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Chuyn : M HNH CHT LNG NC



A. MC CH
Nhm trang b cho hc vin cc kin thc c bn:
- L thuyt c s v cc qu trnh c bn chuyn ho cc cht nhim trong
ngun nc, cc nguyn l c bn xy dng m hnh cht lng nc.
- Cc m hnh cht lng nc v phm vi ng dng trong thc tin.
B. YU CU
Hc vin cn c k nng v ngn ng lp trnh, ton ng dng v hc cc
mn c s v khoa hc mi trng: ho l, thu lc, sinh thi mi trng, ho mi
trng, nhim mi trng.
C. NI DUNG
Chng 1. Cht lng nc v nh gi cht lng ngun nc
Chng 2. C s l thuyt MHCLN
Chng 3. M hnh lan truyn v chuyn ho cc cht nhim trong dng
chy
Chng 4. Thit lp m hnh cht lng nc, cc m hnh DO&BOD
Chng 5. Gii thiu cc phn mn m phng cht lng ngun nc
M hnh Qual 2E
D. TI LIU THAM KHO
[1]. Jerald L. Schnoor. Environmental Modeling. John Wiley & Sons. Inc, 1996.
[2]. A.James. An Introduction to water quality modeling. John Wiley & Sons. Inc,
1996.
[3]. Mervin D.Palmer. Water quality modeling. A guide to effective practice. WB,
2001.
[4]. Linfield C.Brow and Thomas O.Branwel. The enhanced stream water quality
Qual2E and Qual2E-uncas: Documentation and user manual. EPA, 1987.
[5]. Steve C. Chapra. Sufrace water-quality modeling. Mc Graw - Hill, 1997.


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Chng 1
Cht lng ngun nc & nh gi cht lng
ngun nc
1.1. Ngun nuc v phn loi ngun nc
1.1.1. S hnh thnh cht lng v thnh phn tnh cht
ngun nc
Cc yu t v cc qu trnh hnh thnh thnh phn ho hc
ca nc thin nhin bao gm hai nhm: cc yu t tc ng
trc tip v cc yu t iu khin cc qu trnh hnh thnh cht
lng nc din ra trong dng chy
Cc yu t tc ng trc tip
Khong vt, th nhng, sinh vt v con ngi. Cc yu
t ny tc ng lm cho nng cc cht trong nc tng ln
v gim i.
Qa trnh khong vt ho: din ra rt phc tp, ph thuc
vo c im ca thnh phn khong vt: nhan thch hiu nc,
k nc v ngm nc..Cc loi mui: NaCl, CaCO
3
, CaSO
4
2-
...
Khong vt phong ho: allluminoSilicat (nhm silic) chim
phn ln trong ln v tri t phong ho chuyn vo nc.
Khong vt st: thnh phn chnh ca nhan thch.
Th nhng (t trng) : khc vi thnh phn khong vt,
th nhng ngoi cc thnh phn v c (90-95%) trong t trng
cn c cc thnh phn hu c v hu c khong vt. Thnh phn
hu c c ngun gc: sn phm phn hu gc ng vt, thc vt
v sn phm ca cc qu trnh sinh ho trong t.
S xm nhp vo mi trng nc ph thuc vo cc yu
t kh tng thu vn, a hnh, lng ma v cng ma.
Sinh vt v con ngi
Cc sinh vt c vai tr rt a dng v rng ri. Thc hin
cc chu trnh sinh -a-ho: iu chnh cn bng sinh thi, to
2
nng sut sinh hc s cp (to, ph du...) v cc cht hu c ban
u (vi khun c nh m)...
Cc hot ng pht trin gy nhim ngun nc
Cc yu t iu khin
Cc yu t iu khin bao gm : kh hu, a hnh, ch
thu vn, s pht trin ca h thc vt thu sinh.
Kh hu: nh hng trc tip n lu lng v nng cc
cht, nhit nh hng n cc phn ng ho hc,
sinh hc...
a hnh: nh hng gin tip n cc qu trnh khong ho, xi
mn v ra tri b mt.
Ch thu vn: thnh phn ca nc, nng cc cht ho
hc trong nc ph thuc vo dng chy. Chiu
di dng chy, din tch lu vc.
Qa trnh hnh thnh cht lng nc
Qa trnh khuch tn: l qu trnh dch chuyn cc cht ho
tan, phn tn trong nc do nh hng ca gradient nng .
Tun th theo nh lut Fick
Qa trnh chuyn khi do khuch tn i lu. Vn chuyn
(ti cc cht trong dng chy, s xo trn).
Cc qu trnh vn chuyn cc cht vo trong ngun nc
Thu phn: phn ng trao i gia nc v cc loi khong
cht.
Ho tan:ph hu cu trc mng tnh th ca cc loi mui
v phn ly thnh cc dng ion
Cc qu trnh tch cc vt cht khi ngun nc
Bao gm cc qa trnh lng: do t trng, nng vt gii
hn bo ho, qa trnh hp ph, qu trnh keo t, cc qu trnh
phn ng gia cc hp cht v cc qu trnh sinh thi cht lng
nc.
3
3. Thnh phn v tnh cht ca nc thin nhin
Cc ion ho tan
Nuc l mt dung mi rt tt ho tan hu ht cc loi
khong cht v c, cc axit, baz v cc mui v c. Cc ion
ch yu trong nc l cc ion ca cc loi mui khong, Cl
-
,
SO
4
2-
, HCO
3
-
, CO
3
2-
v cc ion kim loi Na
+
, K
+
,Ca
2+
,
Mg
2+
,Mn
2+
... chim khong 90-95% trong nc ngt v trong
cc ngun nc khong >99% trong tng s cc cht ho tan.
Hm lng cc ion ho tan ph thuc vo c im kh hu,
a mo v v tr ca thu vc.
c im hnh thnh cc ion ho tan ca cc dng chy do
cc nhn t ch o quyt nh: lng nc ma, bc hi v qu
trnh phong ha.
Cc cht kh ho tan
Hu ht tt c cc cht kh (tr CH
4
) u c kh nng ho
tan hoc phn ng vi nc. Thnh phn cc cht kh ph thuc
vo iu kin t nhin ca ngun nc.
Cc qu trnh hnh thnh cht kh trong nc t nhin: ho
tan t kh quyn (O
2
, N
2
, CO
2
, cc loi kh tr...) sn phm t
cc qu trnh sinh ho (H
2
S,CH
4
,N
2
,CO
2
...) v qu trnh bin i
trong khong cht c sn trong nc ngm.
Nng cc cht kh ho tan tun th theo nh lut
Herry
Cc cht rn
Phn loi theo t trng: lng c d>10
-5
m v l lng.
Theo kch thc: lc c d >10
-6
m v khng lc c, cc
hp cht keo d = 10
-6
-10
-9
m v dng ho tan d <10
-9
m.
Cc cht hu c
Hm lng cht hu c thp t gy nguy him n vic s
dng ngun nc, nguc li b nhim. Cc cht hu c c
chia thnh cc dng d phn hu sinh hc v kh b phn hu.
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Thnh phn sinh hc
Thnh phn v mt c th sng ph thuc vo : thnh
phn ho hc ca ngun nc, ch thu vn, a hnh ni c
tr, kh hu
Cc loi thu sinh vt trong nc: vi khun, nm, siu vi
trng, to, nguyn sinh ng vt, ng vt a bo, ng vt c
xng, nhuyn th...
Cc hnh thc sng trong ngun nc rt a dng: dng ph
du (plankton, phytoplankton, macroplanton); c, sinh vt sng
bm, sinh vt y...
Vi khun ng vai tr quan trng trong vic phn hu cc
cht hu c, h tr qu trnh t lm sch ngun nc c ngha
to ln v mt sinh thi. Cc loi vi khun chia thnh hai loi : t
dng (heterophic) v d dng (autotrophic).
Phn loi ngun nc
Theo mc ch s dng c chia thnh cc loai ngun nc:
cp cho sinh hot, v cc mc ch khc nh gii tr, tip xc
vi ngun nc v nui trng cc loi thu sn.
Theo mn thng theo nng mui trong ngun nc
c chia thnh nc ngt, nc l v nc mn.
Theo v tr ngun nc chia thnh cc ngun nc mt (sng,
sui, ao, h...) nc ngm.
1.2.Cht lng ngun nc v nh gi cht lng ngun
nc
1.2.1. Cht lng ngun nc
1.2.2. nh gi cht lng ngun nc
Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng ngun nc
Cc ch tiu vt l
Nhit
Mu sc
Mi, v
c.
5
Cc ch tiu ho hc
Cc cht l lng, phn tn nh...
Cc cht kh ho tan
Cc ion ho tan...
Cc ch tiu sinh hc
Vi trng, vi khun gy bnh.
1.3. Cc ngun gy nhim mi trng nc.
1.3.1. Nc thi sinh hot t cc khu dn c
Ngun gc
c im ngun thi, ch thi
Tnh cht, thnh phn
1.3.2. Nc thi cng nghip
Ngun gc
c im ngun thi, ch thi
Tnh cht, thnh phn
1.3.3. Nc ma chy trn
1.3.4. Cc hot ng t tu thuyn
Cc ngun khc: nc ma, cc vng x l cht thi rn...
1.2. M hnh cht lng nc, ng dung trong cng
tac quan ly CLNN
MHCLN l cc phn mn tnh ton cc ch tiu phn nh
cht lng ngun nc. Cc ch tiu bao gm: cc ch
tiu vt l, ho hc v thnh phn sinh hc ca ngun
6
nc trn c s gii cc phng trnh ton hc m t mi
quan h gia cc ch tiu phn nh cht lng nc cng
nh cc qu trnh c lin quan n n.
1.2.1. Lch s pht trin
M hnh cht lng nc l mt trong nhng cng c qun l
cht lng ngun nc mt cch tng qut v ton din, mang
li hiu qu kinh t cao. Trong nhng nm gn y c ng
dng rt rng ri trong cc lnh vc : d bo nhim, nh gi
xu th bin i cht lng nc, khai thc s dng hp l ngun
nc v lm c s khoa hc cho vic bo v tng hp ngun
nc.
Trong gn mt th k, t m hnh n gin u tin cho n
nay s pht trin MHCLN c th c tm tt theo cc giai on
sau :
Giai on u th k 20
M hnh cht lng nc u tin c Streeter-Phelps
thit lp 1925, m phng s thay i cc cht hu c BOD & D
( thiu ht oxy) vng h lu cc ngun thi im trn dng
chy sng Ohio. M hnh c thit lp da trn c s cc gi
thit : dng chy n nh, s phn hy cc cht hu c theo phn
ng bc nht v s thiu ht oxy trong dng chy l do s phn
hy cc cht hu c.
7
Trong nhng nm ca thp k 30 -50, kt hp cc kt qu
nghin cu l thuyt v qu trnh xo trn, khuch tn ri vt
cht trong dng chy ca Taylor, Eder v cc phng php tnh
ton s lan truyn cht trn dng chy, Cc tc gi c gng nng
cao tin cy bng vic xem xt ng thi nh hng ca qu
trnh khuch tn ri n qu trnh lan truyn cc cht nhim
trong dng chy. Cc nghin cu tp trung vo cc mi quan h
gia s thay i gi tr BOD&D trn cc dng chy vi cc ch
thy lc khc nhau.
Tuy nhin, trong giai on ny do s hn ch ca phng
php tnh, cng c tnh ton cng nh cc iu kin thc nghim
trong dng chy nn cc MHCLN ch yu tp trung gii quyt
cc vn t ra trong cc dng chy n gin knh, sng vi
iu kin n nh, mt chiu. Kt qu t c trong giai on
ny l cc cng thc thc nghim xc nh hng s tc ho
tan oxy, cc s liu thng k v hng s tc phn hu cc cht
hu c trong cc dng chy c ch thu lc khc nhau.
Giai on thp k 60
Trong giai on ny, cng vi cng c tnh ton mi (my
tnh in t) cc phng php tnh ton c hon thin, cc
phng php s gii bi ton thy lc, bi ton lan truyn cht
trong dng chy tr nn quen thuc. Cc MHCLN c pht
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trin tnh ton vi bi ton nhiu chiu hn v x l cc vn
m trc y khi gii quyt cn gp rt nhiu kh khn. tin
cy ca m hnh cng c nng cao hn.
Cc vn c quan tm trong giai on ny l p dng vo
tnh ton trong thc tin cc vn nh cp trn nhng cc
m hnh gii quyt cc bi ton nhiu chiu hn v cc vn
phc tp hn. tin cy ca m hnh c nng cao do b sung
thm cc qu trnh c nh hng n s phn b nng cc
cht hu c trong dng chy :
- Qa trnh lng cc cht l lng, phn tn nh trong qu trnh
lan truyn.
- Qa trnh gii phng cc cht t lp bn y do s c st ca
dng chy vi lp bn y.
- Qu trnh quang hp v h hp ca h thc vt thu sinh
Cc MHCLN c pht trin rt a dng. Nu nh trc y
cc m hnh thun ty nh gi nhng tc ng ca ngun thi
im n cht lng nc sng, cc m hnh cp n s
lan truyn trong dng chy ca cc sng rng, vng ca sng.
Trong cc ng dng vo thc tin, cc nghin cu xc nh
cc s liu thc nghim v hng s tc ho tan, h s chuyn
ho cc cht trong dng chy. Vi cc lu vc c ch thu
9
lc tin cy ca kt qu tnh ton m phng cn nhiu hn ch
.
Giai on thp k 70
Thp k 70, vi s hon thin cc phng php nghin cu
thc nghim xc nh s phn tn vt cht trong dng chy cc
MHCLN pht trin a dng hn. cp n vai tr ca qu
trnh t lm sch ca ngun nc (kh nng chuyn ha cc cht
bn ca h ng thc vt), cc nghin cu tp trung thm vo
cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh ph dng ngun nc. S
chuyn ha cc cht nhim trong chui thc n. S tch ly cc
cht nhim trong cc sinh vt tiu th. Bc u, cc nghin
cu ch dng li cc nghin cu s ph dng ca cc h cha
nc. i vi dng chy vn ny cng c cp n,
tuy nhin khi trin khai ng dng cn rt nhiu kh khn trong
vic nh gi v hiu chnh m hnh.
Giai on thp k 80 n nay
Cui nhng nm 80 tr li y, Cc MHCLN tp trung
nghin cu mi quan h gia cc qu trnh sinh thi -cht lng
nc trong dng chy. Cc m hnh c thit lp di dng
n gin hn nhng tin cy cao hn.
Thomann v Mueller (1987) m hnh ho cc nh hng
ca mi quan h gia cc loi ph du thc vt vi cc cht dinh
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dng trong dng chy n cht lng nc sng. Cc cht dinh
dng c a vo dng chy di dng cc ngun thi im.
Law v Chalup (1990) xy dng MHCLN trn c s s
pht trin ca qu trnh quang hp v h hp ca to. iu ny
c Bowie b sung vo m hnh Qual 2E (1993). Di Toro v
Fitzpatrick (1993) pht trin, b sung thm mi quan h gia cc
sinh vt ln tiu th (sinh vt tiu th bc I) s chuyn ha v
tch ly cc cht dinh dng.
Hin ti, hng pht trin ca MHCLN l nghin cu s
tch ly cc cht hu c bn vng trong chui thc n, s tch
ly cc cht c trong cc c th sng. M phng phn b nng
cc cht nhim trn cc dng chy phc tp nh s lan
truyn cc cht nhim t cc ngun thi im, cc ngun thi
phn tn, cc ngun thi pht sinh thm trong qu trnh chuyn
ha cc cht nhim.
Cc p dng thc tin, c trin khai rng cc dng
chy c ch phc tp nh cc dng chy sng rng, ca sng,
cc vng, vnh v cc vng bin ven b.
1.2.2. Phn loi MHCLN v phm vi ng dng
MHCLN l cc phn mn tnh ton cc ch tiu phn nh
cht lng ngun nc nh : cc ch tiu vt l, ho hc v
thnh phn sinh hc ca ngun nc trn c s gii cc phng
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trnh ton hc m t mi quan h gia cc ch tiu phn nh
cht lng nc cng nh cc qu trnh c lin quan n n.
Ty thuc i tng nghin cu, cch tip cn, cc gi thit khi
thit lp, cc thng s v mi quan h gia cc qu trnh khi thit
lp phng trnh v cc phng php s c p dng tnh
ton nn mi m hnh c nhng th mnh v hn ch khc nhau.
Trn c s mi quan h gia cc qu trnh, cc yu t hnh
thnh v nh hng n cht lng ngun nc, cc MHCLN
c chia thnh hai loi : m hnh tnh ton s lan truyn,
phn b cc cht nhim trong dng chy v m hnh m
phng s hnh thnh cht lng nc v xu th bin i cht
lng ngun nc.
M hnh tnh ton s lan truyn, phn b cc cht
nhim trong dng chy
M phng s bin i cc ch tiu cht lng nc theo
thi gian trong khng gian ca dng chy. Vic thit lp m hnh
da trn c s gii phng trnh ti v ti-phn tn cc cht
nhim trong dng chy. Cc yu t c trng v dng chy c
xc nh t cc m hnh thy lc, cc s liu thng k hoc o
thc nghim nh cc m hnh QualI, II; Stream I, II... Loi m
hnh ny c u im v hn ch sau :
12
- Cho kt qu nhanh v s lan truyn, phn b cc cht t
cc ngun thi n cht lng nc. Trn c s cho
php chng ta nh gi tc ng ban u cng nh nhng
nh hng lu di n cht lng ngun nc.
- tin cy cao, d s dng do i hi t cc s liu u
vo.
- p dng rng ri trong vic nh gi tc ng ca cc
hot ng pht trin, d bo xu th bin i cht lng
ngun nc.
Nhc im l : cha xem xt n cc yu t hnh thnh
cht lng ngun nc, vic tnh ton m phng trong cc
khong thi gian ngn v c bit nh gi nh hng ca
cc ngun thi phn tn, cc s c mi trng n cht
lng ngun nc cn gp nhiu kh khn.
M hnh m phng s hnh thnh cht lng ngun nc
M phng s hnh thnh cc ngun gy nhim (cc ngun
thi v ti lng cc cht thi) v s thay i cht lng nc
theo thi gian v khng gian. Thit lp trn c s ghp ni cc
m hnh thy lc vi m hnh lan truyn cht nhim trong
dng chy nh WSHMM, MIKE SYSTEM... So vi loi m
hnh trn c cc u im v hn ch sau :
13
- M t mt cch tng qut v ton din hn v cht lng
ngun nc cng nh cc yu t nh hng n cc ch tiu
cht lng nc.
- Xem xt, nh gi c mc tc ng ca cc cht
nhim t cc ngun khng im n cht lng ngun
nc. Cc cht nhim c ngun gc t cc hot ng
nng nghip, t cc khu vc th v tp trung dn c
c a vo dng chy theo nc ma chy trn.
- i hi mt lng rt ln v ng b cc thng tin ban
u nh : cc s liu a hnh lu vc, cc s liu v thy
vn, dng chy...v khi lng tnh ton rt ln v phc
tp.
- nh gi, hiu chnh m hnh cng nh chun ho cc h
s ...gp nhiu kh khn trong thc t v i hi mt
khong thi gian di do vic d bo cc thng tin ban u
c tin cy thp.
Tu thuc i tng c th, mc ch nghin cu nh gi
m cc loi m hnh k trn c thit lp, tnh ton m t cc
qu trnh trong khng gian 1 hoc 2,3 chiu.


1
CHNG 2. C S L THUYT CA M HNH
CHT LNG NC

2.1. Cc phng trnh c bn
M t s xo trn v lan truyn cc cht nhim trong dng chy da trn c s l
thuyt ca qu trnh khuch tn ri. L thuyt ny c tha nhn rng ri trn th
gii. Phng trnh vi phn c bn m t qu trnh lan truyn v khuch tn ri vt cht
trong dng chy da trn cc gi thit c bn sau :
- Cht lng khng nn.
-Tr s Reynold ln khng xt n hiu ng ca qu trnh khuch tn phn
t.
-S lng cc cht gii phng trong mt n v thi gian trn mt n v th tch l
rt nh v b qua nh hng ca chng n cu trc ca dng chy.
Trn c s nh lut bo ton khi lng, phng trnh vi phn m t qu trnh xo
trn, lan truyn v chuyn ha cc cht nhim trong cht lng l tng-phng trnh ti
-khuch tn nh sau :
( ) 0 = +

S F
z
C
D
z y
C
D
y x
C
D
x z
C
u
y
C
u
x
C
u
t
C
z y x z y x
(2.1)
Trong :
D
x
, D
y
, D
z
- H s khuch tn phn t, m
2
/s.
u
x
,

u
y
, u
z
- Vn tc dng chy theo cc phng x,y,z, m/s.
F(S) - S hng c trng cho qu trnh chuyn ho cc cht nhim bi
cc qu trnh vt l, ho hc v sinh hc din ra trong dng chy.
Phng trnh (2.1) l phng trnh l thuyt na kinh nghim m t qu trnh ti
v khuch tn i lu vt cht trong dng chy. Khi p dng phng trnh vi phn (2.1)
gii bi ton xc nh s xo trn vt cht trong dng chy ri trong ng ng, Taylor
(1954) t cc nghin cu thc nghim kin ngh s dng h s khuch tn tch phn c
th xem xt nh hng ca trng vn tc trn tit din ca mt ct t n qu trnh
khuch tn ri vt cht.
2
T cc nghin cu trn, phng trnh vi phn (2.1) m t s khuch tn ri vt cht
trong dng chy c vit li l :
( ) S F
z
C
z y
C
y x
C
x x
C
u
x
C
u
x
C
u
t
C
z y x z y x
+ + + = + + + ) ( ) ( ) (

(2.2)
Trong :

x
;
y
;
Z
- H s khuch tn ri tch phn ti im ang xt, h s xo
trn ri theo cc phng x,y,z.
T cc phng trnh (2.1), (2.2) cho thy s lan truyn cc cht trong dng chy
ri trong mi trng hp ph thuc vo vn tc dng chy ti im ang xt.
Trong dng chy t nhin, trn knh, sng... s xo trn, khuch tn ca cc cht
ti mt im lun lun chu nh hng ca trng vn tc theo phng ngang v phng
thng ng, lm r s khc bit ny so vi dng chy trong ng thng s dng h s
phn tn ri. Phng trnh 2.2 c vit li l :
( ) S F
z
C
E
y
C
E
x
C
E
x
C
u
x
C
u
x
C
u
t
C
z y x z y x
+ + + = + + +
2
2
2
2
2
2

(2.3)
Trong :
E
x
E
y
E
z
- H s (phn tn ri) khuch tn ri vt cht theo phng x,y,z ti
mt ct.
Nh vy, qu trnh phn tn ri vt cht trong dng chy l t hp ca qu trnh
khuch tn ri vt cht trong trng vn tc dng chy c hng v vn tc khc nhau.
2.2.H s khuch tn ri
Nh phn tch trn, s khuch tn vt cht trong dng chy l qu trnh
khuch tn phn t qua mng v khuch tn i lu. H s khuch tn ri chu nh
hng ca s xo trn gia cc lp dng chy ri c vn tc khc nhau qua mt ct ngang
/2,10,11/. Cc phng xo trn ca nc thi vi nc sng ti mt im trn mt ct
ngang dng chy c th hin H.2









3












Trong thc t, cc h s khuch tn ri thng c xc nh gi tr trung bnh vi
tit din mt ct t ca dng chy, khng ph thuc vo ta im tnh ton v ln
ca n ph thuc vo cc yu t thy lc ca dng chy ti mt ct.
H s khuch tn ri theo phng thng ng
z

H s khuch tn ri theo chiu thng ng ti mt im trn mt ct ngang c
xc nh theo cng thc :

z
kdu
z
d
z
d
=

1 (2.4)
Vi :
u gdS

= : vn tc trt (vn tc ng lc) ca dng chy ti mt ct.


z : ta im tnh ton, m.
k : h s ri Von Karman (k 0,40 ).
d : chiu su trung bnh ca dng chy ti mt ct.
S : dc y ca dng chy, m/m.
g : gia tc trng trng, m/s
2
.
Gi
Z
l h s khuch tn ri trung bnh cho mt ct.

=
d
z z
dz
d
0
1
(2.4)
Jobson v Sayer (1970) ; Csanady (1976) bng cc nghin cu thc nghim xc
nh h s khuch tn ri v xut cng thc kinh nghim v h s khuch tn ri
z
ti
mt mt ct ngang ca dng chy.

z
du =

0 067 ,
(2.5)

H s xo trn theo phng ngang
y

Fischer (1967,1969) bng thc nghim xc nh h s khuch tn ri v a ra
cng thc tnh h s khuch tn ri
y
ti mt im trn mt ct ngang ca dng chy.

y
du =

0 15 ,
(2.6)



Hnh.2 Cc phng xo trn ca dng chy.

4
Lau v Krishnapan (1977) bng cc thc nghim trong cc dng chy t nhin trn
knh, sng c cc ch chy khc nhau, kin ngh mc sai s ca h s
y
.

Dng chy trong knh thng hnh thang :
y
du =

015 50% . (2.7)



Sng c ch chy m :
y
d u =

0 6 5 0 % , (2.8)

Sng hnh dng cong, khc khy :

=
u R
d u
c
y
2
3 2
25 (2.9)
Trong :
u :vn tc trung bnh ti mt ct ngang dng chy, L.T
-1

R
c
:bn knh thy lc, L
d : chiu su trung bnh, L.
T cng thc (2.5) v (2.6) d dng nhn thy
y z
10 nh vy qu trnh khuch
tn ri theo phng ngang ca dng chy ln hn rt nhiu so vi qu trnh khuch tn
ri theo phng thng ng.
H s khuch tn ri
x

Tng t nh vic xc nh
z
v

y
, Elder (1959) bng thc nghim xc nh
h s khuch tn ri ti mt im trn mt ct ngang theo chiu dng chy
x
.

= du
x
93 , 5
(2.10)
So snh
x
;
y
v
z
cho thy :
x
>>
y
>>
z
nh vy qu trnh xo trn v pha
long cc cht nhim din ra ch yu theo theo chiu ca dng chy. Hay ni mt cch
khc s xo trn, khuch tn ri cht nhim ti mt im no ti mt mt im no
trn ct ngang dng chy chu nh hng ch yu vo trng vn tc ca dng chy
ti mt ct ngang .
H s phn tn dc dng chy E
x

Khi xem xt nh hng ca trng vn tc ti mt ct ngang ln s khuch tn dc
theo chiu dng chy Fischer (1967) kin ngh thay th h s khuch tn ri
x
bng h s
phn tn dc dng chy E . H s ny c xc nh bng cch chia nh mt ct dng
chy ra thnh nhiu n v nh c th xt c nh hng ca trng vn tc ti mt
ct ln s xo trn v phn tn vt cht.

( )

=
y w
y
y
i x
ddydydy u
d
u u
A
E
0 0 0
1 1

(2.11)

Vi :
w : chiu rng ca dng chy ti mt ct ang xt, L
u
i
: vn tc trung bnh qua n v mt ct i ,L.T
-1

u : vn tc trung bnh trn ton b mt ct, L.T
-1

d : chiu su ca mt ct n v th i , L
5

y
du =

0 6 , h s khuch tn ri theo phng ngang gia tit din n v
mt ct th i v i-1.
Tch phn (2.11) ta c h s phn tn theo chiu dng chy ti mt ct ngang
ca dng chy.
T cc s liu thc nghim Fisher xut cng thc kinh nghim tnh h s phn
tn dc E
x
ti mt ct ngang dng chy.

=
du
u
W E
x
2
2
011 . 0 (2.12)
2.2. S chuyn ho cc cht trong dng chy
Ga thit rng, cc cht xm nhp vo dng chy knh, sng qua nc thi v cc
ngun thi c kch thc nh (so vi dng chy sng) c th coi nh l cc ngun
im. Do trong nc thi c nng cc cht cao hn trong ngun nc nn s xut hin
xu th cn bng nng bng cch vn chuyn cc cht t nc thi sang nc sng.
Qa trnh vn chuyn cht c xy ra bng hai cch :
-Qu trnh vn chuyn cht do dng chy (advection)
-Qu trnh khuch tn cc cht do dng chy ri (turbulent disfusion).
Ngoi ra, tu thuc ch thu lc ca dng chy, tnh cht thnh phn cc cht
bn m nng cc cht nhim trong dng chy cn ph thuc cc qu trnh : cc qu
trnh vt l (hp th, hp ph, lng, bay hi..), ho hc (s phn hu, tng tc ho hc...)
v sinh hc (tch t sinh hc, phn hu, chuyn ho...)
S chuyn ha cc cht hu c trong dng chy l tng hp cc qu trnh thu
ng hc, thu ho, sinh hc ...din ra trong ngun nc. Di gc sinh thi, y l
kh nng m bo s t n nh ca h sinh thi khi c tc ng t bn ngoi. Qa trnh
chuyn ha -phn hu cc cht hu c nh cc loi vi sinh vt...
S chuyn ha cc cht hu c trong dng chy c lin quan n tt c cc qu
trnh sinh thi trong h sinh thi dng chy sng. Cc qa trnh sinh thi, mi quan h
gia cc qu trnh din ra trong dng chy khi tip nhn cc cht thi t cc ngun bn
ngoi c m t hnh 2.2




6
















T s hnh 2.1 cho thy s thay i nng cc cht hu c d phn hy
trong dng chy c lin quan n cc qu trnh : vt l, ha hc v sinh hc din ra trong
dng chy. Cc qu trnh phn hy sinh hc, chuyn ha u c lin quan n cc qu
trnh sinh thi din ra trong dng chy : s pht trin ca thc vt nc, v cc qu trnh
c lin quan khc ...
2.2.1.Cc qu trnh sinh thi - cht lng nc trong dng chy
2.2.1.To
S pht trin ca to trong dng chy sng
S pht trin ca to trong sng chu nh hng ca cc yu t kh tng, thy
vn, thnh phn ha hc v cc qu trnh sinh hc din ra trong dng chy.
Cu trc chu trnh pht trin ca to nh sau : sn xut bc I chuyn ha cc cht
dinh dng dng v c thnh sinh khi ca to; sn xut bc II ca cc loi ng vt bc
II ni i km vi vic tiu th to. Cht v bi tit s gii phng cc cht hu c dng
Thc vt
Oxy ho tan Bn y
BOD
Cht thi t bn ngoi
Chu
trnh
Nit
To
Quang hp
H hp
Quang hp
H hp
Cht v phn hu
Lm thong
Vn ni
Lng
Cht v phn hu
Sinh trng
Hnh 2.1. S cc qu trnh chuyn ho cc cht hu c trong dng chy
7
cht vn v dng ha tan. Cc con ng ti to s chuyn cc cht hu c thnh cc
dng v c l cc cht cn thit cho sn xut bc I.
S pht trin ca to trong nc c biu th bng cng thc sau :
( )
( ) 0
A
t
p p t
C C e

= (2.13)
Trong :
( )
p
C t -Sinh khi ca to thi gian t (mg/l).
( ) 0
p
C -Sinh khi ca to thi im t
o
(mg/l).

A
-H s tc pht trin ca to (ngy
-1
).
t -Thi gian (ngy)
ng hc ca qu trnh pht trin ca to
ng hc ca qu trnh pht trin ca to lin quan n s chuyn ha cc cht hu c
trong dng chy sng. Phng trnh tng qut
( )
1
dA
A A
dt d

= (2.14)
Trong :
t -Thi gian (ngy)
-H s sinh trng ca to (ngy
-1
)
-H s h hp ca to ph thuc vo nhit , h hp ni sinh v h
hp do qu trnh trao i cht (ngy
-1
).

1
-H s lng, ph thuc nhit (ngy
-1
)
d -Chiu su ct nc (m)
Mi quan h gia s pht trin to v nng cc cht dinh dng
Cc yu t ch yu nh hng n s pht trin ca to trong dng chy sng bao
gm : nhit , nh sng, cc cht dinh dng, s mt i, s lng ca to, s km hm c
ch qu trnh quang hp v hnh thi dng chy cng nh vn tc dng chy.
nh hng ca cc cht dinh dng nit, pht pho v cng chiu sng i vi
s pht trin ca to c biu th di dng sau :
( ) ( ) ( )
max
f N F P f L =
-Hm ca cc cht dinh dng c biu th qua biu thc ca Michaelis-Menton:
8
( )
N
N
f N
K N
=
+

( )
P
P
f P
K P
=
+

Trong :
N -Nng ca nit v c trong nc, NO
3
-

P - Nng ca PO
4
3-
trong nc, mg/l
k
N
,k
P
- Hng s Michaelis ca Nit, Pht pho

max
-Tc sinh trng ln nht ca to
-nh hng ca nh sng n s sinh trng ca to c th xc nh bng cc biu
thc theo cc hm Monod, Smith v Steel.
Theo hm Monod : ( )
Z
Z
I Z
I
f L
K I
=
+

Trong :
I
z
- Cng nh sng su z (E/m
2
s)
K
I
- Cng chiu sng cho s sinh trng ca to t 50% tc ln
nht.
Theo hm Smith
2 2
( )
Z
Z
I Z
I
f L
K I
=
+

Trong :
K
I
-Cng chiu sng cho s sinh trng ca to t 70% tc ln
nht.
Theo hm Steel
(1 )
( )
Z
s
I
I
Z
Z
s
I
f L e
I

=
Trong :
I
z
-Cng nh sng cho s sinh trng ca to l cc i (=
max
)

Trong tt c cc trng hp trn, cng chiu sng theo su u tun theo
nh lut Beer Lambert vi :

Z
Z S
I I e

=
9
Trong :
I
S
-Cng nh sng trn b mt.
Z -Chiu su ct nc.
nh hng ca nhit
S ph thuc vo nhit ca tc pht trin ca to c xem xt bng phng
trnh ca ONeill

1
max
max opt
T T
X
T T
max
T
max opt
T T
f Xe
T T


Vi
( )
2
0.5
2
1
1 1
400
w
w
X

+ +


=

( )
10 10
ln ; 1.85
max opt
w Q T T Q = =
T
max
v T
opt
l nhit gy cht v nhit pht trin ti u ca to. Vi to lc,
cc gi tr ln lt l 45
o
C v 27
o
C.
2.2.1.2.Chu trnh nit trong ngun nc v qa trnh nitrat ha
Chu trnh tun hon nit
Nit cng vi pht pho v cc bon l cc thnh phn dinh dng ch yu nh
hng n s sn xut trong thy vc nc. Tn ti trong nc di mt s dng nh
Nit hu c, nit amn, nitrit, nitrat...Chu trnh nit trong nc c m t trong hnh
2.2.
Qa trnh nitrat ha
Qa trnh amn ha cc hp cht hu c c cha nit, nh ur CO(NH
2
)
2
, nhm
amin...do t cc ngun thi a vo dng chy c thc hin bi cc vi sinh vt gy thi
ra nh cc loi Pseudomonas Flucrecens, P.aerugisa, Protens-Vulgarie...theo cc phn
ng thy phn sau.
( )
2 2
NH CO H O + ( )
2 2
NH CO H O +
( )
2 2
NH CO H O + ( )
2 2
NH CO H O +
10
Sau trong nc xy ra qu trnh nitrat ha, chuyn ha amomonia thnh nitrat.
y l qu trnh hai giai on c thc hin bi cc vi sinh vt t dng nh
Nitrosomonas, nitrobacter chng s dng cc bon v c (CO
2
) l ngun ccbon.




















Cc phn ng c trng cho qu trnh ny c biu th bng cc phng trnh sau
NH
4
+
+ O
2

2 2
NO H H O
+
+ +
2 2
NO O

+
3
NO


Qa trnh oxy ha nitrit thnh nitrat thng din ra rt nhanh hn nhiu so vi qu
trnh nitrat ha. Phn ng ca qu trnh c th c vit li l.
4 2
NH O
+
+
3 2
NO H O H
+
+ +
S chuyn ha NH
4
+
thnh NO
3
-
i km vi vic tiu th mt lng ln oxy ha
tan, v vy qu trnh ny c nh hng n cn bng oxy trong dng chy.
Trong dng chy sng ngoi ra cn mt qu trnh quan trng na l qu trnh
tng tc trao i gia nit trong dng chy v nit trong cc lp bn y. qu trnh
ny c th hin hnh trn.
Nit hu c
NH
4
-N NO
2
-N N0
3
-N
Thy phn
Nitro-
somonas
Nitro-
bacter
Ngun thi
Nit hu c
Ngun thi
NH
4
+

oxy N
2
oxy
Ngun thi
NO
3
-

Nit thc vt
Nit ng vt
Cht
Kh Nitrat
Hnh2.3.Chu trnh nit trong ngun nc sng
11
Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh
Qa trnh nitrat ha trong sng ph thuc vo cc yu t mi trng. Cc yu t
nh hng ch yu n qu trnh ny l nng cc cht nn NH
4
-N, NO
2
-N, oxy ha tan
cng nh cc iu kin nhit , pH cho s pht trin ca cc loi vi sinh vt tham gia
qu trnh ny.
Mi quan h ca cc yu t n qu trnh nitrat ho c biu th bng cng thc
ca Michaelis-Mentons

( )
4 2
4 2
2
4 2
, , ...
max
N N
NH NO
NH NO
f T O BOD
k NH k NO
=
+ +

Trong :

N
-H s tc pht trin ca vi sinh vt nitrat

max
N
-H s tc pht trin ln nht ca vi sinh vt nitrat

4 2
, NH NO -Nng ca NH
4
v NO
2

4 2
,
NH NO
k k -Hng s Michaelis ca NH
4
v NO
2

( )
2
, , ... f T O BOD -Hm xt n s ph thuc ca qu trnh nitrat ha vo nhit ,
oxy ha tan, nng cc cht hu c theo BOD v vn tc dng chy.
Cc yu t nh hng ch yu n qu trnh nitrat ha trong dng chy l pH,
nhit , oxy ha tan, cc cht c cng nh hnh thi ca thy vc nc, chuyn ng
ri v nh sng.
nh hng ca pH
Hiu sut ti u ca cc vi sinh vt tham gia qu trnh nitrat ha t c khi gi
tr pH nm trong khong t 7.5 n 8.5
Trong cc ngun nc sng nghin cu, gi tr pH thng nm trong khong gi
tr kim yu. Khi qu trnh quang hp din ra mnh s lm tng gi tr pH, trong khong
thi gian rt ngn gi tr pH c th t c cc gi tr trn 9. Theo Hubber (1984) th
hiu sut ca qu trnh nitrat ha s b gim xung r rt khi gi tr pH cao xut hin trong
mt on ngn.
nh hng ca nhit i vi qu trnh nitrat ha
12
Tc pht trin ca cc vi sinh vt nitrat chu nh hng rt ln bi nhit .
Nhit ti u l 20-30
o
C. nhit nh hn 5
o
C hoc nhit ln hn 45
o
C qu trnh
xy ra rt yu.
Hm lng oxy ha tan thp nh hng n tc ca qu trnh c th biu th
bng quan h Warwick.

nh hng ca lng oxy ha tan n qu trnh nitrat ha
Hm lng oxy thp nh hng n tc ca qu trnh nitrat ha. S ph thuc
ca tc ca qu trnh nittrat ha vo hm lng oxy ha tan c biu th bng phng
trnh phn ng ng hc enzzym ca Michaelis-Mentens

max
DO DO
DO
DO
k DO
=
+

Trong :
DO
-H s nh hng ca oxy n qu trnh nitrat, mg/l/ngy.

max
DO
-H s nh hng ln nht ca oxy n qu trnh nitrat ha,
(mg/l/ngy)

DO
k -Hng s Michaelis ca oxy,
DO
k =2mg/l (EPA, 1975)
Trong trng hp nng oxy ha tan qu nh c th ly 0
DO
=
nh hng ca nng cht hu c BOD i vi qu trnh nitrat ha
S ph thuc ca qu trnh nitrat ha vo gi tr BOD c biu th bng phng
trnh Curtis,1994

5
5
1.2 0.035
BOD
BOD =
nh hng ca cc cht c ch, cc cht hu c d phn hy v nh sng
Cc cht km hm nh fomat, glucose lm tng tc pht trin ca nitrosomonas
(Bock, 1980) cn cc cht pyruvat, acetat lm tng tc pht trin ca nitrobacter.
Formiat, acetat, glucose, pepton c tc dng km hm qu trnh oxy ha cc hp cht
amn.
nh hng ca hnh thi dng chy v vn tc dng chy
13
Qa trnh nitrat ha xy ra theo hai cch do cc vi sinh vt l lng cun theo dng
chy v cc vi sinh vt dnh bm. Hiu sut ca qu trnh ph tuc ch yu vo cc loi vi
sinh vt nitrat ha c dng thc vt hoc kh nng gn kt vo cc ht l lng, cc gi th
c sn trong dng chy.




ng hc ca chu trnh nit trong dng chy
Qu trnh thy phn
1 3 4
org
org org
dN
A N N
dt
= (2.16)
Trong :
org
N -Nng cc hp cht hu c cha Nit, mg-N/l.

1
-H s t l nit trong sinh khi to, mg-N/mg-A.
-H s h hp ca to, ngy
-1


4
-H s lng ca cc hp cht hu c, ngy
-1


3
-H s thy phn ca cc hp cht hu c, ngy
-1

A -Nng sinh khi to, mg-A/l
Qa trnh ammn ha
3 4
3 1 4 1 org
dNH
N NH F A
dt d


+
+
= (2.17)
Trong :
4
NH
+
-Nng cc hp cht nit dng ammn, mg-N/l.

1
-Hng s tc ca qu trnh oxy ha
4
NH
+
sang
2
NO



3
-Ngun
4
NH
+
trong lp bn y
F -H s t l
4
NH
+
tiu th do to
-H s tc sinh trng ca to, ngy
-1

Qa trnh Nitrit ha
14
2
1 4 2 2
dNO
NH NO
dt

+
= (2.18 )
Trong :
4
NH
+
- Nng cc hp cht nit dng ammn, mg-N/l
2
NO

- Nng cc hp cht nit dng nitrit, mg-N/l



1
-Hng s tc ca qu trnh oxy ha
4
NH
+
sang
2
NO

, ngy
-1


2
- Hng s tc ca qu trnh oxy ha
2
NO

sang
3
NO

, ngy
-1

Qa trnh Nitrat ha

3
2 2 1
(1 )
dNO
NO F A
dt

= (2.19)
Trong :
(1 ) F -H s t l
3
NO

tiu th do to
2.2.1.3. S phn hy cc cht hu c
Qu trnh phn hu sinh ho cc cht hu c
Tc phn hy sinh ha cc cht hu c trong dng chy ph thuc vo tc
pht trin cc vi sinh vt, s pht trin ca cc vi sinh vt t l vi tc pht trin ln
nht
max
B
v ph thuc vo nng cht nn. Qa trnh ny c biu th bng phng
trnh ng hc Monod.
max
B B
s
S
k S
=
+
(2.20)
.
max
B B
s
dS S B
B
dt Y Y K S

= =
+

B
dB
B
dt
=
Trong : S -Nng cht nn

B
-H s tc pht trin ca vi khun
Y -Sn lng vi khun
B -Nng sinh khi vi khun
k
s
-Hng s Michaelis
15
i vi nhiu cht nn, k
s
c gi tr c 10-1 g/ml. Nu gi tr ny ln hn ng k so
vi S , s bin mt ca cht nn l qu trnh bc mt theo c B v S.
ng hc ca qu trnh phn hy cht hu c
Gi thit tc phn hy cc cht hu c tun theo quy lut ca phn ng bc
mt. Qa trnh phn hy cc cht hu c trong dng chy c m t bng phng trnh.
d
dL
k L
dt
= (2.21)
Trong :
k
d
- Hng s tc phn hy cc cht hu c, ngy
-1

L -Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD, mg/l
Hng s ny thay i theo thnh phn cc cht hu c. Hng s c gi tr cng ln,
tc phn hy cng nhanh.
S ph thuc vo nhit T ca hng s tc phn hy cc cht hu c c
xc nh bng cng thc Van't Hoft - Arrhenius :
( )
k k
d d
T
=

20
20
(2.22)
Trong :
k
d
-Hng s tc tiu th oxy -phn ng phn hy cc cht hu c (T
-1
)
k
d,20
-Hng s tc tiu th oxy nhit 20
o
C.
-H s thc nghim ( ) 048 , 1
nh hng ca dng chy n s thay i nng cc cht hu c
Trong dng chy t nhin, s thay i nng cc cht hu c ph thuc vo ch
thy lc ca dng chy (vn tc dng chy, ch xo trn khi nc thi vi nc
sng) c nh hng ca yu t dng chy n s thay i nng cc cht hu c
trong dng chy. Do cc qu trnh nh : thay i nng do s keo t, lng cc cht hu
c dng phn tn nh.
S khi m hnh s thay i nng cc cht hu c theo BOD trong dng
chy



BOD Phn hy
hiu kh
Lng
Cc ngun thi
im, phn tn
16






ng hc ca qu trnh
( )
1 3
dL
k k L
dt
= + (2.23 )
Trong :
L -Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD (mg/l)
1
k ,k
d
-Hng s tc phn hy cc cht hu c (ngy
-1
)
3
k , k
s
-H s tc gim cc cht hu c do qu trnh lng (ngy
-1
).
H s tc chuyn ho cc cht hu c trong dng chy(k
r
=k
d
+k
s
=k
1
+k
3
)
2.2.1.4.Cn bng oxy trong dng chy
Cn bng oxy ha tan
Cn bng oxy trong dng chy sng l kh nng cha v qu trnh ha tan oxy t
khng kh qua b mt thong ca dng chy.












Hnh. 2.5.S cn bng oxy trong ngun nc
oxy ha tan
Trao i oxy
t nhin
Nitrat ha
Kh nitrat ha
Nhu cu oxy
do h hp
Nhu cu oxy
ca bn y
Nhu cu oxy
phn hy sinh ha
B sung do qu
trnh quang hp
17


Cc qu trnh nh hng n nng oxy ha tan
Cc qu trnh tiu th oxy trong dng chy bao gm : qu trnh nitrat ha v kh
nitrat ha, qu trnh h hp ca h thc vt nc, qu trnh oxy ha cc cht lp bn
y v s phn hy cc hp cht hu c.
Cc qu trnh b sung lng oxy ha tan bao gm : qu trnh ha tan v khuch tn
oxy t mi trng khng kh qua b mt thong, qu trnh quang hp ca h thc vt
nc.
Nh vy, t cc phn tch cc qu trnh sinh ha trong dng chy ta c phng
trnh tng qut m t cn bng oxy ha tan trong dng chy :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
2 3 4 1 5 1 4 6 2 2 BH
k dDO
k DO DO A k L NH NO
dt d

+
= + (2.25)
Trong :
k
2
(k
a
) - Hng s tc khuch tn oxy qua b mt thong, ngy
-1

k
1
(k
d
) - Hng s tc phn hy cc cht hu c, ngy
-1

A - Nng sinh khi to, mgA/l
k
4
- Nhu cu oxy ca qu trnh h hp trong lp cn y,
mg/m
2
.ng.
DO - Nng oxy ha tan, mg/l
DO
BH
- Nng oxy ha tan trng thi bo ha, mg/l
L - Nng cht hu c theo BOD, mg/l
d - Chiu su ct nc trung bnh, m

3
- H s tc sn xut oxy do qu trnh quang hp ca mt
n v sinh khi to, mgO/mgA.

4
- H s tc tiu th oxy ca qu trnh h hp mt n v
sinh khi to, mgO/mgA.

5
- Hng s tc tiu th oxy khi oxy ha mt n v NH
4
+

(mgO/mgN)
18

6
- Hng s tc tiu th oxy khi oxy ha mt n v NO
2
-

(mgO/mgN)
- Hng s tc sinh trng ca to
1
- Hng s tc ca qu trnh oxy ha
4
NH
+
sang
2
NO

,ngy
-1


2
- Hng s tc ca qu trnh oxy ha
2
NO

sang
3
NO

, ngy
-1

- H s h hp ca to, ngy
-1

Qa trnh khuch tn oxy qua b mt thong
Qa trnh ha tan oxy t khng kh vo nc sng c biu th bng h s k
a
. H
s ny ph thuc vo mc thiu ht oxy trong dng chy, tc ha tan theo nh lut
Henry. Cc yu t ph thuc bao gm : p sut, nhit , din tch b mt thong v
mn...
Trong dng chy sng, ph thuc vo s chuyn ng ca khi dng chy, nhit
mi trng khng kh, nhit nc v s c mt ca cc cht hot tnh b mt trong
ngun nc sng v c xc nh bng cc cng thc thc nghim i vi cc dng
chy c cc ch thy lc khc nhau.
Cc cng thc thc nghim v hng s tc thng kh (reaeration) trong dng
chy thng c biu th theo tc dng chy v chiu su ct nc hoc s phn tn
cc cht v chiu su ct nc.
Cc cng thc thc nghim
Hm ca tc dng chy v chiu su ct nc.
O'Connor v Dobbin's k
u
H
a
=
12 9
0 5
1 5
,
,
,
(2.26)
Owen - Edwards - Gibbs k
u
H
a
=
23
0 75
1 75
,
,
(2.27)
Churchill - Elmore - Buckingham k
u
H
a
=
11
1 67 ,
(2.28)
Trong :
k
a
-Gi tr logarit t nhin -hng s tc ti ha tan oxy(ngy
-1
)
: u -Vn tc trung bnh dng chy, m/s
H -Chiu su trung bnh, m.
19
Q -Lu lng ca dng chy, m
3
/s
t -Thi gian, ngy
-1
.
Hm ca tc dng chy, s phn tn v chiu su ct nc.
5 . 0
5 . 1
5 . 0
x a
E
H
u
k = (2.29)

Chng 3
THIT LP V LA CHN M HNH
CHT LNG NC
3.1. Cc bc thc hin xy dng m hnh cht lng nc
3.1.1.Bc u
- Mc ch ca vic xy dng m hnh, vn t ra nghin cu l vn
g, tnh cp thit ca vn cn nghin cu.
- Vn nghin cu: ci g s chuyn bin, thay i v s xy ra trong dng
chy m chng ta nghin cu.
- Kh nng cho php chng ta nghin cu. Cc yu t cn xc nh cng
nh kh nng v iu kin cho php chng ta c th xc nh c...
- Cc vn chnh cn xc nh: nht, t trng, dng chy, h s chuyn
ho hay l cc qu trnh ph dng ho cn xem xt...Cc vn cn i su
nghin cu, cc vn cn gii hn.
3.1.2. Bc tip theo
- Cn nhc la chn m hnh nghin cu : m hnh vt l hay m hnh
s (numericl model).
M hnh vt l: tn km do vic phi xy dng mt m hnh thu nh,
chi ph vn hnh v hiu chnh cc thng s m phng
iu kin t nhin ...tn km v i hi cc nhm
chuyn gia c kinh nghim lu nm trong lnh vc ny.
M hnh s: cn nhc la chn gia m hnh 1D,2D v 3D. Khong
thi gian tnh ton vi cc h s. Trung bnh trong mt
chu k thi gian hay tc thi.
M hnh 1 chiu (1D) : kinh t tho mn yu cu. Vic tnh ton n gin v c
th tnh tay. Gip chng ta c th xc nh nhanh v c th s b xc nh c
cc cc h s trong qu trnh kho st v o c thc nghim hiu chnh m
hnh.
Cc loi m hnh ny rt ph bin do s liu u vo n gin hn rt nhiu.
Thch hp cho cc nghin cu ban u.
Khi vn nghin cu tr nn phc tp hn rt nhiu, m hnh 1D khng
p ng c yu cu ca vn t ra th trn c s m hnh 1D c th d dng
pht trin ln 2D, 3D.
Nu cm thy s dng ri th c th dng li y. Hay ni mt cch
khc m hnh mt chiu l m hnh c s ca m hnh cht lng nc. c bit
i vi cc dng chy sng, khi khng c s phn vng trong dng chy theo cc
mt ct ngang. Cn theo chiu thng ng y th thng c th b qua do chiu
su thng nh hn rt nhiu so vi chiu rng.
Cc m hnh 2,3D: kt qu cho chi tit hn, tuy nhin khi xy dng thng
rt kh xc nh cc h s...Khi s dng i hi rt nhiu cc hiu bit su v c
th v vn m chng ta nghin cu. Cha chc cho chng ta cc kt qu nghin
cu tt hn nhng chc chn cho chng ta hnh nh s p hn v d nhn hn...
3.2. La chn m hnh cht lng nc
3.2.1. La chn m hnh
Vic la chn m hnh cht lng nc : cn xem xt m hnh no l thch
hp cho i tng m chng ta nghin cu da trn c s l thuyt.
Thng vn ny c ngi khc la chn vn ny gip chng ta
ri. l cc m hnh s dng rt rng ri gn hn 100 nm ca lch s pht
trin MHCLN.
Tuy nhin cn lu : trong cc m hnh cht lng nc s dng rng ri th
cc h s, cc sai s trong iu kin thc t ca h c hiu chnh trong iu
kin c th ca h.
Nh vy, chng c s tha nhn trong con mt ca rt nhiu ngi (nhng
ngi tha nhn m hnh). Nhng khi p dng vo iu kin thc t ca chng ta
s xut hin cc vn :
-Kinh ph y mua ton b chng trnh tnh ton.
-Cc d liu, cc h s c th thu thp v xc nh trong iu kin c th
trn i tng ca bn hay khng. Nu khng c s xy ra vn l : i tng
nghin cu ca bn mt phn s trong iu kin ca a phng nghin cu v
mt phn s nm ti a im ca ngi xy dng chng trnh ny.

























Qa trnh lan truyn
cht
D liu
Chui s
ng dng s b
Kim tra,so snh
vi cc s liu
Hiu chnh
p dng vo tnh
ton
Kim tra
Sa
cha
Chui s
liu
Chui s
liu
Chui s
liu
M
hn
h
so
sn
h
Pht
trin
l
thuy
Phng
php s
L
thuy
t
M hnh
mi
Tng qut tnh
ton
D bo cht
lng nc
Cht lng nc
thc t
Hnh 3.1. S thit lp m hnh cht lng
nc

Vn ny, c th v d nh mt chic t c th l rt thch hp, rt tt trong
iu kin n i nhng n c th tr thnh khng c gi tr trong iu kin nhit
i. Khng c sn phm thng mi no m c th p dng cho mi i tng.
Nh vy khi mun s dng mt chng trnh c sn cn thit phi c hiu
rt su v cc gii hn, cc iu kin bin, cc h s ca chng trnh c th ci
tin v hiu chnh cn thit.
iu kin tin quyt y l: bn phi xy dng v la chn cc h s
trong iu kin c th ca bn.
3.2.2. S pht trin l thuyt ca vn
Vic u tin cn pht trin l thuyt ca vn ca bn vi i tng c
th m cn xem xt v nh gi. Pht trin l thuyt cc vn : phng trnh
chuyn ng, phng trnh lin tc v phng trnh lan truyn cht.
Quan im ca Albert Einstein: mi m hnh cn phi tho mn yu cu
ca thc tin v cng n gin cng tt, tr phi khng th n gin hn.
3.2.3. Kim nh v hiu chnh
Bng cc chui s liu thc o.
V d: m hnh tnh ton s lan truyn cc cht t cc ngun thi im vo dng
chy, iu kin chn la l ma h. Cc chui s liu c kim nh, cc h s s
thay i so vi iu kin cc ma khc s khng cho chng ta gi tr xp x tt
hiu chnh.
Sau khi s dng cc chui s liu hiu chnh cc h s s thay i. Khi
hiu chnh cn la chn mt vi h s n nh hiu chnh cc h s khc v sau
tin hnh hiu chnh cc h s c nh hoc hiu chnh tt c cc h s ng
thi.
Cc iu kin cn lm r khi hiu chnh:
- iu kin bin v ti trng.
- iu kin ban u.
Cc qu trnh c trng cho i tng (qu trnh m chng ta cn m t v lm
r). Cc cht hu c : qu trnh vt l, ho hc hay sinh hc trong dng chy.
Cc h s cn kim nh: ng hc, h s, cc h s c trng cho qu trnh
chuyn ho cc cht trong dng chy.
3.3. Cc phng php s tnh ton s lan truyn cc cht nhim trong
dng chy
3.3.1.Cc phng php s trong nghin cu m hnh thy lc
Trong t nhin dng chy thng khng n nh, cc yu t thy lc
ti mt mt ct thay i theo thi gian (chuyn ng khng dng). Chuyn ng
khng n nh c chia thnh hai loi: chuyn ng khng n nh thay i gp,
v chuyn ng khng n nh thay i chm dn.
Phng trnh c bn ca dng chy l tp hp h thng hai phng trnh
o hm ring phi tuyn c cc h s bin i dng Hyperbolic. Phng php s
gii loi phng trnh ny gp mt s tr ngi trong vic t cc iu kin bin.
Vic tch phn h phng trnh ny gp nhiu kh khn, ch c th tm
c nghim trong mt vi trng hp c bit nh knh c tit din hnh ch
nht, y nm ngang v b qua sc cn. Cc iu kin ny rt khc xa so vi iu
kin thc t.
Hin nay, cc phng php s c s dng tnh gn ng cho dng n
nh thay i chm dn bao gm : phng php gii tch, phng php ng c
trng v phng php sai phn hu hn.
Phng php tch phn ton hc cht ch c s dng tm nghim gii
tch ca h phng trnh trn. Theo phng php ny, cn c nhng gi thit
a h phng trnh Saint-Vennnant v dng n gin, ri tch phn cc phng
trnh ny vi cc gi thit l mt ct sng hnh ch nht hay lng tr, dc bng
khng hoc bng hng s, nhm c nh, b qua sc cn...
Nh cc gi thit trn, cc phng trnh vi phn o hm ring phi tuyn c
bin i thnh phng trnh vi phn o hm ring tuyn tnh. gii c cc
bi ton dng khng n nh.
Phng php sai phn hu hn
Phng php sai phn l bin i t h phng trnh vi phn o hm ring
Saint-Vennant thnh h phng trnh i s phi tuyn do tnh cht phi tuyn ca
h ng trnh Saint-Venannt. Sau thc hin vic tuyn tnh ha h phng trnh
i s phi tuyn v gii h phng trnh thu nhn c cc gi tr v cc yu t
thy lc cn bit trn cc nt li tnh ton.
Phng php sai phn gii bi ton thy ng lc mt chiu c cc
tc gi nghin cu, nh J.A.Cung, C.Lai, V.Bellos, F.Ionescu...vi cc phng
php sai phn theo cc s khc nhau.
C hai phng php sai phn : phng php sai phn theo s n v
phng php sai phn theo s hin. Mi mt phng php c nhng mt mnh
khc nhau.
Phng php sai phn s hin
Nu sau php sai phn h hai phng trnh i s vi hai n s v c th
gii ngay c hai n s hoc gi tr ca hm n ti cc nt li c xc nh
mt cch ring l khng cn cc phng trnh ti cc nt li khc th s sai
phn c gi l s hin. Cc s sai phn : tam gic cn ngc, tam gic
cn thun, s hnh thoi trung tm...u im ca s hin l s n gin ca
vic tnh ton v lp chng trnh. Nhng l khng cho chng ta tnh ton vi cc
bc thi gian ln, v s sai phn n nh gi tr bc thi gian b hn ch
bi iu kin CFL(Courant-Friedric-Levi) dn ti vic la chn thi gian tnh ton
b khng thch hp cho cc bi ton yu cu tnh ton vi cc chu k di.
Phng php sai phn s n
Trong trng hp sau khi sai phn, s hm n ln hn hai th phi p dng
sai phn cho mt lp cc im ri rc. Cng vi cc iu kin bin sau khi tuyn
tnh ha ta c h phng trnh i s tuyn tnh ng kn. Gii h phng trnh
i s ny ta c nghim mt lot cc im m chng ta cn tnh ton. Vi s
n vic tnh ton cc gi tr hm n ti mt nt no i hi phi gii ng thi
mt h phng trnh ca tt c cc nt cng mt thi im, cn bc thi gian
c chn theo quan im ca chnh xc ch khng phi theo tnh n nh. Cc
s n tr nn rt thun tin cho vic tnh ton dng chy khng n nh trong
mng knh sng c lng dn phc tp, nhc im l vic gii h phng trnh ti
mi bc thi gian cn phi tnh lp, c khi lng tnh ton ln, i hi b nh
v thi gian tnh ton ln hn.
Vi s n vic tnh ton cc gi tr hm n ti mt nt no i hi
phi gii ng thi mt h phng trnh ca tt c cc nt cng mt thi im,
cn bc thi gian c chn theo quan im ca chnh xc ch khng phi
theo tnh n nh. Cc s n tr nn rt thun tin cho vic tnh ton dng chy
khng n nh trong mng knh sng c lng dn phc tp, nhc im l vic
gii h phng trnh ti mi bc thi gian cn phi tnh lp, c khi lng tnh
ton ln, i hi b nh v thi gian tnh ton ln hn.
3.3.2. Phng php s gii bi ton lan truyn cht
Cc phng php gii tch hu nh khng th p dng tm nghim tng
qut ca bi ton Ti-khuch tn trong trng hp tng qut. Ch c p dng
trong trng hp vi gi thit dng chy vi ch n nh...Cch gii ph bin
l cc phng php s : phng php sai phn hu hn, phng php phn t hu
hn. Hai phng php ny c nhng u v hn ch khc nhau.
Phng trnh ti-khuch tn l phng trnh dng Parabolic, c gii bng mt
s phng php s quen thuc, nh phng php sai phn hu hn, phng php
phn t hu hn, phng php ng c trng. Cc phng php sai phn cho
bi ton loi ny : phng php Lax-Richardson, phng php Upwin, phng
php Leonard, phng php Duford-Frankel, phng php Lax-Wendroff, phng
php Crank-Nicolson, s Brian-Stone, phng php sai phn theo hng,
phng php sai phn trung tm.
3.4.Cc m hnh BOD & D (DO) trong dng chy
3.4.1. Phng trnh c bn
Phng trnh c bn m t s lan truyn v phn b vt cht trong dng
chy c gi l phng trnh ti-phn tn vt cht trong dng chy. Trn c s
nh lut bo ton khi lng ta c :
) (s F
x
C
E
z y
C
E
y x
C
E
x x
C
u
x
C
u
x
C
u
t
C
x y x z y x
+

= + + +

(1.1)

Trong :
C -Nng cc cht trong dng chy, mg/l.
u
x
,u
y
,u
z
-Thnh phn vn tc trong dng chy, m/s.
E
x
, E
y
, E
z
-H s phn tn ri vt cht trong dng chy, m
2
/s.
F(s) -Hm s m t s thay i cc cht trong dng chy do
cc qu trnh vt l, ha hc v sinh hc.
Vi gi thit, b qua s ti do vn tc dng chy, qu trnh khuch tn theo
cc phng oy, oz t phng trnh (1.1) ta c phng trnh m t qu trnh lan
truyn-khuch tn cc cht hu c ti mt im trong dng chy.
) (s F
x
C
E
x x
C
u
t
C
x x
+

= +

(1.2)
Trong cc nghin cu ban u cng nh ng dng cc MHCLN cho cc
dng chy sng rng, ca sng thng c xem xt trong khng gian mt chiu.
3.4.2. Phng trnh c in Streeter-Phelps
Cc nghin cu v s lan truyn, chuyn ha cc cht hu c trong dng
chy u da trn c s phng trnh c in Streeter-Phelps vi cc gi thit sau:
-Tc phn hu cc cht hu c tun theo quy lut phn ng bc nht.
-S thiu ht oxy ho tan (D) trong dng chy do s phn hu cc cht hu
c.
-Ch lan truyn cht trong dng chy n nh.
Nm 1925, Streeter v Phelps thit lp phng trnh ton hc m t qu
trnh tiu th oxy do s phn hy cc cht hu c trong dng chy.
Phng trnh Streeter-Phelps :
u
dL
dx
k L
d
= (1.3a)
D k L k
dx
dD
u
a d
+ = (1.3b)
Trong iu kin n nh, gii h phng trnh (1.3a,b) bng phng php
tch phn cho kt qu v phn b nng cc cht hu c v thiu ht oxy ho
tan (BOD &D) vng h lu ngun thi.

u
x k
o
d
e L L

= (1.4a)

+ =

u
x k
u
x k
d a
o d u
x k
o
a d a
e e
k k
L k
e D D (1.4b)
Trong :
u -Vn tc trung bnh ca dng chy, m/s.
D
0
- thiu ht oxy, mg/l.Ti im c to x=0 (im xo
trn nc thi vi nc sng).
D - thiu ht oxy, mg/l.
L
0
- Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD, mg/l. Ti im c ta
x=0 (im xo trn nc thi vi nc sng).
L - Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD, mg/l.
k
d
- Hng s tc tiu th oxy do s phn hu hp cht hu
c, ngy
-1
.
k
a
- Hng s tc ha tan oxy qua b mt thong, ngy
-1
.
Bi tp :
1. tnh ton, v ng cong BOD v DO hoc D trong dng chy n nh.
3.4.3. Cc nghin cu pht trin trn c s phng trnh Streeter-Phelps
M hnh Streeter-Phelps (1.3a,b &1.4ab) ch k n cc yu t tiu th oxy
do qu trnh h hp ca vi khun hiu kh trong tng nc v ha tan oxy qua b
mt thong khi trong nc c s thiu ht oxy ha tan. Khi p dng cho cc i
tng khc nhau cho thy, tin cy ca m hnh cn thp do cha cp n cc
yu t nh hng n phn b BOD & DO trong dng chy nh : qu trnh quang
hp v h hp ca h thc vt nc, h hp trong tng cn y, cc qu trnh
ammn ho, nitrit, nitrat...cng nh nh hng ca dng chy n s lan
truyn cc cht trong dng chy nh : qu trnh lng cc cht l lng, s phn tn
cc cht do dng chy ri, nh hng ca mn v gi...
Nhm mc ch hon thin hn, nng cao tin cy ca m hnh Streeter-
Phelps i vi cc dng chy trong t nhin, cc tc gi OConnor, Dobbins,
Thomat, Camps, Di Toro...bng cc nghin cu thc nghim b sung thm cc
qu trnh sinh thi-cht lng nc nhm mc ch m t mt cch tng qut, y
cc yu t c lin quan n phn b, thay i BOD&DO trn dng chy.
Qa trnh h hp ca lp bn y
Gi thit dng chy c lp nc nng vi s tch lu nhiu cc cht hu c
y dng chy, t cc phng trnh (1.3a,b) ta c:
H
S
D k
x
D
u
t
D
a
=

(1.5)
Phn b BOD & D trong iu kin n nh l (1.4) v:


=
u
x k
H k
S
u
x k
D D
a
a
a
o
exp 1 exp (1.6)
Trong :
S

- Nhu cu oxy ca lp cn y, mgO/m
2
.ngy.
H - Chiu su lp nc, m.
Qa trnh oxyho cc hp cht cha nit
B sung thm qu trnh tiu th oxy do qu trnh oxy ho cc hp cht hu
c cha nit (qu trnh nitrat ho), t (1.3a,b) ta c:
N k D k
dx
dD
u
n a
= (4.5)
thiu ht oxy D c xc nh theo:


=
u
x k
u
x k
k k
N k
u
x k
D D
a n
n a
o n a
o
exp exp exp (4.6)
Trong :
N - Nng cc hp cht cha Nit theo NBOD, mg/l
k
n
-Hng s tc tiu th oxy do qu trnh nitrat ha, ngy
-1
.
Qa trnh quang hp-h hp
Cc phng trnh ton hc m t s thiu ht oxy do s phn hu cc cht
hu c v qu trnh quang hp-h hp ca h thc vt nc.
tb a
P R D k
x
D
u
t
D
) ( =

(1.9)
S thiu ht oxy trong iu kin n nh :


=
u
x k
k
P R
u
x k
D D
a
a
a
o
exp 1 exp
Trong :
P - Sn phm s cp ca qu trnh quang hp, mg/l.ngy
R - Lng oxy tiu hao do qu trnh h hp, mg/l.ngy
Cho v d tnh ton
Qa trnh lng cc cht l lng
Ga thit, trong qu trnh lan truyn mt phn cc cht hu c dng l lng,
phn tn lng ng, trong trng hp ny, s lan truyn cc cht hu c c m t
theo cc phng trnh sau:
L k
dx
dL
u
r
= vi k
r
= k
d
+ k
s
(3.7)
D k L k
dx
dD
u
a d
= (3.8)

Tch phn phng trnh (3.7) v th vo (3.8) ta c:

=
u
x k
L L
r
O
exp (3.9)

=
u
x k
u
x k
k k
L k
u
x k
D D
a r
r a
O d a
o
exp exp exp (3.10)
Trong :
k
r
-H s tc chuyn ho cc cht hu c trong dng chy,
ngy
-1
.
k
s
-H s tc thay i nng cc cht hu c do cc qu
trnh lng ng, hp th cc cht hu c trong dng chy,
ngy
-1
.

Qa trnh phn tn vt cht trong dng chy
Cc sng rng v vng ca sng vi s nh hng ca gi, dng triu c ch
xo trn ht sc phc tp vic m phng cn xem xt v nh gi ng thi
nh hng ca cc qu trnh chnh ln s phn tn cc cht nhim trong dng
chy. Cc qu trnh chnh bao gm : s phn tn ri vt cht do ch xo trn
phc tp. Cc phng trnh c bn ca qu trnh :
L k
x
x
E
x
L
u
t
L
r

2
2
(1.10)
D k L k
x
D
E
x
D
u
t
D
a r
+

2
2
(1.11)
Phn b BOD & D trong iu kin n nh :

+
+
=
2
2
4
1 1
2
exp
4
1
u
E k
E
ux
u
E k
Q
W
L
d
d


( )
( ) ( )

=
2
2
1
1
1
2
exp
1
1
2
exp
1
m
E
ux
m
m
E
ux
m Q k k
W k
D
d a
d


Vi
2
1
4
1
u
E k
m
d
+ = ;
2
2
4
1
u
E k
m
a
+ =
Trong :
Q

- Lu lng dng chy, m
3
/s.
W - Ti trng thi ca cc cht nhim t ngun thi, mg/s.
E - H s phn tn, m
2
/s.
Cho v d tnh ton
Phng trnh tng qut
M hnh tng qut cho dng chy knh, sng, sng rng v ca sng.

L
A
Q
dt
dL
x
L
E
x
L
A
Q
t
L
w
+ +

2
2
(1.4)
DO
A
Q
dt
dDO
x
DO
E
x
DO
A
Q
t
DO
w
+ +

2
2
(1.5)

Vi :
( )L k k
dt
dL
s d
+ =
( ) ( ) P R
H
S
N k L k DO DO k
dt
dDO
n d BH a
=
Trong :
Q - Lu lng dng chy sng, m
3
/s.
Q
w
- Lu lng dng chy gia nhp c cha cht nhim, m
3
/s.
L - Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD, mg/l.
k
r
- H s tc chuyn ha cc cht hu c trn on sng,
ngy
-1
.
k
a
- Hng s tc phn hy cc cht hu c, ngy
-1
.
k
s
- H s tc lng cc cht hu c trong dng chy, ngy
-1
.
k
d
- Hng s tc phn hy cc cht hu c, ngy
-1
.
DO
BH
- Nng oxy ha tan trng thi bo ha, mg/l
DO - Nng oxy ha tan, mg/l.
k
n
- Hng s tc phn hy cc hp cht cha Nit ngy
-1

N - Nng cc hp cht cha Nit theo NBOD, mg/l
P - Sn phm s cp ca qu trnh quang hp, mg/l.ngy
R - Lng oxy tiu hao do qu trnh h hp, mg/l.ngy
S - Nhu cu oxy ca lp cn y, mg/m.ngy.
H - Chiu su trung bnh ca dng chy, m.
E
x
- H s phn tn dc theo chiu dng chy, m
2
/s
Cc phng trnh (1.4), (1.5) m t mt cch tng qut v phn nh mt
cch y nht cc qu trnh c lin quan n s thay i ca BOD&DO trong
dng chy. T cc phng trnh tng qut trn, ty thuc tng hon cnh c th,
mc ch nghin cu m la chn m hnh thch hp i vi cc i tng nghin
cu khc nhau. Vic la chn m hnh cho mt i tng nghin cu c th, da
trn c s c im : ch thy lc dng chy, cc qu trnh sinh thi cht lng
nc din ra trong dng chy. Cc m hnh cht lng nc cho cc dng chy khc
nhau bao gm : knh, mng thot nc thi th, dng chy sui, sng nh, sng
rng v ca sng.

1

Chng 4
XY DNG M HNH LAN TRUYN V CHUYN HA CC
CHT NHIM TRONG DNG CHY
4.1. Phng trnh s lan truen cht trong dng chy
Cc m hnh cht lng nc trong dng chy thc cht l cc phng trnh ton
hc c dng m t cc qu trnh xo trn, pha long v chuyn ha cc cht trong
dng chy da trn c s nh lut bo ton khi lng ca cc cht nhim m chng ta
ang xt trong dng chy. Thit lp m hnh vn chuyn-khuch tn cc cht trong dng
chy da trn c s cc nguyn l c bn l : s thay i theo thi gian ca cc cht hu
c trong mt n v th tch V cho trc nm trong dng chy do cc nguyn nhn sau :
Trao i khi lng do qu trnh khuch tn vt cht qua din tch mt ct ngang.
l qu trnh dch chuyn ca vt cht di tc ng ca gradient nng . Qa
trnh ny tun th theo nh lut Fick.
S thay i, chuyn ha cc cht trong dng chy do cc qu trnh chuyn ha sinh
ha v trao i vt cht trong dng chy. C s l cc phn ng trao i ion, cc
phn ng oxy ha-kh, cc qu trnh sinh a ha, s thy phn cc cht, cc qu
trnh vt l, ha hc v sinh hc.
Xt mt n v th tch V trong dng chy (hnh2.1), gi thit rng s xo trn trong
h thng l l tng, trn c s nh lut bo ton khi lng ta c :
S tch ly vt cht = (lng vt cht ti vo +lng vt cht khuch tn vo)
-(lng vt cht ti ra +lng vt cht khuch tn ra)
phn ng chuyn ha










Hnh. 2.1S cn bng vt cht trong mt n v th tch
QC
) ( C C Q +
x
c
EA


) (
x
c
x
c
EA


2
Hay
( ) kCV
x
C
x
C
EA C C Q
x
C
EA QC
t
C
V

+ +

+ =

(2.1)
kCV x
x
C
x
EA x
x
C
Q
t
C
V


Trong :
E- H s phn tn dc dng chy, L
2
.T
-1

x A V =
A - Din tch mt ct t, L
2

k -Hng s tc phn hy, T
-1

Chia hai v cho x A V = v vi gi thit rng trong khong thi gian ang xt
0 =

t
V
v khi 0 x ti ....) ta c phng trinh vi phn mt chiu m phng s thay i
nng cc cht nhim trn on sng tnh ton.

kC
x
C
x
E
x
C
A
Q
t
C
x

(2.2)
Hay :
kC
x
C
E
x
C
u
t
C
x

2
2
(2.3)

Trong dng chy t nhin, cc ga (Q,A,x) l cc hm s thay i lin tc theo thi
gian cng nh khng gian theo chiu dng chy. Vi gi thit rng trn on sng chng
ta ang xt c s b sung thm hoc ly bt i cc cht bi mt nguyn nhn c hc no
( ngun thi, hoc cc im ly nc...) t (2.7) ta c phng trnh tng qut m t s
lan truyn cc cht nhim trn dng chy m chng ta cn xem xt v tnh ton.
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( ) ( )
dt
dC
x
C
t x A t x E
x t x A x
t x C t x Q
t x A t
C

, ,
,
1 , ,
,
1
(2.4)

Trong :
dt
dC
-S thay i nng cc cht nhim theo thi gian do cc qu
trnh vt l, ha hc v sinh hc trong dng chy.
E -H s phn tn dc theo chiu dng chy,m
2
/s.
Q -Lu lng dng chy, m
3
/s.
3
A -Din tch mt ct t, m
2
.
T phng trnh (2.8) trn cc on dng chy sng, ca sng phng trnh ton
hc m t qu trnh lan truyn cht trong dng chy mt chiu l
kAC
x
C
A E
x x
AC
t
AC
x

= +

(2.5)
Trong :
C - Nng cc cht nhim (mg/l)
k - Hng s tc chuyn ha cc cht nhim trong qu trnh lan
truyn (ngy
-1
).
A - Din tch mt ct t (m
2
) .
4.2.Tnh ton s lan truyn cc cht nhim trong dng chy sng
C s ton hc ca m hnh m phng cht lng nc gm hai bi ton :
Bi ton thy ng lc mt chiu vn chuyn vt cht cc cht nhim da trn c
s phng trnh bo ton khi lng v ng lng v bi ton chuyn ha cc cht
nhim trong dng chy da trn c s phng trnh cn bng vt cht. Cc gi thit khi
thit lp m hnh ton hc s lan truyn cc cht hu c d phn hy sinh hc theo BOD
&DO c coi nh l mt h thng vn chuyn, ti -khuch tn mt chiu cc phn ng
sinh ha xy ra trong thy vc dng chy l phn ng bc mt.
2.1.Cc phng trnh ton ca m hnh
Bi ton thy ng hc mt chiu
Cc phng trnh thy ng hc mt chiu l cc phng trnh vi phn o hm ring
phi tuyn m t cc qu trnh chy trong knh h do Saint-Vennant xut. Da trn c
s nh lut bo ton khi lng v ng lng da trn c s mt s gi thit sau :
Trong khun kh l thuyt nc nng, coi p lc phn b l thy tnh, tc p lc
tng tuyn tnh vi chiu su ct nc.
Mt nc l hng s, khng ph thuc vo nng vt cht v mui.T
dn n s bo ton khi lng v th tch tng ng.
nh hng ca ma st v qu trnh chy ri c th biu th
Lc cn ca y sng l nh v c th b qua.
Bi ton thy ng lc mt chiu trong dng chy c vit nh sau :
4

A
t
Q
t
q
Q
t x
Q
A
gA
z
x
gA
QQ
K
+ =
+

+ + =
2
2
0
(2.27)
Vi K
AR
n
=
2
3

Trong :
A -Din tch mt ct t, L
2
.
T - Thi gian,T.
Q - Lu lng dng chy, L
3
.T
-1
.
g - Gia tc trng trng, L.T
-2
.
q - Lu lng dng gia nhp v ly i trn mmt n v chiu di dng
chy, L
3
.L
-1
T
-1

n - H s maning's.
R - Bn knh thu lc, L
Bi ton lan truyn cht hu c trong dng chy
2
2 x bs
C C C dC
u E L
t x x dt

+ = +

(2.28)
Trong :
E
x
-H s phn tn dc dng chy (m
2
/s)
L -Nng cht hu c theo BOD (mg/l)
L
BS
-Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD trong dng gia nhp q(mg/l)

2.2.Tnh ton s lan truyn cht trong dng chy
Phng php s bi ton dng chy khng dng mt chiu
Gii h phng trnh Saint-Venant bng phng php sai phn hu hn s n 4
im Preissman.




5























Hm lin tc ( , ) f x t , cc o hm theo thi gian t v theo khng gian x ca
hm ( , ) f x t c xp x bng cc biu thc sai phn theo s n 4 im Preisman trong
hnh 2.6 nh sau :

1 1
1 1
( ) ( )
2
n n n n
j j j j
f f f f
f
t t

+ +
+ +
+ +

(2.29)
1 1
1 1
( ) (1 )( )
n n n n
j j j j
f f f f
f
x x

+ +
+ +
+

(2.30)


Trong :
n
j
f -Ga tr ca f ti im (x, t=n)
, t x -Bc thi gian v kch thc ca mt li sai phn
-Trng s cn bng dao ng trong khong t 0.5 -1.0
S n 4 im Preisman c cc u im sau :
-Lun n nh vi trng s > 0.5
(n)
(n +1)
x
j-1

j
x
t
J -1 J+1
x
j

f
j
n
f
j
n+1
f
j+1
n+1

f
j+1
n

t
Hnh 2.6.Li tnh cho s sai phn 4 im Preismann
6
-Xp x tt theo nh lut bo ton.
-Cho kt qu ng thi ca hai bin s ti mt im ng thi ca li tnh.
Cc nghin cu cho thy trng s ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong quan
im tnh ton. Khi < 0.5 th s l khng n nh v iu kin. Khi = 0.5 th s
n nh khng bn vng v cho chnh xc bc hai. > 0.5 th s n nh v iu
kin, tc c th tnh ton vi bt k t l
x
t

no.
Trong thc t tnh ton dng khng n nh trong dng chy sng, s tnh n
nh v iu kin thng chn =0.7
S Preismann cho php thit lp li tnh mn do vi bc li x khng u
theo chiu khng gian dng chy trong khi chnh xc ca php xp x khng b nh
hng. Hai bin s Q, Z c tnh ng thi ti cng mt im ca li tnh do d
dng kim nghim v hiu chnh m hnh tnh ton.
Bc thi gian tnh ton t l mt trong nhng thng s quan trng ca bi ton.
V cc m hnh dng phng php sai phn n nn v nguyn tc khng hn ch bi iu
kin Courant-Friedrich-Levy nh vi cc s hin.
Sai phn ha h phng trnh Saint-Vennant cho dng chy khng n nh mt
chiu ta c :


1 1
1 1
( ) ( )
(1 )
n n n n
j j j j
j j
Q Q Q Q
Q
x x x

+ +
+ +

+


1 1
1 1
2 2
n n n n
j j j j
Q Q Q Q
Q
t t t

+ +
+ +

+


1 2 1 2 2 2
2
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(1 )
n n n n
j j j j
n n n n
j j j j j j
Q Q Q Q
Q
x A x A A x A A

+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +


+







1 1
1 1
(1 )
n n n n
j j j j
j j
Z Z Z Z
Z
x x x

+ +
+ +

+


Trong :
1 j j
x x x
+
=
1 1
1 1
2 2
n n n n
j j j j
Z Z Z Z
Z
t t t

+ +
+ +

+

7
Th cc cng thc trn cho h phng trnh Saint-Vennant ta c h phng trnh
tuyn tnh vit cho mt on sng j=
1 j j
x x x
+
= bt k trn dng chy, ta c :
1 1
1 1
0
0
i i i i
i i i i
A Z B Z C Q D Q G
A Z B Z C Q D Q G
+ +
+ +
+ + + + =
+ + + + =
(2.31)
Trong :
'
, , ,
, , , ,
A B C D
A B C D G
-Cc h s ca h phng trnh c nu trong ph lc II

1
,
i i
Z Z
+
-Mc tng mc nc thi im i+1 v thi im i
1
,
i i
Q Q
+
- Mc tng lu lng thi im i+1 v thi im i
Nh vy :
-Vi 1 on sng ta c 2 phng trnh vi 4 n s l lu lng v mc nc hai
thi im lin tip i v i+1.
-Vi n on sng ta c 2n phng trnh vi 2n+2 n s.
-on sng u tin v cui cng cc n s lun lun c xc nh (iu kin
bin). Nh vy s n ca h l (2n+2)-2
Phng php gii h phng trnh c dng l phng php kh ui Gauss
a h phng trnh v dng ma trn 3 ng cho tnh ton cc n.
Bi tp 1. Xy dng h phng trnh sai phn trn
Bi tan lan truyn cht nhim trong dng chy
Sau khi xc nh c cc yu t c trng v dng chy : lu lng, vn tc v
din tch mt ct t ca on sng cn tnh ton, xc nh hay gii bi ton lan truyn
cht trn dng chy. Vic tnh ton ty thuc mc ch, yu cu bi ton lan truyn cht
c gii cho hai trng hp tng ng vi hai trng thi ca dng chy : trng thi n
nh v trng thi ng lc.
Bi ton n nh
Vi gi thit ch dng chy n nh, hoc c coi nh l n nh trong khong
thi gian (chu k triu) m chng ta cn xem xt, phng trnh vi phn 2.9 c vit cho
nng cc cht hu c trong dng chy nh sau :
8
0
2
2
=

L k
x
L
E
x
L
u
d
(2.32)
0
2
2
= +

D k L k
x
D
E
x
D
u
a d
(2.33)
Trong :
u - Vn tc trung bnh ca dng chy trong mt chu k triu,m/s.
E - H s phn tn dc dng chy trn on sng tnh ton,m
2
/s.
Gii phng trnh vi phn bc 2 (2.32) v (2.33) bng phng php tch phn vi
cc iu kin bin ta c kt qu : 2.35 , 2.36 v 2.37
L = 0 ti x = - v L = Lo ti x = 0 ta c :

+ + =
2
4 1 1
2
exp
u
E k
E
ux
L L
d
O

L=0 ti x = + v L = Lo ti x = 0 ta c :

+ =
2
4 1 1
2
exp
u
E k
E
ux
L L
d
O

Nng cht hu c ban u L
o
c xc nh trn c s cn bng vt cht ti
on sng c ngun thi. Vi cc gi thit v l lun tng t cn bng vt cht trn on
sng hnh 2.1 ta c :

2
4 1
u
E k
Q
W
L
d
o
+
= (2.36)
Tng t vi s thiu ht oxy ta c :

( )
( ) ( )

=
2
2
1
1
1
2
exp
1
1
2
exp
1
m
E
ux
m
m
E
ux
m Q k k
W k
D
d a
d
(2.37)

Vi
2
1
4
1
u
E k
m
d
+ = ;
2
2
4
1
u
E k
m
a
+ =

Trong :
k
a
- Hng s tc ha tan oxy, ngy
-1

k
d
- Hng s tc phn hy cc chp cht hu c, ngy
-1

Q - Lu lng dng chy,m
3
/s
9
D - thiu ht oxy trong dng chy,mg/l.
L - Nng cc cht hu c theo BOD,mg/l
E - H s phn tn cc cht nhim trn on sng,m
2
/s.
W -Tc pht thi cht nhim t cc ngun thi vo on sng,
mg/s.
V d tnh ton
1. Cc bi ton ca phng trnh c in Streeter-Phelps
2. Bi ton b sung thm qu trnh phn tn cc cht nhim trong dng
chy ri.
Bi ton ng lc
Vic tnh ton s lan truyn cc cht nhim trn chiu di dng chy hoc mt
mng li sng da trn c s chia nh thnh cc on sng c chiu di khc nhau.
Trong mi on sng cc thng s v cc yu t thy lc c coi nh l khng i theo
thi gian. Phng php s gii bi ton lan truyn cht l phng php sai phn hu hn.
Phng php s bi ton lan truyn cht
Gii phng trnh bng phng php sai phn hu hn theo s sai phn 6 im
Brian -Stone



















(n)
(n +1)
x
j-1

j
x
t
J -1 J+1
x
j

C
j
n
C
j
n+1
C
j+1
n+1

C
j+1
n

t
Hnh 2.7.Li tnh theo s n s sai phn Brian - Stone
C
j-1
n+1

C
j-1
n

10







Theo s sai phn hnh 2.7 ta c :
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 2 1
( ) ( ) ( )
6 3 6
n n n n n n
j j j j j j
C
C C C C C C
t t

+ + +
+ +

+ + + + +


(2.38)
1 1
1 1 1 1
( ) ( )
1
2
n n n n
j j j j
C C C C
C
x x x

+ +
+ +

+




(2.39)
1 1 1
2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2
1
2
n n n n n n
j j j j j j
C C C C C C
C
x x x

+ + +
+ +
+ +
+




(2.40)

Sai phn ha cc s hng ca phng trnh ti-khuch tn theo s li sai phn
6 im (phng php xp x Crank-Nicholson) ta c :

+
+
+
+ + +

+

+
t
C A C A
t
C A C A
t
C A C A
t
AC
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
1 1 1
1
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1
1
1
6
1
3
2
6
1

(2.41)

+ + +
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
x
C A U C A U
x
C A U C A U
x
UAC
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1


(2.42)
( )
{ } { }
( )
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 2 1
1 1
( ) ( ( ) ( ) (
2 2
i
i i i i i i i
j j j j j j j
j
C
EA EA EA C C EA EA C C
x x x


+
+ + + + + + +
+
+

+ +



( )
{ } { }
( )
1
1 1 1 2 1
1 1
( ) ( ( ) ( ) (
2 2
i
i i i i i i i
j j j j j j j
j
EA EA C C EA EA C C
x
+
+ +
+

+ + +

(2.43)

S hng phn ng chuyn ha :
( ) ( )

+
2
1 i
j
i
j
AC AC
k kAC (2.44)
11
Thay cc s hng sau khi sai phn 2.41, 2.42, 2.43, 2.44 vo phng trnh ti-phn
tn v t v = f( A,E,u )ti thi im i+1; =f(A,E) ti im j+1 v =f(A,E,u ) ti
thi im i. Phng trnh sai phn c n gin li l :
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
i
i
j
i
j
C C C =
+

+ + + +

+ 1
1
1 1 1 1
1
1
(2.45)
Trong :
, ( , , ) f A E U =
ti thi im i+1
( , ) f A E =
ti thi im i+1
( , , ) f A E C =
ti thi im i
Nh vy :
-Vi 3 im tng ng vi 2 on sng ta c 1 phng trnh vi 3 n s l
nng cc cht nhim thi im n= i+1.
-Vi n im tng ng vi n-1 on sng ta c (n-2) phng trnh vi n n s.
-im u tin v im cui cng cc n s lun lun c xc nh (iu
kin bin v iu kin ban u). Nh vy s n ca h l (n-2) n s.
Phng php gii h phng trnh c dng l phng php kh ui
Gauss a h phng trnh v dng ma trn 3 ng cho tnh ton cc n.
V d tnh ton
1. on ca sng c chiu di 4000m, c chia thnh 4 on bng nhau (5
im tnh ton).
Vn tc trung bnh trn cc on sng l 1,33m/s.
H s phn tn E
x
= 666m
2
/s.
iu kin bin:
Bin thng lu: C=1 vi mi thi im
Bin h lu: C=0 vi mi thi im
iu kin ban u: C
1,1
= C
2,1
= C
3,1
= 1
C
4,1
= C
5,1
= 0
Tnh nng ti cc im sau khong thi gian t = 500s
Kt qu
C
2
2
=C
2,2
= 49/54
12
C
2
3
=C
3,2
= 4/9
C
4
2
=C
4,2
= 5/54
4. Trnh t thit lp m hnh cht lng nc
Trnh t tin hnh xy dng m hnh cht lng nc cho dng chy sng Hng
theo cht hu c d b phn hy sinh hc c tin hnh theo cc bc sau :
M hnh thy lc
-Xc nh cc yu t nh hng n ch thy lc ca dng chy.
-Phn on dng chy, xc nh cc im cn tnh ton trn li tnh sai phn.
-Gii h phng trnh, tnh ton cc thng s :
Lu lng dng chy trung bnh ti cc on sng cn tnh ton.
Vn tc dng chy trung bnh trn cc on sng. Cc on sng chu nh
hng ca triu vn tc c ly theo gi tr trung bnh cho mt chu k triu.
Din tch mt ct t c xc nh bng cc s liu thc o lm c s cho
cc s liu hiu chnh m hnh thu lc.
M hnh lan truyn cht d phn hy sinh hc
-Xc nh cc c trng c bn ca qu trnh lan truyn cht trn cc on sng
cn tnh ton. Cc yu t c trng c bn bao gm :
H s phn tn trn cc vng sng c ch thu lc c trng : dng chy
n nh tng i, dng chy thay i chm dn v dng chy chu nh hng ca
triu.
Hng s tc phn hu, chuyn ho cc cht hu c trong dng chy.
-Xc nh v tr cc ngun thi, nng cc cht hu c b sung trn cc on
sng.
- Gii phng trnh vi phn bng phng php sai phn.
S tnh ton tng qut bi ton lan truyn cc cht nhim trong dng chy
c trnh by trn s hnh 2.8
13

Bi tp

V d n gin v on sng c 4 on. Yu cu tnh ton trong trng thi n nh,
ng lc.





M hnh thy lc
Cc s liu thng k
Nhp s liu
Q,u,A
Cc s liu ti trng,
h s phn tn
Gii phng trnh
ti-phn tn
Tnh ton ngun thi,
nng , tc phn hy
Kt qu
S sai phn
CHNG 5. CC PHN MM TNH TON, M PHNG
CHT LNG NC PH BIN

Vi cc mc ch nghin cu, m phng trn cc i tng khc nhau nn
cc MHCLN rt phong ph v a dng. Theo hng dn ca ngn hng th gii
(WB) trong lnh vc ngn nga v gim thiu nhim i vi cc d n pht trin
v cc ng dng trong thc tin trn th gii cng nh nc ta trong vi nm gn
y, thng s dng cc phn mn sau tnh ton m phng cht lng nc :
M hnh HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (USEPA) (1984)
M phng trong khng gian 2 chiu trng thi ng lc vi cc thng s
cht lng nc: cc cht ho tan, SS, DO, cc cht dinh dng v cc loi vi
khun ch th. D bo xu th thay i cht lng nc trong dng chy sau cc
trn ma v cc thng tin v vic thu nc cc knh.
M hnh SWMM (Storm Water Management Model )
Pht trin trn c s m hnh HSPF, tnh ton xu th bin i cht lng
nc cho c mt lu vc sng...vi cc ngun thi khng im. M hnh SWMM
l m hnh 1 chiu vi trng thi ng lc m phng s chy trn nc ma qua
cc vng t nng nghip v cc khu vc th vi cc thng tin v dng chy
ca cc h thng thu gom nc.
M hnh WAPS (USEPA)
Ghp ni m hnh thu lc (DYNHYD) vi m hnh lan truyn cht
(WAPS), m phng s lan truyn v chuyn ha cc cht nhim trong dng
chy. Ty theo mc ch, s liu u vo v cc thng tin c s v cc qu trnh
chuyn ha cc cht trong dng chy, c th s dng tnh ton cc dng n
gin, ci tin hay phc tp.
H thng MIKE
Trong nhng nm 1990, vin thy lc an mch thit lp h thng m
hnh cht lng nc cho knh, sng. H thng ny c th tnh ton s lan truyn
cht nhim trong dng chy t cc ngun khc nhau vo cc lu vc khc nhau.
Ty thuc i tng nghin cu, yu cu tnh ton cc thng s cht lng nc
trong dng chy sng, ca sng, h hay bin m p dng cc phin bn khc nhau
nh MIKE 11, MIKE 21, MIKE 3, MIKE SHE, MIKE MOUSE v MIKE BASIN.
M hnh WQRRS (Water quality for River )
Ghp ni m hnh Qual II vi m hnh tnh ton s lan truyn cht nhim trong
cc h cha nc. Tnh ton 1, 2 chiu cho h thng sng - h trng thi ng
lc vi s liu u ra l cht lng nc sng lm s liu u vo cho m hnh
cht lng nc h.
M HNH QUAL2E V QUAL2E-UNCAS (USEPA) 4/1999
M hnh QUAL I c xy dng trn c s phng trnh vi phn bc nht
do Streeter-Phelps lp nn. Phng trnh l hm ti lng cc cht hu c, tc
phn hy v tc tiu th oxy. M hnh c s dng d bo nng cc
cht hu c BOD v DO h lu ngun thi vo dng chy sng. QUAL I thng
c s dng cho dng chy n nh mt chiu.
QUAL II (1970) l s ci tin t QUAL I m phng s lan truyn cc cht
nhim trong dng chy mt v hai chiu i vi dng chy n nh h lu ngun
thi. S ci tin c th p dng i vi dng chy sng rng (c cp thm s
phn tn cc cht nhim trong dng chy). i vi cc trng hp khng n
nh c pht trin t cc trng thi n nh vi vic tnh ton theo thi gian
bng cch tnh lp li nhiu ln. nh gi, Xem xt nhy bng cch phn tch
sai s theo m phng Monte Carlo
Cc thng s cht lng nc m phng bao gm : chlorophyll-a, DO,
BOD, cc cht dinh dng, cc cht bo ton v khng bo ton, cc vi khun ch
th. c p dng xc nh mc tc ng ca cc cht bn ca ngun im
v ngun khng im i vi cht lng nc trong dng chy.
QUAL2E - Uncas (1985) nng cao chnh xc ca m hnh vi s b sung
thm vic xem xt nhy ca cc s liu u vo.
Hn ch khng xem xt s lan truyn ca cc thng s kim loi nng v cc
cht phn tn nh du, m...Tuy nhin y l mt trong nhng m hnh c s
dng ph bin nht, do nhu cu s liu u vo t.