch ma trn hoc n hnh mu cng mt lc. y cn c
s phi hp tr khng ti li vo v li ra ca dy tr. Nu khng c s phi
hp tt s xut hin tn hiu phn x, sinh ra sng ng; do c nhiu ng
vin trn nh truyn hnh. Mch lc chn di s nn sng mang ph v cc
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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thnh phn ph ca tn hiu mu gn tn s sng mang ph nhm gim nh
hng ca tn hiu mu cho n cht lng nh truyn hnh mu.
Khi c mch lc chn di trong knh chi, di thng knh chi thu hp.
V vy, lc thu chng trnh truyn hnh en trng phi tm cch lm cho
mch lc chn di mt tc dng.
Mch ghim s khi phc thnh phn trung bnh ca tn hiu chi (nu
b mt).
Knh mu: Mch lc thng di chn ly tn hiu mu, tn hiu ng
b mu v nn cc thnh phn thp ca tn hiu chi nm ngoi ph tn
tn hiu mu.
Mch khuch i. sc U
C
l b khuch i cng hng nhm khuch
i in p tn hiu sc Uc ti tn s sng mang f
SC
= 3,58 MHz v a hai tn
hiu song bin nn tn s mang ti cc b tch sng tn hiu song bin.
B to sng mang ph f
SC
c nhim v to li tn s sng mang ph.
tn s t to lun ng b vi pha pht, b to sng mang ph lm vic di
s iu khin ca xung ng b mu c tn s sng mang ph.
B tch sng tn hiu sc c nhim v bin i tn hiu song bin thnh
tn hiu iu bin, sau tch sng iu bin ly tn hiu U
I
v U
Q
.
Mch tch sng U
I
nhn tn hiu song bin v tn s mang mu t to
f
SC
i tn hiu song bin thnh tn hiu iu bin. Sau tch sng iu
bin ly tn hiu hiu mu U
R-Y
hay U
I
. Do di tn ca U
I
rng (0 1,3)
MHz, nn tn hiu ny phi qua dy tr tn hiu chm li.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Mch tch sng U
Q
nhn tn hiu song bin v tn s sng mang t to
f
SC
tr pha 90
0
, i tn hiu song bin thnh tn hiu iu bin. Sau ,
tch sng iu bin ly tn hiu hiu mu U
B-Y
hay U
Q
.
Mch khuch i v mch ma trn: Khi ny c nhim v bin i tn
hiu mu U
R-Y
v U
B-Y
thnh U
G-Y
sau khuch i ba tn hiu mu U
R-Y
,
U
G-Y
,U
B-Y
.
2.1.4. Kt lun.
H thng NTSC ra i rt sm, do n c th thch trong
thi gian kh di, kinh nghim tch ly v h thng ny kh phong ph.
Tuy nhin v cn tn ti nhiu nhc im cho nn n khng c s dng
Chu u v ni khc.
u im chnh ca h thng NTSC l n gin, thit b m ho v
gii m khng phc tp v vy gi thnh thit b thp hn so vi thit b cc
h thng khc.
Khuyt im chnh ca h thng NTSC l rt r b sai mu khi h
thng truyn tn hiu mu l tng v c nhiu.
Sau y chng ta xt mt s c im:
- Mo gy ra do di tn tn hiu mang mu b hn ch: v di tn tn hiu
mang mu b hn ch sinh ra s nho ranh gii gia cc gii mu thun khit
nm k nhau theo chiu ngang, lm cho chi b gim thp vng gii hn
gii mu.
- Mo gy ra di tn ca hai tn hiu mang mu khc nhau: S sai
khc di tn ca UI v UQ dn n s sai mu vng chi bin i t
ngt, bi v ti tc thay i UI v UQ khng ging nhau, do gc
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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pha thay i theo thi gian. S sai khc di tn cn lm thay i gii hn
ca cc vng trong th mu.
- Nhiu ca tn hiu chi vo knh mu: Khi tn hiu chi c cc t
bin hoc cha cc thnh phn tn s cao th di tc dng ca n, u ra ca
b lc khng di tn s fsc s xut hin cc dao ng tn s mang ph. Cc
dao ng ny c tch sng v gy nhiu cho tn hiu mu. Bi v tn hiu
mang mu cao tn l iu bin, cho nn loi nhiu k trn rt kh khc phc.
Chnh nhiu ny lm chi tit nh en - trng tr nn c mu khi c kch thc
thch hp.
- Nhiu ln nhau gia cc tn hiu mang mu do pht hai bin tn khng
i xng: Khi hai bin tn ca thnh phn U
I
khng i xng th trong tn
hiu U
Q
nhn c sau tch sng c ln thnh phn U
I
. S ln ny xy ra cng
nghim trng nu c tuyn tn s my pht v my thu b sai lch.
Nhng c im nu trn l nhc im thuc bn cht ca h thng
NTSC.
Nhng nhc im tn ti ngay c khi h thng truyn tn hiu c
thng s l l tng v khng c nhiu.
2.2 H TRUYN HNH SECAM (SEQUENTIEL COULEUR A
MEORIRE)
y l h truyn hnh mu tun theo tiu chun ca OIRT
(Organisation Intemational Radio ang Tlvision - T chc pht thanh v
truyn hnh quc t).
H SECAM tri qua nhiu phng php ci tin nng cao cht
lng truyn hnh. Do n c cc tn nh sau: SECAMI, SECAMII,
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


TRN NGUYN HONG NAM LP TVT K6
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SECAMIII, SECAMIIIA, SECAMIIIB, SECAMIV v SECAMIIIB -
Optimal. Hin nay ni n SECAM l ta phi hiu y chnh l SECAMIIIB -
Optimal, n tr thnh h truyn hnh mu chnh thc, v n c tnh trng
nhiu tng i cao, km nhy vi mo pha - vi sai, mo bin - vi sai.
2.2.1 c im ca h truyn hnh mu SECAM
Tn hiu chi (Y): c truyn tt c cc dng, c hai loi tn hiu
mu D
R
v D
B
truyn ln lt theo dng qut trn hai sng mang ph c tn
s trung tn f
0R
v F
0B
theo phng php iu tn. c tnh theo cng thc.
Y = 0,3R + 0,59G + 0,1 lB
rng di tn 6MHz.
Tn hiu mu: Hai tn hiu mu c truyn i ln lt theo tng dng
sang pha thu v c biu th bng:
D
R
= 1,9 (R-Y)
D
B
= 1,5 (B-Y)
Vi rng di tn ca hai tn hiu hiu mu u bng 1,5 MHz. Chn
h s 1,9 cho tn hiu D
R
v 1,5 cho tn hiu D
B
nhm gii quyt tnh tng
hp gia truyn hnh mu v truyn hnh en trng.
Hai tn hiu mu D
R
v D
B
c iu ch vo hai tn s mang mu ph:
f
CR
= 4,406 MHz
f
CB
= 4,25 MHz
Hai tn s mang mu ny phi c chn sao cho tnh chng nhiu phi
c nng cao.
N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Tn s mang mu ph, i vi cc dng tn hiu D
R
th tn s mang
mu ph cha iu ch bng:
f
CR
= 282 x f
H
= 282 x 15,625 = 4,40625 MHz.
i vi dng tn hiu D
B
th tn s mang mu ph khi cha iu ch
bng: f
CB
= 272 x f
H
= 272 x 15,625 = 4,25 MHz
tn hiu D
R
, D
B
c qut ln lt theo tng dng trn mn hnh
ca my thu hnh ng b vi tn hiu mu pht ln lt theo tng dng th
my pht phi truyn i tn hiu ng b mu xung ng b mu c b tr
nh sau.
Tn hiu ng b: Xung ng b mu theo dng, c xp xp sn
sau xung xo dng, c tn s l f
CR
i vi ng truyn D
R
v bng f
CB
Vi
ng truyn D
B
.
Xung ng b mu theo mnh, trong h SECAM mi nh c chia
thnh mnh l bao gm cc dng t 1 313 v mnh chn t 314 625 . Do
vy , tn hiu ng b mu theo mnh c t t mnh mt t dng 715
gm 9 xung (5 xung dng nhn dng tn hiu D
R
v 4 xung m nhn dng tn
hiu D
B
).
Ph tn hiu: Ph ca tn hiu mu tng hp trong h SECAM, (hnh
2.8) bao gm: Tn hiu chi (Y) v sc (C). Tn hiu sc (C) bao gm hai tn
hiu, tn hiu D
R
iu tn sng mang f
CR
v tn hiu D
B
iu tn vo sng
mang fcb c hn ch bin thp so vi tn hiu chi (Y).

N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Hnh 2.8 Ph ca tn hiu mu tng hp h SECAM
2.2.2 S khi m ho mu h SECAM
Hnh 2.9 l s khi m ho truyn hnh mu h SECAM. Cc mu
c bn sa mo gam ma c a vo mch ma trn in tr to ra tn
hiu chi v hai tn hiu hiu mu. Cc tn hiu mu c gii hn di thng
l 1,5 MHz, qua b tin nhn a vo b iu ch tn s. u ra ca cc b
iu ch ln lt c chn cho tng dng nh b chuyn mch c iu
khin bng tn hiu xc nh, c tn s f
H
/ 2 = 7812,5 KHz.
Tn hiu U
Y
cng c lm tr b li tr ca tn hiu chi. B
cng s phi hp tn hiu chi, sng mang mu iu tn vi cc bin v tn
hiu ng b to thnh tn hiu tng hp U
M
.

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Hnh 2.9. S m ho truyn hnh h SECAM
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2.2.3. S gii m truyn hnh mu h SECAM

Hnh 2.10. S gii m h SECAM
S khi qu trnh gii m tn hiu SECAM c v trn hnh 2.10.
Tn hiu tng hp c a qua b tr v b by sng mang ph c tc dng
lm suy gim ti hai tn s 4,25 MHz v 4,4 MHz thu c tn hiu chi.
B lc chung c tc dng b li bin v pha, m b lc hnh
chung nga (sa mo tn cao) trong phn m ho gy ra. Sng mang
ph sau c hng v mt dy lm tr c thi gian truyn lan bng thi
gian qut ca mt dng, tc 64s i vi mt hnh 625 dng. Ta bit rng h
SECAM c ngha l "tng b mu sc c nh" v tn hiu hiu mu c
truyn i theo tng b, ch khng ng thi cng mt lc. Dy tr l mt b
nh. Nh vy, nu sng mang ph t ng lm tr ra m c bin din
bi D
R
th sng mang ph trn u vo (khng qua dy tr) s c bin din
bi D
B
v ngc li. Mt b o mch in t c kch thch mt cch t
ng bi cc xung ca cc dng quay tr li, s c s dng dn ln lt,
xen k vo nhau, u vo v u ra ca dy tr, ti cc b phn gii iu ch
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U
R-Y
v U
B-Y
cc b phn ny gm cc b hn ch, b tch sng t l, b gii
tin nhn.
2.2.4. Kt lun:
Vi h SECAM dng phng php iu tn tn hiu lm mo pha nh
i, nhng do khng kh c tn s mang mu ph nn c hin tng nhiu
trn, v khi thu chng trnh truyn hnh en trng, c hin tng nhp nhy
cc dng k tip nhau ti cc vng bo ho.
2.3 H TRUYN HNH MU PAL
H truyn hnh mu PAL l h truyn hnh mu c cng ho lin
bang c nghin cu v c xem l h tiu chun t nm 1966. y l h
truyn hnh ng thi truyn tn hiu chi v hai tn hiu hiu mu.
H truyn hnh mu PAL c vit tt l (Phase Altemative Line -
Thay i pha theo tng dng) .
2.3.1 c im
Tn hiu chi: Trong h truyn hnh ny tn hiu chi c tnh theo
biu thc: Y = 0,3 R + 0,59G + 0,11B
C rng di tn l 5 MHz
Tn hiu mu: Hai tn hiu hiu mu c truyn ng thi sang pha
thu biu th
U
v
= 0,877 (R - Y)
U
U
= 0,493 (B - Y)
rng di tn ca c hai tn hiu ny l 1,5 MHz
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Hai tn hiu mu U
U
v U
v
c rng di tn bng nhau v bng 1,3
MHz cng nh h NTSC, hai tn hiu mu U
U
v U
v
iu ch trn mt sng
mang ph theo phng thc iu ch vung gc. Nhng khc vi h NTSC
ch: Thnh phn mang tn hiu U
v
o pha (gc pha thay i 180
0
) theo tng
dng qut. Vic o pha ny xy ra trong tri gian qut.ngc ca dng.
Trong h truyn hnh PAL tn hiu ng b mu thc hin hai nhim
v: + T ng iu chnh tn s v gc pha ban u ca b to sng mang
mu ph my thu hnh sao cho lun lun bng tn s v gc pha ban u ca
sng mang mu ph bn pha pht.
+ iu khin chuyn mch in t trong my thu hnh mu ng b vi
chuyn mch in t bn pha pht.
Tn hiu ng b mu: C tn s bng tn s mang mu bng 4.43
MHz, c t thm sau ca xung xo dng gm t 8 1 chu k. Gc pha
ban u ca tn hiu ng b mu cng thay i theo tng dng qut (Hnh
2.11.).

Hnh 2.11. Cch b tr tn hiu ng b mu trong h PAL
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i vi dng qut m f
C
mang tn hiu U
v
khng o pha th vec t
ng b mu to vi trc (B Y) mt gc bng 135
0
. Cn i vi nhng dng
m sng mang mu ph mang tn hiu V c o pha, th vec t tn hiu ng
b mu to vi trc (B Y) mt gc pha bng 225
0
hay 135
0
v vy pha ca
xung ng b mu ln lt theo tng dng l 135
0
v - 135
0
tu theo dng
truyn i c pha ca U
v
l + 90
0
hay 90
0
.

Hnh 2.12. Pha ca tn hiu ng b dng n v dng (n+1)
Tn hiu ph: ph ca tn hiu mu tng hp (hnh 2.13) bao gm tn
hiu chi (U
Y
) c di tn t 0 5 MHz v tn hiu sc (U
C
). (Gm hai tn
hiu U
U
v U
V
iu bin tn s f
SC
, truyn i ton di bin tn di v mt
phn di bin tn trn.
Ph ca tn hiu mu U
U
v vch ph ca tn hiu mu U
V
khng trng
nhau. Khong cch gia chng l f
H
/2. pha thu c th tch ring tn hiu U
v

v U
U
trc mch tch sng ng b.
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Hnh 2.13. Ph ca tn hiu mu tng hp h PAL
2.3.2. S khi b m ho mu h PAL
Hnh 2.14. v s khi n gin ca mt b m ho tn hiu mu h
PAL. Cc tn hiu mu sa mo gamma c a vo ma trn in tr
to ra tn hiu chi v hai tn hiu mu.
Tn hiu chi c a qua dy tr ( khong 0,7s), sau c
khuch i (in p tn hiu) ln cho ln a ti b cng to tn hiu
mu tng hp.
B to sng mang mu ph l b dao ng t kch c nhim v to ra
tn s f
SC
= 4,43 MHz. Tn s mang mu ph cng c a qua hai b phn
i pha 90
0
v + 90
0
ti chuyn mch in t1, ri a ti b iu bin nn
tn hiu U
v
( o pha tn s mang mu ph tng dng).





N TT NGHIP MCH QUT DNG


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Hnh 1.14. S khi b m ho mu h PAL
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iu bin nn tn hiu mu: iu bin nn tn hiu U
U
c nhim v ly
tn hiu mu U
U
iu ch vo bin tn s mang mu f
SC
, sau nn tn s
sng mang v a ra hai bin tn ta c tn hiu iu bin nn Uum' iu bin
nn tn hiu U
v
c nhim v ly tn hiu hiu mu U
v
iu ch vo bin ca
tn s mang mu f
SC
vi iu kin sng mang mu o pha tng dng, ngha
l ti dng th n tn s mang mu c gc di pha = 90
0
th dng th ( n+l)
tn s mang mu c gc di pha = - 90
0
. B chuyn mch in t 1 v mch
dch pha +90
0
s thc hin s o pha ny. Sau nn tn s sng mang mu
ph v a ra hai bin tn trn v di ta c tn hiu iu bin nn U
vm
.
B cng U
um
, U
vm
to thnh tn hiu sc U
c
. Cc chuyn mch in t
c iu khin bi b to xung iu khin fh/2, nhm a tn s mang mu
f
SC
= 4,4 MHz lt pha tng dng ti b iu bin nn tn hiu U
v
.
Tn hiu ng b mu cng c to ra nh mt b di pha + 135
0
. pha
ca tn hiu U
U
v tn hiu ng b mu s c chuyn ti tn s fh/2 =
78/2,5MHz. Tn hiu U
v
c lm tr b thi gian x l tn hiu ti b lc
ca tn hiu hiu mu. B cng tng hp c nhim v tng hp cc tn hiu
chi U
v
, tn hiu sc U
C
, xung ng b dng, xung ng b mnh, xung
ng b mu to thnh tn hiu tng hp mu U
M
.
2.3.3. S khi b gii m mu h PAL
S khi qu trnh gii m tn hiu PAL c v trn hnh 2.15. B
khuch i tn hiu video tng hp U
M
c nhim v khuch i in p tn
hiu U
M
u ra b khuch i U
M
ta nhn c hai tn hiu: tn hiu chi U
v

c di tn t (0,5) MHz, cng tn hiu sc U
C
gm hai thnh phn U
vm
v U
Um

l tn hiu iu bin nn c tn s mang mu ph 4,43 MHz.
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Tn hiu chi sau khi qua b lc chn di ti tn s 4,43 MHz c di
tn rng, nn phi cho qua dy tr nhm lm chm tn hiu li, sau i n
b khuch i tn hiu chi khuch i v cui cng a ra mch ma trn.
B khuch i tn hiu sc l mch khuch i cng hng ti tn
s 4,43 MHz vi di thng l 1,5 MHz, ly't,n hiu sc U
vm
v U
Um

ng thi.
B phn chia tn hiu U
vm
v U
Um
bao gm: b tr tn hiu U
vm
b cng tn
hiu U
Um
dy tr 1T
H
(64s). B phn chia tn hiu c nhim v thu nhn
ng thi tn hiu sc U
vm
v U
Um
sau phn chia ring bit hai tn hiu ny.
u ra ca b "tr" ta ly c hai tn hiu 2U
vm
u ra ca b "cng"
ta ly c tn hiu 2U
Um
.
B tch sng tn hiu iu bin nn c nhim v bin i tn hiu
song bin thnh tn hiu iu bin (hi phc tn s sng mang), sau tch
sng iu bin.
B tch sng tn hiu U
U
: Nhn tn hiu sng bin U
Vm
v tn s mang
t to f
SC
= 4,43 MHz vi gc = 0, a ra tn hiu U
R-V
.
B tch sng tn hiu U
v
: Nhn tn hiu song bin U
Vm
v tn s sng
mang t to f
SC
= 4,43 MHz o pha tng dng nh b i pha + 90
0
v
chuyn mch in t (Chuyn mch in t hot ng ng b vi chuyn
mch in t bn pha pht vi tn s fh/2), do u ra ta ly c tn hiu
U
R-Y
.
Mch ma trn nhn ba tn hiu: chi U
Y
, U
R-Y
, U
B-Y
to ra ba tn
hiu hiu mu U
R-Y
, U
G-Y
V U
B-Y
.
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Hnh 2.15. B gii m mu h PAL
2.3.4. Kt lun
H thng truyn hnh PAl c nhng c im sau:
u im:
- H PAL c mo pha nh hn hn so vi h NTSC
- H PAL khng c hin tng xuyn ln mu
- H PAL thun tin cho vic ghi bng hnh hn h NTSC
- My thu hnh h PAL phc tp hn v cn c dy tr 64s v yu cu
dy tr ny cn c cht lng cao
- Tnh kt hp h truyn hnh en trng km hn h NTSC.
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Tm li vn chn sng mang ph v phng php iu ch nh th
no s xuyn ln, s ph ri nhau gia tin tc chi v tin tc mu, gim
thiu ti a l nguyn nhn tn ti ba h truyn hnh mu NTSC, PAL v
SECAM, v c ba h u t mt ny th mt mt kia v khng c h no t
kt qu ti u.