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L KIM HNG

GIO TRNH

GII TCH MNG
IN












NNG 2003



GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 1

GII TCH MNG



LI NI U

H thng in bao gm cc khu sn xut, truyn ti v phn phi in nng. Kt
cu mt h thng in c th rt phc tp, mun nghin cu n i hi phi c mt kin
thc tng hp v c nhng phng php tinh ton ph hp.
Gii tch mng l mt mn hc cn c tn gi Cc phng php tin hc ng
dng trong tnh ton h thng in. Trong , cp n nhng bi ton m tt c sinh
vin ngnh h thng no cng cn phi nm vng. V vy, c mt cch nhn c th
v cc bi ton ny, gio trnh i t kin thc c s hc nghin cu l thuyt cc bi
ton cng nh vic ng dng chng thng qua cng c my vi tnh. Phn cui, bng
ngn ng lp trnh Pascal, cng vic m phng cc phn mc ca bi ton c
minh ho.
Ni dung gio trnh gm 2 phn chnh:
I. Phn l thuyt gm c 8 chng.
1. i s ma trn ng dng trong gii tch mng.
2. Phng php s dng gii cc phng trnh vi phn trong gii tch mng.
3. M hnh ha h thng in.
4. Graph v cc ma trn mng in.
5. Thut ton dng tnh ma trn mng.
6. Tnh ton tro lu cng sut.
7. Tnh ton ngn mch.
8. Xt qu trnh qu ca my pht khi c s c trong mng.
II. Phn lp trnh: gm c bn phn mc:
1. Xy dng cc ma trn ca 1 mng c th
2. Tnh ton ngn mch.
3. Tnh ton tro lu cng sut lc bnh thng v khi s c.
4. Xt qu trnh qu ca cc my pht khi c s c trong mng in.

GV: L Kim Hng




CHNG 1

I S MA TRN NG DNG TRONG GII TCH MNG

Trong chng ny ta nhc li mt s kin thc v i s ma trn thng thng
c ng dng trong gii tch mng.
1.1. NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM C BN:
1.1.1. K hiu ma trn:

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 2
Ma trn ch nht A kch thc m x n l 1 bng gm m hng v n ct c dng
sau:
[ ]
j i
mn m m
n
n
a
a a a
a a a
a a a
A = =
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11

Nu m = 1 v n >1 th A gi l ma trn hng hoc vect hng.
Ngc li n = 1 v m > 1 th A gi l ma trn ct hoc vect ct.
V d:
3
1
2
= A v 1 3 2 = A
1.1.2. Cc dng ma trn:
Ma trn vung: L ma trn c s hng bng s ct (m = n).
V d:
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
A =
Ma trn tam gic trn: L ma trn vung m cc phn t di ng cho chnh
a
j
ca ma trn bng 0 vi i > j.
33
23 22
13 12 11
0 0
0
a
a a
a a a
A =
Ma trn tam gic di: L ma trn vung m cc phn t trn ng cho chnh
a
j
ca ma trn bng 0 vi i < j.
33 32 31
22 21
11
0
0 0
a a a
a a
a
A =
Ma trn ng cho: L ma trn vung nu tt c cc phn t trn ng cho
chnh khc 0, cn cc phn t khc ngoi ng cho chnh ca ma trn bng 0 (a
j
= 0
vi j i ).
33
22
11
0 0
0 0
0 0
a
a
a
A =
Ma trn n v: L ma trn vung m tt c cc phn t trn ng cho chnh
ca ma trn bng 1 cn tt c cc phn t khc bng 0 (a
ij
= 1 vi i = j v a
j
= 0 vi
j i ).
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
= U
Ma trn khng: L ma trn m tt c cc phn t ca ma trn bng 0.

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 3
Ma trn chuyn v: L ma trn m cc phn t a
j
= a
ji
(i hng thnh ct v
ngc li).
32 31
22 21
12 11
a a
a a
a a
A = v
32 22 12
31 21 11
a a a
a a a
A
T
=
Cho ma trn A th ma trn chuyn v k hiu l A
t
, A
T
hoc A
Ma trn i xng: L ma trn vung c cc cp phn t i xng qua ng
cho chnh bng nhau a
j
= a
ji
.
V d:
4 6 3
6 2 5
3 5 1
= A
Chuyn v ma trn i xng th A
T
= A, ngha l ma trn khng thay i.
Ma trn xin - phn i xng: L ma trn vung c A = - A
T
. Cc phn t ngoi
ng cho chnh tng ng bng gi tr i ca n (a
j
= - a
ji
) v cc phn t trn
ng cho chnh bng 0.
V d:
0 6 3
6 0 5
3 5 0


= A
Ma trn trc giao: L ma trn c ma trn chuyn v chnh l nghch o ca n.
(A
T
.A = U = A .A
T
vi A l ma trn vung v cc phn t l s thc).
Ma trn phc lin hp: L ma trn nu th phn t a + jb bi a - jb th ma trn
mi A
*
l ma trn phc lin hp.
Cho ma trn A th ma trn phc lin hp l A
*
1 1 2 4
5 3
j j
j
A
+ +
= v
1 1 2 4
5 3
j j
j
A


-Nu tt c cc phn t ca A l thc, th A = A
*

-Nu tt c cc phn t ca A l o, th A = - A
*.
Ma trn Hermitian (ma trn phc i): L ma trn vung vi cc phn t trn
ng cho chnh l s thc cn cc cp phn t i xng qua ng cho chnh l
nhng s phc lin hp, ngha l A = (A
*
)
t
.
5 3 2
3 2 4
j
j
A
+

=
Ma trn xin - Hermitian (ma trn xin - phc i): L ma trn vung vi cc
phn t trn ng cho chnh bng 0 hoc ton o cn cc cp phn t i xng qua
ng cho chnh l nhng s phc, tc A = - (A
*
)
t
.
0 3 2
3 2 0
j
j
A


=
Nu ma trn vung phc lin hp c (A
*
)
t
. A = U = A. (A
*
)
t
th ma trn A c
gi l ma trn n v. Nu ma trn n v A vi cc phn t l s thc c gi l ma
trn trc giao.
Bng 1.1: Cc dng ma trn.
K hiu Dng ma trn K hiu Dng ma trn

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 4
A = -A
A = A
t

A = - A
t

A = A
*

A = - A
*

Khng
i xng
Xin-i xng
Thc
Hon ton o
A = (A
*
)
t

A = - (A
*
)
t

A
t
A = U
(A
*
)
t
A = U
Hermitian
Xin- Hermitian
Trc giao
n v
1.2. CC NH THC:
1.2.1. nh ngha v cc tnh cht ca nh thc:
Cho h 2 phng trnh tuyn tnh
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
= k
1
(1) (1.1)
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
= k
2
(2)
Rt x
2
t phng trnh (2) th vo phng trnh (1), gii c:
21 12 22 11
2 12 1 22
1
a a a a
k a k a
x

=
Suy ra:
21 12 22 11
1 21 2 11
2
a a a a
k a k a
x

=
Biu thc (a
11
a
22
- a
12
a
21
) l gi tr nh thc ca ma trn h s A. Trong |A| l
nh thc.
22 21
12 11
| |
a a
a a
A =
Gii phng trnh (1.1) bng phng php nh thc ta c:

21 12 22 11
2 12 1 22 22 2
12 1
1
. .
. .
a a a a
k a k a
A
a k
a k
x

= = v
21 12 22 11
1 21 2 11 2 21
1 11
2
. .
. .
a a a a
k a k a
A
k a
k a
x

= =
Tnh cht ca nh thc:
a. Gi tr ca nh thc bng 0 nu:
- Tt c cc phn t ca hng hoc ct bng 0.
- Cc phn t ca 2 hng (ct) tng ng bng nhau.
- Mt hng (ct) l tng ng t l ca 1 hoc nhiu hng (ct).
b. Nu ta i ch 2 hng ca ma trn vung A cho nhau ta c ma trn vung B
v c det(B) = - det(A).
c. Gi tr ca nh thc khng thay i nu:
- Tt c cc hng v ct tng ng i ch cho nhau.
- Cng thm k vo 1 hng (ct) th t tng ng vi cc phn t ca hng (ct)
.
d. Nu tt c cc phn t ca hng (ct) nhn vi tha s k, th gi tr ca nh
thc l c nhn bi k.
e. Tch ca cc nh thc bng tch ca tng nh thc. | A.B.C| = |A| .|B| .|C|.
f. nh thc tng khc tng cc nh thc. |A + B - C| = |A| + |B| -|C|.
1.2.2. nh thc con v cc phn ph i s.
Xt nh thc:
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
A =

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 5
Chn trong nh thc ny k hng, k ct bt k vi 1 [ k [ n. Cc phn t nm
pha trn k t giao ca hng v ct chn to thnh mt nh thc cp k, gi l nh
thc con cp k ca A. B k hng v k ct chn, cc phn t cn li to thnh 1 nh
thc con b ca nh thc A.
Phn ph i s ng vi phn t a
ij
ca nh thc A l nh thc con b c km
theo du (-1)
i+j
.
33 32
13 12
33 32
13 12 1 2
21
) 1 (
a a
a a
a a
a a
A = =
+

Mi lin h gia cc nh thc v phn ph:
- Tng cc tch ca cc phn t theo hng (ct) vi phn ph tng ng bng
nh thc |A|.
- Tng cc tch ca cc phn t theo hng (ct) vi phn ph tng ng trong
hng (ct) khc bng 0.
1.3. CC PHP TNH MA TRN.
1.3.1. Cc ma trn bng nhau:
Hai ma trn A v B c gi l bng nhau nu tt c cc phn t ca ma trn A
bng tt c cc phn t ca ma trn B (a
ij
= b
j
i, j; i, j = 1, 2, .. n).
1.3.2. Php cng (tr) ma trn.
Cng (tr) cc ma trn phi c cng kch thc m x n. V d: C hai ma trn
A[a
ij
]
mn
v B[b
ij
]
mn
th tng v hiu ca hai ma trn ny l ma trn C[c
ij
]
mn
vi c
ij
=
a
ij
6 b
ij

M rng: R = A + B + C +..... + N vi r
ij
= a
ij
6 b
ij
6 c
ij
6 ...6 n
ij
.
Php cng (tr) ma trn c tnh cht giao hon: A + B = B + A.
Php cng (tr) ma trn c tnh cht kt hp: A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C.
1.3.3. Tch v hng ca ma trn:
k.A = B. Trong : b
ij
= k .a
ij
i & j .
Tnh giao hon: k.A = A.k..
Tnh phn phi: k (A + B) = k.A + k..B = (A + B) k.
(vi A v B l cc ma trn c cng kch thc, k l 1 hng s ).
1.3.4. Nhn cc ma trn:
Php nhn hai ma trn A.B = C. Nu ma trn A c kch thc m x q v ma trn
B c kch thc q x n th ma trn tch C c kch thc m x n. Cc phn t c
ij
ca ma
trn C l tng cc tch ca cc phn t tng ng vi i hng ca ma trn A v j ct ca
ma trn B l:
c
ij
= a
i1
.b
1j
+ a
i2
.b
2j
+ ... + a
iq
.b
qj

V d:
32 31
22 21
12 11
.
a a
a a
a a
B A = x
22 12 12 11 21 32 11 31
22 12 12 11 21 22 11 21
22 12 12 11 21 12 11 11
22 21
12 11
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
b a b a b a b a
b a b a b a b a
b a b a b a b a
b b
b b
+ +
+ +
+ +
=
Php nhn ma trn khng c tnh cht hon v: A.B B.A
Php nhn ma trn c tnh cht phn phi i vi php cng:
A (B + C) = A.B + A.C.
Php nhn ma trn c tnh cht kt hp: A (B.C) = (A.B) C = A.B.C.
Tch 2 ma trn A.B = 0 khi A = 0 hoc B = 0.
Tch C.A = C.B khi A = B.
Nu C = A.B th C
T
= B
T
.A
T

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 6
1.3.5. Nghch o ma trn:
Cho h phng trnh:
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ a
13
x
3
= y
1

a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ a
23
x
3
= y
2

(1.2)
a
31
x
1
+ a
32
x
2
+ a
33
x
3
= y
3

Vit di dng ma trn A.X = Y
Nu nghim ca h trn l duy nht th tn ti mt ma trn B l nghch o ca
ma trn A.
Do : X = B.Y (1.3)
Nu nh thc ca ma trn A 0 th c th xc nh x
i
nh sau:
3
31
2
21
1
11
1
y
A
A
y
A
A
y
A
A
x + + =
3
32
2
22
1
12
2
y
A
A
y
A
A
y
A
A
x + + =
3
33
2
23
1
13
3
y
A
A
y
A
A
y
A
A
x + + =
Trong : A
11
, A
12
, .... A
33
l nh thc con ph ca a
11
, a
12
, a
13
v |A| l nh
thc ca ma trn A. Ta c:
A
A
B
j i
j i
= i, j = 1, 2, 3.
Nhn ma trn A vi nghch o ca n ta c A.A
-1
= A
-1
.A = U
Rt X t phng trnh (1.3) sau khi nhn c hai v cho A
-1
.
A.X = Y
A
-1
.A.X = A
-1
.Y
U.X = A
-1
.Y
Suy ra: X = A
-1
.Y
Nu nh thc ca ma trn bng 0, th ma trn nghch o khng xc nh (ma
trn suy bin).
Nu nh thc khc 0 gi l ma trn khng suy bin v l ma trn nghch o
duy nht.
Gi s 2 ma trn A v B cng cp v l kh o lc :
(A.B)
-1
= B
-1
.A
-1

Nu A
T
kh o th (A
T
)
-1
cng kh o:
(A
t
)
-1
= (A
-1
)
t

1.3.6. Ma trn phn chia:



Tng cc ma trn phn chia c biu din bi ma trn nh bng tng cc ma
trn nh tng ng.



Php nhn c biu din nh sau:
A
A
1
A
3
A
2
A
4
=
A
1
A
3
A
2
A
4
B
1
B
3
B
2
B
4
A
1
6B
1
A
3
6B
3
A
2
6B
3
A
4
6B
3
6
=

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 7



Trong :
C
1
= A
1
.B
1
+ A
2
.B
3
C
2
= A
1
.B
2
+ A
2
.B
4

C
3
= A
3
.B
1
+ A
4
.B
3

C
4
= A
3
.B
2
+ A
4
.B
4

Tch ma trn chuyn v nh sau:



Tch ma trn nghch o nh sau:



Trong :
B
1
= (A
1
- A
2
.A
4
-1
.A
3
)
-1

B
2
= -B
1
.A
2
.A
4
-1

B
3
= -A
4
-1
.A
3
.B
1

B
4
= A
4
-1
- A
4
-1
.A
3
.B
2
(vi A
1
v A
4
phi l cc ma trn vung).
1.4. S PH THUC TUYN TNH V HNG CA MA TRN:
1.4.1. S ph thuc tuyn tnh:
S ct ca ma trn A(m x n) c th vit theo n vect ct hoc m vect hng.
{c
1
}{c
1
} ..... {c
1
}
{r
1
}{r
1
} ...... {r
1
}
Phng trnh vect ct thun nht.
p
1
{c
1
} + p
2
{c
2
} + .... + p
n
{c
n
} = 0 (1.4)
Khi tt c P
k
= 0 (k = 1, 2, ...., n).
Tng t vect hng l khng ph thuc tuyn tnh nu.
q
r
= 0 (r = 1, 2, ..., n).
q
1
{r
1
} + q
2
{r
2
} + ...... + q
n
{r
n
} = 0 (1.5)
Nu p
k
0 tha mn phng trnh (1.4), th vect ct l tuyn tnh.
Nu q
r
0 tha mn phng trnh (1.5), th vect hng l tuyn tnh.
Nu vect ct (hng) ca ma trn A l tuyn tnh, th nh thc ca A = 0.
1.4.2. Hng ca ma trn:
Hng ca ma trn l cp cao nht m tt c cc nh thc con khc 0.
0 [ r(A) [ min(m, n) vi A l ma trn kch thc m x n.
1.5. H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH:
H phng trnh tuyn tnh ca m phng trnh trong n h s c vit:
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ .... + a
1n
x
n
= y
1

a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ .... + a
2n
x
n
= y
2

.......................................... (1.6)
a
m1
x
1
+ a
m2
x
2


+ .... + a
mn
x
n
= y
m

Trong :

a
i j
: L h s thc hoc phc ; x
j
: L bin s ; y
j
: L hng s ca h.
A
1
A
3
A
2
A
4
B
1
B
3
B
2
B
4
C
1
C
3
C
2
C
4
=
A
A
1
A
3
A
2
A
4
=
A
T
A
T
1
A
T
3
A
T
2
A
T
4
=
A
A
1
A
3
A
2
A
4
=
A
- 1
B
1
B
3
B
2
B
4
=

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 8
H phng trnh c biu din dng ma trn nh sau:
A. X = Y (1.7)
Ma trn m rng:
m mn m m
n
n
y a a a
y a a a
y a a a
A
....
.... .... .... .... ....
....
....

2 1
2 2 22 21
1 1 12 11
=
Nu y
i
= 0 th h phng trnh gi l h thun nht, ngha l: A.X = 0.
Nu mt hoc nhiu phn t ca vect y
i
0 th h gi l h khng thun nht.
nh l:
iu kin cn v h phng trnh tuyn tnh c nghim l hng ca ma
trn h s bng hng ca ma trn m rng.
H phng trnh tuyn tnh v nghim khi v ch khi hng ca ma trn h s nh
hn hng ca ma trn m rng.
Nu hng ca ma trn r(A) = r() = r = n (s n) ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh
(1.6) th h c nghim duy nht (h xc nh).
Nu r(A) = r() = r < n th h phng trnh tuyn tnh c v s nghim v cc
thnh phn ca nghim ph thuc (n - r) tham s ty .



GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 12
CHNG 2

GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S

2.1. GII THIU.
Nhiu h thng vt l phc tp c biu din bi phng trnh vi phn n
khng c th gii chnh xc bng gii tch. Trong k thut, ngi ta thng s dng cc
gi tr thu c bng vic gii gn ng ca cc h phng trnh vi phn bi phng
php s ha. Theo cch , li gii ca phng trnh vi phn ng l mt giai on
quan trng trong gii tch s.
Trong trng hp tng qut, th t ca vic lm tch phn s l qu trnh tng
bc chnh xc chui gi tr cho mi bin ph thuc tng ng vi mt gi tr ca bin
c lp. Thng th tc l chn gi tr ca bin c lp trong mt khong c nh.
chnh xc cho li gii bi tch phn s ph thuc c hai phng php chn v kch
thc ca khong gi tr. Mt s phng php thng xuyn dng c trnh by trong
cc mc sau y.
2.2. GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S.
2.2.1 Phng php Euler:
Cho phng trnh vi phn bc nht.
) , ( y x f
dx
dy
= (2.1)









Khi x l bin c lp v y l bin ph thuc, nghim phng trnh (2.1) s c dng:
y = g(x,c) (2.2)
Vi c l hng s c xc nh t l thuyt trong iu kin ban u. ng
cong miu t phng trnh (2.2) c trnh by trong hnh (2.1). T ch tip xc vi
ng cong, on ngn c th gi s l mt on thng. Theo cch , ti mi im
ring bit (x
0
,y
0
) trn ng cong, ta c:
x
dx
dy
y
0

Vi
0
dx
dy
l dc ca ng cong ti im (x
0
,y
0
). V th, ng vi gi tr ban
u x
0
v y
0
, gi tr mi ca y c th thu c t l thuyt l x:
y y y + =
0 1
hay h
dx
dy
y y
0
0 1
+ = (t h = x)
Khi y l s gia ca y tng ng vi mt s gia ca x. Tng t, gi tr th hai ca y c
th xc nh nh sau.
y
x
y
x
y =
g( x, c)
y
0
x
0
Hnh 2.1: th ca
hm s t
bi gii phng
trnh vi phn
0
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 13
h
dx
dy
y y
1
1 2
+ =













Khi ) , (
1 1
1
y x f
dx
dy
=
Qu trnh c th tnh tip tc, ta c:
h
dx
dy
y y
2
2 3
+ =
h
dx
dy
y y
3
3 4
+ =
...........................
Bng gi tr x v y cung cp cho ton b bi gii phng trnh (2.1). Minh ha phng
php nh hnh 2.2.
2.2.2. Phng php bin i Euler.
Trong khi ng dng phng php Euler, gi tr dy/dx ca khong gi thit tnh ton bt
u vt ra ngoi khong cho php. S thay th c th thu c bng cch tnh ton
gi tr mi ca y cho x
1
nh trc.
x
1
= x
0
+ h
h
dx
dy
y y
0
0
) 0 (
1
+ =
Dng gi tr mi x
1
v y
1
(0)
thay vo phng trnh (2.1) tnh ton gn ng gi tr ca
1
dx
dy
ti cui khong.
) , (
) 0 (
1 1
) 0 (
1
y x f
dx
dy
=
Sau tn dng gi tr y
1
(1)
c th tm thy bi dng trung bnh ca
0
dx
dy
v
) 0 (
1
dx
dy
nh
sau:
h
dx
dy
dx
dy
y y

+
+ =
2
) 0 (
1 0
0
) 1 (
1

x
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
y
0
y
1
y
2
y
3
h

h

h

y=
g( x c)
Hnh 2.2 : th ca li
gii xp x
cho phng trnh
vi phn bng
phng
0

y

GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 14
Dng x
1
v y
1
(1)
, gi tr xp x th ba y
1
(2)
c th thu c bi qu trnh tng t nh
sau: h
dx
dy
dx
dy
y y

+
+ =
2
) 1 (
1 0
0
) 2 (
1

Ta c:
h
dx
dy
dx
dy
y y

+
+ =
2
) 2 (
1 0
0
) 3 (
1

Qu trnh c th tnh tip tc cho n khi hai s lin nhau c lng cho y l ngang
bng nm trong phm vi mong mun. Qu trnh hon ton lp li thu c gi tr y
2
.
Kt qu thu c c s chnh xc cao hn t s bin i ca phng php Euler c
minh ha trong hnh 2.3.













Phng php Euler c th ng dng gii h phng trnh vi phn cng lc. Cho hai
phng trnh:

) z y, , (
) z y, , (
2
1
x f
dx
dz
x f
dx
dy
=
=

Vi gi tr ban u x
0
, y
0
v z
0
gi tr mi y
1
s l:
h
dx
dz
y y
0
0 1
+ =
Vi: ) z , y , (
0 0 0 1
0
x f
dx
dy
=
Tng t.
h
dx
dz
z z
0
0 1
+ =
Vi: ) , , (
0 0 0 2
0
z y x f
dx
dz
=

+
2
) 0 (
1 0
dx
dy
dx
dy
y =
g( x c)
y
x
x
0
x
1
h
y
0
0
dx
dy
Hnh 2.3 : th
ca li gii xp
x cho phng
trnh vi phn
bng phng php
bin i Euler.
0
y
1
y
2
dy
( 0)
dx
1
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 15
Cho s gia tip theo, gi tr x
1
= x
0
+ h, y
1
v z
1
dng xc nh y
2
v z
2
. Trong
phng php bin i Euler y
1
v z
1
dng xc nh gi tr o hm ti x
1
cho nh
gi gn ng cp hai y
1
(1)
v z
1
(1)
.
2.2.3. Phng php Picard vi s xp x lin tc.
C s ca phng php Picard l gii chnh xc, bi s thay th gi tr y nh hm ca x
trong phm vi gi tr x cho.
y g(x)
y l biu thc c lng bi s thay th trc tip gi tr ca x thu c gi tr
tng ng ca y. Cho phng trnh vi phn (2.1).
dy = f(x,y)dx
V tch phn gia khong gii hn cho x v y.


=
1
0
1
0
) , (
y
y
x
x
dx y x f dy
Th

=
1
0
) , (
0 1
x
x
dx y x f y y
Hay

+ =
1
0
) , (
0 1
x
x
dx y x f y y (2.3)
S hng tch phn trnh by s thay i trong kt qu ca y vi s thay i ca x
t x
0
n x
1
. Li gii c th thu c bi s nh gi tch phn bng phng php xp
x lin tc.
Ta c th xem gi tr ca y nh hm ca x c th thu c bi s thay th y di
dng tch phn vi y
0
, cho gi tr ban u nh sau:

+ =
1
0
) , (
0 0
) 1 (
1
x
x
dx y x f y y
Thc hin biu thc tch phn vi gi tr mi ca y by gi c thay th vo phng
trnh (2.3) thu c ln xp x th hai cho y nh sau:

+ =
1
0
) , (
) 1 (
1 0
) 2 (
1
x
x
dx y x f y y
Qu trnh ny c th lp li trong thi gian cn thit thu c chnh xc mong
mun..
Tht vy, c lng tch phn lun lun phc tp th nhng phi gi thit cho
bin c nh. Kh khn v cn thc hin nhiu ln tch phn, nn y l mt hn ch s
p dng ca phng php ny.
Phng php Picard c th p dng gii ng thi nhiu phng trnh nh sau:
) , , (
1
z y x f
dx
dy
=
) , , (
2
z y x f
dx
dz
=
Theo cng thc, ta c:

+ =
1
0
) , , (
0 0 1 0 1
x
x
dx z y x f y y

+ =
1
0
) , , (
0 0 2 0 1
x
x
dx z y x f z z
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 16
2.2.4. Phng php Runge- Kutta.
Trong phng php Runge- Kutta s thay i gi tr ca bin ph thuc l tnh ton t
cc cng thc cho, biu din trong iu kin c lng o hm ti nhng im nh
trc. T mi gi tr duy nht chnh xc ca y cho bi cng thc, phng php ny
khng i hi thay th lp li nh phng php bin i Euler hay tch phn lin tip
nh phng php ca Picard.
Cng thc rt gn gn ng xut pht bi s thay th khai trin chui Taylor. Runge-
Kutta xp x bc hai c th vit trong cng thc.
y
1
= y
0
+ a
1
k
1
+ a
2
k
2
(2.4)
Vi k
1
= f(x
0,
y
0
)h
k
2
= f(x
0
+ b
1
h, y
0
+ b
2
k
1
)h
Cc h s a
1
, a
2
, b
1
v b
2
l chnh xc. u tin khai trin f(x
0
+ b
1
h, y
0
+ b
2
k
1
) trong
chui Taylor ti (x
0
,y
0
), ta c:
h
y
f
k b h
x
f
b y x f k

+ = ..... ) , (
0
1 2
0
1 0 0 2

Thay th hai iu kin k
1
v k
2
vo trong phng trnh (2.4), thu c:

2
0
0 0 2 2
2
0
1 2 0 0 2 1 0 1
) , ( ) , ( ) ( h
y
f
y x f b a h
x
f
b a h y x f a a y y

+ + + = (2.5)
Khai trin chui Taylor ca y ti gi tr (x
0
,y
0
) l:
....
2
2
0
2
2
0
0 1
+ + + =
h
dx
y d
h
dx
dy
y y (2.6)
T ) , (
0 0
0
y x f
dx
dy
= v ) , (
0 0
0
0
0
2
2
y x f
y
f
x
f
dx
y d

=
Phng trnh (2.6) tr thnh.
......
2
) , (
2
) , (
2
0 0
0
2
0
0 0 0 1
h
y x f
y
f
h
x
f
h y x f y y

+ + = (2.7)
Cn bng cc h s ca phng trnh (2.5) v (2.7), ta c:
a
1
+ a
2
=1; a
2
b
1
= 1/2; a
2
b
2
= 1/2.
Chn gi tr ty cho a
1

a
1
= 1/2
Th a
2
= 1/2; b
1
= 1; b
2
= 1.
Thay th gi tr ny vo trong phng trnh (2.4), cng thc gn ng bc hai
Runge-Kutta l:

2 1 0 1
2
1
2
1
k k y y + + =
Vi k
1
= f(x
0
,y
0
)h
k
2
= f(x
0
+ h, y
0
+ k
1
)h
V th.
) (
2
1
2 1
k k y + =
p dng ca phng php Runge-Kutta cho vic xp x bc hai i hi s tnh ton ca
k
1
v k
2
. Sai s trong ln xp x l bc h
3
bi v chui ct sau iu kin bc hai.
Tng qut cng thc xp x bc bn Runge-Kutta l:

4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 1
k a k a k a k a y y + + + + = (2.8)
Vi k
1
= f(x
0
,y
0
)h
k
2
= f(x
0
+ b
1
h, y
0
+ b
2
k
1
)h
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 17
k
3
= f(x
0
+ b
3
h, y
0
+ b
4
k
2
)h
k
4
= f(x
0
+ b
5
h, y
0
+ b
6
k
3
)h
Tip theo th tc ging nh dng cho ln xp x bc hai, h s trong phng trnh (2.8)
thu c l:
a
1
= 1/6; a
2
= 2/6; a
3
= 2/6; a
4
= 1/6.
V b
1
= 1/2; b
2
= 1/2; b
3
= 1/2; b
4
= 1/2; b
5
= 1; b
6
= 1.
Thay th cc gi tr vo trong phng trnh (2.8), phng trnh xp x bc bn
Runge-Kutta tr thnh.
) 2 2 (
6
1
4 3 2 1 0 1
k k k k y y + + + + =
Vi k
1
= f(x
0
,y
0
)h
h
k
y
h
x f k )
2
,
2
(
1
0 0 2
+ + =
h
k
y
h
x f k )
2
,
2
(
2
0 0 3
+ + =
h k y h x f k ) , (
3 0 0 4
+ + =
Nh vy, s tnh ton ca y theo cng thc i hi s tnh ton cc gi tr ca
k
1
, k
2
, k
3
v k
4
:
y = 1/6(k
1
+2k
2
+2k
3
+k
4
)
Sai s trong s xp x l bc h
5
.
Cng thc xp x bc bn Runge-Kutta cho php gii ng thi nhiu phng
trnh vi phn.
) , , ( z y x f
dx
dy
=
) , , ( z y x g
dx
dz
=
Ta co:
y
1
= y
0
+1/6 (k
1
+2k
2
+2k
3
+k
4
)
z
1
= z
0
+1/6 (l
1
+2l
2
+2l
3
+l
4
)
Vi: k
1
= f(x
0
,y
0
,z
0
)h
h
l
z
k
y
h
x f k )
2 2
,
2
(
1
0
1
0 0 2
+ + + =
h
l
z
k
y
h
x f k )
2 2
,
2
(
2
0
2
0 0 3
+ + + =
k
4
= f(x
0
+ h, y
0
+ k
3
,z
0
+ l
3
)h
l
1
= g(x
0
,y
0
,z
0
)h
h
l
z
k
y
h
x g l )
2 2
,
2
(
1
0
1
0 0 2
+ + + =
h
l
z
k
y
h
x g l )
2 2
,
2
(
2
0
2
0 0 3
+ + + =
l
4
= g(x
0
+ h, y
0
+ k
3
,z
0
+ l
3
)h
2.2.5. Phng php d on sa i.
Phng php da trn c s ngoi suy, hay tch phn vt trc, v lp li nhiu
ln vic gii phng trnh vi phn.
) , ( y x f
dx
dy
= (2.9)
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 18
c gi l phng php d on sa i. Th tc c bn trong phng php d
on sa i l xut pht t im (x
n
,y
n
) n im (x
n+1
, y
n+1
). Th thu c
1 + n
dx
dy
t
phng trnh vi phn v sa i gi tr y
n+1
xp x cng thc chnh xc.
Loi n gin ca cng thc d on phng php ca Euler l:
y
n+1
= y
n
+ y
n
h (2.10)
Vi:
n
n
dx
dy
y =
'

Cng thc chnh xc khng dng trong phng php Euler. Mc d, trong
phng php bin i Euler gi tr gn ng ca y
n+1
thu c t cng thc d on
(2.10) v gi tr thay th trong phng trnh vi phn (2.9) chnh l y
n+1
. Th gi tr
chnh xc cho y
n+1
thu c t cng thc bin i ca phng php l:

2
) ' ' (
1 1
h
y y y y
n n n n
+ + =
+ +
(2.11)
Gi tr thay th trong phng trnh vi phn (2.9) thu c c s nh gi chnh xc hn
cho y
n+1
, n lun lun thay th trong phng trnh (2.11) lm cho y
n+1
chnh xc hn.
Qu trnh tip tc lp li cho n khi hai gi tr tnh ton lin tip ca y
n+1
t phng
trnh (2.11) trng vi gi tr mong mun chp nhn c.
Phng php d on bin i kinh in ca Milne. D on ca Milne v cng thc
bin i, theo ng l:
) ' 2 ' ' 2 (
3
4
1 2 3
) 0 (
1 n n n n n
y y y
h
y y + + =
+

V ) ' ' 4 ' (
3
1 1 1 1 + +
+ + + =
n n n n n
y y y
h
y y
Vi: ) , ( '
) 0 (
1 1 1 + + +
=
n n n
y x f y
Bt u ca s tnh ton i hi bit bn gi tr ca y. C th tnh ton bi Runge-
Kutta hay mt s phng php s trc khi s dng cng thc d on sa i ca
Milne. Sai s trong phng php l bc h
5
.
Trong trng hp tng qut, phng php mong mun chn h nh nn ch vi ln
lp l i hi thu c y
n+1
hon ton chnh xc nh mong mun.
Phng php c th m rng cho php gii mt s phng trnh vi phn ng
thi. Phng php d on sa i l p dng c lp i vi mi phng trnh vi phn
nh mt phng trnh vi phn n gin. V vy, thay th gi tr cho tt c cc bin ph
thuc vo trong mi phng trnh vi phn l i hi s nh gi o hm ti (x
n+1
, y
n+1
).
2.3. GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BC CAO.
Trong k thut trc y m t cho vic gii phng trnh vi phn bc nht cng
c th p dng cho vic gii phng trnh vi phn bc cao bng s a vo ca bin
ph. V d, cho phng trnh vi phn bc hai.
0
2
2
= + + cy
dx
dy
b
dx
y d
a
Vi iu kin ban u x
0
, y
0
, v
0
dx
dy
th phng trnh c th c vit li nh hai
phng trnh vi phn bc nht.
' y
dx
dy
=
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 19

a
cy by
dx
dy
dx
y d +
= =
' '
2
2

Mt trong nhng phng php m t trc y c th l vic lm i tm li gii
cho hai phng trnh vi phn bc nht ng thi.
Theo cch tng t, mt vi phng trnh hay h phng trnh bc cao c th quy v h
phng trnh vi phn bc nht.
2.4. V D V GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S.
Gii phng trnh vi phn s minh ha bng s tnh ton dng in cho mch RL
ni tip.
Cho mch in RL trong hnh 2.4 sc in ng hiu dng khi ng kha l:
e(t) = 5t 0 [ t [ 0,2
e(t) = 1 t > 0,2
in tr cho theo n v ohms l.
R = 1+3i
2

V in cm theo n v henrys l.
L = 1
Tm dng in trong mch in theo cc phng php sau:
a. Eulers
b. Bin i Euler.
c. Xp x bc bn Runge-Kutta
d. Milnes
e. Picards
Bi gii:
Phng trnh vi phn ca mch in l.
) (t e Ri
dt
di
L = +
Thay th cho R v L ta c:
) ( ) 3 1 (
2
t e i i
dt
di
= + +
iu kin ban u ti t = 0 th e
0
= 0 v i
0
= 0. Khong chn cho bin c lp l:
t = 0,025.
a. Phng trnh theo phng php Euler l.
t
dt
di
i
n
n
=
i
n+1
= i
n
+i
n
Vi
n n n
n
i i e
dt
di
) 3 1 (
2
+ =
Thay th gi tr ban u vo trong phng trnh vi phn, 0
0
=
dt
dy
v i
0
. V th,
dng in i
1
= 0. Ti t
1
= 0,025; e
1
= 0,125 v 125 , 0 0 } ) 0 ( 3 1 { 125 , 0
2
1
= + =
dt
di

e( t
)
L
R t =
0
i ( t
)
Hnh 2.4: S biu din
ca mch in RL
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 20
i
1
= (0,125)0,025 = 0,00313
Th
i
2
= 0 + 0,00313 = 0,00313
Lp bng k kt qu li gii a vo trong bng 2.1
Bng 2.1: Gii bng phng php Euler

n
Thi gian
t
n

Sc in ng
e
n

Dng


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0,000
0,025
0,050
0,075
0,100
0,125
0,150
0,175
0,200
0,225
0,250
0,275
0,300
0,000
0,125
0,250
0,250
0,375
0,500
0.625
0,750
0,875
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
0,00000
0,00000
0,00313
0,00930
0,01844
0,03048
0,4534
0,06295
0,08323
0,10611
0,12837
0,15000
0,17100
0,00000
0,12500
0,24687
0,36570
0,48154
0,59444
0,70438
0,81130
0,91504
0,89031
0,86528
0,83988
b. Phng trnh ca phng php bin i Euler l.
t
dt
di
i
n
n
=
) 0 (


) 0 ( ) 0 (
1 n n n
i i i + =
+

t
dt
di
dt
di
i
n n
n

+
=
+
2
) 0 (
1 ) 1 (


) 1 ( ) 1 (
1 n n n
i i i + =
+

Vi
) 0 (
1
2 ) 0 (
1 1
) 0 (
1
} ) ( 3 1 {
+ + +
+
+ =
n n n
n
i i e
dt
di

Thay th gi tr ban u e
0
= 0 v i
0
= 0 vo trong phng trnh vi phn 0
0
=
dx
di

Do : 0
) 0 (
0
= i ; 0
) 0 (
1
= i .
Thay th vo trong phng trnh vi phn 0
) 0 (
1
= i v e
1
= 0,125
125 , 0 0 } ) 0 ( 3 1 { 125 , 0
2
) 0 (
1
= + =
dt
di

V 00156 , 0 025 , 0 )
2
0 125 , 0
(
) 1 (
0
=
+
= i
Nn
t
dt
di
i i
n
n n
+ =

1
1 n n n
n
i i e
dt
di
) 3 1 (
2
+ =
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 21
00156 , 0 00156 , 0 0
) 1 (
1
= + = i
Trong li gii v d cho phng php, khng thc hin lp li
1
) 1 (
1 + +
=
n n
i i . Bi gii thu
c bng phng php bin i Euler c a vo trong bng 2.2.
Bng 2.2: Bi gii bng phng php bin i Euler.

n
Thi Sc Dng
Gian in in i
n
t
n
ng e
n

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0,000 0,000 0,00000 0,00000 0,00000 0,125 0,00000 0,12500 0,00156
0,025 0,125 0,00156 0,12344 0,00309 0,250 0,00465 0,24535 0,00461
0,050 0,250 0,00617 0,34383 0,00610 0,375 0,01227 0,36272 0,00758
0,075 0,375 0,01375 0,36124 0,00903 0,500 0,02278 0,47718 0,01048
0.100 0,500 0,02423 0,47573 0,01189 0,625 0,03612 0,58874 0,01331
0.125 0,625 0,03754 0,58730 0,01468 0,750 0,05222 0,69735 0,01606
0.150 0,750 0,05360 0,69594 0,01740 0,875 0,07100 0,80293 0,01874
0,175 0,875 0,07234 0,80152 0,02004 1,000 0,09238 0,90525 0,02133
0,200 1,000 0,09367 0,90386 0,02260 1,000 0,11627 0,87901 0,02229
0,225 1,000 0,11596 0,87936 0,02198 1,000 0,13794 0,85419 0,02167
0,250 1,000 0,13763 0,85455 0,02136 1,000 0,15899 0,82895 0,02104
0,275 1,000 0,15867 0,82935 0,02073 1,000 0,17940 0,80328 0,02041
0,300 1,000 0,17908
c. Phng trnh dng phng php Runge-Kutta gii.
i i t e
dt
di
) 3 1 ( ) (
2
+ =
Ta c:
t i i t e k
n n n
+ = } ) 3 1 ( ) ( {
2
1

t
k
i
k
i
t
t e k
n n n

+ +

+ =
2
.
2
3 1 )
2
(
1
2
1
2

t
k
i
k
i
t
t e k
n n n

+ +

+ =
2
.
2
3 1 )
2
(
2
2
2
3

[ ] t k i k i t t e k
n n n
+ + + + = )} ( . ) ( 3 1 ) ( {
3
2
3 4

) 2 2 (
6
1
4 3 2 1
k k k k i
n
+ + + =
i
n+1
= i
n
+ i
n
Vi:
e(t
n
) = e
n


2
)
2
(
1 +
+
=

+
n n
n
e e t
t e
e(t
n
+ t) = e
n+1
Thay th gi tr ban u tm c k
1
:
k
1
= 0.
Tm c k
2
:
[ ] 00156 , 0 025 , 0 0 ) 0 ( 3 1
2
125 , 0 0
2
2
=

+
+
= k

Tm c k
3
:
n
dt
di

) 0 (
n
i
1 + n
e
) 0 (
1 + n
i
) 0 (
1 + n
dt
di

) 1 (
n
i
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 22
00154 , 0 025 , 0
2
00156 , 0
2
00156 , 0
3 1
2
125 , 0 0
2
3
=

+
+
= k

Tm c k
4
:
[ ] { } 00309 , 0 025 , 0 00154 , 0 ) 00154 , 0 ( 3 1 125 , 0 0
2
4
= + + = k
Th
00155 , 0 ) 00309 , 0 00308 , 0 00312 , 0 0 (
6
1
0
= + + + = i
V i
1
= i
0
+ i
0
= 0+ 0,00155 = 0,00155
Bi gii thu c bng phng php Runge-Kutta c a vo trong bng 2.3.
d. Cng thc d on sa i ca phng php Milne l.
) ' 2 ' ' 2 (
3
4
1 2 3
) 0 (
1 n n n n n
i i i
t
i i +

+ =
+

) ' ' 4 ' (
3
1 1 1 1 + +
+ +

+ =
n n n n n
i i i
t
i i
Vi
n
n
dt
di
i = '
V
n n n
n
i i e
dt
di
) 3 1 (
2
+ =
Cc gi tr ban u i hi phi thu c t li gii ca phng php Runge-Kutta.
Vi i
0
= 0; i
1
= 0,00155; i
2
= 0,00615; i
3
= 0,01372.
Thay th vo phng trnh vi phn, ta c:
i
0
= 0; i
1
= 0,12345; i
2
= 0,23485; i
3
= 0,36127.
Bt u ti t
4
= 0,100 v thay th vo trong cng thc d on, c lng u tin cho
i
4
l:
[ ] 02418 , 0 ) 36127 , 0 ( 2 24385 , 0 ) 12345 , 0 ( 2 ) 025 , 0 (
3
4
0
) 0 (
4
= + + = i
Thay th e
4
= 0,500 v i
4
= 0,02418 vo trong phng trnh vi phn, ta c:
i
4
= 0,500 [ 1 + 3(0,02418)
2
]0,02418 = 0,47578
D on v gi tr chnh xc, ch khc nhau mt s hng thp phn v vy khng
i hi lp li nhiu ln. Kt qu sau tng bc c ghi vo bng 2.4. Ti t
9
gi tr d
on ca dng in l 0,11742 nhng trong khi gi tr chnh xc l 0,11639. Vic thc
hin lp li bi s thay th gi tr chnh xc trong phng trnh vi phn thu c i
9

= 0,87888. C ln lt dng trong cng thc sa i thu c c lng th hai cho
i
9
= 0,11640, trc khi kim tra gi tr chnh xc. Thc hin lp li trong tt c cc bc
m bo yu cu chnh xc.


GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 23
T
h

i





S

c





D

n
g



















e
n
+

e
n
+
1










k
1

























k
2































g
i
a
n




n












k
1






-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-



i
n

+


-
-
-







k
2








i
n

+


-
-
-







k
3









e
n
+
1





i
n

+

k
3









k
4









i
n



t
n







n
g







i
n


























2

















2



























2

























e
n


0
,
0
0
0


0
,
0
0
0


0
,
0
0
0
0
0


0
,
0
0
0
0
0


0
,
0
6
2
5


0
,
0
0
0
0
0


0
,
0
0
1
5
6


0
,
0
0
0
7
8


0
,
0
0
1
5
4


0
,
1
2
5


0
,
0
0
1
5
4


0
,
0
0
3
0
9



0
,
0
0
1
5
5

0
,
0
2
5


0
,
1
2
5


0
,
0
0
1
5
5


0
,
0
0
3
0
9


0
,
1
8
7
5


0
,
0
0
3
1
0


0
,
0
0
4
6
1


0
,
0
0
3
8
6


0
,
0
0
4
5
9


0
,
2
5
0


0
,
0
0
6
1
4


0
,
0
0
6
1
0



0
,
0
0
4
6
0

0
,
0
5
0


0
,
2
5
0


0
,
0
0
6
1
5


0
,
0
0
6
1
0


0
,
3
1
2
5


0
,
0
0
9
2
0


0
,
0
0
7
5
8


0
,
0
0
9
9
4


0
,
0
0
7
5
6


0
,
3
7
5


0
,
0
1
3
7
1


0
,
0
0
9
0
3



0
,
0
0
7
5
7

0
,
0
7
5


0
,
3
7
5


0
,
0
1
3
7
2


0
,
0
0
9
0
3


0
,
4
3
7
5


0
,
0
1
8
2
4


0
,
0
1
0
4
8


0
,
0
1
8
9
6


0
,
0
1
0
4
6


0
,
5
0
0


0
,
0
2
4
1
8


0
,
0
1
1
8
9



0
,
0
1
0
4
7

0
,
1
0
0


0
,
5
0
0


0
,
0
2
4
1
9


0
,
0
1
1
8
9


0
,
5
6
2
5


0
,
0
3
0
1
4


0
,
0
1
3
3
1


0
,
0
3
0
8
4


0
,
0
1
3
2
9


0
,
6
2
5


0
,
0
3
7
4
8


0
,
0
1
4
6
8



0
,
0
1
3
3
0

0
,
1
2
5


0
,
6
2
5


0
,
0
3
7
4
9


0
,
0
1
4
6
8


0
,
6
8
7
5


0
,
0
4
4
8
3


0
,
0
1
6
0
6


0
,
0
4
5
5
2


0
,
0
1
6
0
4


0
,
7
5
0


0
,
0
5
3
5
3


0
,
0
1
7
4
0



0
,
0
1
6
0
5

0
.
1
5
0

0
,
7
5
0


0
,
0
5
3
5
4


0
,
0
1
7
4
0


0
,
8
1
2
5


0
,
0
6
2
2
4


0
,
0
1
8
7
4


0
,
0
6
2
9
1


0
,
0
1
8
7
2


0
,
8
7
5


0
,
0
7
2
2
6


0
,
0
2
0
0
4



0
,
0
1
8
7
3

0
,
1
7
5


0
,
8
7
5


0
,
0
7
2
2
7


0
,
0
2
0
0
4


0
,
9
3
7
5


0
,
0
8
2
2
9


0
,
0
2
1
3
4


0
,
0
8
2
9
4


0
,
0
2
1
3
2


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
0
9
3
5
9


0
,
0
2
2
6
0



0
,
0
2
1
3
3

0
,
2
0
0


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
0
9
3
6
0


0
,
0
2
2
6
0


1
,
0
0
0
0


0
,
1
0
4
9
0


0
,
0
2
2
2
9


0
,
1
0
4
7
5


0
,
0
2
2
3
0


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
1
5
9
0


0
,
0
2
1
9
9



0
,
0
2
2
3
0

0
,
2
2
5


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
1
5
9
0


0
,
0
2
1
9
9


1
,
0
0
0
0


0
,
1
2
6
9
0


0
,
0
2
1
6
7


0
,
1
2
6
7
4


0
,
0
2
1
6
8


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
3
7
5
8


0
,
0
2
1
3
7



0
,
0
2
1
6
8

0
,
2
5
0


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
3
7
5
8


0
,
0
2
1
3
7


1
,
0
0
0
0


0
,
1
4
8
2
7


0
,
0
2
1
0
5


0
,
1
4
8
1
1


0
,
0
2
1
0
5


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
5
8
6
3


0
,
0
2
0
7
3



0
,
0
2
1
0
5

0
,
2
7
5


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
5
8
6
3


0
,
0
2
0
7
3


1
,
0
0
0
0


0
,
1
6
9
0
0


0
,
0
2
0
4
1


0
,
1
6
8
8
4


0
,
0
2
0
4
2


1
,
0
0
0


0
,
1
7
9
0
5


0
,
0
2
0
0
9



0
,
0
2
0
4
1


B

n
g

2
.
3
:


G
i

i

b

n
g

p
h

n
g

p
h

p

R
u
n
g
e
-
K
u
t
t
a

n

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1
0

1
1

1
2




Bng 2.4: Bi gii bng phng php ca Milne.
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 24

N
Thi gian Sc in Dng in Dng in
t
n
ng e
n
(d on) i
n
i
n
(sa i)
i
n

4
5
6
7
8
9

10

11

12
0,100 0,500 0,02418 0,47578 0,02419
0,125 0,625 0,03748 0,58736 0,03748
0,150 0,750 0,05353 0,69601 0,05353
0,175 0,875 0,07226 0,80161 0,07226
0,200 1,000 0,09359 0,90395 0,09358
0,225 1,000 0,11742 0,87772 0,11639
0,87888 0,11640+
0,250 1,000 0,13543 0,85712 0,13755
0,85464 0,13753+
0,275 1,000 0,16021 0,82745 0,15911
0,82881 0,15912+
0,300 1,000 0,17894 0,80387 0,17898
0,80382 0,17898+

+ : gi tr sa i th hai thu c bi vng lp
d. Phng trnh dng phng php Picard hm tng ng khi u cho i, cn i
0
= 0
l:
[ ] dt i i t e i i
t

+ =
0
3
0
3 ) (
Thay th e(t) = 5t v gi tr ban u i
0
= 0

= =
t
t
dt t i
0
2
) 1 (
2
5
5
Thay i
(1)
cho i trong phng trnh tch phn, thu c:

56
375
6
5
2
5
8
375
2
5
5
7 3 2
0
6 2
) 2 (
t t t
dt
t t
t i
t
=

=


Qu trnh tip tc, ta c:
dt
t t t t t
t i
t

+ + + =
0
8 7 6 3 2
) 3 (
....
8
125
7
375
8
375
6
5
2
5
5
....
56
375
24
5
6
5
2
5
7 4 3 2
+ + =
t t t t

dt
t t t t t
t i
t

+ + + =
0
7 6 4 3 2
) 4 (
....
7
375
8
375
24
5
6
5
2
5
5
....
56
375
24 24
5
6
5
2
5
7 5 4 3 2
+ + =
t t t t t

Gii hn chui sau s hn bc bn l:

24
5
6
5
2
5
4 3 2
t t t
i + =
Nu hm dng xp x i chnh xc bn s thp phn vi s hn xp x u tin khng ch
n sai s ln th .
5log t [ log0,00120
log t [ 9,415836 - 10
t [ 0,2605
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 25
Gi tr gii hn l hm xp x hp l. V vy, trong v d ny hm c th dng
ch thu c y cho trong khong 0 [ t [ 0,2; Bi v cho t > 0,2 th e(t) = 1. Cho nn,
hm xp x khc phi chnh xc cho trong khong 0,2 [ t[ 0,3 nh sau:
( ) dt i i i
t

+ =
2 , 0
3
3 1 09367 , 0
( ) { } 0,2) - 0,90386(t 0,09367+ = + =

dt i
t
2 , 0
3 ) 1 (
09367 , 0 3 09367 , 0 1 09367 , 0
( ) [ ] { }dt t t i
t

+ + =
2 , 0
3 ) 2 (
) 2 , 0 ( 90386 , 0 09367 , 0 3 2 , 0 90386 , 0 09367 , 0 1 09367 , 0
( ) { }dt t t t
t

+ =
2 , 0
3 2
) 2 , 0 ( 45089 , 2 2 , 0 76189 , 0 ) 2 , 0 ( 07897 , 1 1 90386 , 0 09367 , 0
dt
t t t
t x
x


+ =
4
) 2 , 0 (
45089 , 2
3
) 2 , 0 (
76189 , 0
2
) 2 , 0 (
07897 , 1 ) 2 , 0 (
90386 , 0 09367 , 0
4 3 2

Cui cng, ta c:
i
(3)
= 0,09367 + 0,90386(t - 0,2) - 0,48762(t - 0,2)
2
-
- 0,05420(t - 0,2)
3
- 0,30611(t - 0,2)
4
+ 0,86646(t - 0,2)
5
....
Chui gii hn, hm xp x l:
i = 0,09367 + 0,90386(t - 0,2) -
- 0,48762(t - 0,2)
2
- 0,05420(t - 0,2)
3
- 0,30611(t - 0,2)
4

Cho i hiu chnh trong bn s thp phn, ta c:
0,86646(t - 0,2)
5
[ 0,00005
(t - 0,2) [ 0,14198
Hm hp l cho trong khong 0,2 [ t [0,342
Gi tr thu c bng phng php Picard c a vo trong bng 2.5.
2.5. SO SNH CC PHNG PHP.
Trong bi gii ca phng trnh vi phn hm quan h gia bin ph thuc y v bin c
lp x cn tm tha mn phng trnh vi phn. Bi gii trong gii tch l rt kh v c
mt s vn khng th tm c. Phng php s dng tm li gii bng cch biu
din y nh mt s hm ca bin c lp x t mi gi tr xp x ca y c th thu c
bng s thay th hon ton hay biu din tng ng quan h gia cc gi tr lin tip
ca y xc nh cho vic chn gi tr ca x. Phng php Picard l phng php s kiu
u tin. Phng php Euler, Runge-Kutta, v Milne l v d cho kiu th hai.
Kh khn ch yu pht sinh t phng php xp x y bng hm s, nh phng
php Picard, tm thy trong ln lp li s tch phn hin ti phi thc hin thu c
hm tha mn. V vy phng php ny l khng thc t trong hu ht cc trng hp
v t c dng.

Bng 2.5: Gii bng phng php Picard.
n Thi gian t
n
Sc in ng e
n
Dng in i
n
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 26
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0
0,025
0,050
0,075
0,100
0,125
0,150
0,175
0,200
0,225
0,250
0,275
0,300
0
0,125
0,250
0,375
0,500
0,625
0,750
0,875
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
0
0,00155
0,00615
0,01372
0,02419
0,03749
0,05354
0,07229
0,09367
0,11596
0,13764
0,15868
0,17910

Cc phng php theo kiu th hai i hi php tnh s hc n gin o thch
hp cho vic gii bng my tnh s ca cc phng trnh vi phn. Trong trng hp
tng qut, n gin quan h i hi dng trong mt khong nh cho cc bin c lp
nhng ngc li nhiu phng php phc tp c th dng trong khong tng i ln
tn nhiu cng sc trong vic chnh xc ha li gii. Phng php Euler l n gin
nht, nhng tr khi khong tnh rt nh th dng n cng khng ng vi thc t.
Phng php bin i Euler cng s dng n gin v c thm thun li kim tra h
thng vn c trong qu trnh thu c ci thin s c lng cho y. Phng php c
s chnh xc gii hn, v vy i hi dng khong gi tr nh cho bin c lp. Phng
php Runge-Kutta i hi s rt ln ca php tnh s hc, nhng kt qu cng khng
chnh xc.
Phng php d on sa i ca Milne l t kh khn hn phng php Runge-
Kutta v so snh c chnh xc ca bc h
5
. V vy, phng php ca Milne i hi
c bn gi tr ban u cho bin ph thuc phi thu c bng mt s phng php
khc, hu nh phng php bin i Euler hay phng php Runge-Kutta, l nh nhau.
Trong s ng dng my tnh cho phng php s. Chng trnh i hi bt u li gii
nh phng php ca Milne. Li gii tip tc dng cng thc khc cho d on v sau
sa cha gi tr ca y cung cp qu trnh h thng cho kim tra tt bng sa cha
c lng ban u. Nu s khc nhau gia d on v gi tr chnh xc l ng k,
khong tnh c th c rt gn li. Kh nng trong phng php ca Milne khng c
hiu lc trong phng php Runge-Kutta.
Bi tp:
2.1. Gii phng trnh vi phn.
y x
dx
dy
=
2

Cho 0 [ t [ 0,3; vi khong phng trnh 0,05 v gi tr ban u x
0
= 0 v y
0
= 1, bng
cc phng php s sau y.
a. Euler
b. Bin i Euler.
c. Picard
d. Xp x bc bn Runge-Kutta
GI A I TCH MANG
Tr ang 27
e. Milne dng gi tr bt u thu c phng php Runge-Kutta
2.2. Gii bng phng php bin i Euler h phng trnh vi phn.
y
dt
dx
2 =
2
x
dt
dy
=
Cho 0 [ t [ 1,0; Vi khong phng trnh 0,2 v gi tr ban u i
0
= 0,x
0
= 0 v
y
0
= 1
2.3. Gii bng xp x bc bn Runge-Kutta phng trnh vi phn bc hai.
y = y + xy
Cho 0 [ x [ 0,4; Vi khong phng trnh 0,1 v gi tr ban ux
0
= 0,y
0
= 1, v
y
0
= 0

GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 29
CHNG 3

M HNH HA CC PHN T TRONG H THNG IN

3.1. GII THIU:
Trong h thng in gm c cc thnh phn c bn sau:
a. Mng li truyn ti gm:
- ng dy truyn ti.
- Bin p.
- Cc b t in tnh, khng in.
b. Ph ti.
c. My pht ng b v cc b phn lin hp: H thng kch t, iu khin....
Cc vn cn xem xt y l: Ngn mch, tro lu cng sut, n nh qu .
Mng li truyn ti c gi thit l trng thi n nh v thi hng ca n nh hn
nhiu so vi my pht ng b.
3.2. M HNH NG DY TRUYN TI.
3.2.1. ng dy di ng nht.
ng dy di ng nht l ng dy c in tr, in khng, dung khng, in
dn r phn b u dc theo chiu di ng dy, c th tnh theo tng pha v theo n
v di. Trong thc t in dn r rt nh c th b qua. Chng ta ch quan tm n quan
h gia in p v dng in gia hai u ng dy, mt u cp v mt u nhn.
Khong cch tnh t u cp n u nhn.
tnh ton v xem xt mi quan h gia in p v dng in trn tng im
ca ng dy ta c m hnh ton hc nh sau: (xem hnh 3.1). Ti ta x ly vi phn
dx trn mi pha so vi trung tnh v kho st phn t dx.








Vi phn t dx ny ta c th vit:
dV = I .z .dx
Hay z I
dx
dV
. = (3.1)
V dI = V. y . dx
Vi z: Tng tr ni tip ca mi pha trn mi n v di
y: Tng dn r nhnh ca mi pha trn mi n v di
Hay y V
dx
dI
. = (3.2)
Ly vi phn bc 2 ca (3.1) v (3.2) theo x ta c:
dx
dI
z
dx
V d
.
2
2
= (3.3)
dx
dV
y
dx
I d
.
2
2
= (3.4)
x =1
u cp

I
S
I
R
I +
dI
V +
dV
V
+
V
S

-

+
V
R

-
dx x = 0
u
nhn
Hnh 3.1 : Quan h
in p
v dng in phn
t di ca ng
dy truyn ti
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 30
Th (3.1) v (3.2) vo (3.3) v (3.4) ta c:
V y z
dx
V d
. .
2
2
= (3.5)
I y z
dx
I d
. .
2
2
= (3.6)
Gii (3.5) ta c dng nghim nh sau:
) . exp( ) . exp(
2 1
x zy A x zy A V + = (3.7)
Thay (3.7) vo o hm bc nht (3.1) ta c dng in
) . exp(
1
) . exp(
1
2 1
x zy A
y
z
x zy A
y
z
I = (3.8)
A
1
v A
2
c xc nh t iu kin bin:
V = V
R
v I = I
R
x = 0;
Thay vo (3.7) v (3.8) cn bng ta c:
2
.
1
R R
I
y
z
V
A
+
= (3.9)
2
.
2
R R
I
y
z
V
A

= (3.10)
t
y
z
Z
c
= : Gi l tng tr ng dy
y z. = : Gi l hng s truyn sng
Vy (3.9) v (3.10) c vit gn nh sau:
) . exp(
2
.
) . exp(
2
.
) ( x
Z I V
x
Z I V
x V
c R R c R R

+
+
= (3.11)
) . exp(
2
) . exp(
2
) ( x
I
Z
V
x
I
Z
V
x I
R
c
R
R
c
R

+
= (3.12)
Cng thc (3.11) v (3.12) dng xc nh in p v dng in ti bt c
im no ca ng dy theo ta x.
Ta vit (3.11) li nh sau:
[ ] [ ]
) . ( . . ) . ( .
) . ( exp ) . ( exp
2
1
. . ) . ( exp ) . ( exp .
2
1
. ) (
x sh Z I x ch V
x x Z I x x V x V
C R R
C R R


+ =
+ + =

(3.13)
Tng t (3.12)
) . ( . ) . ( ) ( x sh
Z
V
x ch I x I
C
R
R
+ = (3.14)
Khi x = 1 ta c in p v dng in u cp:
) . ( . . ) . ( . x sh Z I x ch V V
C R R S
+ = (3.15)
) . ( . ) . ( . x ch I x sh
Z
V
I
R
C
R
S
+ = (3.16)
3.2.2. S tng ng ng dy di (l > 240):
S dng cng thc (3.15) v (3.16) lp s tng ng ca ng dy di
nh hnh 3.2 (gi l s hnh ).
I
S
I
R Z

+
V
R

Y
2
Y
1
+
V
S
Hnh 3.2 : S ca
ng dy truyn ti
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 31






T s hnh 3.2 ta c:
R R R R R S
I Z V Z Y Z Y V I Z V V . ) . 1 ( . . .
2 2
+ + = + + = (3.17)
1 2
) . (

Y V Y V I I
S R R S
+ + = (3.18)
Thay V
S
(3.17) vo (3.18) v n gin ha ta c:
[ ]
R R S
I Y Z Y Y Y Z Y Y I ) . 1 ( . . . ) (
1 2 1 2 1
+ + + + = (3.19)
ng nht (3.17) v (3.19) tng ng vi (3.15) v (3.16) ta c:
Z

= Z
C
sh ( .l) (3.20)
Y
1
= Y
2
= Y

(3.21)
(1+Z

.Y

) = ch ( .l) (3.22)
Vy:

=
2
.
.
1
) . ( .
1 ) . ( l
th
Z l sh Z
l ch
Y
C C

(3.23)
Vit gn (3.20) v (3.23) li ta c:
l
l sh l z
l
l sh
l y Z Z
C
.
) . ( . .
.
) . (
. .

= = (3.24)

2
.
)
2
. (
.
2
.
2
.
)
2
. (
.
2
.
l
l
th
l y
l
l
th
Z
l
y
Y
C

= = (3.25)
S dng s hnh (3.3) v khai trin sh v ch ta c th tnh Y

v Z

n
chnh xc cn thit. Thng thng trong s ni tip ch cn ly 2 hay 3 phn t l t
yu cu chnh xc:
....... ......
! 5 ! 3
) (
5 3
+ + + + =
x x
x x Sh
....... ......
! 4 ! 2
1 ) (
4 2
+ + + + =
x x
x Ch (3.26)
.........
315
17
15
2
3
) (
7 5
3
+ + = x x
x
x x Th









Nu ch ly hai s hng u.

+
6
) . (
1 . .
2
l
l z Z


l
l sh
l z
.
) . (
. .

I
s
I
R
2
.
)
2
. (
.
)
2
( .
l
l
th
Z
l
y
c

)
2
( .
)
2
. (
.
2
.
l
l
th
l y


Hnh 3.3 : S ca
t ti
+


-
V
R
+


-
V
S
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 32


2 2
2
.
1
2
.
2
.
3
1
1
2
. l l l l
Y

(3.27)
3.2.3. S tng ng ca ng dy trung bnh:
Gm cc ng dy c .l << 1 gi l ng dy trung bnh (240km)
Z

= z.l = Z (tng cc tng tr ni tip)


2 2
. Y l y
Y = =

(na ca tng dn r)







S thu c theo gi thit gi l s i xng (hnh 3.4) v cn c mt s
th hin khc na gi l s i xng T (hnh 3.5)
Tnh ton tng t nh s ta c (s T)
2
.
)
2
. (
.
2
.
2 1
l
l
th
l z
Z Z Z
T T T

= = =
V
l
l sh
l y Y
T
.
) . (
.

=
Vi s i xng T (yl << 1) c th rt gn nh hnh 3.6
Hai s tng xng ny c chnh xc nh nhau nhng thng thng hay
dng s p v khng phi tnh thm na.
Trong trng hp ng dy kh ngn (l [ 80km) c th b qua tng dn mch
r c hai s p v T v thu gn ch cn mt tng dn ni tip Z (hnh 3.7)







3.2.4. Thng s A, B, C, D:
Cc thng s A, B, C, D c s dng thit lp cc phng trnh quan h
gia in p v dng in u cung cp v u nhn ca ng dy truyn ti.
Bng 3.1 : Tham s A, B, C, D cho tng loi s
Loi ng dy A B C D
-ng dy di
ng nht


-ng dy
trung bnh
.S i xng
...
24
.
2
.
1 ) . (
2 2
+ +
+ =
Z Y
Z Y
l ch


...
240
.
6
.
1 ( ) . ( .
2 2
+ +
+ =
Z Y Z Y
Z l sh Z
C




...
120
.
6
.
1 (
) . (
2 2
+ +
+ =
Z Y Z Y
Y
Z
l sh
C



Y
A l ch = ) . (





A
Z
Y/
2
I
S

Y/
2
I
R
+

-
+

-
Hnh 3.4 : S i
xng ca
ng dy
Hnh 3.5 : S i
xng T ca
ng
I
R
Z
T1
Y
T
Z
T1
I
S
+

-
+

-
V
S
V
R
V
S
V
R
Z/
2
Y
Z/
2
I
S
I
R
+

-
+

-
Z
I
S
I
R
+

-
+

-
Hnh 3.6 : S
i xng T
Hnh 3.7 : S tng ng
ca ng
dy tuyn ti ngn
V
S
V
R
V
S
V
R
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 33
T
.S i xng
p
-ng dy
ngn
2
.
1
Z Y
+

2
.
1
Z Y
+

)
4
.
1 (
Z Y
Z +

Z

Z

)
4
.
1 (
Z Y
Y +

0

A



V d: ng thc 3.15 v 3.16 c vit li nh sau:
V
S
= A.V
R
+ B.I
R

I
S
= C.V
R
+ D.I
R

Bng 3.1 cho gi tr A, B, C, D ca tng loi ng dy truyn ti. ng dy
di, ng dy trung bnh v ng dy ngn, cc thng s ny c c tnh quan trng
l:
A.D - B.C = 1 (3.28)
iu ny c chng minh.
3.2.5. Cc dng tng tr v tng dn:
Xt cc ng dy truyn ti theo cc tham s A, B, C, D cc phng trnh c
vit di dng ma trn:

R
R
S
S
I
V
D C
B A
I
V
(3.29)
Phng trnh 3.29 c vit li theo bin I
S
v I
R
s dng kt qu:
A.D - B.C = 1
Nh sau:

R
S
RR RS
SR SS
R
S
I
I
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
(3.30)
Vi Z
SS
= A/C; Z
SR
= -1/C; Z
RS
= 1/C; Z
RR
= -D/C
Cng thc (3.30) c vit di dng k hiu:
V = Z.I (3.31)
Thm mt cch biu din I
S
, I
R
theo bin V
S
, V
R
nh sau:

R
S
RR RS
SR SS
R
S
V
V
Y Y
Y Y
I
I
(3.32)
Hay I = Y. V
Vi: Y
SS
= D/B; Y
SR
= -1/B; Y
RS
= 1/B; Y
RR
= -A/B
y ma trn Z l ma trn tng tr mch h, ma trn Y l ma trn tng dn
ngn mch v m bo Z = Y
-1
ca mng hai ca. chng sau s tnh m rng cho
mng n ca.
3.2.6. Cc thng s Z v Y dng cho cc gii thiu khc:
T bng 3.1 cc ng thc 3.30 v 3.31 thng s Z v Y c tnh nh sau (dng
cho s p)
)
2 2
1
( / )
2
.
1 (
2
1
;
2
1 1
2 2
1
/ )
2
.
1 (
Y
Z
Z Y
B
A
Y
Y
B
Y
Y
Z
Z Y
B
D
Y
RR
RS SR
SS
+ = + = =
= = =
+ = + = =
(3.33)
Cc tham s ny c th tnh trc tip t s hnh 3.4 vit ra cc phng trnh
nt v loi dng nhnh gia.
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 34
3.3. MY BIN P:
3.3.1. My bin p 2 cun dy:
S tng ng ca my bin p (MBA) nh hnh 3.8. Cc tham s c quy
v pha s cp (pha 1).









Trong MBA lc, nhnh t ha c dng kh nh c th lt i v s tng
ng c rt gn nh hnh 3.9















3.3.2. My bin p t ngu:
My bin p t ngu (MBATN) gm c mt cun dy chung c s vng N
1
v
mt cun dy ni tip c s vng N
2
, s 1 pha v 3 pha di.
u cc a-n i din cho pha in p thp v u cc a-n i din cho pha in p
cao. T l vng ton b l:
N a
N
N
Va
Va
= + = + = 1 1
'
1
2








S tng ng ca MBATN c m phng nh hnh 3.12, trong Z
ex
l
tng tr o c pha h khi pha cap p ngn mch.
Hai tng tr ngn mch na c tnh l:
I
N1
(b
)
(c
)
(a
)
(c
)
(b
)
N
2
N
1
(a
)
(n
)
V
a

(a
)
(n
)
V
a
N
2
N
1
I
a
(a
)
I
N2
Hnh 3.10 : MBA t ngu
3 pha
Hnh 3.11 : S 1 pha
ca MBATN
I
1
2
2
2
1
1
R
N
N
R

+
2
2
2
1
1
X
N
N
X

+
I
2
+
V
1
-
+
V
2
-
I
1
I
2
X

R

+
V
1
-
+
V
2
-
Hnh 3.9 : S tng ng n gin
ha ca MBA
I
1
I
2
+


-
2
2
2
1
X
N
N


2
2
2
1
R
N
N

X
1
R
1
X
m
R
m
+


-
Hnh 3.8 : S tng ng ca
my bin p
V
1
V
2
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 35
- Z
eH
: Tng tr o c pha cao p khi s vng N
1
b ngn mch ni tt cc a-n.
V d dng chng minh t hnh 3.12 (php quy i)
Z
eH
= Z
ex
N
2
(3.34)
- Z
eL
: Tng tr o c pha h p khi s vng N
2
b ngn mch ni tt cc a-a
hnh 3.13.










T s hnh 3.13 ta c:
V
a
= V
a
ex a ex
a
a
Z
N
N
V Z
N
V
V I /
) 1 (
/ ) (
'
1

= = (3.35)
i vi my bin p l tng s ampe vng bng zero cho nn chng ta c:
I
1
= I
a
N
Hay I
a
= I
1
/N
Vi: I
a
+ I
a
= I
1

V vy:
N
N
I I
a
1
.
1

=
Tng tr :

ex
a
a
a
eL
Z
N
N
N
N
I
V
I
V
Z
2
1
1 ) 1 (

= =
Do :
eL ex
Z
N
N
Z
2
1


= (3.36)
S dng (3.34) ta c:
Z
eH
= (N-1)
2
Z
eL
= a
2
Z
eL

* Nhc im ca MBATN:
- Hai pha cao v h p khng tch nhau v in nn km an ton
- Tng tr ni tip thp hn MBA 2 cun dy gy ra dng ngn mch ln
* u im ca MBATN:
- Cng sut n v ln hn MBA 2 cun dy nn ti c nhiu hn
- li cng ln khi t s vng l 2:1 hoc thp hn
V d minh ha: Cho mt MBA 2 cun dy c thng s nh mc l 22KVA,
220/110V, f = 50Hz. Cun A l 220V c Z = 0,22 + j0,4 () cun B l 110V c tng
tr l Z = 0,05 + j0,09 ().
MBA u theo dng t ngu cung cp cho ti 110V vi ngun 330V. Tnh Z
ex
,
Z
eL
, Z
eH
dng ph ti l 30A. Tm mc iu tit in p.
Gii:
Cun B l cun chung c N
1
vng, cun A l cun ni tip c N
2
vng.
I
a
I
a
a

1:N

Z
ex
a

n

+


-
Hnh 3.12 : S tng ng ca
MBATN
I
a
a

1:
N I
a
I
1
a

n

n

+
V
a

-
+
V
a

Z
ex
Hnh 3.13 : S tng
ng khi
ni a
+


-
V
a
V
a
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 36
Vy N
2
/N
1
= 2 = a v N = a+1 = 3, do Z
A
= 0,24 + j0,4 (), Z
B
= 0,05 + j0,09 ()
Nn:
Z
eH
= Z
A
+ a
2
Z
B
= 0,44+ j0,76 ()
Z
eL
= Z
B
+ Z
A
/a
2
= 0,11+j0,19 ()
) ( 08 , 0 049 , 0
1
2
2
+ =


= = j
N
N
Z
N
Z
Z
eL
eH
ex

Mc iu chnh in p = % 100 .
sin . . cos . .
V
X I R I +

% 21 , 2 % 100 .
330
437 , 0 . 76 , 0 9 , 0 . 44 , 0
.
3
30
=
+
=
3.3.3. My bin p c b iu p:
Do ph ti lun thay i theo thi gian dn n in p ca h thng in cng
thay i theo. gi cho in p trn cc dy dn nm trong gii hn cho php ngi
ta iu chnh in p mt hoc hai pha ca MBA bng cch t b phn p vo MBA
ni chung l t pha cao p iu chnh mm hn. Khi t s vng N bng t s in
p nh mc ta ni l t l ng nht. Khi chng khng bng ta ni t l l khng
ng nht. B iu p c hai loi:
-B iu p di ti
-B iu p khng ti
B iu p di ti c th iu chnh t ng hoc bng tay, khi iu chnh bng
tay phi da vo kinh nghim v tnh ton tro lu cng sut trc . T s u phn
p c th l s thc hay s phc trong trng hp l s phc in p hai pha khc
nhau v ln v gc pha. MBA ny gi l MBA chuyn pha.
3.3.4. My bin p c t s vng khng ng nht:
Chng ta xt trng hp t s vng khng ng nht l s thc cn xt hai vn
sau:
- Gi tr tng i ca tng tr ni tip ca MBA t ni tip trong my bin p
l tng cho php c s khc nhau trong in p, t l khng ng nht c m t trn
s bng ch a v gi thit rng a nm xung quanh 1 (a 1)
- Gi thit tng tr ni tip ca MBA khng i khi u phn p thay i v tr.
MBA khng ng nht c m t theo hai cch nh hnh 3.14, tng dn ni
tip trong hai cch c quan h l Y
1
= Y
1
/a
2
.







Vi t l bin p bnh thng l a:1 pha a gi l pha iu p. V vy trong s
1 tng dn ni tip c ni n pha 1 cn s 2 th c ni n pha a.





p
(2
)
q
q
p
Y

1
a:
1
Y
1
a:
1
Hnh 3.14 : Hai cch
gii thiu
my bin p
khng
ng nht
(1
)
a:1
Y
1
q p

a

Hnh 3.15 : S tng ng ca MBA
khng ng nht
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 37
Xt hnh 3.15 ca MBA khng ng nht y tng tr ni tip c ni n
pha n v ca b iu p.
Mng hai ca tng ng ca n l:
nt p:
a
Y V
a
Y V
a Y aV V I
q p
q p pq
1
2
1
2
1
/ ) (
=
=
(3.37)
nt q:
a
Y V
Y V
Y
a
V
V I
p
q
p
q pq
1
1
1
'
.
.
) (
=
=
(3.38)













s hnh 3.16a ta c:
I
pq
= V
p
Y
2
+ (V
p
-V
q
)Y
1

(3.39)
I
pq
= V
q
Y
3
+ (V
q
-V
p
)Y
1

(3.40)
ng nht (3.39) v (3.40) vi (3.37) v (3.38) ta c:
Y
1
+ Y
2
= Y
1
/a
2

Y
1
=Y
1
/a
Y
1
+ Y
3
= Y
1

Gii ra ta c:
a
Y
Y Y
a
Y
a
Y
Y
a
Y
Y
1
1 3
1
2
1
2
1
1
; ; = = =
S l hnh 3.16b. Ch tt c tng dn trong s tng ng l hm ca t
s vng a. V du lin hp gia Y
2
v Y
3
lun ngc. V d: Nu Y
1
l in khng a >
1; Y
2
l in khng; Y
3
l in dung; nu a < 1; Y
2
l dung khng v Y
3
l in khng.
S hnh 3.16c l s tng ng theo Y
1
khi a 1 th tng tr mch r
v tng dn ni tip tin n Y
1
.
3.3.5. My bin p chuyn pha:
Trong h thng in lin kt c mch vng hay ng dy song song, cng sut
tht truyn trn ng dy c iu khin bng my bin p chuyn pha, MBA c t
s vng l s phc th ln v gc pha in p ph thuc vo v tr ca b iu p.
Khi cun s cp v cun th cp c qun trn cng mt li th chng c cng
pha v t l phn p l thc. Tuy nhin trong my bin p t ngu chuyn pha cun s
p
0
q
0
Y
1
Y
2
Y
3
(a
)
p
0
q
0
(b
)
Y
1
/a
2
1
) 1 (
a
a
Y

2
1
) 1 (
a
a
Y


I
p
I I
p
I
pq
I
p
aY
1
I
p
p
0
q
0
(1-
a)Y
a(a-
1)Y
(c
)
Hnh 3.16 : S tng ng ca MBA
khng ng nht
+
-
V
p
+
-
V
q
+
-
V
p
+
-
V
q
+
-
V
p
+
-
V
q
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 38
cp v cun th cp c b tr ty theo lch pha khi thay i u phn p th gc
pha cng thay i theo. S minh ha hnh 3.17a, s n gin ha ch c mt
pha ca MBATN chuyn pha l y cho gn gng, d thy cun dy th 2 ca
pha a b lm lch in p i 90
0
so vi pha a.
s vect hnh 3.17b khi u phn p chy t R A th in p thay i t
zero n aa kt qu l in p th cp thay i t oa n oa.












Nh hnh 3.17 ta thy rng in p cun ni tip cao hn bnh thng cho php cng
sut ln hn chy trn ng dy ngha l: Thay v lp my bin p thng ta lp my
bin p chuyn pha s cho php nng cao in p cp v ng dy mang ti nhiu hn.
3.3.6. My bin p ba cun dy.
My bin p ba cun dy s dng trong nhng trng hp cn cung cp cho ph
ti hai cp in p t mt cun dy cung cp. Hai cun dy ny gi l cun th hai v
cun th ba (hnh 3.18). Cun th 3 ngoi mc ch trn cn c mc ch khc, chng
hn c ni vo t chn sng bc 3. Trn s ta k hiu 11 l cun s cp (P),
22 l cun th 2 (S), 33 l cun th 3 (T).










Cc tham s o c t th nghim l:
Z
PS
: L tng tr cun s cp khi ngn mch cun 2 v h mch cun 3
Z
PT
: L tng tr cun s cp khi ngn mch cun 3 v h mch cun 2
Z

ST
: L tng tr cun th cp khi cun s cp h mch v cun 3 ngn mch
Z

ST
quy i v pha s cp l:
ST
S
P
ST
Z
N
N
Z ' .
2

=
S tng ng ca MBA ba cun dy hnh 3.19 Z
PS
, Z
PT
, Z
ST
, quy i v
pha s cp. Theo cch o ngn mch ta c:
Z
PS
= Z
P
+ Z
S
(3.41)
Z
PT
= Z
P
+ Z
T
(3.42)
a
b
R
A
R
a
A
c
R
A
a
a

c
b
b
c

(a
)
(b
)
Hnh 3.17 : My bin p t ngu chuyn pha
gm c ba pha
b. S u dy
c. S vect

P S

T
Hnh 3.18 : My
bin p ba

GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 39
Z
ST
= Z
S
+ Z
T
(3.43)
Tr (3.42) i (3.43) ta c:
Z
PT
- Z
ST
= Z
P
- Z
S
(3.44)
T (3.41) v (3.44) ta c:
Z
P
=1/2 (Z
PS
+ Z
PT
-Z
ST
) (3.45)
Z
S
=1/2 (Z
PS
+ Z
ST
-Z
PT
)
(3.46)
Z
T
=1/2 (Z
ST
+ Z
PT
- Z
PS
)
(3.47)








B qua tng tr mch r nn nt t q tch ri u cc 1 ni vi ngun cung cp,
u cc 2 v 3 ni n ti, nu cun 3 dng chn sng hi th th ni.
3.3.7. Ph ti:
Chng ta nghin cu v ph ti lin quan n tro lu cng sut v n nh. iu
quan trng l phi bit s thay i ca cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng theo
in p. cc nt in hnh cc loi ti gm c:
- ng c khng ng b 5070 %
- Nhit v nh sng 2030 %
- ng c ng b 510 %
tnh chnh xc ngi ta dng c tnh P-V v Q-V ca tng loi ti nhng x
l phn tch rt phc tp. V vy ngi ta a ra ba cch gii thiu chnh v ti dng
cho mc ch phn tch.
- Gii thiu theo cng sut khng i: C lng MVA v MVAR u bng
hng s thng dng nghin cu tro lu cng sut.
- Gii thiu theo dng in khng i: Dng in ti I trong trng hp ny
c tnh
) ( | |

= V
V
jQ P
I
V = |V|q v = tan
-1
(Q/P) l gc h s cng sut, ln ca I c gi
khng i.
- Gii thiu theo tng tr khng i: y l cch gii thiu thng xuyn khi
nghin cu n nh nu lng MVA v MVAR bit v khng i th tng tr ti tnh
nh sau:
jQ P
V
I
V
Z

= =
2
| |

V tng dn:
2
| |
1
V
jQ P
Z
Y

= =
3.4. KT LUN:
Z
p
Z
S
Z
T

Hnh 3.19 : S tng ng ca MBA


ba cun dy
GIAI TCH MANG
Trang 40
Trong chng ny ta xem xt cc phn t ca h thng in nh ng dy
truyn ti, bin p, ph ti. M hnh ha chng trong h thng in vi trng thi n
nh nghin cu cc trng thi c bn ca h thng: Ngn mch, phn b dng
chy cng sut, v n nh qu .



GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 42





















Phng trnh c tnh ca tng tr nhnh l:
v
pq
+ e
pq
= z
pq
i
pq
(4.6)
Hay tng dn nhnh l:
i
pq
+ j
pq
= y
pq
v
pq
(4.7)
Ngun dng mc song song vi tng dn c lin h vi ngun p mc ni tip vi tng
tr nh sau:
j
pq
= -y
pq
e
pq

Tp hp cc thnh phn khng lin h vi nhau c gi l mng gc. Phng
trnh c tnh ca mng gc c th xut pht t (4.6) hay (4.7) c biu din bi cc
bin l vect v cc tham s l ma trn. Phng trnh c tnh ca tng tr l:
[ ] i z e v


= +
Hay i vi tng dn l:
[ ] v y j i


= +
Thnh phn trn ng cho ca ma trn [z] hay [y] ca mng gc l tng tr
ring z
pq,pq
hay tng dn ring y
pq,pq
. Cc thnh phn ngoi ng cho l tng tr tng
h z
pq,rs
hay tng dn tng h y
pq,rs
gia nhnh p-q v nhnh r-s. Ma trn tng dn gc
[y] c th thu c bng cch nghch o ma trn tng tr gc [z]. Ma trn [z] v [y] l
ma trn ng cho nu khng c thnh phn tng h gia cc nhnh. Trong trng
hp ny tng tr ring ng bng s nghch o ca tng dn ring tng ng.
4.5. CCH THNH LP MA TRN MNG BNG S BIN I TRC TIP.
4.5.1. Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in.
Mng in l s ghp ni tp hp cc nhnh c mi lin h vi nhau. Trong cu
trc nt qui chiu, thnh phn ca mng in c mi lin h vi nhau c din t bi
n-1 phng trnh nt c lp, vi n l s nt. Trong k hiu ma trn cc thnh phn ca
phng trnh i vi tng tr l:
Nut Nut Nut
I Z E

=
E
q

z
pq
j
pq
v
pq
= E
p
-E
q
(a)

y
pq
e
pq
i
pq
+j
pq
i
pq
v
pq
= E
p
-E
q
(b)
Hnh 4.7 : Thnh phn biu din mng in
(a) Hnh thc tng tr; (b) Hnh thc tng dn

E
p

E
q

E
p

i
pq
q
p
q
p
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 43
Hay i vi tng dn l:
Nut Nut Nut
E Y I

=
Nut
E

: L vect in p nt o c vi nt qui chiu chn.


Nut
I

: L vect dng in nt a vo.


Z
Nt
: L ma trn tng tr nt c cc thnh phn ca ma trn l tng tr truyn h
mch gia cc im.
Y
Nt
: L ma trn tng dn nt c cc thnh phn ca ma trn l tng dn truyn
ngn mch gia cc im.
Trong cu trc nhnh cy tham kho thnh phn ca mng in c mi lin h
vi nhau c th hin bi b phng trnh nhnh cy c lp. Vi b l s nhnh cy.
Trong k hiu ma trn cc thnh phn ca phng trnh i vi tng tr l:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
I Z E

. =
Hay i vi tng dn l:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

. =
Vi:
cy nhanh
E

: L vect in p qua nhnh cy



cy nhanh
I

: L vect dng in i qua nhnh cy


Z
nhnh cy
: L ma trn tng tr ca nhnh cy c cc thnh phn ca ma trn l
tng tr truyn h mch gia cc im ca cc nhnh cy trong mng in.
Y
nhnh cy
: L ma trn tng dn ca nhnh cy c cc thnh phn ca ma trn l
tng dn truyn ngn mch gia cc im ca cc nhnh cy trong mng in.
Trong cu trc vng tham kho cc thnh phn ca mng in c mi lin h vi
nhau c th hin bi l phng trnh vng c lp. Vi l l s nhnh b cy hay s
vng c bn. Phng trnh c tnh i vi dng tng tr l:
Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

. =
Hay i vi dng tng dn l:
Vong Vong Vong
E Y I

. =
Trong :
Vong
E

: L vect in p ca vng c bn

Vong
I

: L vect dng in ca vng c bn


Z
Vng
: L ma trn tng tr vng
Y
Vng
: L ma trn tng dn vng.
4.5.2. Ma trn tng tr nt v ma trn tng dn nt.
Ma trn tng dn nt Y
Nt
c th thu c bng cch dng ma trn nt A lin kt
vi cc bin v tham s ca mng in gc vi lng nt ca mng in kt ni.
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in gc nh sau:
[ ] v y j i


= +
Nhn hai v vi A
t
l ma trn chuyn v ca ma trn nt ta thu c:
[ ] v y A j A i A
t t t


= + . . (4.8)
T ma trn A cho thy s tc ng ca cc nhnh vi cc nt, i A
t

l vect ng vi mi
nhnh n l tng i s ca dng chy qua cc nhnh trong mng ti mi nt khc nhau.
Theo lut Kirchhoff v dng in (nh lut Kirchhoff I) tng i s ca dng in ti
mt nt l bng 0 ta c:
i A
t

. = 0 (4.9)
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 44
Tng t j A
t

l tng i s ca ngun dng ti mi nt bng vect dng in nt. V
Vy:
j A I
t
Nut

. = (4.10)
Thay th phng trnh (4.9) v (4.10) vo trong phng trnh (4.8) ta thu c:
[ ] v y A I
t
Nut

= (4.11)
Cng sut trong mng in l
Nut
t
Nut
E I

) (
*
v tng ca cng sut trong mng in ngun
l v j
t

) (
*
. Cng sut trong mng in ngun v mng in kt ni phi bng nhau, cng
sut phi khng i khi c s thay i ca cc bin.
v j E I
t
Nut
t
Nut


) ( ) (
* *
= (4.12)
Kt hp vi phng trnh chuyn v ca (4.10)
* * *
) ( ) ( A j I
t t
Nut

=
Ma trn A l ma trn thc nn:
A
*
= A
Do : A j I
t t
Nut
) ( ) (
* *

= (4.13)
Thay th phng trnh (4.13) vo trong (4.12)
v j E A j
t
Nut
t


) ( ) (
* *
=
Phng trnh trn ng cho tt c cc gi tr ca , j

n gin n tr thnh:
v E A
Nut

= . (4.14)
Thay th phng trnh (4.14) vo trong (4.11)
[ ]
Nut
t
Nut
E A y A I

. = (4.15)
T phng trnh c tnh ca mng in
Nut Nut Nut
E Y I

. = (4.16)
T phng trnh (4.15) v (4.16) ta c:
[ ] A y A Y
t
Nut
=
Ma trn nt A l ma trn n gin v vy A
t
[y] A l n gin vi php bin i ca [y]
Ma trn tng tr nt c th thu c t
[ ]
1 1
) (

= = A y A Y Z
t
Nut Nut

4.5.3. Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy v tng dn nhnh cy.
Ma trn tng dn nhnh cy Y
nhnh cy
c th thu c bng cch dng ma trn
vt ct c bn B lin kt cc bin v tham s ca mng in gc vi s nhnh cy ca
mng in kt ni. Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in gc i vi tng dn khi nhn
c hai v vi B
t
thu c.
[ ] v y B j B i B
t t t


= + . . (4.17)
T ma trn B cho thy s lin h ca cc nhnh vi cc vt ct c bn, i B
t

. l
vect ng vi mi nhnh n l tng i s ca dng chy qua cc nhnh trong mng ti
mi vt ct c bn khc nhau.
Cc nhnh ca vt ct c bn chia mng in ra thnh hai mng con lin kt. V vy
thnh phn ca vect i B
t

. l tng i s ca dng in i vo mng con v theo nh
lut Kirchhoff v dng in (nh lut Kirchhoff I) ta c:
i B
t

. = 0 (4.18)
Tng t j B
t

l vect i vi mi nhnh l tng i s ca ngun dng trong cc
nhnh vi cc vt ct c bn v tng ngun dng trong mch mc song song vi nhnh
cy l:
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 45
j B I
t
cy nhanh

. = (4.19)
Thay th phng trnh (4.18) v (4.19) vo trong (4.17) thu c:
[ ]v y B I
t
cy nhanh

= (4.20)
Cng sut trong mng in l ) ( ) (
*
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh
E I

v t cng sut khng thay i ta
c:
v j E I
t
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh


) ( ) (
* *
=
Thu c
t
cy nhanh
I ) (
*

t phng trnh (4.19) v thay vo phng trnh trn ta c:


v j E B j
t
cy nhanh
t


) ( . ) (
* * *
=
T ma trn B l ma trn thc, ta c:
B
*
= B do v j E B j
t
cy nhanh
t


) ( . ) (
* *
=
Phng trnh trn ng vi mi gi tr ca , j

n gin n tr thnh nh sau:


cy nhanh
E B v

. = (4.21)
Thay th phng trnh (4.21) vo trong (4.20) thu c:
[ ]
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh
E B y B I

. = (4.22)
Mi lin h gia dng in chy qua nhnh cy v in p trn nhnh cy l:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

. = (4.23)
T phng trnh (4.22) v (4.23) ta c:
[ ] B y B Y
t
cy nhanh
. =
Ma trn vt ct c bn B l ma trn n gin v vy [ ] B y B
t
. l n gin vi s bin i
ca [y]
Ma trn nhnh cy c th thu c t
[ ]
1 1
) . (

= = B y B Y Z
t
cy nhanh cy nhanh

4.5.4. Ma trn tng tr vng v ma trn tng dn vng.
Ma trn tng tr vng Z
Vng
c th thu c bng cch dng ma trn vng c bn C lin
kt cc bin v tham s ca mng in gc vi s vng ca mng in kt ni.
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in gc l:
[ ] i z e v


= +
Nhn hai v phng trnh vi C
t
ta thu c:
[ ] i z C e C v C
t t t


= + (4.24)














GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 46




































T ma trn C cho thy s tc ng ca nhnh ti vng c bn, v C
t

. l tng i
s ca in p vng trong mi vng lp c bn. N ph hp vi nh lut Kirchhoff v
in p (nh lut Kirchhoff II) l tng i s ca in p vng trong mt vng c bn
l bng 0.
Nn: v C
t

. = 0 (4.25)
Tng t e C
t

. l tng i s ca ngun in p vng trong mi vng c bn.
V vy:
e C E
t
Vong

. = (4.26)
T cng sut khng i ta c:
e i e C E
t t t
Vong

) ( . ) (
* *
=
Phng trnh trn ng vi mi gi tr e

nn ta n gin n tr thnh nh sau:


Ma trn mng
Gc
T

n
g

t
r

n
g

d

n



Vng Nt Nhnh cy
N
g
h

c
h

o

[z
]
[y
]
C
t
[z]
C
Z
Vng


Y
Vng


A
t
[y]
A
B
t
[y]
B
Z
Nt


Y
Nt


Z
nhnh cy


Y
nhnh cy


Bng 4.1 : Thnh lp ma trn mng bng php bin i n gin
Bng 4.2 : Dng in v in p lin h gia ma trn gc v ma trn kt ni
Cu trc tham kho
D

n
g

p


Vng Nt Nhnh cy
j B I
t
cy nhanh

. =

cy nhanh
E B v

. =
j A I
t
Nut

. =
Nut
E A v

. =

Vong
I C i

. =
e C E
t
Vong

. =
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 47
t t
Vong
t
C E i ) ( ) (
* *

=
Nn:
Vong
I C i

.
*
=
T ma trn thc C, ta c:
C
*
= C v
Vong
I C i

. = (4.27)
Thay th phng trnh (4.25), (4.26) v (4.27) vo trong (4.24) ta thu c:
[ ]
Vong
t
Vong
I C z C E

. = (4.28)
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in trong cu trc vng tham kho l:
Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

. = (4.29)
T phng trnh (4.28) v (4.29) ta c:
[ ]C z C Z
t
Vong
=
Ma trn C l ma trn n gin, nn [ ] C z C
t
l n gin vi s bin i ca [z]
Ma trn tng dn vng c th thu c t
[ ]
1 1
) ( ) (

= = C z C Z Y
t
Vong Vong

Ma trn mng thu c t php bin i n gin c tng kt trong bng 4.1. Quan
h dng v p gia mng in gc v mng in kt ni c tng kt trong bng 4.2.
4.6. CCH THNH LP MA TRN MNG BNG PHP BIN I PHC TP.
4.6.1. Ma trn tng tr nhnh v tng dn nhnh
Ma trn tng dn nhnh Y
nhnh cy
cng c th thu c bng cch dng ma trn vt ct
tng thm B

lin kt vi cc bin v cc tham s ca mng in gc vi mng in lin


thng thm vo. Mng in thm vo thu c bng s kt ni vi mt nhnh cy gi
mc ni tip vi mi nhnh b cy ca mng in gc. gi nguyn cc c tnh
trong mng lin thng tng dn ca mi nhnh cy gi bng 0 v ngun dng ng
bng dng qua nhnh b cy lin kt, c biu din trn hnh 4.8a. Hiu in th i
qua nhnh cy gi l bng 0. Vt ct rng buc c xem nh vt ct gia nhnh b cy
lin thng vi nhnh cy gi, c th hin trn hnh 4.8b.
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in thm vo trong cu trc nhnh cy tham
kho nh sau:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

.

=
Ma trn Y
nhnh cy
s thu c trc tip t ma trn tng dn
cy nhanh
Y

ca mng in thm
vo.
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in gc
[ ] v y j i


= +
Nhn hai v vi
t
B

thu c:
[ ]v y B j B i B
t t t

= + (4.30)
Phng trnh (4.30) c th vit li vi hnh thc ma trn phn chia nh sau:







N
t
Vt ct
2 4
Nhnh
cy
gi
(a
)
j
l
i
l
Nt
gi
i
l
v =
0
l

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 48




















Trong : Vect dng gc i

v j

c phn chia thnh vect dng


b
i

v
b
j

, n lin
kt vi nhnh cy ca mng, vect dng
t
i

v
t
j

lin kt vi nhnh b cy. V tri ca


phng trnh (4.31) l:




Khi i B i B i
t
t
t
t b

. . = + v j B j B j
t
t
t
t b

. . = +
Tuy nhin:
0 . =
t
t
i B

v
cy nhanh
t
I j B

= .
Th v tri ca phng trnh (4.31) l:





T mi thnh phn ca vect
t
i

l bng ngun dng ca nhnh cy gi,


t t
j i

+ l vect
trong mi thnh phn ca n bng tng i s ngun dng ca nhnh cy gi vi
nhnh b cy lin kt. V vy:



V phng trnh (4.30) tr thnh.
[ ]v y B I
t
cy nhanh


= (4.32)
Hiu in th qua nhnh cy gi l bng 0, vect in p ca mng in thm vo l:

U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
i
b
i
t
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
j
b
j
t
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
+
=

y

v

(4.3
1)
i
b
+B
t
t

i
i
t
+

j
b
+B
t
t

j
j
t
I
nhnh cy
i
t
+
j
=
cy nhanh
I


E
nhnh cy
0
=
cy nhanh
E


0

i
t
j
t
I
nhnh cy
i
t
+
j
+

=

I
nhnh cy
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 49




in p qua cc nhnh ca mng in gc theo phng trnh (4.21) l:
cy nhanh
E B v

. =
Tuy nhin:
cy nhanh cy nhanh
E B E B

.

. =
Nn
cy nhanh
E B v

= (4.33)
Th phng trnh (4.33) vo trong phng trnh (4.32) ta c.
[ ]
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh
E B y B I

.

= (4.34)
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in thm vo l
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

.

= (4.35)
T phng trnh (4.34) v (4.35) ta c ma trn tng dn ca mng in thm vo l:
[ ]B y B Y
t
cy nhanh

= (4.36)
Phng trnh (4.36) c th vit theo hnh thc phn chia nh sau:





Vi: [y
bb
]: L ma trn tng dn gc ca nhnh cy
[y
bl
] = [y
lb
]
t
: L ma trn tng dn gc, mi thnh phn l tng dn tng h
gia nhnh cy vi nhnh b cy.
[y
ll
]: L ma trn tng dn gc ca nhnh b cy.
Phng trnh (4.37) vit li nh sau
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
t ll
t
t t bl lb
t
t bb
B y B B y y B y Y + + + =
1
(4.38)
T [ ]B y B Y
t
cy nhanh

=
Hay



Th [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
t ll
t
t t bl lb
t
t bb cy nhanh
B y B B y y B y Y + + + = (4.39)
T phng trnh (4.38) v (4.39) ta c:
Y
nhnh cy
= Y
1

Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy c th thu c t
Z
nhnh cy
= Y
1
-1

4.6.2. Ma trn tng tr vng v tng dn vng.
Ma trn tng tr vng Z
Vng
cng c th thu c bng cch dng ma trn tng tr vng
thm vo C

lin kt vi cc bin v cc tham s ca mng in gc lin h vi mng


in thm vo. Mng in thm vo thu c bng s ni kt vi mt nhnh b cy gi
mc song song vi mi nhnh cy ca mng in gc. Gi nguyn trt t cc thnh
phn lin kt trong mng, tng tr ca mi nhnh b cy gi bng 0 v ngun p bng
nhng ngc hng vi p qua nhnh cy lin kt trnh by trn hnh 4.9.a. Dng qua
Y
1
Y
3
Y
2
Y
4
(4.3
7)
=

U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
y
bb
y
lb
y
bl
y
ll
U
b
B
t
0

U
t
y
bb
y
lb
y
bl
y
ll
U
b
B
t
U
b
B
t
t
Y
nhnh cy
=
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 50
nhnh b cy gi bng 0. Vng h c th xem nh vng lin thng gia nhnh cy v
nhnh b cy gi tng cho trn hnh 4.9b.



























Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in thm vo trong cu trc vng tham kho
nh sau:
Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

.

=
Ma trn Z
vng
s thu c trc tip t ma trn tng tr
Vong
Z

ca mng in thm vo.


Phng trnh c tnh cho mng in gc l:
[ ] i z e v


. = +
Nhn hai v vi
t
C

ta thu c:
[ ] i z C e C v C
t t t


.

= + (4.40)
Phng trnh (4.40) c th c vit di dng phn chia nh sau:



Trong : Vect in p gc v

v e

c phn chia thnh vect in p


b
v

v
b
e

lin
kt vi nhnh cy ca mng v vect in p
t
v

v
t
e

lin kt vi nhnh b cy. V tri


ca phng trnh (4.41) l.


v
b
v
b
i =
0
Nhnh b
cy gi
(a
)
e
b
Vng
h A
Hnh 4.9 : Trnh by mng in thm vo. (a) Nhnh b cy gi song
song vi nhnh cy; (b) Th hin vng h.
(b
)
Nhnh b
cy gi
1
2
4
1
2
3
0
U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
v
b
v
t
U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
e
b
e
t
U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
+
=

z

i

(4.41
)
v
b
C
b
t
v
b
+v
e
b
C
b
t
e
b
+e

+

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 51

Khi v C v v C
t
t b
t
b

. . = + v e C e e C
t
t b
t
b

. . = +
Tuy nhin.
0 . = v C
t

v
Vong
t
E e C

= .
V tri ca phng trnh (4.41) tr thnh





Cc thnh phn ca
b
v

l bng ngun p ca nhnh b cy gi tng,


b b
e v

+ l vect
trong cc nhnh, mi thnh phn l bng tng i s ngun p trong vng h. V vy.




V t phng trnh (4.40) v (4.42)
[ ] i z C E
t
Vong

.

= (4.43)
Ta c dng trong vng h bng 0, vect dng ca mng in thm vo l:



Dng in i qua cc nhnh ca mng in gc t phng trnh (4.27) l

Vong
I C i

. =
Tuy nhin:

Vong Vong
I C I C

. =


Th
Vong
I C i

(4.44)
Thay th phng trnh (4.44) vo trong phng trnh (4.43)
[ ]
Vong
t
Vong
I C z C E

.

= (4.45)
Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in thm vo l:

Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

.

= (4.46)
T phng trnh (4.45) v (4.46) ta c ma trn tng tr ca mng in thm vo l:
[ ] C z C Z
t
Vong

.

= (4.47)
Phng trnh (4.47) c th c vit di dng phn chia nh sau:



Vi: [z
bb
]: L ma trn tng tr gc ca nhnh cy
[z
bl
] = [z
lb
]
t
: L ma trn tng tr gc mi thnh phn l tng tr tng h
gia nhnh cy v nhnh b cy
[z
ll
]: L ma trn tng tr gc ca nhnh b cy
Phng trnh (4.48) vit li nh sau:
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
ll bl
t
b b lb b bb
t
b
z z C C z C z C Z + + + =
4
(4.49)
T [ ] C z C Z
t
Vong
=
e
b
E
Vng
v
b
+e
b
E
Vng

=

v
b
0

+
v
b
+
e
E
Vng
=
Vong
E


(4.42
)
0

I
Vng
=
Vong
I


Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
Z
4
(4.48
)
=

U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
z
bb
z
lb
z
bl
z
ll
U
b
0
C
b
U
t
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 52
Hay



Th
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
ll bl
t
b b lb b bb
t
b Vong
z z C C z C z C Z + + + = (4.50)
T phng trnh (4.49) v (4.50) ta c
Z
vng
= Z
4

Ma trn tng dn vng c th thu c t
Z
vng
= Z
4
-1
4.6.3. Ma trn tng dn vng thu c t ma trn tng dn mng thm
vo.
Ma trn tng dn vng Y
Vng
c th thu c t ma trn tng dn thm vo
cy nhanh
Y

. T phng trnh (4.36) v (4.47).


[ ] [ ]B y B C z C Y Z
t t
cy nhanh Vong

.

.

= (4.51)
Hnh thc phn chia l:





Dng in i qua cc nhnh ca mng gc t phng trnh (4.27) l:

Vong
I C i

. =
Nhn c hai v vi B
t
ta c:

Vong
t t
I C B i B

. . = (4.53)
Tuy nhin, t phng trnh (4.18) v tri ca phng trnh (4.53) l bng 0. V vy,
phng trnh (4.53) c th vit li nh sau:
0 ) ( = +
Vong
t
t b
I B C


Suy ra:

t
t b
B C = (4.54)
Thay th phng trnh (4.54) vo trong phng trnh (4.52)
U B C
t
=

(4.55)
Mt cch tng t ta c th biu din nh sau:
U B C
t
=

(4.56)
Thay th phng trnh (4.55) vo trong (4.51),ta c:
[ ] [ ] B y z C Y Z
t
cy nhanh Vong

. .

.

=
T
[z].[y] = U
Nn
B C Y Z
t
cy nhanh Vong

.

.

=
V vy theo phng trnh (4.56) ta c
U Y Z
cy nhanh Vong
=

(4.57)
Phng trnh (4.57) di hnh thc phn chia nh sau:

z
bb
z
lb
z
bl
z
ll
C
b
U
t
U
b
t
U
t

Z
Vng
=
t
B C


(4.52
)
=

U
b
0

C
b
U
t
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
U
b
0
B
t
t
+C
b
U
t
=

=

Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
Z
4
Y
1
Y
3
Y
2
Y
4
U
b
0
0

U
t
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 53


N biu din:
Z
1
.Y
1
+ Z
2
.Y
3
= U
b
(4.58)
Z
1
.Y
2
+ Z
2
.Y
4
= 0

Z
3
.Y
1
+ Z
4
.Y
3
= 0 (4.59)
Z
3
.Y
2
+ Z
4
.Y
4
= U
t
(4.60)
Rt Z
3
t phng trnh (4.59)
Z
3
= -Z
4
.Y
3
.Y
1
-1

Thay th vo trong phng trnh (4.60)
-Z
4
.Y
3
.Y
1
-1
.Y
2
+ Z
4
.Y
4
= U
t

Hay
Z
4
(Y
4
- Y
3
.Y
1
-1
.Y
2
) = U
t

T
Z
4
.Y
Vng
= U
t

Ta c: Y
Vng
= Y
4
- Y
3
.Y
1
-1
.Y
2

4.6.4. Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy thu c t ma trn tng tr thm vo:
Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy Z
nhnh cy
c th thu c t ma trn tng tr thm
vo
Vong
Z

. Kt hp phng trnh (4.58) v (4.59) ta c:


(Z
1
- Z
2
.Z
4
-1
.Z
3
) Y
1
= U
b

T
Z
nhnh cy
.Y
1
= U
b

Ta c
Z
nhnh cy
= Z
1
- Z
2
.Z
4
-1
.Z
3

4.6.5. Thnh lp ma trn tng dn v tng tr nhnh cy t ma trn tng dn v
tng tr nt.
S dng ma trn hng ng - nhnh cy K, ma trn tng dn nhnh cy
Y
nhnh cy
c th thu c t ma trn tng dn nt Y
Nt
. T phng trnh (4.3)
Ta c: A
b
.K
t
=U
b
V t phng trnh (4.5) ta c:
B
1
= A
1
.

K
t

Nhn thm vi K
t
vo sau A ta c:



Th phng trnh (4.3) v (4.5) vo (4.61) ta c.



o phng trnh ny ta c:
K .A
t
= B
t
Nhn phng trnh ny vi [y].A.K
t
ta c:
K.A
t
[y].A.K
t
= B
t
[y].A.K
t

Hay
K.(A
t
[y].A).K
t
= B
t
[y].B (4.63)
T cc php bin i n gin ta c.
Y
nhnh cy
= K.Y
Nt
.K
t

(4.64)
A
b
A
t
A. K
t

=
K
t

=
A
b
K
t
A
t

K
t
(4.61
)
U
b
U
t
A . K
t
=
= B
(4.62
)
GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 54
Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy l:
Z
nhnh cy
= Y
-1
nhnh cy
= (k
t
)
-1
.Y
Nt
-1
.K
-1

(4.65)
T phng trnh (4.4)
K
t
= A
b
-1

(4.66)
Th phng trnh (4.66) vo (4.65) ta c:
Z
nhnh cy
= A
b
.Z
Nt
.A
b
t

4.6.6. Thnh lp ma trn tng dn v tng tr nt t ma trn tng dn v tng tr
nhnh cy.
Phng trnh (4.64) c nhn thm K
-1
vo pha trc v (K
t
)
-1
vo pha
sau ta c.
K
-1
.Y
nhnh cy
(K
t
)
-1
= Y
Nt

(4.67)
Th phng trnh (4.66) vo (4.67):
Y
Nt
= A
b
t
.Y
nhnh cy
.A
b

V
Z
Nt
= - Y
Nt
-1

Nn:
Z
Nt
= (A
b
t
.Y
nhnh cy
.A
b
)
-1

Hay
Z
Nt
= K
t
.Z
nhnh cy
.K
Cc php bin i phc tp c c cc ma trn mng c trnh by trong bng 4.3.

























h

n
h

c

y

Z
n
h

n
h

c

y


Y
n
h

n
h

c

y


t

y

.
K

y
.
A
b

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 55






































GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 52

















Phng trnh c tnh cua tng tr nhanh la:
v
pq
+ e
pq
= z
pq
i
pq

(4.6)
Hay tng dn nhanh la:
i
pq
+ j
pq
= y
pq
v
pq

(4.7)
Ngun dong mc song song vi tng dn co lin h
vi ngun ap mc ni tip vi tng tr nh sau:
j
pq
= -y
pq
e
pq

Tp hp cac thanh phn khng lin h vi nhau
c goi la mang gc. Phng trnh c tnh cua
mang gc co th xut phat t (4.6) hay (4.7) c
biu din bi cac bin la vect va cac tham s
la ma trn. Phng trnh c tnh cua tng tr la:
[ ] i z e v


= +
Hay i vi tng dn la:
[ ] v y j i


= +
Thanh phn trn ng cheo cua ma trn [z] hay
[y] cua mang gc la tng tr ring z
pq,pq
hay tng
dn ring y
pq,pq
. Cac thanh phn ngoai ng cheo la
tng tr tng h z
pq,rs
hay tng dn tng h y
pq,rs

gia nhanh p-q va nhanh r-s. Ma trn tng dn gc
[y] co th thu c bng cach nghch ao ma trn
tng tr gc [z]. Ma trn [z] va [y] la ma trn
ng cheo nu khng co thanh phn tng h gia
cac nhanh. Trong trng hp nay tng tr ring
ung bng s nghch ao cua tng dn ring tng
ng.
4.5. CACH THANH LP MA TRN MANG BNG S BIN I
TRC TIP.
4.5.1. Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in.
Mang in la s ghep ni tp hp cac nhanh
co mi lin h vi nhau. Trong cu truc nut qui
chiu, thanh phn cua mang in co mi lin h
vi nhau c din ta bi n-1 phng trnh nut c
lp, vi n la s nut. Trong k hiu ma trn cac
thanh phn cua phng trnh i vi tng tr la:
E
q

z
pq
j
pq
v
pq
= E
p
-E
q
(a)

y
pq
e
pq
i
pq
+j
pq
i
pq
v
pq
= E
p
-E
q
(b)
Hnh 4.7 : Thanh phn biu din
mang in
(a) Hnh thc tng tr; (b) Hnh
E
p

E
q

E
p

i
pq
q
p
q
p
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 53
Nut Nut Nut
I Z E

=
Hay i vi tng dn la:
Nut Nut Nut
E Y I

=
Nut
E

: La vect in ap nut o c vi nut qui


chiu a chon.
Nut
I

: La vect dong in nut a vao.


Z
Nut
: La ma trn tng tr nut co cac thanh
phn cua ma trn la tng tr truyn h mach gia
cac im.
Y
Nut
: La ma trn tng dn nut co cac thanh
phn cua ma trn la tng dn truyn ngn mach
gia cac im.
Trong cu truc nhanh cy tham khao thanh phn
cua mang in co mi lin h vi nhau c th
hin bi b phng trnh nhanh cy c lp. Vi b la
s nhanh cy. Trong k hiu ma trn cac thanh phn
cua phng trnh i vi tng tr la:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
I Z E

. =
Hay i vi tng dn la:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

. =
Vi:
cy nhanh
E

: La vect in ap qua nhanh cy



cy nhanh
I

: La vect dong in i qua nhanh cy


Z
nhanh cy
: La ma trn tng tr cua nhanh cy co
cac thanh phn cua ma trn la tng tr truyn h
mach gia cac im cua cac nhanh cy trong mang
in.
Y
nhanh cy
: La ma trn tng dn cua nhanh cy co
cac thanh phn cua ma trn la tng dn truyn
ngn mach gia cac im cua cac nhanh cy trong
mang in.
Trong cu truc vong tham khao cac thanh phn
cua mang in co mi lin h vi nhau c th
hin bi l phng trnh vong c lp. Vi l la s
nhanh bu cy hay s vong c ban. Phng trnh c
tnh i vi dang tng tr la:
Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

. =
Hay i vi dang tng dn la:
Vong Vong Vong
E Y I

. =
Trong o:
Vong
E

: La vect in ap cua vong c ban



Vong
I

: La vect dong in cua vong c ban


Z
Vong
: La ma trn tng tr vong
Y
Vong
: La ma trn tng dn vong.
4.5.2. Ma trn tng tr nut va ma trn tng
dn nut.
Ma trn tng dn nut Y
Nut
co th thu c bng
cach dung ma trn nut A lin kt vi cac bin va
tham s cua mang in gc vi lng nut cua mang
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 54
in kt ni. Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in
gc nh sau:
[ ] v y j i


= +
Nhn hai v vi A
t
la ma trn chuyn v cua ma trn
nut ta thu c:
[ ] v y A j A i A
t t t


= + . .
(4.8)
T ma trn A cho thy s tac ng cua cac nhanh
vi cac nut, i A
t

la vect ng vi mi nhanh no la
tng ai s cua dong chay qua cac nhanh trong
mang tai mi nut khac nhau. Theo lut Kirchhoff v
dong in (nh lut Kirchhoff I) tng ai s cua
dong in tai mt nut la bng 0 ta co:
i A
t

. = 0
(4.9)
Tng t j A
t

la tng ai s cua ngun dong tai
mi nut bng vect dong in nut. V Vy:
j A I
t
Nut

. =
(4.10)
Thay th phng trnh (4.9) va (4.10) vao trong phng
trnh (4.8) ta thu c:
[ ] v y A I
t
Nut

=
(4.11)
Cng sut trong mang in la
Nut
t
Nut
E I

) (
*
va tng cua
cng sut trong mang in ngun la v j
t

) (
*
. Cng sut
trong mang in ngun va mang in kt ni phai
bng nhau, cng sut phai khng i khi co s thay
i cua cac bin.
v j E I
t
Nut
t
Nut


) ( ) (
* *
=
(4.12)
Kt hp vi phng trnh chuyn v cua (4.10)
* * *
) ( ) ( A j I
t t
Nut

=
Ma trn A la ma trn thc nn:
A
*
= A
Do o: A j I
t t
Nut
) ( ) (
* *

=
(4.13)
Thay th phng trnh (4.13) vao trong (4.12)
v j E A j
t
Nut
t


) ( ) (
* *
=
Phng trnh trn ung cho tt ca cac gia tr cua , j


n gian no tr thanh:
v E A
Nut

= .
(4.14)
Thay th phng trnh (4.14) vao trong (4.11)
[ ]
Nut
t
Nut
E A y A I

. =
(4.15)
T phng trnh c tnh cua mang in
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 55
Nut Nut Nut
E Y I

. =
(4.16)
T phng trnh (4.15) va (4.16) ta co:
[ ] A y A Y
t
Nut
=
Ma trn nut A la ma trn n gian v vy A
t
[y] A la
n gian vi phep bin i cua [y]
Ma trn tng tr nut co th thu c t
[ ]
1 1
) (

= = A y A Y Z
t
Nut Nut

4.5.3. Ma trn tng tr nhanh cy va tng dn
nhanh cy.
Ma trn tng dn nhanh cy Y
nhanh cy
co th thu
c bng cach dung ma trn vt ct c ban B lin
kt cac bin va tham s cua mang in gc vi
s nhanh cy cua mang in kt ni. Phng trnh
c tnh cua mang in gc i vi tng dn khi
nhn ca hai v vi B
t
thu c.
[ ] v y B j B i B
t t t


= + . .
(4.17)
T ma trn B cho thy s lin h cua cac nhanh
vi cac vt ct c ban, i B
t

. la vect ng vi mi
nhanh no la tng ai s cua dong chay qua cac
nhanh trong mang tai mi vt ct c ban khac nhau.
Cac nhanh cua vt ct c ban chia mang in ra
thanh hai mang con lin kt. V vy thanh phn cua
vect i B
t

. la tng ai s cua dong in i vao mang
con va theo nh lut Kirchhoff v dong in (nh
lut Kirchhoff I) ta co:
i B
t

. = 0
(4.18)
Tng t j B
t

la vect i vi mi nhanh la tng
ai s cua ngun dong trong cac nhanh vi cac
vt ct c ban va tng ngun dong trong mach mc
song song vi nhanh cy la:
j B I
t
cy nhanh

. =
(4.19)
Thay th phng trnh (4.18) va (4.19) vao trong
(4.17) thu c:
[ ]v y B I
t
cy nhanh

=
(4.20)
Cng sut trong mang in la ) ( ) (
*
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh
E I

va t
cng sut khng thay i ta co:
v j E I
t
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh


) ( ) (
* *
=
Thu c
t
cy nhanh
I ) (
*

t phng trnh (4.19) va thay vao


phng trnh trn ta co:
v j E B j
t
cy nhanh
t


) ( . ) (
* * *
=
T ma trn B la ma trn thc, ta co:
B
*
= B do o v j E B j
t
cy nhanh
t


) ( . ) (
* *
=
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 56
Phng trnh trn ung vi moi gia tr cua , j

n
gian no tr thanh nh sau:
cy nhanh
E B v

. =
(4.21)
Thay th phng trnh (4.21) vao trong (4.20) thu c:
[ ]
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh
E B y B I

. =
(4.22)
Mi lin h gia dong in chay qua nhanh cy va
in ap trn nhanh cy la:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

. =
(4.23)
T phng trnh (4.22) va (4.23) ta co:
[ ] B y B Y
t
cy nhanh
. =
Ma trn vt ct c ban B la ma trn n gian v
vy [ ] B y B
t
. la n gian vi s bin i cua [y]
Ma trn nhanh cy co th thu c t
[ ]
1 1
) . (

= = B y B Y Z
t
cy nhanh cy nhanh

4.5.4. Ma trn tng tr vong va ma trn tng
dn vong.
Ma trn tng tr vong Z
Vong
co th thu c bng
cach dung ma trn vong c ban C lin kt cac bin
va tham s cua mang in gc vi s vong cua
mang in kt ni.
Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in gc la:
[ ] i z e v


= +
Nhn hai v phng trnh vi C
t
ta thu c:
[ ] i z C e C v C
t t t


= +
(4.24)






















Ma trn
mang
G
c
T

n
g

t
r

n
g

d

n


Von
g
Nu
t
Nhanh
cy
N
g
h

c
h

o

[z
]
[y
]
C
t
[z]
C
Z
Vong


Y
Vong


A
t
[y]
A
B
t
[y]
B
Z
Nut


Y
Nut


Z
nhanh cy


Y
nhanh cy


Bang 4.1 : Thanh lp ma trn mang bng
phep bin i n gian
Bang 4.2 : Dong in va in ap lin h gia
ma trn gc va ma trn kt ni
Cu truc tham
khao

Von

Nu
t
Nhanh

j B I
t

t

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 57







T ma trn C cho thy s tac ng cua nhanh
ti vong c ban, v C
t

. la tng ai s cua in ap
vong trong mi vong lp c ban. No phu hp vi
nh lut Kirchhoff v in ap (nh lut Kirchhoff
II) la tng ai s cua in ap vong trong mt
vong c ban la bng 0.
Nn: v C
t

. = 0
(4.25)
Tng t e C
t

. la tng ai s cua ngun in ap
vong trong mi vong c ban.
V vy:
e C E
t
Vong

. =
(4.26)
T cng sut khng i ta co:
e i e C E
t t t
Vong

) ( . ) (
* *
=
Phng trnh trn ung vi moi gia tr e

nn ta n
gian no tr thanh nh sau:
t t
Vong
t
C E i ) ( ) (
* *

=
Nn:
Vong
I C i

.
*
=
T ma trn thc C, ta co:
C
*
= C va
Vong
I C i

. =
(4.27)
Thay th phng trnh (4.25), (4.26) va (4.27) vao
trong (4.24) ta thu c:
[ ]
Vong
t
Vong
I C z C E

. =
(4.28)
Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in trong cu truc
vong tham khao la:
Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

. =
(4.29)
T phng trnh (4.28) va (4.29) ta co:
[ ]C z C Z
t
Vong
=
Ma trn C la ma trn n gian, nn [ ] C z C
t
la n gian
vi s bin i cua [z]
Ma trn tng dn vong co th thu c t
[ ]
1 1
) ( ) (

= = C z C Z Y
t
Vong Vong

Ma trn mang thu c t phep bin i n gian
c tng kt trong bang 4.1. Quan h dong va ap
gia mang in gc va mang in kt ni c
tng kt trong bang 4.2.
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 58
4.6. CACH THANH LP MA TRN MANG BNG PHEP BIN I
PHC TAP.
4.6.1. Ma trn tng tr nhanh va tng dn
nhanh
Ma trn tng dn nhanh Y
nhanh cy
cung co th thu c
bng cach dung ma trn vt ct tng thm B

lin kt
vi cac bin va cac tham s cua mang in gc
vi mang in lin thng thm vao. Mang in thm
vao thu c bng s kt ni vi mt nhanh cy
gia mc ni tip vi mi nhanh bu cy cua mang
in gc. gi nguyn cac c tnh trong mang
lin thng tng dn cua mi nhanh cy gia bng 0
va ngun dong ung bng dong qua nhanh bu cy lin
kt, c biu din trn hnh 4.8a. Hiu in th
i qua nhanh cy gia la bng 0. Vt ct rang buc
c xem nh vt ct gia nhanh bu cy lin thng
vi nhanh cy gia, c th hin trn hnh 4.8b.
Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in thm vao
trong cu truc nhanh cy tham khao nh sau:
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

.

=
Ma trn Y
nhanh cy
se thu c trc tip t ma trn
tng dn
cy nhanh
Y

cua mang in thm vao.


Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in gc
[ ] v y j i


= +
Nhn hai v vi
t
B

thu c:
[ ]v y B j B i B
t t t

= +
(4.30)
Phng trnh (4.30) co th vit lai vi hnh thc ma
trn phn chia nh sau:






















Nha
nh
cy
Nu
t
gi
a
Vt
ct
rang
b G
1 4
2
3
0
(b
)
Hnh 4.8 : Trnh bay mang in thm vao. (a)
Nhanh cy gia ni tip vi nhanh bu cy;
2 4
Nhan
h cy
gia
(a
)
j
l
i
l
Nu
t
gia
i
l
v =
0
l

l

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 59



Trong o: Vect dong gc i

va j

c phn chia thanh


vect dong
b
i

va
b
j

, no lin kt vi nhanh cy cua


mang, vect dong
t
i

va
t
j

lin kt vi nhanh bu cy.


V trai cua phng trnh (4.31) la:



Khi i B i B i
t
t
t
t b

. . = + va j B j B j
t
t
t
t b

. . = +
Tuy nhin:
0 . =
t
t
i B

va
cy nhanh
t
I j B

= .
Th v trai cua phng trnh (4.31) la:



T mi thanh phn cua vect
t
i

la bng ngun dong


cua nhanh cy gia,
t t
j i

+ la vect trong o mi thanh
phn cua no bng tng ai s ngun dong cua
nhanh cy gia vi nhanh bu cy lin kt. V vy:



Va phng trnh (4.30) tr thanh.
[ ]v y B I
t
cy nhanh


=
(4.32)
Hiu in th qua nhanh cy gia la bng 0, vect
in ap cua mang in thm vao la:



in ap qua cac nhanh cua mang in gc theo
phng trnh (4.21) la:
cy nhanh
E B v

. =
Tuy nhin:
cy nhanh cy nhanh
E B E B

.

. =
Nn
cy nhanh
E B v

=
(4.33)
Th phng trnh (4.33) vao trong phng trnh (4.32) ta
c.
[ ]
cy nhanh
t
cy nhanh
E B y B I

.

=
(4.34)
Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in thm vao la
cy nhanh cy nhanh cy nhanh
E Y I

.

=
(4.35)
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
i
b
i
t
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
j
b
j
t
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
+
=

y

v

(4.3
1)
i
b
+B
t
t

i
i
t
+

j
b
+B
t
t

j
j
t
I
nhanh cy
i
t
+
j
=
cy nhanh
I


E
nhanh cy
0
=
cy nhanh
E


0

i
t
j
t
I
nhanh cy
i
t
+
j
+

=

I
nhanh cy
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 60
T phng trnh (4.34) va (4.35) ta co ma trn tng
dn cua mang in thm vao la:
[ ]B y B Y
t
cy nhanh

=
(4.36)
Phng trnh (4.36) co th vit theo hnh thc phn
chia nh sau:



Vi: [y
bb
]: La ma trn tng dn gc cua
nhanh cy
[y
bl
] = [y
lb
]
t
: La ma trn tng dn gc, mi
thanh phn la tng dn tng h gia nhanh cy
vi nhanh bu cy.
[y
ll
]: La ma trn tng dn gc cua nhanh
bu cy.
Phng trnh (4.37) vit lai nh sau
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
t ll
t
t t bl lb
t
t bb
B y B B y y B y Y + + + =
1

(4.38)
T [ ]B y B Y
t
cy nhanh

=
Hay



Th [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
t ll
t
t t bl lb
t
t bb cy nhanh
B y B B y y B y Y + + + =
(4.39)
T phng trnh (4.38) va (4.39) ta co:
Y
nhanh cy
= Y
1

Ma trn tng tr nhanh cy co th thu c t
Z
nhanh cy
= Y
1
-1

4.6.2. Ma trn tng tr vong va tng dn vong.
Ma trn tng tr vong Z
Vong
cung co th thu c
bng cach dung ma trn tng tr vong thm vao C


lin kt vi cac bin va cac tham s cua mang
in gc lin h vi mang in thm vao. Mang
in thm vao thu c bng s ni kt vi mt
nhanh bu cy gia mc song song vi mi nhanh cy
cua mang in gc. Gi nguyn trt t cac thanh
phn lin kt trong mang, tng tr cua mi nhanh
bu cy gia bng 0 va ngun ap bng nhng ngc
hng vi ap qua nhanh cy lin kt trnh bay trn
hnh 4.9.a. Dong qua nhanh bu cy gia bng 0. Vong
h co th xem nh vong lin thng gia nhanh cy va
nhanh bu cy gia tng cho trn hnh 4.9b.







Y
1
Y
3
Y
2
Y
4
(4.3
7)
=

U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
y
bb
y
lb
y
bl
y
ll
U
b
B
t
0

U
t
y
bb
y
lb
y
bl
y
ll
U
b
B
t
U
b
B
t
t
Y
nhanh cy
=
v
b
v
b
i =
0
Nhanh
bu cy
i
(a
)
e
b
1
2
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 61















Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in thm vao
trong cu truc vong tham khao nh sau:
Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

.

=
Ma trn Z
vong
se thu c trc tip t ma trn tng
tr
Vong
Z

cua mang in thm vao.


Phng trnh c tnh cho mang in gc la:
[ ] i z e v


. = +
Nhn hai v vi
t
C

ta thu c:
[ ] i z C e C v C
t t t


.

= +
(4.40)
Phng trnh (4.40) co th c vit di dang phn
chia nh sau:



Trong o: Vect in ap gc v

va e

c phn chia
thanh vect in ap
b
v

va
b
e

lin kt vi nhanh cy
cua mang va vect in ap
t
v

va
t
e

lin kt vi
nhanh bu cy. V trai cua phng trnh (4.41) la.



Khi v C v v C
t
t b
t
b

. . = + va e C e e C
t
t b
t
b

. . = +
Tuy nhin.
0 . = v C
t

va
Vong
t
E e C

= .
V trai cua phng trnh (4.41) tr thanh



Cac thanh phn cua
b
v

la bng ngun ap cua nhanh


bu cy gia tng,
b b
e v

+ la vect trong cac nhanh,
mi thanh phn la bng tng ai s ngun ap
trong vong h. V vy.

U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
v
b
v
t
U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
e
b
e
t
U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
+
=

z

i

(4.41
)
v
b
C
b
t
v
b
+v
e
b
C
b
t
e
b
+e

+

e
b
E
Vong
v
b
+e
b
E
Vong

=

v
b
0

+
v
b
+
e
E
Vong
=
Vong
E


(4.42
)
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 62



Va t phng trnh (4.40) va (4.42)
[ ] i z C E
t
Vong

.

=
(4.43)
Ta co dong trong vong h bng 0, vect dong cua
mang in thm vao la:



Dong in i qua cac nhanh cua mang in gc t
phng trnh (4.27) la

Vong
I C i

. =
Tuy nhin:

Vong Vong
I C I C

.

. =


Th
Vong
I C i

.


(4.44)
Thay th phng trnh (4.44) vao trong phng trnh
(4.43)
[ ]
Vong
t
Vong
I C z C E

.

=
(4.45)
Phng trnh c tnh cua mang in thm vao la:

Vong Vong Vong
I Z E

.

=
(4.46)
T phng trnh (4.45) va (4.46) ta co ma trn tng
tr cua mang in thm vao la:
[ ] C z C Z
t
Vong

.

=
(4.47)
Phng trnh (4.47) co th c vit di dang phn
chia nh sau:



Vi: [z
bb
]: La ma trn tng tr gc cua
nhanh cy
[z
bl
] = [z
lb
]
t
: La ma trn tng tr gc mi
thanh phn la tng tr tng h gia nhanh cy va
nhanh bu cy
[z
ll
]: La ma trn tng tr gc cua nhanh
bu cy
Phng trnh (4.48) vit lai nh sau:
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
ll bl
t
b b lb b bb
t
b
z z C C z C z C Z + + + =
4

(4.49)
T [ ] C z C Z
t
Vong
=
Hay



0

I
Vong
=
Vong
I


Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
Z
4
(4.48
)
=

U
b
C
b
t
0

U
t
z
bb
z
lb
z
bl
z
ll
U
b
0
C
b
U
t
z
bb
z
lb
z
bl
z
ll
C
b
U
t
U
b
t
U
t

Z
Vong
=
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 63
Th
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
ll bl
t
b b lb b bb
t
b Vong
z z C C z C z C Z + + + =
(4.50)
T phng trnh (4.49) va (4.50) ta co
Z
vong
= Z
4

Ma trn tng dn vong co th thu c t
Z
vong
= Z
4
-1
4.6.3. Ma trn tng dn vong thu c t ma
trn tng dn mang thm vao.
Ma trn tng dn vong Y
Vong
co th thu c t
ma trn tng dn thm vao
cy nhanh
Y

. T phng trnh
(4.36) va (4.47).
[ ] [ ]B y B C z C Y Z
t t
cy nhanh Vong

.

.

=
(4.51)
Hnh thc phn chia la:





Dong in i qua cac nhanh cua mang gc t phng
trnh (4.27) la:

Vong
I C i

. =
Nhn ca hai v vi B
t
ta co:

Vong
t t
I C B i B

. . =
(4.53)
Tuy nhin, t phng trnh (4.18) v trai cua phng
trnh (4.53) la bng 0. V vy, phng trnh (4.53) co
th vit lai nh sau:
0 ) ( = +
Vong
t
t b
I B C


Suy ra:

t
t b
B C =
(4.54)
Thay th phng trnh (4.54) vao trong phng trnh
(4.52)
U B C
t
=


(4.55)
Mt cach tng t ta co th biu din nh sau:
U B C
t
=


(4.56)
Thay th phng trnh (4.55) vao trong (4.51),ta c:
[ ] [ ] B y z C Y Z
t
cy nhanh Vong

. .

.

=
T
[z].[y] = U
Nn
B C Y Z
t
cy nhanh Vong

.

.

=
V vy theo phng trnh (4.56) ta co
t
B C

.


(4.52
)
=

U
b
0

C
b
U
t
U
b
0

B
t
t
U
t
U
b
0
B
t
t
+C
b
U
t
=

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 64
U Y Z
cy nhanh Vong
=


(4.57)
Phng trnh (4.57) di hnh thc phn chia nh sau:



No biu din:
Z
1
.Y
1
+ Z
2
.Y
3
= U
b

(4.58)
Z
1
.Y
2
+ Z
2
.Y
4
= 0

Z
3
.Y
1
+ Z
4
.Y
3
= 0
(4.59)
Z
3
.Y
2
+ Z
4
.Y
4
= U
t

(4.60)
Rut Z
3
t phng trnh (4.59)
Z
3
= -Z
4
.Y
3
.Y
1
-1

Thay th vao trong phng trnh (4.60)
-Z
4
.Y
3
.Y
1
-1
.Y
2
+ Z
4
.Y
4
= U
t

Hay
Z
4
(Y
4
- Y
3
.Y
1
-1
.Y
2
) = U
t

T
Z
4
.Y
Vong
= U
t

Ta co: Y
Vong
= Y
4
- Y
3
.Y
1
-1
.Y
2

4.6.4. Ma trn tng tr nhanh cy thu c t ma
trn tng tr thm vao:
Ma trn tng tr nhanh cy Z
nhanh cy
co th thu
c t ma trn tng tr thm vao
Vong
Z

. Kt hp
phng trnh (4.58) va (4.59) ta co:
(Z
1
- Z
2
.Z
4
-1
.Z
3
) Y
1
= U
b

T
Z
nhanh cy
.Y
1
= U
b

Ta co
Z
nhanh cy
= Z
1
- Z
2
.Z
4
-1
.Z
3

4.6.5. Thanh lp ma trn tng dn va tng tr
nhanh cy t ma trn tng dn va tng tr nut.
S dung ma trn hng ng - nhanh cy K, ma trn
tng dn nhanh cy Y
nhanh cy
co th thu c t ma
trn tng dn nut Y
Nut
. T phng trnh (4.3)
Ta co: A
b
.K
t
=U
b
Va t phng trnh (4.5) ta co:
B
1
= A
1
.

K
t

Nhn thm vi K
t
vao sau A ta co:



Th phng trnh (4.3) va (4.5) vao (4.61) ta co.



ao phng trnh nay ta c:
K .A
t
= B
t
Nhn phng trnh nay vi [y].A.K
t
ta co:
K.A
t
[y].A.K
t
= B
t
[y].A.K
t

=

Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
Z
4
Y
1
Y
3
Y
2
Y
4
U
b
0
0

U
t
A
b
A
t
A. K
t

=
K
t

=
A
b
K
t
A
t

K
t
(4.61
)
U
b
U
t
A . K
t
=
= B
(4.62
)
GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 65
Hay
K.(A
t
[y].A).K
t
= B
t
[y].B
(4.63)
T cac phep bin i n gian ta co.
Y
nhanh cy
= K.Y
Nut
.K
t

(4.64)
Ma trn tng tr nhanh cy la:
Z
nhanh cy
= Y
-1
nhanh cy
= (k
t
)
-1
.Y
Nut
-1
.K
-1

(4.65)
T phng trnh (4.4)
K
t
= A
b
-1

(4.66)
Th phng trnh (4.66) vao (4.65) ta co:
Z
nhanh cy
= A
b
.Z
Nut
.A
b
t

4.6.6. Thanh lp ma trn tng dn va tng tr
nut t ma trn tng dn va tng tr nhanh cy.
Phng trnh (4.64) c nhn thm K
-1
vao pha
trc va (K
t
)
-1
vao pha sau ta co.
K
-1
.Y
nhanh cy
(K
t
)
-1
= Y
Nut

(4.67)
Th phng trnh (4.66) vao (4.67):
Y
Nut
= A
b
t
.Y
nhanh cy
.A
b

V
Z
Nut
= - Y
Nut
-1

Nn:
Z
Nut
= (A
b
t
.Y
nhanh cy
.A
b
)
-1

Hay
Z
Nut
= K
t
.Z
nhanh cy
.K
Cac phep bin i phc tap co c cac ma trn
mang c trnh bay trong bang 4.3.
























GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 66






































G

c

T
h

m

v
a

o

V
o

n
g


N
u

t


N
h
a

n
h

c

y

M
a

t
r

n

m
a

n
g

[
z
]

[
y
]

=

=

Z
1

Z
3

Z
2

Z
4

Y
1

Y
3

Y
2

Y
4

Z
4
=

Z
V
o

n
g

Y
4
-
Y
3
Y
1
-
1
Y
2

Z
V
o

n
g

Y
V
o

n
g

Z
N
u

t

Y
N
u

t

Z
n
h
a

n
h

c

y


Y
n
h
a

n
h

c

y


A
b
Z
N
u

t
A
b
t

K
t
Z
n
h
a

n
h

c

y

.
K

K
Y
N
u

t
K
t

A
b
t
Y
n
h
a

n
h

c

y
.
A
b

Z
1
-
Z
2
Z
4
-
1
Z
3

Y
1
=

Y
n
h
a

n
h

c

y

B
a

n
g

4
.
3
:

M
a

t
r

n

m
a

n
g

t
h
u

c

b

n
g

s


b
i

i

p
h

c

t
a

p


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 67
CHNG 5

CC THUT TON DNG CHO VIC THNH LP NHNG MA TRN
MNG
5.1. GII THIU.
Nhng phng php trnh by trong cc mc trn i hi mt s chuyn i v
o ngc nhng ma trn c c nhng ma trn mng. Mt phng php thay th
da trn mt thut ton c th c dng thnh lp trc tip ma trn tng tr nt t
nhng thng s h thng v s nt c m ho. Nguyn tc ca thut ton l thnh
lp ma trn tng tr nt theo tng bc, m phng cu trc ca mng bng cch thm
vo tng nhnh mt. Mt ma trn c thnh lp cho mng ring c biu th sau khi
mi phn t c ni vi mng.
Ngoi ra, mt thut ton c biu th chuyn ha ma trn tng dn vng t
ma trn tng tr nt nh.
Cc phng trnh mng:
I
Nt
= Y
Nt
.E
Nt

E
Nt
= Z
Nt
.I
Nt

Y
Nt
= A
t

.y. A
Z
Nt
= (Y
Nt
)
-1

5.2. XC NH MA TRN Y
NT
BNG PHNG PHP TRC TIP.
Gi E
i,
E
j,
E
k
l in p ti cc nt khi bm mt dng vo nt i.














I
j
= 0; j i
ij
i j
j i
i j
i iij i
y E E E y I


+ = ) ( ) . (


+ =
i j i j
j ij i ij
i j
i iij
E y E y E y ) . (
) ( ) (
ij
i j
j
i j i j
ij iij i
y E y y E + + =



) ( ). (
ij
i j
j
i j
ij ii i
y E y y E + =



Ta c:

+ = + =
ij ii ij iij ii
y y y y Y
I
i
E
j
j
y
jji
y
ij
E
k
k
y
ik
y
kki
y
iik
E
i
y
iij
i
Y
ii
y
ii
Hnh 5.1 : S m t mng in ti 1 nt

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 68
ij ij
y Y =
Do :

= + =
i j
j ij j ij i ii i
E Y E Y E Y I .
Vy : Y
Nt
l ma trn c cc thnh phn trn ng cho chnh l Y
ii
thnh phn ngoi
ng cho l Y
ij
.
Ch : Nu c tng h th chng ta phi tnh thm cc thnh phn tng h.

+ + = + + =
rs ij ij ii rs ij ij iij ii
y y y y y y Y
, ,

+ = ) (
, , rs ij ij ij ij
y y Y
5.3. THUT TON THNH LP MA TRN TNG TR NT:
5.3.1. Phng trnh biu din ca mt mng ring.
Gi thit rng ma trn tng tr nt Z
Nt
c bit t mt mng ring m nt
v mt nt qui chiu 0. Phng trnh biu din ca mng ny cho trong hnh (5.2)
l:











Nut Nut Nut
I Z E

. =
Trong :
Nut
E

= m x 1 vect ca cc in p nt c o i vi nt qui chiu.


Nut
I

= m x 1 vect ca cc dng in c bm vo nt khi mt nhnh p - q c


thm vo mng ring, n c th l mt nhnh cy hoc mt nhnh b cy nh cho
hnh (5.3)
(a) S thm vo ca mt nhnh cy
(b) S thm vo ca mt nhnh b cy
- Nu p - q l mt nhnh cy, mt nt mi q c thm vo mng ring v to
thnh ma trn tng tr nt kch thc l (m + 1) x (m + 1). Cc vect in p mi v
dng in mi c kch thc l (m + 1) x 1. xc nh ma trn tng tr nt mi yu
cu ch tnh cc phn t trong hng v ct mi.
- Nu p - q l mt nhnh b cy, khng c nt mi c thm vo mng ring.
Trong trng hp ny, kch thc ca cc ma trn trong phng trnh biu din
c gi nguyn, nhng tt c cc phn t ca ma trn tng tr nt phi c
tnh li bao hm nh hng ca nhnh b cy c thm vo.



1
2
m
0
Mng
ring
H qui chiu
I
1
I
2
I
m
Hnh 5.2 : S biu din ca
mt mng ring
E
1
E
m
E
2
1
2
Mng
in
q
p
m

(a
)
1
2
p
Mng
in
(b
)


Nhnh p-
q
Nhnh p-
q

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 69










5.3.2. S thm vo ca mt nhnh cy.
Gi s ma trn Z
Nt
ban u c kch thc m x m, sau khi thm 1 nhnh cy kch
thc m m +1. Gi s ta thm vo 1 nt q ta c phng trnh biu din ca mng
ring vi mt nhnh cy p - q c thm vo l nh (5.1). iu c ngha l mng tn
ti cc nhnh b ng c hai pha.
















Do : Z
qi
= Z
iq
, vi i = 1, 2, ..., m v c lin quan n cc nt ca mng ring,
nhng khng k n nt mi q.
Nhnh cy p - q thm vo c xem l c h cm vi mt hoc nhiu nhnh ca
mng in.

q
m
p
qq qm q
mq mm m
pq pm p
q m
q m
q
m
p
I
I
I
I
I
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
E
E
E
E
E
*
* *
* *
* *
* * * * *
* *
* *
*
2
1
1
1
1
2 2 21
1 1 11
2
1
(5.1)
Cc phn t Z
qi
c th c xc nh bng cch bm vo mt dng in ti nt i v tnh
1
2
Mng
in
q
p
i
0




H qui chiu
I
i
=
1
Nhnh p-
q
v
pq
Hnh 5.4 : Dng in c bm
vo v s tnh ton cc in p
nt ca Z
qi
E
q
E
p

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 70
in p ti nt q vi im qui chiu nh trnh by hnh (5.4). Gi s ta bm
dng I = 1A vo nt i (I
j
= 0 j i) v tt c cc dng in ti cc nt khc bng
0, t phng trnh (5.1) suy ra:
E
q
= Z
qi
.I
i
= Z
qi

Tng t nh trn ta bm vo cc nt cn li
E
1
= Z
1i
.I
i
E
2
= Z
2i
.I
i
...............
E
p
= Z
pi
.I
i
(5.2)
................
E
m
= Z
mi
.I
i
E
q
= Z
qi
.I
i
Cho I
i
= 1 trong phng trnh (5.2), Z
qi
c th thu c trc tip bng cch tnh
E
q
Cc in p nt lin kt vi nhnh thm vo v in p qua nhnh c th hin
bi:
E
q
= E
p
- v
pq
(5.3)
Cc dng in trong cc nhnh ca mng trong hnh (5.4) c din t trong cc
s hng ca cc tng dn ban u v cc in p qua cc nhnh l:



Trong phng trnh (5.4), pq l mt ch s c nh v lin quan vi nhnh thm vo, v
rs l ch s bin i, lin quan n cc nhnh khc. Trong :
- i
pq
v v
pq
: L dng in v in p chy qua tng ng vi nhnh thm vo.
- i
rs
v v
rs
: L cc vect dng in v in p trong cc nhnh ca mng ring.
- y
pq,pq
: L tng dn ring ca nhnh thm vo.
- y
pq,rs
: L vect ca cc tng dn tng h gia nhnh thm vo p - q v cc
nhnh r - s ca mng ring.
- y
rs,pq
: L vect chuyn v ca y
pq,rs

- [y
rs,rs
]: L ma trn tng dn ban u ca mng ring.
Dng in chy trong nhnh cy thm vo cho trong hnh 5.4 l:
i
pq
= 0 (5.5)
Tuy nhin, v
pq
khng bng 0 v nhnh cy thm vo h cm vi mt hoc nhiu nhnh
ca mng ring. Ngoi ra:

s r rs
E E v

= (5.6)
Trong : E
r
v E
s
l cc sut in ng ti cc nt trong mng ring. T phng trnh
(5.5) ta c:

= + = 0 . .
, , rs rs pq pq pq pq pq
v y v y i


Do :

=
rs rs pq
pq pq
pq
v y
y
v

.
1
,
,

Th
rs
v

t phng trnh (5.6) ta c:


i
pq
i
rs
v
pq
V
rs
y
pq,rs
y
rs,rs
y
pq,pq
y
rs,pq
= (5.4
)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 71

= ) (
1
,
,
s r rs pq
pq pq
pq
E E y
y
v

(5.7)
Th v
pq
vo trong phng trnh (5.3) t (5.7) ta c:

+ = ) (
1
,
,
s r rs pq
pq pq
p q
E E y
y
E E


Cui cng, th E
p
, E
q
,
r
E

v
s
E

t phng trnh (5.2) vi I


i
= 1, ta c:

+ = ) (
1
,
,
rs ri rs pq
pq pq
pi qi
Z Z y
y
Z Z

i = 1, 2, ....m i j (5.8)
Phn t Z
qq
c th c tnh bng cch bm mt dng in ti nt q v tnh in p ti
nt . Gi s ta bm dng I = 1A vo nt q (I
j
= 0 j q) v tt c cc dng in ti
cc nt khc bng 0, t phng trnh (5.1) ta suy ra.
E
q
= Z
qq
.I
q
= Z
qq

Tng t nh trn ta bm vo cc nt cn li
E
1
= Z
1q
.I
q

E
p
= Z
pq
.I
q
(5.9)

E
m
= Z
mq
.I
q
Trong phng trnh (5.9), Z
qq
c th thu c trc tip bng cch tnh E
q
.
Tng t ta c in p gia 2 nt p v q l:
E
q
= E
p
- v
pq

in p ti cc nt p v q c lin kt vi nhau bi phng trnh (5.3) v dng in
chy qua nhnh thm vo l:
i
pq
= -I
q
= -1 (5.10)
Cc in p qua cc nhnh ca mng ring c cho bi phng trnh (5.6) v cc dng
in chy qua cc nhnh cho bi phng trnh (5.4) v (5.10) ta c:

= + = 1 . .
, , rs rs pq pq pq pq pq
v y v y i


Do :

pq pq
rs rs pq
pq
y
v y
v
,
,
. 1


=


Th
rs
v

t phng trnh (5.6) ta c:



pq pq
s r rs pq
pq
y
E E y
v
,
,
) .( 1


=

(5.11)
Th v
pq
vo trong phng trnh (5.11) t (5.3) ta c:

pq pq
s r rs pq
p q
y
E E y
E E
,
,
) .( 1

+
+ =


Cui cng, th E
p
, E
q
,
r
E

v
s
E

t phng trnh (5.9) vi I


q
= 1, ta c:

pq pq
sq rq rs pq
pq qq
y
Z Z y
Z Z
,
,
) ( 1

+
+ =

(5.12)
Nu khng c h cm gia nhnh cy thm vo v cc nhnh khc ca mng ring, th
cc phn t ca y
pq,rs
bng 0.
V ta c:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 72

pq pq
pq pq
y
Z
,
,
1
=
T phng trnh (5.8), ta suy ra rng:
Z
qi
= Z
pi
, i = 1, 2, ....m i j
V t phng trnh (5.12), ta c:
Z
qq
= Z
pq
+ Z
pq,pq

Hn na, nu nh khng c h cm v p l nt qui chiu
Z
pi
= 0, i = 1, 2,......m i q
Nn: Z
qi
= 0, i = 1, 2,......m i q
Tng t: Z
pq
= 0
V v vy: Z
qq
= Z
pq,pq

5.3.3. S thm vo ca mt nhnh b cy.
Nu nhnh p - q thm vo l mt nhnh b cy, phng php tnh cc phn t ca
ma trn tng tr nt l mc ni tip vi nhnh thm vo mt sut in ng e
l
nh cho
trong hnh 5.5.
Vic ny to thnh mt nt gi l m nt s c loi tr ra sau . Sut in ng e
l

c chn nh th no m dng in chy qua nhnh b cy thm vo bng 0.





Gi s ma trn Z
Nt
ban u c kch thc m x m, khi ta thm nhnh b cy v to nt
gi l th ma trn Z
Nt
c kch thc l (m+1) x (m+1).
















Phng trnh t trng cho mng ring vi nhnh p-l thm vo v mch ni tip sc
in ng e
l
l .
l

p
E
p
Y
pq,pq
e
l
q
E
q
i
pq
=0
1
2
i
p
I
i
=
1
q
0
Mng in


l

v
pq
i
pq
e
l
Hnh 5.5 : Dng in bm vo,
sut in ng trong mch ni
tip vi nhnh b cy thm vo
v cc in p nt cho vic tnh
ton ca Z
li
E
p
E
l
E
q
H qui
chiu

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 73

l
m
ll lm l
ml mm m
l
l m
l
m
I
I
I
I
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
e
E
E
E
*
* *
* *
* * * * *
* * *
* *
*
2
1
1
1
2 12
1 1 11
2
1
(5.13)
V: e
l
= E
l
- E
q

Phn t Z
li
c th c xc nh bng cch bm vo mt dng in ti nt i v tnh in
p ti nt l thuc v nt q. V tt c cc dng in ti cc nt khc bng 0, t phng
trnh (5.13) ta suy ra:
E
k
= Z
ki
.I
i
= Z
ki

Tng t nh trn ta bm vo cc nt cn li
E
1
= Z
1i
.I
i


E
p
= Z
pi
.I
i


e
l
= Z
li
.I
i
, i =1, 2, ....m (5.14)
Cho I
i
= 1 trong phng trnh (5.14), Z
li
c th thu c trc tip bng cch tnh e
l
.
Sut in ng trong mch ni tip l:
e
l
= E
p
- E
q
- v
pl
(5.15)
V dng in chy qua nhnh b cy thm vo l:
i
pq
= 0
Nhnh p - l c th c l gii nh mt nhnh cy. Dng in trong nhnh ny, ng vi
cc s hn ca tng dn ban u v in p qua cc nhnh l:

= + = = 0 . .
, , rs rs pq pl pl pq pl pq
v y v y i i


Vi: y
pq,pq
: L tng dn ring ca nhnh p - q
y
pq,rs
: L tng dn tng h ca nhnh p - q vi nhnh r - s
i
pl
= i
pq
= 0
V vy:

=
rs rs pl
pl pl
pl
v y
y
v

.
1
,
,

Do :
rs pq rs pl
y y
, ,

= v
pq pq pl pl
y y
, ,
=
Nn ta c:

=
rs rs pq
pq pq
pl
v y
y
v

.
1
,
,
(5.16)
Th ln lt phng trnh (5.16), (5.6) v (5.14) vi I
i
= 1 vo phng trnh (5.15) ta
c:

+ = ) (
1
,
,
si ri rs pl
pl pl
qi pi li
Z Z y
y
Z Z Z

i = 1, 2, .....m,i l (5.17)
Phn t Z
ll
c th c tnh bng cch bm vo mt dng in ti nt l vi nt q l
im nt qui chiu v tnh in p ti nt th l thuc v nt q. Gi s ta bm dng I =
1A vo nt l (I
j
= 0 i l), v tt c cc dng in ti cc nt khc bng 0. T phng
trnh 5.13) ta suy ra:
E
k
= Z
kl
I
l
= Z
kl
k = 1, 2, .....m

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 74
Tng t nh trn ta bm vo cc nt cn li.
E
1
= Z
1l
.I
l

E
p
= Z
pl
.I
l
(5.18)

e
l
= Z
ll
.I
l
= Z
ll
Tng t ta c in p gia 2 nt p v l l:
e
l
= E
p
- E
q
- v
pl

Cho I
l
= 1 phng trnh (5.18), Z
ll
c th thu c trc tip bng cch tnh e
l.
Dng in trong nhnh p - l l:
i
pl
= -I
l
= -1
Dng in ny trong cc s hng ca cc tng dn ban u v cc in p qua cc
nhnh l:

= + = = 1 . .
, , rs rs pq pl pl pq pl pq
v y v y i i


Vi: y
pq,pq
: L tng dn ring ca nhnh p - q
y
pq,rs
: L tng dn tng h ca nhnh p - q vi nhnh r - s
Tng t, v:

rs pq rs pl
y y
, ,

= v
pq pq pl pl
y y
, ,
=
Nn:
pl pl
rs rs pl
pl
y
v y
v
,
,
. 1

+
=

(5.19)
Th ln lt phng trnh (5.19), (5.6) v (5.18) vo phng trnh (5.15) vi I
l
= 1 ta
c:

pq pq
sl rl rs pq
ql pl ll
y
Z Z y
Z Z Z
,
,
) ( 1

+
+ =

(5.20)
Nu nhnh thm vo khng h cm vi cc nhnh khc ca mng ring, th cc phn t
y
pq,rs
= 0
V:
pq pq
pq pq
y
Z
,
,
1
=
T phng trnh (5.17) ta suy ra:
Z
li
= Z
pi
- Z
qi
, i = 1, 2, ....m i l
V t phng trnh (5.20):
Z
ll
= Z
pl
- Z
ql
+ Z
pq,pq

Hn na, nu s thm vo m khng h cm v p l nt qui chiu th:
Z
pi
= 0, i = 1, 2, .....m l i
V: Z
li
= -Z
qi
, i = 1, 2, .....m l i
V tng t:: Z
pl
= 0
V vy: Z
ll
= - Z
ql
+ Z
pq,pq

Cc phn t trong hng v ct th l ca ma trn tng tr nt vi mng ring thm vo
c tm thy t cc phng trnh (5.17) v (5.20). Vic cn li ca tnh ton i hi
ma trn tng tr nt bao hm nh hng ca nhnh b cy thm vo. iu ny c th
hon thnh bng cch bin i cc phn t Z
ij,
trong i, j = 1, 2, .....m, v loi tr hng
v ct l tng ng vi nt gi.
Nt gi c loi tr bng cch ngn mch ngun sut in ng mch ni tip e
l
. T
phng trnh (5.13) ta c:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 75

l il Nut Nut Nut
I Z I Z E . .

+ = (5.21)
V: 0 . . = + =
l ll Nut lj l
I Z I Z e

i, j = 1, 2, ....m (5.22)
Gii I
l
t phng trnh (5.22) v th vo (5.21):

Nut
ll
lj il
Nut Nut
I
Z
Z Z
Z E

).
.
( =
y l phng trnh biu din ca mng ring bao hm nhnh b cy. T suy ra yu
cu ca ma trn tng tr nt l:
Z
Nt
(c bin i) = Z
Nt
(trc lc loi tr) -
ll
lj il
Z
Z Z

.

Vi : Bt k phn t ca Z
Nt
(c bin i) l:
Z
ij
(c bin i) = Z
ij
(trc lc loi tr) -
ll
lj il
Z
Z Z

.































BEGIN
Vo s liu
Nt qui chiu
k := 1
Thm
nhnh cy
Da vo bng s liu
nhp tng tr ban u Z
Tnh Z
Nt
Thm
Nhnh b cy
Da vo bng s liu
nhp li tng tr ban u Z
Tnh Z
Nt
Thm
S



GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 76












GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 77
CHNG 6

TRO LU CNG SUT
6.1. GII THIU:
Nhim v ca gii tch mng l tnh ton cc thng s ch lm vic, ch yu
l dng v p ti mi nt ca mng in. Vic xc nh cc thng s ch mng in
rt c ngha khi thit k, vn hnh v iu khin h thng in.
Mt s ln cc thut ton c xut trong 20 nm tr li y. Trong chng
ny ta gii thiu cc phng php trn cc kha cnh nh: D chng trnh ha, tc
gii, chnh xc....
Vic tnh ton dng cng sut phi c tin hnh tng bc v hiu chnh dn.
Bn cnh mc ch xc nh trng thi tnh th vic tnh ton dng cng sut cn l mt
phn ca cc chng trnh v ti u v n nh. Trc khi c s xut hin ca my tnh
s, vic tnh ton dng cng sut c tin hnh bng thit b phn tch mng. T nm
1956, khi xut hin my tnh s u tin th phng php tnh dng cng sut ng dng
my tnh s c xut v dn dn c thay th cc thit b phn tch mng. Ngy
nay cc thit b phn tch mng khng cn c dng na.
6.2. THIT LP CNG THC GII TCH.
Gi s mng truyn ti l mng 3 pha i xng v c biu din bng mng ni
tip dng nh trn hnh 6.1a. Cc phn t ca mng c lin kt vi nhau nn ma
trn tng dn nt Y
Nt
c th xc nh t s .
Theo s 6.1a ta c:
I
Nt
= Y
Nt
.V
Nt
(6.1)











Y
Nt
l mt ma trn tha v i xng. Ti cc cng ca mng c cc ngun cng
sut hay in p. Chnh cc ngun ny ti cc cng lm cho p v dng lin h phi
tuyn vi nhau theo (6.1) chng ta c th xc nh c cng sut tc dng v phn
khng bm vo mng (quy c cng sut dng khi c chiu bm vo mng) di
dng hm phi tuyn ca V
p
v I
p
. Ta c th hnh dung ngun cng sut bm vo mng
ni ngang qua cng ti u dng ca ngun bm nh hnh 6.1b.
Phn loi cc nt:
- Nt P -Q l nt m cng sut tc dng P v cng sut phn khng Q l c nh,
nh nt P 6.1 chng hn
) ( ) (
SP
LP
SP
GP
SP
LP
SP
GP
SP
p
SP
p p p
Q Q j P P jQ S I V + = + = (6.2)
Vi V
p
= e
p
+jf
p
1
p
.
.
0
(a
)
Hnh 6.1 : S a cng ca ng dy
truyn ti
P
I
p
S
p
+
V
p
-
(b
)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 78
Ch s GP v LP ng vi cng sut ngun pht v cng sut tiu th P. S cho bit
cng sut c nh (hay p t).
- Nt P -V tng t l nt c cng sut tc dng P c nh v ln in p
c gi khng i bng cch pht cng sut phn khng. Vi nt ny ta c:
SP
LP
SP
GP
SP
p p p
P P P I V = = ] Re[
*
(6.3)
SP
p p p p
V f e V = + = ) (
2 2
(6.4)
- Nt V-q (nt h thng) r rng nt ny in p v gc pha l khng i. Vic
a ra khi nim nt h thng l cn thit v tn tht I
2
R trong h thng l khng xc
nh trc c nn khng th c nh cng sut tc dng tt c cc nt. Nhn chung
nt h thng c ngun cng sut ln nht. Do ngi ta a ra nt iu khin in p
ni chung l n c cng sut pht ln nht. nt ny cng sut tc dng P
S
(s k hiu
nt h thng) l khng c nh v c tnh ton cui cng. V chng ta cng cn mt
pha lm chun trong h thng, gc pha ca nt h thng c chn lm chun thng
mc zero radian. in p phc V c nh cn P
s
v Q
s
c xc nh sau khi gii xong
tro lu cng sut cc nt.
6.3. CC PHNG PHP GII QUYT TRO LU CNG SUT:
Theo l thuyt th c hai phng php tn ti l phng php s dng ma trn
Y
Nt
v phng php s dng ma trn Z
Nt
. V bn cht c hai phng php u s
dng cc vng lp. Xt v lch s phng php th phng php Y
Nt
a ra trc v ma
trn Y
Nt
d tnh v lp trnh, thm ch ngy nay n vn s dng vi h thng khng ln
lm, phng php ny gi l phng php Gauss -Seidel. ng thi phng php
Newton cng c a ra phng php ny c u im hn v mt hi t. Sau khi cch
loi tr trt t ti u v k thut lp trnh ma trn vevt tha lm cho tc tnh ton
v s lng lu tr t hn, th phng php Newton tr nn rt ph bin. Ngy nay vi
h thng ln ti 200 nt hay hn na th phng php ny lun c dng. Phng
php dng ma trn Z
Nt
vi cc vng lp Gauss - Seidel cng c tnh hi t nh phng
php Newton nhng ma trn Z
Nt
l ma trn y nn cn b nh hn ct gi
chng, l hn ch chnh ca phng php ny
Trong chng ny chng ta ch gii thiu nguyn l ca cc phng php, cn
cc phng php c bit nh: S l ma trn tha, sp xp ti u php kh, lc ,
..... khng c cp n.
6.4. LCH V TIU CHUN HI T.
Php gii tro lu cng sut c coi l chnh xc khi tha mn iu kin t
(6.2) n (6.4) m ch yu l phi m bo chnh xc (6.4), hai tiu chun hi t ph
bin l:
- Mc cng sut tnh ton nt no theo V
p
v I
p
bn tri ng thc
(6.2) n (6.4) ph hp tng ng vi gi tr cho sn bn phi. S sai khc ny gi l
lch cng sut nt.
- lch in p nt gia 2 vng lp k tip nhau.
Sau y ta xt tng tiu chun c th:
+ Tiu chun lch cng sut nt:
T (6.1) v (6.2) ta c

=
+ = =
n
q
q pq p
SP
p
SP
p p p
SP
p p
V Y V jQ P I V S S
1
* * *
(6.5)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 79
Tch phn thc v phn o ca (6.5) ta c lch cng sut tc dng v
lch cng sut phn khng thch hp cho c (6.2) v (6.3). Biu din trong ta vung
gc nh sau: Ta s dng k hiu sau:

p p p p p
V jf e V = + =
q p pq
pq pq pq
jB G Y
=
+ =

Vi tng nt P -V hay P - Q
Dng ta vung gc:
] ) )( ( ) Re[(
1

=
+ =
n
q
q q pq pq p p
SP
P P
jf e jB G jf e P P (6.6a)
Dng ta cc:

+ =

=
n
q
q pq pq pq pq p
SP
p p
V B G V P P
1
| | ) sin cos ( | | (6.6b)
Vi tng nt P - Q
Dng ta vung gc:
] ) )( ( ) Im[(
1

=
+ =
n
q
q q pq pq p p
SP
p p
jf e jB G jf e Q Q (6.7a)
Dng ta cc:

=

=
n
q
q pq pq pq pq p
SP
p p
V B G V Q Q
1
| | ) cos sin ( | | (6.7b)
Tiu chun hi t chung nht c dng trong thc t l:
P
p
C
p
cho tt c nt P -V v P -Q
Q
p
C
q
cho tt c nt P -Q
Gi tr C
p
v C
q
c chn t 0,01 - 10 MVA hay MVAR ty theo trng hp.
+ Tiu chun lch in p:
Gi s bc lp l k, lch in p gia hai vng lp k v k +1 l:
( ) ( ) k k
p
V V V =
+1
cho tt c cc nt P - Q
Tiu chun hi t l:
V
p
C
v
cho tt c cc nt P - Q
Gi tr C
v
t 0,01 n 0,0001
6.5. PHNG PHP GAUSS - SEIDEL S DNG MA TRN Y
NT
:
d hiu phng php ny ta gi thit tt c cc nt l nt P-Q tr nt h thng
V - q. V in p ca nt h thng hon ton bit nn khng c vng lp no tnh cho
nt ny. Ta chn nt h thng l nt cn bng. Do V
q
(q s) coi l p ca nt q so
vi nt s (k hiu nt s l nt h thng). Vi tt c cc nt, tr nt th s l nt h thng
ta rt ra c t (6.1) v (6.2):

=
= = =
n
q
q pq
P
P
P
n p V Y
V
S
I
1
*
*
... 2 , 1 ; p s (6.8)
Tch Y
pq
, V
p
trong ra ri chuyn v ta c:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 80
n p V Y
V
S
Y
V
n
p q
q
q pq
P
P
pp
p
... 2 , 1
1
1
*
*
=

=
; p s (6.9)
Cc vng lp ca phng trnh Gauss - Seidel c thnh lp nh sau:

=

+ ) (
1 1
) (
3 13
) (
2 12
) (
1
1 1
11
) 1 (
1
... ....
1
k
n n s s
k k
k
k
V Y V Y V Y V Y
V
jQ P
Y
V

=

+ ) (
2 2
) (
1 21
) (
2
2 2
22
) 1 (
2
... .......
1
k
n n s s
k
k
k
V Y V Y V Y
V
jQ P
Y
V

=
+ +
+ +

) ( ) (
1 1
) (
1 1
) 1 (
1 1
) (
) 1 (
.... .. ..... .....
1
k
n pn s ps
k
P PP
k
P PP
k
P
k
P
P P
pp
k
p
V Y V Y V Y V Y V Y
V
jQ P
Y
V

=
+

+ +

) 1 (
1 1
) 1 (
1 1
) (
) 1 (
... ....
1
k
n nn s ns
k
n
k
n
n n
nn
k
n
V Y V Y V Y
V
jQ P
Y
V (6.10)
Hay vit di dng tng qut l:
pq
k
p
p
p
q
n
p q
k
q pq
k
q pq
k
p
Y V
S
V Y V Y V
1
.
* ) (
1
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

= =
+ +

Ma trn Y
Nt
l ma trn thu c khi ta xa i hng s v ct s ma trn Y
Nt
. V
V
Nt
, I
Nt
cng c c bng cch xa i phn t s. Ta vit li ma trn Y
Nt
bng cch
gm cc phn t ng cho, ma trn gm cc phn t tam gic di ng cho, ma
trn gm cc phn t tam gic trn ng cho.
Y
Nt
= D - L - W (6.11)
Vi:

=
X
O
X
O
X
D

=
O
O
O
X
O
W

=
O
X
O
O
O
L
Vy cc vng lp c vit gn li nh sau:
[ ] ) . ( . .
) ( ) ( ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 (
S
k
nut Nut
k
nut
k k
V V Y V W V L D V + + =
+ +
nut nut

Vi :

=
s ns
k
n
n n
s ps
k
p
p p
s S
k
S
k
Nut Nut
V Y
V
jQ P
V Y
V
jQ P
V Y
V
jQ P
V V Y
)* (
)* (
1
)* (
1
1 1
) (
) , ( (6.12)





BEGIN
Xc nh s
liu vo
Y
pq
,Y
qp
, p = 1,
2 n
Chn tr s in
p ban u V
p
(0)
,
p = 1, 2,... n

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 81




























Kim tra hi t nh sau:
V
k
p
k
p
C V V Max <
+
| |
) ( ) 1 (
(6.13)
Thng thng ti bc u tin ta ly tr s ban u V
p
(0)
bng in p nh mc
ca mng in v ch gm phn thc. Nh vy thut ton lp Gauss - Seidel i vi
(6.10) c m t nh hnh 6.2.
+ Xc nh Y
pq
,Y
qp
, vi p = 1... n; q = 1... n
+ Chn gi tr ban u ti cc nt: V
p
(0)
(p = 1... n). Thng ly V
p
(0)
= U
m
.
+ Tnh gi tr bc 1 theo (6.10). Qu trnh tnh theo vng trn, ngha l gi tr
in p ti nt p bc k+1 c tnh qua gi tr in p ti bc k+1 ca tt c cc nt
cn li p - 1, p - 2, ..., 1 v in p ti bc k ca cc nt p + 1, p + 2, ... n.
+ Tnh lp vi k tng dn
+ Kim tra iu kin dng. Max|V
p
(k+1)
| < C
v
. Nu sai th tr v bc 3, nu
ng th tip tc tnh ton cc i lng khc nh cng sut trn ng dy, in p, ...
v dng.
L thuyt chng minh rng phng php Gauss - Seidel hi t khi modul tr
ring ln nht ca Y
Nt
nh hn 1.
u im chnh ca phng php Gauss - Seidel l n gin, d lp trnh, tn b
nh (do ma trn Y
Nt
d thnh lp) v khi lng tnh ton ti mi bc lp cng t.

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 82
Nhc im ca phng php l tc hi t chm, do cn c phng php
nng cao tc hi t. iu ny c xt n trong phn sau.
6.5.1. Tnh ton nt P-V:
nt P-V s tnh ton c khc v cng sut phn khng Q cha bit nhng
ln in p c gi
sp
p
V . Mt khc thit b ch pht gii hn cng sut phn khng
trong khong t
min
p
Q n
max
p
Q nt P-V cng sut
sp
p
Q c thay bng
cal
p
Q .
Vi: ) . Im(
*
p p
cal
p
I V Q =

=
=
=
+ + =

+ =
=
n
p q
q
pq q pq q p
n
p q
q
pq q pq q p pq p pp p
n
q
q q pq pq p p
n
q
q pq p
B f B e f B f B e e B f B e
jf e jB G jf e
V Y V
1 1
2 2
1
1
* *
) ( ) (
) )( ( ) ( Im
) Im(
(6.14)
Pha bn phi (6.14) l gi tr mi nht ca in p tnh ton v tnh c
cal
p
Q
thay vo (6.10) ta tnh c gi tr mi ca in p
) 1 ( + k
p
V . V in p nt ny c
ln khng i |V
p
|
sp
nn phn thc v o ca
) 1 ( + k
p
V phi c iu chnh tha mn
iu kin ny trong khi gi gc pha nh sau:
) 1 (
) 1 (
1 ) 1 (
tan
+
+
+
=
k
P
k
P k
p
e
f
(6.15)
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
sin | | cos | |
+ + + + +
+ = + =
k
mi p
k
mi p
k
p
sp
p
k
p
sp
p
k
mi p
jf e V j V V (6.16)
Cc gi tr ny c dng cho cc tnh ton tip theo. So snh cng sut phn
khng tnh c v gii hn ca n.
Nu
max
p
cal
p
Q Q > t
max
p
cal
p
Q Q = , nu
min
p
cal
p
Q Q < t
min
p
cal
p
Q Q =
Tnh nh tnh vi nt P - Q v khng iu chnh in p. Nu trong tnh ton tip
theo
cal
p
Q gim xung trong phm vi gii hn th tnh ton nh nt P - V
6.5.2. Tnh ton dng chy trn ng dy v cng sut nt h thng:
Sau khi cc php tnh v vng lp hi t. Dng chy trn ng dy v cng sut
nt h thng c tnh nh sau:











Xt ng dy ni t nt p n nt q c tng dn ni tip v Y
pq
v tng dn r
l Y

pq
, dng in ng dy c xc nh:
Y
pq
Y
pq
/2
Y
pq
/
2
I
pq
I
pq
+
V
p
-
+
V
q
-
p

q
0

0

Hnh 6.3 : S ca ng dy
truyn ti

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 83
2 / ) (
'
pq p pq q p pq
Y V Y V V I + =
Dng cng sut chy t p n q l:
] 2 / ) [(
'* * * *
pq P pq q p p pq pq
Y V Y V V V jQ P + = + (6.17)
Dng cng sut chy t q n p l:
] 2 / ) [(
'* * * *
pq q pq p q q qp qp
Y V Y V V V jQ P + = + (6.18)
Tn tht cng sut ng dy s bng tng i s ca P
pq
+jQ
pq
v P
qp
+jQ
qp
Cng sut nt h thng c tnh bng tng cc dng cng sut chy trn cc
ng dy c u ni vi nt h thng:
6.5.3. Tng tc hi t:
Phng php s dng vng lp Y
Nt
hi t chm bi v trong h thng ln mi
nt thng c dy ni n 3 hay 4 nt khc. Kt qu l lm cho tin trnh lp yu i
vic ci thin in p mt nt s nh hng n cc nt ni trc tip vo n. V vy
k thut tng tc c s dng nng cao tc hi t.
Phng php ph bin nht l SOR (Successive - over - relaxation) phng php
gim d qu hn lin tip.
Ni dung phng php l c sau mi vng lp th s hiu chnh in p trn cc
nt P - Q bng cch sau:
) (
) ( ) 1 (
) (
) 1 ( k
p
k
tnh p
k
p
V V V =
+ +
(6.19)
V V
p
(k+1)
l:
) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( + +
+ =
k
p
k
p
k
p
V V V (6.20)
H s a gi l h s tng tc c xc nh theo kinh nghim gia 1 v 2,
thng (1 < a < 2).
Nu a chn hp l th tc hi t tng mnh, nhn chung gi tr thc ca a l t
1,4 n 1,6. Nu a l s phc th phn thc v phn o ca in p c tng tc ring
bit:
[ ] [ ]
) ( ) 1 (
) (
) ( ) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
Im Re
k
p
k
tnh p
k
p
k
tnh p
k
p
V V j V V V + =
+ + +
(2.21)
V
) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( + +
+ =
k
p
k
p
k
p
V V V (6.22)
Vi a v b u l s thc:
6.5.4. u v nhc im ca phng php dng Y
Nt
:
Ma trn Y
Nt
kh d thnh lp v phng php gii l trc tip nn lp trnh tr
nn n gin. B nh c dng lu tr cc phn t khc khng nm trn ng
cho chnh. Sau khi s dng tnh i xng ca Y
Nt
th vic tnh ton v lu tr cng
gn hn. V trong h thng mi nt ni n 3 hay 4 nt khc nn mi vng lp cho tng
nt s dng n s lu tr cc nt ny, do php tnh s tng ln rt nhiu. S php
tnh trong mi bc lp t l vi s nt n, nu s nt l n th s php tnh l n
2
. Vi h
thng c 200 nt hay hn na phng php ny t ra km hiu qu v rt kh hi t
nu c nh hng ca iu kin no chng hn c mt ca t ni tip (t b dc) so
vi phng php Newton.
6.6. PHNG PHP S DNG MA TRN Z
NT
:
gii thch v phng php ny u tin ta gi thit khng c nt P-V cc nt
u l P - Q (gm n nt) v mt nt cn bng (chn nt cn bng l nt h thng).
Trng hp c tn ti nt P - V s xt phn 6.6.3:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 84
Gi thit cc thng s ca mng tuyn tnh khi c th xem ngun dng nt
th p l J
p
l t hp tuyn tnh ca dng in gy ra bi in p V
p
v in p cc nt
khc V
q
(q = 1... n, q p). y l nguyn l xp chng ca mng in.
Y
Nt
.V
Nt
= I
Nt

Y
Nt
, V
Nt
, I
Nt
c ngha nh (6.1)
Nhim v ca chng ta l tm V
Nt
. tm V
Nt
c th dng phng php kh
lin tip hay phng php Crame nhng cc phng php ny rt cng knh khi n ln.
y ta cp n phng php ma trn.
Do Y
Nt
l ma trn vung, i xng v khng suy bin nn ta c:
V
Nt
= Y
Nt
-1
. I
Nt
Y
Nt
-1
= Z
Nt
: Gi l ma trn tng tr nt ca mng in. Do ta c th vit:
V
Nt
= Z
Nt
. I
Nt

Z
Nt
c th xc nh theo ba cch sau:
+ Xc nh t
1
Nut
Y : Phng php ny c th dng c khi n b bng cch dng
ma trn phn ph i s ca Y
Nt
. Khi n ln c th dng thut ton lp, cng thc ca
thut ton lp xc nh ma trn nghch o ti bc th k l:
]) 1 [ . ]( 1 [ ] 1 [ ] [
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
*
+ =

k Y Y I k Y k Y k Y
Nut Nut Nut Nut Nut

Vi ] 1 [
1
*

k Y
Nut
: L ma trn nghch o gn ng ca ] 1 [
1

k Y
Nut
v I l ma trn
n v. C th ly ] 0 [
1
*

Nut
Y l ma trn ng cho suy ra t Y
Nt
bng cch gi li cc
phn t trn ng cho chnh. Qu trnh lp dng li khi I Y k Y
Nut Nut

]. [
1
*
.
+ Xc nh t s mng:
V Z
Nt
cng c ngha vt l nh Y
Nt
do ta cng c th thit lp t s :
Z
pp
: L tng dn u vo nhn t nt i n nt cn bng khi mi nt k c I
k
= 0,
k p.
Z
pq
, p q l tng tr tng h gia nt p v nt q.
+ Khi c s tr gip ca my tnh in t th Z
Nt
c xc nh theo phng
php m rng dn s nh sau:
Chn vi phn t ca mng d lp Z
Nt
theo cch 2 trn. Sau m rng
dn s cho n khi n nt:
Phng php ny thng c s dng khi gii tch mng c cu trc thay i
v bi ton c chng trnh ha.
Qua y ta thy vic xc nh Z
Nt
t s kh hn so vi vic xc nh Y
Nt
t
s . By gi ta xt tng phng php lp c th sau khi xc nh c Z
Nt
.
6.6.1. Phng php tha s zero:
Xt ma trn Y
Nt
ta b i hng, ct ng vi nt h thng ta c ma trn Y
Nt
t
(6.12) b i cc k hiu vng lp ta c:
Y
Nt
.

V
Nt
= g(I
Nt
,V
s
)
Ly nghch o Y
Nt
ta c:

Nut Nut
Z Y =
1

) , ( .
) ( ) 1 (
s
k
Nut Nut
k
Nut
V I g Z V =
+

Cc vng lp theo phng php Gauss - Seidel:

) ( ) 1 (
.
k
Nut Nut
k
Nut
I Z V =
+

Vit rng ra cc vng lp l:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 85
( )
( )
( )
( )

+
+
s ns k
n
n n
s s k
Nut
k
n
k
V Y
V
jQ P
V Y
V
jQ P
Z
V
V

1
1
1 1
1
1
1
(6.26)
Ma trn Z
Nt
c c khi nghch o Y
Nt
bng tin trnh phn t ha ba gc.
Theo phng php c
( ) k
p
V (p = 1, 2... n, p s) pha bn phi (6.26) c thay
bng
( ) 1 + k
p
V v phi gii phng trnh bc 2 iu ny s gp kh khn nu cn bc 2 ca
l s m. Chng ta s xy dng thut ton tnh lp vi ma trn Z
Nt
c sn.
Qu trnh tnh lp dng li khi Max|V
p
(k+1)
- V
p
(k)
| < C
v

6.6.2. Phng php s dng ma trn Z
Nt :

tin li ta a phng trnh nt h thng vo ma trn V
Nt
= Z
Nt
.I
Nt
v sp
xp li nh sau:

s
n d
T
b
b a
s
n
I
I
I
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
V

1 1
(6.27)
V V
s
bit trc nn ta tm I
s
t (n -1) phng trnh u nh sau: Rt t (6.27) v
chuyn v nghch o Z
d
ta c:
s d Nut
T
b d s
V Z I Z Z I
1 1
+ = (6.28)
Vi: ) ,.... , ,..... , (
1 2 1 n s s
T
Nut
I I I I I I
+
=
Th vo phn cn li ca (6.27) ta c:
S Nut Nut
S d b Nut
T
b d b a Nut
bV I Z
V Z Z I Z Z Z Z V
+ =
+ =
1 1
) (
(6.29)
Vi:
1
=
d b
Z Z b v ) (
1 T
b d b a Nut
Z Z Z Z Z

=
Ch rng Z
Nt

Nut
Z
T 6.29 ta thnh lp cc vng lp Gauss - Seidel nh sau:
s p n p V b
V
S
Z
V
S
Z V
s p
n
s q
p q
k
q
q
pq
p
s q
q
k
q
q
pq
k
p
= + + =

=
+
+
; ... , 2 , 1 ) ( ) (
) ( *
*
1
1
) 1 ( *
*
) 1 (
(6.30)
Qu trnh lp dng li khi:
Max|V
p
(k+1)
- V
p
(k)
| < C
v
p = 1, 2, ... n.
Ta thy phng php ny hi t nhanh hn phng php tha s Zero v ngay ti
bc lp k+1 cc nt p c iu chnh bng in p ti cc nt p-1, p-2, ..., 1 ti bc
k+1 ny.
6.6.3. Phng php s dng ma trn Z vi nt h thng lm chun:
Trong phng php ny, tt c tng tr mch r c b i v nh hng ca n
c thay th bng dng bm thch hp v nhnh ni t h mch.
V in p nt h thng bit nn tt c (n -1) nt cn li vi nt ni t lm
chun, in p c tnh nh sau:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 86
V
Nt
= Z
BS
.I
Nt
+ hV
S

(6.31)
Vi h
T
= (1.......1)
th hin tng dn mch r ti nt p l Y
p
, ta bm vo mng dng m nn
dng in bm vo mng thc t l:

p p
p
p
p
V Y
V
S
I =
*
*
(6.32)
Bit I
p
thnh lp vng lp Gauss - Seidel tnh V
p
rt t (6.31) nh sau:
s p n p V I Z I Z V
s
n
s q
p q
k
q pq
p
s q
q
k
q pq
k
p
= + + =

=
+ +
; ... , 2 , 1
) (
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
(6.33)
Vi
q q
q
q
q
V Y
V
S
I =
*
*

6.6.4. Phng php tnh lun c nt iu khin p:
Nu a lun cc nt iu khin p vo tin trnh tnh ton th lm tng t nh
phng php ma trn Y
Nt
. Trong tnh ton dng in nt ta thay
cal
p
Q bng
sp
p
Q (gi tr
phng on). in p ca nt c c chng nh s dng gi tr Q trn, phn thc
v phn o ca n c iu chnh tha mn ln in p v gi cho gc pha khng
i. S dng gi tr gii hn ca Q chuyn t nt P-V sang nt P-Q hay ngc li
khi vt qu gii hn.
6.6.5. Hi t v hiu qu tnh ton:
Nu tt c cc nt u l nt P-Q th c th tnh ton ma trn Z
Nt
mt cch trc
tip l sung s, v dng in ca mi nt u nh hng n tt c cc nt khc thng
qua ma trn Z
Nt
gn nh y hi t nhanh vo 8 n 20 vng lp so vi mt s ln
vng lp theo phng php vng lp Y
Nt
.
Tr ngi ln nht ca phng php l cn phi ct gi ma trn Z
Nt
y , thm
ch khi s dng tnh i xng ca n cng cn hn n
2
bin (gm c phn thc v
phn o ca ma trn Z
Nt
) c ct gi. V vy cch gii b hn ch s dng. Khi s
dng b nh ph nh a hay bng t th thi gian tnh ton li gia tng, trong trng
hp phng php ma trn Z
Nt
t hiu dng. Phng php ny ch yu dng cho cc
bi ton v ti u ha vic truyn cng sut khi c tr gip ca nhiu my tnh. S
dng n trc tip trong phn iu cng sut ti u.
6.7. PHNG PHP NEWTON:
Phng php ny s dng phng php ni ting ca Newton - Raphson gii
phng trnh phi tuyn mt bin:
Nhc li tinh thn ch yu ca phng php newton nh sau :
Nu f(x) = 0 l phng trnh phi tuyn th khai trin f(x) theo gi tr u x
(0)
nh sau:
0 ... ) ( ' '
2
) (
) ( ' ) ( ) (
) 0 (
2 ) 0 (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= +

+ + x f
x x
x f x x x f (6.34)
B qua s hng bc cao ch gi li phn tuyn tnh ta c:
0 ) ( ' ) ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= + x f x x x f (6.35)
Gii (6.35) bng phng php lp nh sau:
Thay x = x
(1)
ta c:
) ( '
) (
) 0 (
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) 1 (
x f
x f
x x = (6.36)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 87
Tip tc khai trin ti x
(1)
ri tnh x
(1)
c nh th x
(k+ 1)

) ( '
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) 1 (
k
k
k k
x f
x f
x x =
+
(6.37)
y l cng thc lp Newton. Khi m rng cng thc (6.37) cho hm nhiu bin
th ta c phng php Newton - Raphson. Phng php ny mi l phng php ma
trn c ng dng trong gii tch mng. Vi trng hp gi thit c n phng trnh
phi tuyn n bin, ta c phng trnh nh sau:
F(x) = 0; f
i
(x
1
,x
2
,.....x
n
) = 0; i = 1, 2,.... n (6.38)
Vy: ) ( . )] ( ' [
) ( 1 ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( k k k k
x F x F x x
+
= (6.39)
Trong F(x) l ma trn Jacobien ca F(x):

=
n
n n n
n
j
i
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x F


2 1
1
2
1
1
1
) ( ' (6.40)
Cc vng lp ca (6.39) c chia ra lm hai phn: Phn hiu chnh v phn
gm khi cc phng trnh tuyn tnh.
t J
(k)
= F(x
(k)
) th phng trnh (6.39) tng ng vi h sau:
- F(x
(k)
) = -J
(k)
X
(k)
(6.41a)
- X
(k+1)
= X
(k)
+ X
(k)
(6.41b)
Phng php Newton c c tnh hi t bc 2 v din mo hi t khng ging
cc phng php khc. Tr ngi ca n l phng on ban u phi gn vi li gii
cho phng php hi t. Vi h thng in, iu ny khng nghim trng lm v ta kinh
nghim c th a ra phng on tt.
6.7.1. Gii quyt tro lu cng sut:
Xt phng trnh h thng (6.1) di dng m rng:
n p V Y I
n
q
q pq p
... 2 , 1
1
= =

=
(6.42)
Lin hp ha v nhn (6.42) vi V
p
ta c:

=
= =
n
q
q pq p p p p
V Y V S I V
1
* * *
(6.43)
Tch phn thc v phn o ra:

=

=
n
q
q pq p p
V Y V P
1
* *
Re p = 1, 2, .... n (6.44)

=

=
n
q
q pq p p
V Y V Q
1
* *
Im p = 1, 2, .... n (6.45)
6.7.2. Phng php lch cng sut trong ta cc:
Phng php Newton s dng lch cng sut trong ta cc c s dng
rng ri trong tnh ton tro lu cng sut phng php ta vung gc km hiu qu
nn khng xt y, trong phn ny ta k hiu:
V
p
= |V
p
| (
p
)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 88
q
pq
= q
p
- q
q
Y
pq
= G
pq
+jB
pq

Do (6.44) v (6.45) biu din trong ta cc nh sau:
[ ]

=
= +
n
q
q pq pq pq pq p p
V B G V P
1
0 | | ) sin cos ( | | (6.46)
[ ]

=
=
n
q
q pq pq pq pq p p
V B G V Q
1
0 | | ) cos sin ( | | p = 1, 2... n (6.47)
Gi thit n l tng s nt ca mng in, nt th n+1 l nt cn bng, s nt P-Q
l n
1
, P-V l n
2
v 1 nt h thng v vy n = n
1
+n
2
+1.
Nhim v ca chng ta l tm ln in p cha bit |V| (n
1
s) i vi nt P-Q
v gc pha cha bit (n
1
+ n
2
s) c nt P-V v P-Q. Coi X l vect bin (gm c n
|V| v q), v vect Y l vect cc bin bit [th X gm 2(n
1
+ n
2
) phn t v Y gm
2n
1
+2n
2
+2 phn t ].

=
V P nut mi
V
P
Q P nut mi
Q
P
thng h nut
V
Y
V
X
sp
p
sp
p
sp
p
sp
p
s
s

;
V - P
nut mi
Q - P
nut mi

T h phng trnh (6.46) v (6.47) ta chn s phng trnh bng s bin ca X
t a dng phng trnh tro lu cng sut phi tuyn F(X,Y) = 0 v dng F(X) = 0
bng cch kh i cc bin bit ca Y.
Chng ta c dng F(x) nh sau:
0
47 . 2
46 . 2
) ( =

=
=
=
sp
p p
sp
p p
Q Q vi Q P nut cac cho
P P vi V P va Q P nut cac Cho
X F (6.48)
Cui cng ta c 2n
1
+ 1n
2
phng trnh va bng s bin ca X.
Cc phng trnh ny vit li di dng ma trn:
0 =

Q
P
(6.49)
Vi ( )

+ =

=
n
q
q pq pq pq pq p
sp
p p
V B G V P P
1
| | sin cos | | (6.50a)
( )

=

=
n
q
q pq pq pq pq p
sp
p p
V B G V Q Q
1
| | cos sin | | (6.50b)
p = 1, 2....n; p s, p nt P-V
Vit di dng cng thc Newton phng trnh (6.41a)
) (
) ( ) ( | |
| |
k
k k V
V
x
L M
N H
Q
P


(6.51)
q l vect con gia s ca gc pha ti cc nt P-Q v P-V.
S khi thut ton Newton - Raphson trong ta cc c trnh by trong
hnh i y.

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 89







































BEGIN
k: = 0
Tnh P
p
(k)
, Q
p
(k)
theo V
p
(k)

Lu MaxP
p
, MaxQ
p
.Tnh Jacobi, p = 1,
2, ...., n
Xc nh thay i cc i ca in
p
Max|V
(k+1)
| = |V
(k+1)
- V
(k)
| p = 1,
END
Xc nh s liu vo
G
pp
, B
pp
, G
pq
, B
pq

Chn tr s in p
ban u V
p
(0)
, p =
1, 2, ... n
Kim tra
MaxP
p
< C
p
MaxQ
p
< C
q
In kt
qu
V
p
= V
p
(k+1)
+ V
0

p = 1,2,....,n
Tnh dng
cng sut,
in
Tnh dng cng
sut, in
p......

V
p
= V
p
(k+1)
+ V
0

p = 1, 2,....,
n
k:=
k+1
Nghch o ma trn
Jacobi
Tnh q v |V| / |V|
Cp nht in p nt v gc
pha
|V
p
|
(k+1)
= |V
p
(k)
| + |V
p
(k)
|
q
p
(k+1)
= q
p
(k)
+ q
p
(k)
Hnh 6.4 : S khi thut ton Newton -
Raphson trong ta cc

S

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 91
CHNG 7

TNH TON NGN MCH

7.1. GII THIU.
Tnh ton ngn mch cho ta bit dng v p ca h thng in trong trng thi s
c. Vic tnh ton gip ta d nh cho h thng bo v rle tng ng v xc nh cc
gi tr ct ca my ct ng vi mi v tr khc nhau. H thng rle phi nhn ra s tn
ti ca ngn mch v bt u my ct tc ng ct s c d dng. S tc ng i hi
phi m bo tin cy gii hn s thit hi cho thit b. Gi tr dng v p nhn c
l kt qu ca nhiu dng ngn mch xy ra ring bit ti nhiu v tr trong h thng
in nn phi tnh ton cung cp d liu c hiu qu cho h thng rle v my
ct. Tng t my tnh, cc thng tin thu c ng dng vo cc mc ch ring bit
c gi l gii tch mng c dng rng ri trong nghin cu ngn mch trc khi
k thut s pht trin.













Cu trc nt qui chiu trong hnh thc tng dn l vic lm u tin trong ng
dng ca my tnh s cho nghin cu ngn mch. Tng t nh phng php tnh ton
tro lu cng sut, dng k thut lp. Hon ton lp li mt cch y ng vi mi
dng s c. Th tc chi tit tn nhiu thi gian, thng trong mi trng hp, dng v
p i hi cho mt s ln v tr ngn mch. V vy phng php ny khng c ng
dng rng ri.
S php trin ca k thut vi s ng dng ca my tnh s, hnh thc ma trn
tng tr nt c th tnh ton c bng cch dng nh l Thevenin cho vic tnh ton
ngn mch. Php tnh gn ng cung cp gi tr trung bnh cho dng v p lc ngn
mch, v gi tr c th thu c vi vi php ton s hc theo sau ch lin h vi ma
trn tng tr nt.
7.2. TNH TON NGN MCH BNG CCH DNG MA TRN Z
NT
.
7.2.1. M t h thng
M t h thng in 3 pha trong trng thi bnh thng nh hnh 7.1. Trong
trng hp tng qut chnh xc khi nghin cu ngn mch c th thu c vi s
trnh by n gin ha. Miu t 3 pha n gin trong hnh 7.2 v thu c bi:


Hnh 7.1 : Gii thiu h thng in dng
3 pha
i
p
G
1
G
2
G
n
H thng
truyn
ti
L
1
L
2
L
m
T
i

..
..
E
p
a,b,
c
E
i
a,b,c


My
pht
H thng
truyn ti
i
p
e
1
a,b,
c
e
a,b,


E
a,b,

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 92














- Miu t mi my pht bng in p khng i pha sau my pht l in khng
qu hay siu qu .
- Khng ch n nhnh mch r, ti hay ng dy ...
- Coi tt c cc my bin p nh l mt cun dy khng ng k.
Trong nghin cu ngn mch, c bit vi h thng in cao p, c th miu t tng tr
my bin p v ng dy truyn ti nh 1 s thc bng ng in khng ca n.
7.2.2. Dng v p ngn mch.
Dng ma trn tng tr nt cung cp nhng thun li cho vic tnh ton dng v
p khi ta xem t l im qui chiu. Mt iu thun li ring l hnh thnh ma trn tng
tr nt, cc thnh phn ca ma trn c th tnh ton trc tip dng v p ng vi mi v
tr v dng ngn mch.
H thng miu t vi im ngn mch ti nt p trnh by trong hnh 7.3. y ta
s dng nh l Thevenin, gi tr tng tr ring c miu t bng ma trn tng tr nt
c tnh n in khng my pht v gi tr in p mch h c biu din bi in p
nt trc ngn mch.
Phng trnh c tnh ca h thng trong lc s c.

c b a
F Nut
c b a
Nut
c b a
Nut
c b a
F Nut
I Z E E
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
.

= (7.1)
Gi tr n ca vect in p l:














Hnh 7.3 : Gii thiu h thng in 3 pha vi
ngn mch ti nt p
Ma trn tng
tr nt
(h thng
truyn ti
v in
khng my
pht)



Ngn
mch
c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (

i
p
c b a
i
E
, ,
) 0 (

c b a
p
E
, ,
) 0 (

c b a
F i
E
, ,
) (

c b a
F p
E
, ,
) (


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 93










Vi :
c b a
F Nut
E
, ,
) (

: Cc thnh phn l cc vect in p 3 pha


c b a
F i
E
, ,
) (

i = 1, 2, 3, ...., n
Cc gi tr vect in p bit trc lc ngn mch l:









Gi tr n vect dng in lc ngn mch ti nt p l:












Ma trn tng tr nt 3 pha l:








Trong cc thnh phn ca ma trn
c b a
Nut
Z
, ,
l ma trn c kch thc 3x3. Phng trnh
(7.1) c th vit li nh sau:
c b a
F
E
, ,
) ( 1

c b a
F p
E
, ,
) (
c b a
F n
E
, ,
) (
....
....
....
....
=
c b a
F Nut
E
, ,
) (


c b a
E
, ,
) 0 ( 1
c b a
p
E
, ,
) 0 (
c b a
n
E
, ,
) 0 (
....
....
....
....
=
c b a
Nut
E
, ,
) 0 (


c b a
Z
, ,
11

c b a
n
Z
, ,
1

c b a
p
Z
, ,
1

c b a
p
Z
, ,
1

c b a
pp
Z
, ,

c b a
pn
Z
, ,

c b a
n
Z
, ,
1

c b a
np
Z
, ,

c b a
nn
Z
, ,

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
=
c b a
Nut
Z
, ,

c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (

....
....
....
....
=
c b a
F Nut
I
, ,
) (


0
0
0
0

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 94

c b a
F p
c b a
p
c b a c b a
F
I Z E E
, ,
) (
, ,
1
, ,
) 0 ( 1
, ,
) ( 1
. =

c b a
F p
c b a
p
c b a c b a
F
I Z E E
, ,
) (
, ,
2
, ,
) 0 ( 2
, ,
) ( 2
. =
........................................

c b a
F p
c b a
pp
c b a
p
c b a
F p
I Z E E
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
. = (7.2)
.........................................

c b a
F p
c b a
np
c b a
n
c b a
F n
I Z E E
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
. =
Vect in p 3 pha lc ngn mch ti nt p theo hnh 7.3 l:

c b a
F p
c b a
F
c b a
F p
I Z E
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) (
. = (7.3)
Trong :
c b a
F
Z
, ,
l ma trn tng tr 3 pha lc ngn mch. Ma trn kch thc 3x3 c cc
thnh phn ph thuc vo dng v tng tr ngn mch. Th phng trnh (7.3) vi
c b a
F p
E
, ,
) (
vo trong phng trnh (7.2) ta c.

( )
c b a
F p
c b a
pp
c b a
p
c b a
F p
c b a
F
I Z E I Z
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) 0 (
, , , ,
. . = (7.4)
T phng trnh (7.4) ta thu uc
c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (


c b a
p
c b a
pp
c b a
F
c b a
F p
E Z Z I
, ,
) 0 (
1 , , , , , ,
) (
) (

+ = (7.5)
Thay
c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (
vo trong phng trnh (7.3) in p 3 pha lc ngn mch ti nt p nh sau.

c b a
p
c b a
pp
c b a
F
c b a
F
c b a
F p
E Z Z Z E
, ,
) 0 (
1 , , , , , , , ,
) (
) (

+ = (7.6)
Tng t in p 3 pha ti cc im khc p c th thu c bng s thay th
c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (
vo
trong phng trnh (7.5) ta c:
p i E Z Z Z E E
c b a
p
c b a
pp
c b a
F
c b a
ip
c b a
i
c b a
F i
+ =
, ,
) 0 (
1 , , , , , , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
) ( (7.7)
y l cch biu din thng dng cc tham s dng ngn mch trong hnh thc tng
tr, dng 3 pha ngn mch ti nt p l:

c b a
F p
c b a
F
c b a
F p
E Y I
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) (
. = (7.8)
Trong
c b a
F
Y
, ,
l ma trn tng dn lc ngn mch. Thay
c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (
t phng trnh (7.8) vo
phng trnh (7.2) tr thnh.

c b a
F p
c b a
F
c b a
pp
c b a
p
c b a
F p
E Y Z E E
, ,
) (
, , , , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
. . = (7.9)
T phng trnh (7.9) rt
c b a
F p
E
, ,
) (
ta c.

c b a
p
c b a
F
c b a
pp
c b a
F p
E Y Z U E
, ,
) 0 (
1 , , , , , ,
) (
) (

+ = (7.10)
Th
c b a
F p
E
, ,
) (
vo trong phng trnh (7.8) dng ngn mch 3 pha ti nt p l:

c b a
p
c b a
F
c b a
pp
c b a
F
c b a
F p
E Y Z U Y I
, ,
) 0 (
1 , , , , , , , ,
) (
) (

+ = (7.11)
Tng t in p 3 pha ti cc nt khc p c th thu c bng cch thay th
c b a
F p
I
, ,
) (
t
phng trnh (7.11).
p i E Y Z U Y Z E E
c b a
p
c b a
F
c b a
pp
c b a
F
c b a
ip
c b a
i
c b a
F i
+ =
, ,
) 0 (
1 , , , , , , , , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
) ( (7.12)
Dng ngn mch qua mi nhnh ca mng c th c tnh vi in p nt thu c t
phng trnh (7.6) v (7.7) hay t phng trnh (7.10) v (7.12). Dng in qua mi
nhnh trong mng l:
[ ]
c b a
F
c b a c b a
F
v y i
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) (
=


Trong thnh phn ca vect dng in l:
a
F ij
i
) (

b
F ij
i
) (

c
F ij
i
) (

=
c b a
F ij
i
, ,
) (


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 95



Cc thnh phn ca vect in p l:





Cc thnh phn ca ma trn tng tr gc l:





Vi
bc
kl ij
y
,
l tng dn tng h gia nhnh i-j ca pha b v nhnh k-l ca pha c. Dng
in 3 pha trong nhnh i-j c th thu c t.

c b a
F rs
c b a
rs ij
c b a
F ij
v y i
, ,
) (
, ,
,
, ,
) (
.

= (7.13)
Vi r - s lin h vi nhnh i-j nh nhng phn t tng h ni n nhnh i-j.

c b a
F s
c b a
F r
c b a
F rs
E E v
, ,
) (
, ,
) (
, ,
) (

= (7.14)
Phng trnh (7.13) tr thnh
) (
, ,
) (
, ,
) (
, ,
,
, ,
) (
c b a
F s
c b a
F r
c b a
rs ij
c b a
F ij
E E y i

=
Nhng cng thc trn c th p dng tnh dng v p cho c dng ngn mch 3 pha
i xng hay khng i xng.
7.3. TNH TON NGN MCH CHO MNG 3 PHA I XNG BNG CCH DNG
Z
NT
7.3.1. Bin i thnh dng i xng.
Nhng cng thc a ra trn tnh ton dng v p lc ngn mch c th
n gin ha i vi mt h 3 pha i xng bng cch dng cc thnh phn i xng.
Ma trn tng tr gc i vi mt thnh phn 3 pha i xng n nh l:





Ma trn c th tr thnh ma trn ng cho bng php bin i
s
c b a
pq
t
s
T z T
, , *
) ( ta c.





Vi
) 0 (
pq
z ,
) 1 (
pq
z v
) 2 (
pq
z th t l tng tr th t khng, th t thun, th t nghch. i vi
h 3 pha i xng tng tr th t thun v th t nghch bng nhau
a
F ij
v
) (

b
F ij
v
) (

c
F ij
v
) (

=
c b a
F ij
v
, ,
) (

aa
kl ij
y
,

ac
kl ij
y
,

ab
kl ij
y
,

bc
kl ij
y
,

bb
kl ij
y
,

ba
kl ij
y
,

cc
kl ij
y
,

cb
kl ij
y
,

ca
kl ij
y
,

=
c b a
kl ij
y
, ,
,

s
pq
z
m
pq
z
m
pq
z
m
pq
z
s
pq
z
m
pq
z
s
pq
z
m
pq
z
m
pq
z
=
c b a
pq
z
, ,

) 0 (
pq
z
) 1 (
pq
z
) 2 (
pq
z
=
2 , 1 , 0
pq
z


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 96
Tng t,
c b a
kl ij
y
, ,
,
trong ma trn tng dn gc v
c b a
ij
z
, ,
trong ma trn tng tr nt c th
ng cho ha bng php bin i ma trn T
s
thu c tng ng.





Thng thng xem tt c cc in p nt trc lc ngn mch l bng nhau v ln
v gc lch pha. Xem ln in p pha t E
i(0)
bng mt n v. Lc in p nt
th i trc ngn mch c dng.



































) 0 (
, kl ij
y
) 1 (
, kl ij
y
) 2 (
, kl ij
y
=
2 , 1 , 0
, kl ij
y

) 0 (
ij
z
) 1 (
ij
z
) 2 (
ij
z
=
2 , 1 , 0
ij
z

v
Bng 7.1 : Ma trn tng tr v tng dn ngn mch
Ngn mch ba
pha
Mt pha chm
t
Hai pha chm
t
a
a
Cc thnh phn ba pha
Dng ngn
mch
c b a
F
Z
, ,

c b a
F
Y
, ,

Ba pha chm
t
z
F
+
z
z
0
z
0
z
0
z
F
+
z
z
0
z
F
+
z
z
0
z
0
3
1

y
0
+
2y
y
0
+
2y
y
0
+
2y
y
0
-
y
y
0
-
y
y
0
-
y
y
0
-
y
y
0
-
y
y
0
-
y
Vi
0
0
3
1
z z
y
F
+
=
Khng xc
2
3
F
y

2 -1 -1
2
-1 -1
-1 2 -1
z
F
0 0
8

0 0
0
8

0
y
F
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0

0 0
0 1 -1
F
y

8

0 0
z
F
+
z
z
0
0
0
z
F
+
z
0

z
0
Khng xc
0

0 0
0
2
0
2 z z z
z z
F F
F
+
+

0
2
0
2 z z z
z
F F
+


0
0
0
2
0
2 z z z
z z
F F
F
+
+

0
2
0
2 z z z
z
F F
+


a b c
b c
a b c
b c
a b c
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z z
z
g
z
g
z
F

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 97













































=
c b a
i
E
, ,
) 0 (

1
a
2
a
Cc thnh phn i xng

Dng ngn
mch
2 , 1 , 0
F
Z
2 , 1 , 0
F
Y
Ba pha chm
t
Ngn mch ba
pha
Mt pha chm
t
Hai pha chm
t
Ngn mch hai
pha
z
F
+
3z
0

0
0

z
F


0

z
F


0

0

y
F


y
F
y
F
0 0

0

0

0

0
Vi
0
0
3
1
z z
y
F
+
=
Khng xc
2
0 0 0
1
0 0
0 1 0 z
F
0 0
0 0
0
8

0
1

1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
0

0 0
1 -1 0
0 1 -1
2
F
y

Khng xc
nh
2z
F
-z
F
-z
F
-z
F
-z
F
a b c
a b c
a b c
a b c
a b c
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
F
z
g
z
g
z
F
y
F
-(z
F
+
3z )
2z
F
+
3z
2z
F
+
3z
-(z
F
+
3z )
Khng xc
2
) 2 ( 3
1
0
2
z z z
F F
+

3
F
y


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 98

Bin i v cc thnh phn dng i xng l:

c b a
i
t
s
E T
, ,
) 0 (
*
) ( =
c b, a,
i(0)
E
Th




Ma trn tng tr ngn mch
c b a
F
Z
, ,
c th c bin i bi ma trn T
s
vo trong ma trn
2 , 1 , 0
F
Z . Ma trn thu c l ma trn ng cho nu dng ngn mch l i xng. Ma
trn tng tr v tng dn lc ngn mch coi nh 3 pha i xng ca nhiu dng ngn
mch trnh by trong bng 7.1.
Tng t cc phng trnh tnh ton dng v p ngn mch c th c vit
di dng cc thnh phn i xng. Dng in ti nt ngn mch p l:

2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
1 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0
) (
) (
p pp F F p
E Z Z I

+ = (7.15)
Hay
2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
1 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0
) (
) (
p F pp F F p
E Y Z U Y I

+ = (7.16)
in p ngn mch ti nt p l:

2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
1 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0
) (
) (
p pp F F F p
E Z Z Z E

+ = (7.17)
Hay
2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
1 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0
) (
) (
p F pp F p
E Y Z U E

+ = (7.18)
in p ti cc nt khc p l:

2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
1 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
) (
p pp F ip i F i
E Z Z Z E E

+ = (7.19)
Hay
2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
1 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0 2 , 1 , 0
) 0 (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
) (
p F pp F ip i F i
E Y Z U Y Z E E

+ = (7.20)
Dng ngn mch 3 pha trong nhnh i-j l:
) (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
2 , 1 , 0
,
2 , 1 , 0
) ( F s F r rs ij F ij
E E y i

= (7.21)
7.3.2. Ngn mch 3 pha chm t.
Dng v p trong ngn mch 3 pha chm t c th c c bng cch thay ma
trn tng tr tng ng bng cc s hng ca nhng thnh phn i xng vo trong
phng trnh (7.15), (7.17) v (7.19). hai pha ca phng trnh thu c ta c th
nhn trc n vi T
s
nhn c cc cng thc tng ng vi cc thnh phn pha.
Ma trn tng tr ngn mch cho h thng 3 pha chm t l:




Dng 3 pha v in p nt ngn mch thu c bng s thay th
2 , 1 , 0
F
Z t phng trnh
(7.22) vo trong phng trnh (7.15), (7.17) v (7.19). Dng ngn mch ti nt p l:





Bin i ta c:

=
c b a
i
E
, ,
) 0 (

0
3
0
=
2 , 1 , 0
F
z

z
F
+
3z
z
F
z
F
(7.2
2)
) 0 (
) ( F p
I
) 1 (
) ( F p
I
) 2 (
) ( F p
I
0
3
0
) 0 (
0
3
pp F
Z z z + +
) 1 (
pp F
Z z +
) 2 (
pp F
Z z +
=
-
1
) 0 (
) ( F p
I
) 1 (
) ( F p
I
) 2 (
) ( F p
I
= ) 1 (
3
pp F
Z z +

0
0
(7.2
3)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 99





Cc thnh phn pha ca dng ngn mch ti nt p c th thu c bng cch nhn c
hai v ca phng trnh (7.23) vi T
s
. Ta c dng thu c:





in p ngn mch ti nt p l:





Bin i n gin ta c:





Cc thnh phn pha ca in p ngn mch l:





in p ti cc nt khc p l:





Bin i n gin ta c:





Cc thnh phn pha l:



) 0 (
) ( F p
E
) 1 (
) ( F p
E
) 2 (
) ( F p
E
z
F
+
3z
z
F
=
z
F
) 1 (
3
pp F
Z z +

0
0
) 0 (
) ( F p
E
) 1 (
) ( F p
E
) 2 (
) ( F p
E
=
) 1 (
3
pp F
Z z +

0
0
) 0 (
) ( F i
E
) 1 (
) ( F i
E
) 2 (
) ( F i
E
=
0
3
0
) 1 (
3
pp F
Z z +

0
0
) 0 (
ip
z
) 1 (
ip
z
) 2 (
ip
z
-
a
F p
I
) (

b
F p
I
) (

c
F p
I
) (

=
1
a
2
a
) 1 (
1
pp F
Z z +

a
F p
E
) (

b
F p
E
) (

c
F p
E
) (

=
1
a
2
a
) 1 (
pp F
F
Z z
z
+

) 0 (
) ( F i
E
) 1 (
) ( F i
E
) 2 (
) ( F i
E
=
) 1 (
) (
1
pp F
ip
Z z
Z
+


0
0
3
1
a
F i
E
) (

b
F i
E
) (

c
F i
E
) (

=

) 1 (
) 1 (
1
pp F
ip
Z z
Z

a
a
2

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 100


Cc cng thc thu c trong cc mc trn tng kt trong bng 7.2. in
p ca mt pha i vi t xem nh mt n v so vi gc qui chiu. Cng thc
trong bng 7.2 bao gm in p mt pha i vi t, n c th xem nh mt n
v.
Dng lc ngn mch trong cc nhnh ca mng in c th tnh ton t cng thc
(7.21). T y cc gi tr in p th t khng, th t nghch bng 0 i vi ngn mch
3 pha m khng c tng h thnh phn th t thun ca h l 0
) 1 (
,
=
rs ij
y , ngoi tr
rs = ij, phng trnh (7.21) tr thnh.





Cc thnh phn pha l:






) 0 (
) ( F ij
I
) 1 (
) ( F ij
I

) 2 (
) ( F ij
I
=
) (
) 1 (
) (
1
) (
) 1 (
, F j F i ij ij
E E y

0
0
a
F ij
i
) (

b
F ij
i
) (

c
F ij
i
) (

=
) (
3
1
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
, F j F i ij ij
E E y
a
a
2
1


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 102



















7.3.3. Ngn mch 1 pha chm t.
Ma trn tng dn ngn mch 1 pha chm t pha a thu c t bng 7.1.




Dng ngn mch v in p nt thu c bng cch thay th
2 , 1 , 0
F
Y t phng trnh
(7.24) vo trong (7.16), (7.18) v (7.20). Dng ngn mch ti nt p l:







Bin i n gin ta c:





Thnh phn pha ca dng ngn mch ti nt p c th thu c bng cch nhn c
hai v ca phng trnh (7.25) bi T
s
. Dng thu c l:




) 0 (
) ( F p
I
) 1 (
) ( F p
I
) 2 (
) ( F p
I
=
F pp pp
z Z Z 3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +

1
1

1

(7.25
)
Bng 7.2 : Cng thc dng v p lc ngn mch 3
pha chm t ti nt p
Thnh phn 3 pha Thnh phn i xng
a
a
2
1

) 1 (
) 0 (
, ,
) (
pp F
p
c b a
F p
Z z
E
I
+
=
0
1

0

) 1 (
) 0 (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
3
pp F
p
F p
Z z
E
I
+
=
a
a
2
1

) 1 (
) 0 (
, ,
) (
pp F
p F
c b a
F p
Z z
E z
E
+
=
0
1

0

) 1 (
) 0 (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
3
pp F
p F
F p
Z z
E z
E
+
=
a
a
2
1

p i
Z z
E Z
E E
pp F
p ip
i
c b a
F i

+
=
) 1 (
) 0 (
) 1 (
) 0 (
, ,
) (

0
1

0

p i
Z z
E Z
E E
pp F
p ip
i F i

+
=
) 1 (
) 0 (
) 1 (
) 0 (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
3

1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1
3
2 , 1 , 0 F
F
y
Y =
(7.24
)
) 0 (
) ( F p
I
) 1 (
) (F p
I
) 2 (
) ( F p
I
=
0
3
0

1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1
3
1
) 0 ( F
pp
y
Z +
3
) 0 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
) 0 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
1
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z +
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
1
) 2 ( F
pp
y
Z +
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
F
y

-
1
a
F p
I
) (

b
F p
I
) (

c
F p
I
) (

=
0
0

F pp pp
z Z Z 3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 103

in p ngn mch ti nt p l:







Bin i n gin ta c:





Thnh phn pha ca in p ngn mch.







in p ti cc nt khc nt p l:




Bin i n gin ta c:





Cc thnh phn pha l:





Cc cng thc thu c trong cc mc trn tng kt trong bng 7.3. in p ca
mt pha i vi t xem nh mt n v so vi gc qui chiu. Cng thc trong bng 7.2
bao gm in p mt pha i vi t, n c th xem nh mt n v. Dng lc ngn
mch trong cc nhnh ca mng in c th tnh ton t cng thc (7.21).



) 0 (
) ( F p
E
) 1 (
) ( F p
E
) 2 (
) ( F p
E
=
F pp pp
z Z Z 3
) ( ) 0 (
+ +

) 0 (
pp
Z
) 1 (
pp
Z
F pp pp
z Z Z 3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +

) 0 (
) ( F i
E
) 1 (
) ( F i
E
) 2 (
) ( F i
E
=
0
3
0
F pp pp
z Z Z 3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +

1
1
) 0 (
ip
Z
) 1 (
ip
Z
) 2 (
ip
Z
-
1
) 0 (
) ( F i
E
) 1 (
) ( F i
E
) 2 (
) ( F i
E
=
0
3
0
F pp pp
z Z Z 3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +

) 0 (
ip
Z
) 1 (
ip
Z
) 2 (
ip
Z
-
) 0 (
) ( F p
E
) 1 (
) (F p
E
) 2 (
) ( F p
E
=
0
3
0

3
1
) 0 ( F
pp
y
Z +
3
) 0 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
) 0 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
1
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z +
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
1
) 2 ( F
pp
y
Z +
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
3
) 1 ( F
pp
y
Z
-
1
) 0 (
) ( F p
E
) 1 (
) ( F p
E
) 2 (
) ( F p
E
=
F pp pp
pp pp
z Z Z
Z Z
a
3 2
) 1 ( ) 0 (
) 1 ( ) 0 (
2
+ +


F pp pp
F
z Z Z
z
3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +

F pp pp
pp pp
z Z Z
Z Z
a
3 2
) 1 ( ) 0 (
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +


a
F i
E
) (

b
F i
E
) (

c
F i
E
) (

=
1
a
F pp pp
z Z Z 3 2
1
) 1 ( ) 0 (
+ +

) 1 ( ) 0 (
2
ip ip
Z Z +
) 1 ( ) 0 (
ip ip
Z Z
) 1 ( ) 0 (
ip ip
Z Z
-
a
2
Bng 7.3 : Cng thc dng v p ngn mch 1 pha chm
t (pha a) ti nt p
Thnh phn 3
pha
Thnh phn i
xng
F pp pp
p
c b a
F p
z Z Z
E
I
3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
) 0 (
, ,
) (
+ +
=
0
0

1

F pp pp
p
F p
z Z Z
E
I
3 2
3
) 1 ( ) 0 (
) 0 (
2 , 1 , 0
) (
+ +
=
1
1

1


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 104
























7.4. TNH TON NGN MCH BNG CCH DNG Z
VNG
Dng v p lc ngn mch c th tnh ton bng cch dng ma trn tng tr
vng cho h thng n gin trnh by trong hnh 7.2. Dng in vng ca h thng in
n gin l bng 0 trc lc ngn mch khng ch n tt c cc dng nt. l cn
thit v vy kt qu tnh ton dng in vng trong tng dng ngn mch xc nh
dng v p ngn mch. Tnh ton ngn mch c th thc hin c bng cch tnh theo
h thng 3 pha hoc l tnh theo cc thnh phn i xng. Phng php sau y s biu
din bng cch dng h thng 3 pha.
S nhnh ca h thng 3 pha n gin bng s nhnh ca mng in cng vi s
my pht tng ng. S nt bng s nt n cng vi t, ngha l bng n+1. S nhnh
cy hay s vng c bn ca h thng n gin l:
l
n
= (e + e
q
) - (n + 1) + 1
Hay
l
n
= e + e
q
+ n
Vi e l s nhnh ca h thng 3 pha v e
q
l s my pht tng ng 3 pha.
Ngn mch ti nt p tng ng vi cng thm mt nhnh cy t nt n t.
Dng din t h thng trong hnh 7.3, in p lc ngn mch l:

c b a
Nut
c b a
Nut
c b a
F Nut
E E E
, ,
, ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
+ =

(7.26)
Trong vect
c b a
Nut E
, ,
biu din thay i trong in p nt thu c t in p nt
ngun
c b a
p
E
, ,
) 0 (
lc ngn mch.
Phng trnh t tnh ca mng in trong dng vng nh sau.

c b a
Vong
c b a
Vong
c b a
Vong
I Z E
, , , , , ,
.

=
Cho h thng ngn mch trnh by trong hnh 7.3, vect in p vng bit l:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 105






Kch thc ca ma trn tng tr vng, n bao gm c vng ngn mch l 3(l
n
+
1) x 3(l
n
+ 1). Vevt dng in vng cha bit trong ngn mch l:






Trong
c b a
F L
I
, ,
) (
l dng in lin kt vi vng ngn mch. Dng in vng c th tnh
ton t.

c b a
Vong
c b a
Vong
c b a
F Vong
E Z I
, , 1 , , , ,
) (
) (

=
Dng in trong tt c cc nhnh ca mng in lc ngn mch c th tnh nh sau:

c b a
F Vong
c b a
F
I C i
, ,
) (
, ,
) (

= (7.27)
Vi C l ma trn vng hng c bn trn 3 pha. Vect dng c th phn chia nh sau:




Vi
c b a
F b
i
, ,
) (

: L vect dng in trong nhnh b cy



c b a
F l
i
, ,
) (

: L vect dng in trong nhnh cy


Do vect in p thay i l:
[ ]
c b a
F b
c b a
bb
t
c b a
Nut i z K E
, ,
) (
, ,
, ,
.

=
Vi K l ma trn ng dn - nhnh b cy c bn trn 3 pha.
[ ]
c b a
bb
z
, ,
: L ma trn tng tr gc i vi nhnh b cy
in p nt lc ngn mch thu c bng cch cng thm in p thay i vi in p
trc lc ngn mch. Phng trnh (7.26) tr thnh.
[ ]
c b a
F b
c b a
bb
t c b a
Nut
c b a
F Nut
i z K E E
, ,
) (
, , , ,
) 0 (
, ,
) (
.

+ = (7.28)
Dng ti nt ngn mch l ging nh dng trong vng ph l
c b a
F L
I
, ,
) (
. Phng php c th
l mt cng vic biu din tnh ton ngn mch ti nhiu v tr trong h thng bng cch
cng thm cc nhnh cy, ti mi thi im, gia nt ngn mch vi t. Yu cu hnh
thnh v nghch o ma trn tng tr vng cho mi v tr ngn mch khc nhau. Php
ton ma trn cn thit i hi cung cp d liu ngn mch cho mt s ln v tr v vy
n tn rt nhiu thi gian.
Phng php tng bc, mi nhnh cy ng thi c cng thm vo gia mi
nt v t, yu cu hnh thnh ma trn tng tr vng n v ch nghch o mt ma trn
con. Trong phng php ny, dng in trong vng ph l thay i ng vi tng v tr
ngn mch khc nhau. Dng in pha c xem nh l lin kt trong vng ph vi nt
c b a
F b
i
, ,
) (

c b a
F l
i
, ,
) (

=
c b a
F
i
, ,
) (


0
0
..
c b a
p
E
, ,
) 0 (

=
c b a
Vong
E
, ,


c b a
F
I
, ,
) ( 1

c b a
F l
n
I
, ,
) (

..
c b a
F L
I
, ,
) (

=
c b a
F Vong
I
, ,
) (



GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 106
ngn mch p n ph thuc vo dng ngn mch. Xem dng in pha l mt n v,
dng in trong vng ph th p l:
i vi ngn mch 3 pha.




i vi ngn mch 1 pha chm t (trn pha a).





i vi ngn mch hai pha (gia pha b v pha c).






Dng trong tt c cc vng ph khc l xem nh bng 0.
Vect in p, dng in v ma trn tng tr vng trong phng trnh biu din cho
ton mng in, bao gm vng ph c th phn chia nh sau:




Trong phng trnh (7.29) vect
c b a
L
E
, ,

v
c b a
L
I
, ,

c xem nh l cc vect dng in


v in p vng trong h thng n gin v
c b a
F L
E
, ,
) (

v
c b a
F L
I
, ,
) (

c xem nh l cc vect
dng in v in p vng ph.
Vect
c b a
L
I
, ,

c th tnh ton cho ngn mch ti nt p t phng trnh (7.29) bng cch
xem dng in trong vng ph l:








Trong
c b a
F lp
I
, ,
) (
c xem nh vect dng 3 pha ca vng ph th p. T phng trnh
(7.29) ta c.

c b a
L
c b a
F L
c b a
M
c b a
L
c b a
L
E I Z I Z
, , , ,
) (
, , , , , ,
. .

= + (7.31)
T 0
, ,
=
c b a
L
E

phng trnh (7.31) tr thnh.


a
a
2
1

=
c b a
F L
p
I
, ,
) (

0
0

1

=
c b a
F L
p
I
, ,
) (

-1
1

0

=
c b a
F L
p
I
, ,
) (

c b a
L
I
, ,

c b a
F L
E
, ,
) (

c b a
L
E
, ,

=
c b a
L
Z
, ,

c b a
M
Z
, ,

t c b a
M
Z ) (
, ,

c b a
A
Z
, ,

c b a
F L
I
, ,
) (

(7.2
9)
=
c b a
F L
I
, ,
) (


c b a
F Lp
I
, ,
) (

0

0

0

0

..
..
(7.3
0)

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 107
0 . .
, ,
) (
, , , , , ,
= +
c b a
F L
c b a
M
c b a
L
c b a
L
I Z I Z


i vi h thng n gin dng in vng tm c l:

c b a
F L
c b a
M
c b a
L
c b a
L
I Z Z I
, ,
) (
, , 1 , , , ,
. ) (

= (7.32)
in p vng ph t phng trnh (7.29) l:

c b a
F L
c b a
A
c b a
L
t c b a
M
c b a
F L
I Z I Z E
, ,
) (
, , , , , , , ,
) (
. ) (

+ =
Th
c b a
L
I
, ,

vo trong phng trnh t (7.32) ta c .


{ }
c b a
F L
c b a
M
c b a
L
t c b a
M
c b a
A
c b a
F L
I Z Z Z Z E
, ,
) (
, , 1 , , , , , , , ,
) (
) ( ) (

= (7.33)
Phng trnh (7.33) xc nh ngun in p vng ph, t dng in vng ph
tnh bi phng trnh (7.30).
Thc t xc nh dng ngn mch vi ngun in p trong vng ph th p
c b a
p
E
, ,
) 0 (
phi bng in p nt th p trc ngn mch. Tnh ton ngun in p ca vng
ph th p
c b a
F Lp
E
, ,
) (
thu c t phng trnh (7.33) dng tng ng tnh ton dng
in. Dng ngn mch thc t ti nt p l:
i vi pha a:

a
F Lp
I
) (
(thc t) =
a
F Lp
I
) (
(tng ng)
a
F Lp
a
p
E
E
) (
) 0 (

i vi pha b:

b
F Lp
I
) (
(thc t) =
b
F Lp
I
) (
(tng ng)
b
F Lp
b
p
E
E
) (
) 0 (

................ ................
Dng in vng
c b a
L
I
, ,

ca h thng n gin c th thu c t phng trnh


(7.32) dng dng in vng hin ti. Dng nhnh b cy c th tnh ton t phng
trnh (7.27) v in p nt, sau c th xc nh t phng trnh (7.28).
Trong phng trnh (7.33) xem dng in vng ph
c b a
Lp
I
, ,

trong cc nhnh cy
ph kt ni cc nt ca mng in vi t v v vy n c xem l dng nt. in p
vng ph
c b a
F L
E
, ,
) (

l in p nt thu c t dng in hin ti. Trong phng trnh


(7.33).

c b a
Nut
c b a
M
c b a
L
t c b a
M
c b a
A
Z Z Z Z Z
, , , , 1 , , , , , ,
) ( ) ( =


V vy trong phng php ma trn tng tr vng dng xc nh ma trn tng
tr nt cho tnh ton ngn mch.
7.5. CHNG TRNH M T TNH TON NGN MCH
Phn ln nghin cu ngn mch l ch cn tnh cho ngn mch 3 pha v 1 pha
chm t. Tnh ngn mch trong h thng in l nhm mc ch tnh ton nhng s c,
dng ma trn tng tr nt th t thun v th t khng biu din nh mc 7.3 v h
thng in n gin trnh by trong mc 7.2.
D liu nhp vo din t h thng l thuyt thnh lp ngun nng lng v
cc bin i trung gian. D liu cho my pht, b t, s im ni v in khng th t
thun th t khng. V l thuyt 1 pha gm 2 thnh phn, thnh phn th nht l cho
mi mt im ni dc theo chiu di ng dy l mt in khng ng dy, thnh
phn th hai ca ng dy l in khng tng h i hi gia hai dy vi nhau. My

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 108
bin p v l thuyt c xem nh mt im ni ti mi trm vi s cun dy, s kt
ni v in khng th t thun th t khng ca n.
Chng trnh tnh ton u tin gn cho mt dy s nt v sp xp h thng d
liu cho thun li, hnh thnh cc ma trn tng tr nt th t thun, th t khng. Kim
tra v biu din d liu trong mi pha. Tip theo, thit lp cc ma trn tng tr nt th
t thun, th t khng. Ma trn c lu tr tm thi trong vng nh ph cung cp
cho chng trnh tnh tip theo. Sau cc ma trn tng tr nt th t thun v th t
khng c gi ra dng trong tnh ton ngn mch. T ma trn i xng ch lu tr
cc thnh phn trn ng cho. Chng trnh tnh ngn mch th t tng bc c
trnh by trong hnh 7.6.

S thut ton tnh ton ngn mch trong h thng in:

































Bt u
c h thng
d liu
Nhp s nt, sp
xp v kim tra h
thng d liu
D liu
b li ?
Lp ma trn tng
tr nt th t
thun.
Lu tr ma trn
tng tr nt th
t thun.
Lp ma trn tng
tr nt th t
khng.
Tm ma trn tng
tr nt th t
thun.
Tnh ton dng v
p ngn mch 3 pha
1 pha chm t
Vit kt qu
Kt thc
cng
vic
Kt thc
cng
vic
Vo d
liu
Xut
kt
qu
Mng
d
liu
Hnh 7.6 : S thut ton tnh ton ngn mch trong
h thng in

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 110
CHNG 8

NGHIN CU TNH N NH CA QU TRNH QU

8.1. GII THIU.
Nghin cu tnh n nh ca qu trnh qu cung cp nhng thng tin lin
quan ti kh nng mt ng b ca h thng in trong thi gian nhiu lon quan trng,
nguyn nhn l do mt ngun pht, hoc s truyn dn t ngt ca cc thit b hoc
chng d s thay i ca ph ti hoc s c tm thi. c bit vn nghin cu ny
cung cp nhng thay i v in p, dng in, cng sut, tc v mment ca cc
my trong h thng in cng nh l s thay i v in p ca h thng v cng sut
trong khong thi gian ngay tc khc theo sau s nhiu lon. n nh ca h thng
in l yu t quan trng trong vic vch phng thc vn hnh. tng tin cy
phi c ch bo dng lin tc cho cc thit b in, khi thit k h thng in iu
quan trng l tnh n nh ca h thng bt k s nhiu lon no.
Cng c phn tch h thng in xoay chiu c dng cho vic nghin cu tnh
n nh ca qu trnh qu c c t c trng vn hnh ca h thng in trong
sut thi gian nhiu lon, s tnh ton tng bc, m t s vn hnh ca cc my c
thc hin bng tay. Vic s dng my tnh thc hin tt c cc php tnh cho mng
li ca my pht l phn m rng t nhin ca vic nghin cu chng trnh tnh tro
lu cng sut.
c tnh ca h thng in trong sut thi gian qu trnh qu c th c c
t phng trnh c trng ca mng in. Vic s dng cc phng trnh c trng
di hnh thc tng tr nt c dng trong vic tnh ton n nh ca qu trnh qu
.
Trong vic nghin cu tnh n nh ca qu trnh qu th vic tnh ton tro
lu cng sut c lm u tin, c c tnh trng ca h thng trc s nhiu
lon. Trong vic tnh ton ny, mng in bao gm h thng thanh gp, ng dy
truyn dn v my bin p. Hn na s c trng ca mng in dng cho vic nghin
cu tnh n nh ca qu trnh qu bao gm: Nhng thnh phn cu thnh mng
in, s mch tng ng i vi my in v tr khng tnh hoc l tng dn so
vi t i vi ph ti.
V th sau khi tnh ton tro lu cng sut, ma trn tng tr hay tng dn ca
mng in phi c hiu chnh phn nh s thay i tnh c trng ca mng in.
ng c tnh vn hnh ca my in ng b v my in cm ng c m
t bi h phng trnh vi phn. S phng trnh vi phn yu cu cho cc my in cn
ph thuc vo chi tit cn m t c trng ca my mt cch chnh xc. Hai phng
trnh vi phn bc nht cn phi c i vi s c trng n gin nht ca my in
ng b.
S phn tch tnh n nh ca qu trnh qu c thc hin bi s kt hp li
gii ca cc phng trnh i s m t mng in, vi cch gii bng phng php s
ca cc phng trnh vi phn. Vic gii cc phng trnh mng in dng nhn dng
h thng bng cch ly in p, dng in ca vo h thng trong qu trnh qu .
Phng php bin i Euler v Runge - Kuta c thc hin gii cc phng trnh
vi phn trong vic nghin cu tnh n nh ca qu trnh qu .
8.2. PHNG TRNH DAO NG.

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 111
xc nh gc chuyn dch gia cc my in v h thng in trong iu kin
qu , iu cn thit l phi gii cc phng trnh vi phn m t chuyn ng ca rto
my in. T cc nh lut c hc lin quan n vt th quay, mment tc ng trn
rto ca my in l:
.
.
2
g
R W
T = (8.1)
Trong : T: Tng i s cc mment, N -m
2
. R W : Mment qun tnh, N - m
2

g: Gia tc trng trng = 9,8m / s
2

a: Gia tc gc (rad/s
2
)
Gc lch in
e
c tnh t gc lch c q
m
v s i cc P/2 l:

m e
P
.
2
= (8.2)
Tn s f trong mi giy ca chu k l:

60
.
2
n P
f = (8.3)
T phng trnh (8.2) v (8.3) gc lch in tnh bng radian l:

m e
n
f
.
60
= (8.4)
V tr ca gc lch in d tnh bng radian ca rto lin quan n s quay ng b h
trc ta l:
d = q
e
- w
0
t
Vi: w
0
: L tc ng b nh mc (rad/s)
t: Thi gian (s)
Lc vn tc gc hoc trt lin quan n h trc ta l:

0


=
dt
d
dt
d
e

V gia tc gc l:

2
2
2
2
dt
d
dt
d
e

=
bin i ta ly o hm theo thi gian ca phng trnh (8.4) v thay th:

2
2
2
2
.
60
dt
d
n
f
dt
d
m

=
M

=
2
2
dt
d
m

Sau thay th vo trong phng trnh (8.1), mment hu ch l:

2
2 2
.
60
.
.
dt
d
f
n
g
R W
T

=
l gii php din t mment trong h n v tng i. Mment c bn c
nh ngha l mment cn thit trin khai cng sut nh mc ti tc nh mc
l:

=
60
2
746 , 0
555
n
kva ban c v n
ban c Mment



GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 112
M mment c bn l foot - pound. V th mment trong h n v tng i l:

2
2
2
2
.
550
746 , 0
60
.
2
.
.
dt
d
kva ban c v n
n
f g
R W
T

= (8.5)
Hng s qun tnh H ca my in c nh ngha nh mt ng nng ti tc nh
mc trong n v kw hay kva. ng nng trong foot - pound l:

2
0
2
.
.
.
2
1

g
R W
W

=
M
60
. 2
0
n
=
Vi: n l tc nh mc. V vy.

kva ban c v n
n
g
R W
H
550
746 , 0
60
) 2 .(
.
.
2
1
2
2
2

=


Thay th vo trong phng trnh (8.5) l:

dt
d
f
H
T

2
.
.
= (8.6)
Biu din mment trn rto ca my pht bao gm mment c a vo t cc ng c
chnh, mment do s suy gim tc quay (do ma st, gi, li thp,.....), mment in
ly ra v s suy gim mment do ng c chnh, my pht v h thng in. Mment
in v mment c tc ng ln rto ca mt ng c c k hiu i ngc nhau l
kt qu ca in a vo v ph ti c ly ra. B qua s suy gim v hm tc quay,
mment gia tc T
a
l:
T
a
= T
m
- T
e

Vi T
m
: L mment c.
T
e
: L mment in ca khe h khng kh.
Vy phng trnh (8.6) tr thnh:
e m
T T
dt
d
f
H
=
2
2
.
.

(8.7)
T mment v cng sut trong n v tng i bng nhau i vi lch nh trong
tc , phng trnh (8.7) tr thnh:
) .(
.
2
2
e m
P P
H
f
dt
d
=


Trong : P
m
: Cng sut c
P
e
: Cng sut in khe h khng kh.
Vy phng trnh vi phn bc hai ny c th c vit nh hai phng trnh vi phn
bc nht.
) .(
.
2
2
e m
P P
H
f
dt
d
dt
d
= =


V
0


=
dt
d
dt
d
e
(8.8)
T tc ng b nh mc tnh bng radian trong mi giy l 2pf, phng trnh
(8.8) tr thnh.

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 113
f
dt
d
. 2

=
8.3. PHNG TRNH MY IN.
8.3.1. My in ng b.
Trong vic nghin cu n nh ca qu trnh qu , c bit ch phn tch
nhng vn lin quan trong khong thi gian ngn vo khong thi gian 1 giy
hoc nh hn, my in ng b c th c m t bng ngun p sau in khng qu
c ln khng i, d c s thay i v v tr gc. S biu din ny b qua nh
hng ca s li lm v gi thit t thng mc vng khng i v s thay i nh v
tc . in p sau in khng qu c xc nh t.

t d t a t
I jx I r E E . . '
'
+ + =
Vi: E: L in p sau khng in qu
E
t
: L in p u cc my in.
I
t
: L dng in u cc my in.
r
a
: L in tr phn ng.
x
d
: L in khng qu .











S biu din ca my in ng b c s dng gii quyt mng in v
tng ng th gc pha c biu din nh hnh 8.1
S li lm v s bin thin ca t thng mc vng c th c a vo tnh ton bng
vic biu din nhng nh hng ca i lng xoay chiu 3 pha ca my in ng b
do tc ng ca cc thnh phn dc trc v ngang trc. Dc trc l dc theo ng trc
ca cc my v ngang trc l sm pha hn dc trc 90
0
in. V tr ca trc ngang c
th c xc nh bi s tnh ton in p gi thit t ln trc ny. y l in p sau
in khng ng b ngang trc v c xc nh.
E
q
= E
t
+ r
a
I
t
+jx
q
I
t

Vi: E
q
: L in p sau khng in ng b ngang trc.
x
q
: L in khng ng b ngang trc
Nhng c trng ca my in ng b s dng cho cch gii tch mng in v
th gc pha tng ng c trnh by trn hnh 8.2






E
x
d
r
a
I
t
(a) S mch tng ng
d
E
jx
d
I
E
t
r
a
I
I
t
Trc qui
chi u
(b) th gc pha
Hnh 8.1 : S biu din ca my in ng b.

E
t
E
x
d
r
a
I
t
(a) S mch tng ng
E
t
E
q
jx
d
I
E
t
r
a
I
d
I
t Trc qui
chi u
Trc
dc
Trc
ngang
(b) th gc pha


GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 114





T thng hnh sin sinh ra bi dng in kch t tc ng dc trc. in p cm
ng sinh ra bi dng kch t chm tr sau t thng ny 90
0
v th gi l in p ngang
trc. in p ny c th c xc nh bng cch cng in p trn cc E
t
, in p ri
trn in tr phn ng v in p ri c trng nh hng ca s kh t dc trc v
ngang trc. Lc b qua nh hng ca s bo ha.
E
T
= E
t
+ r
a
I
t
+ jx
d
I
d
+ jx
q
I
q

Trong : E
T
: L in p tng ng vi dng in kch t.
x
d
: L in khng ng b dc trc
x
q
: L in khng ng b ngang trc
I
d
: L thnh phn dc trc ca dng in cc my
I
q
: L thnh phn ngang trc ca dng in cc my.
th gc pha biu din E
T
cng nh in p sau in khng qu c trnh by
trn hnh 8.3
Thnh phn ngang trc ca in p sau in khng qu t th gc pha l:
E
q
= E
q
- j(x
q
- x
d
)I
d

















M E
q
l in p t l vi t thng mc vng kt qu ny t s kt hp nh hng ca
t trng v dng in phn ng. T t thng mc vng s khng thay i mt cch
tc thi theo sau s nhiu lon, E
q
cng khng thay i mt cch tc thi. Tc thay
i ca E
q
dc theo trc ngang ty thuc vo in p kch t c iu khin bi b
iu chnh v b kch t, in p t l vi dng in kch t v hng s thi gian mch
h ca qu trnh qu dc trc c cho bi:
) (
'
1
'
0
T d f
d
q
E E
T dt
dE
=
Vi E
fd
: L s hng c trng cho in p kch t tc ng dc theo trc ngang.
T
d0
: L hng s thi gian mch h dc trc ca qu trnh qu .
I
q
I
t
I
d
Trc
ngang
Trc
dc
E
q
d
jx
q
I
jx
d
I
E
t
r
a
I
jx
d
I
j(x
q
-
x )I
E
t
E
q
jx
q
I
Trc qui chiu
Hnh 8.3 : th gc pha xc nh thnh phn ngang trc ca in
p sau in khng qu
E

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 115
8.3.2. My in cm ng.
Vic nghin cu tnh n nh qu trnh qu ca ph ti trong h thng in,
gm cc ng c cm ng, thng thng c th c trng mt cch thch hp bi cc
tng tr mch r. Tuy nhin trong vic nghin cu ph ti s lin quan ca cc ng c
cm ng ln, l iu cn thit c trng cc ng c cm ng mt cch chi tit.
ng c cm ng c s dng rng ri trong qu trnh cng nghip v c th c
nhng nh hng quan trng trong c trng qu trnh qu ca h thng in.










Mt c trng tuyn tnh hp l ca my in cm ng c th thu c bng
cch a vo tnh ton nh hng ca qu trnh qu c v qu trnh qu in t
ca rto. nh hng ca qu trnh qu in t stato trong h thng lun c b
qua. S mch tng ng biu din trong hnh 8.4 c s dng biu din cch
thc qu trnh qu ca mt ng c cm ng bao gm nh hng ca qu trnh qu
c in ca rto. Vi hng s thi gian ring khng i.
Phng trnh vi phn m t mc thay i ca in p sau in khng qu X l :
{ }
t
I X X j E
T
E s f j
dt
dE
) ' ( '
1
' 2
'
0
=
M hng s thi gian mch h rto T
0
tnh bng giy l:

r
m r
r f
x x
T
2
0
+
=
V dng in ti u cc l:

'
1
) ' (
jX r
E E I
s
t t
+
=
in khng X v X c th thu c t trng thi n nh thng thng mch tng
ng ca my in cm ng nh trn hnh (8.5) .












E
r
s X
I
t
E
Hnh 8.4 : c trng n gin ha my
in cm ng
s
r
r

r
s
x
s
x
r
x
m
I
t
E
t
Hnh 8.5 : S mch tng
ca my in cm ng trng
thi n nh

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 116

Vi: r
s
: L in tr ca stato trong n v tng i.
x
s
: L in khng ca stato trong n v tng i
r
r
: L in tr ca stato trong n v tng i.
x
r
: L in khng ca rto trong n v tng i.
x
m
: L in khng t ha trong n v tng i.
s: L h s trt ca rto trong n v tng i
in tr v in khng u cng cng sut c bn. T s in p c bn ca stato v
rto bng vi t s in p mch h lc dng. H s trt lc dng l:

b ng Tc
th tc b ng Tc
s

=
Khi in tr ca rto r
r
nh hn so vi in khng X
r
th trong tnh ton ca X v X c
th b qua. T mch tng ng ca trng thi n nh, th in khng ca mch h
xp x l:
X = x
s
+ x
m

in khng ca khi rto xp x l:

r m
m r
s
x x
x x
x X
+
+ =
.
'
8.4. PHNG TRNH H THNG IN.
8.4.1. c trng ca ph ti.
Ph ti ca h thng in ng hn l cc ng c c c trng bi cc mch
tng ng, x l trong thi gian qu trnh qu . Nhng c trng c s dng
thng thng l tr khng tnh hoc l tng dn i vi t, dng in khng i ti h
s cng sut xc nh, cng sut tc dng v phn khng khng i hay l s kt hp
ca nhng c trng ny.
Ph ti khng i bng cng sut tc dng v phn khng cho trc ti nt ph
ti hoc l t l phn trm ca nhng gi tr nh r trong trng hp biu din kt
hp. Cc thng s kt hp vi tr khng tnh v dng in khng i c c t nt
ph ti cho trc v nt in p tnh ton t cch gii tro lu cng sut i vi h
thng trc s nhiu lon. Gi tr u ca dng in i vi s biu din ca dng in
khng i c c t:

*
0
p
Lp Lp
p
E
jQ P
I

=
Vi: P
Lp
v Q
Lp
l ph ti ca nt cho trc v E
p
in p ca nt c tnh ton,
dng in I
po
chy t nt p n t, l nt 0. ln v h s gc cng sut ca I
po

vn gi khng i.
Tng dn tnh y
po
s dng biu din ph ti ti nt p, c th c c t :
(E
p
- E
o
) y
po
= I
po

Trong : E
p
l in p nt tnh ton v E
0
l in p ti mt t bng 0.
V th.

p
p
p
E
I
y
0
0
= (8.9)
Nhn c hai s, s chia v s b chia ca phng trnh (8.9) bi E
p
v tch bit phn
thc v phn o.

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 117

2 2
0
p p
Lp
p
f e
P
g
+
= v
2 2
0
p p
Lp
p
f e
Q
b
+
=
M y
po
= g
po
- jb
po

8.4.2. Phng trnh c trng ca mng in.
Phng trnh c trng ca mng in s dng cho vic tnh ton tro lu cng
sut ca mng in, c th c ng dng m t c trng ca mng in trong
khong thi gian qu trnh qu . S dng ma trn tng tr nt vi t nh h quy
chiu, phng trnh in p cho nt p l:

=
n
p q
q
q pq
p
p p p
p
E L Y
E
L jQ P
E
1
*
. .
) (
(8.10)
S hn (P
p
- jQ
p
) / E
p
*
trong phng trnh (8.10) c trng cho dng in ph ti ti nt
p. i vi s biu din ca dng in ph ti khng i.
) ( /
) (
0
*
p
k
p p
k
p
p p
I
E
jQ P
+ =


Vi:
p
l h s gc cng sut v
k
p
l gc lch in p lin quan n trc ta . Khi
cng sut khng i c dng c trng cho ph ti
p p p
L jQ P ) ( s l hng s
nhng in p nt E
p
s thay i theo mi php lp. Khi ph ti ti nt p c c trng
bi tng dn tnh i vi t th dng in tc ng ti nt p bng 0 v th.
0
) (
*
=

p
p p p
E
L jQ P

Trong vic s dng phng trnh (8.10) m t c trng ca mng in i vi vic
phn tch qu trnh qu th cc thng s phi c hiu chnh bao gm nh hng
ca cc phn t tng ng cn c trng tnh ng b my in cm ng v ph
ti. Thng s ng dy YL
pq
phi c hiu chnh i vi phn t mi v thng s
ng dy thm vo phi c tnh ton cho mi phn t mng in mi. H thng
trnh by trn hnh 8.6 m n cng c s dng minh ha k thut gii quyt tro
lu cng sut.

















1
3
5
2
8
4
6
7
0 Nt qui chiu
Phn t mng
in
Cc phn t c trng my in v ph
ti

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 118



c trng tt c ph ti nh tng dn tnh i vi t, phng trnh in p cho nt 1
l.

0 10 4 14 3 13 2 12 1
. . . . . . . . E L Y E L Y E L Y E L Y E =
Vi: Y.L
12
= Y
12
.L
1

Y.L
13
= Y
13
.L
1

Y.L
14
= Y
14
.L
1

Cc phn t Y
12
, Y
13
v Y
14
t ma trn tng dn nt ca mng in l ging nh trong
s biu din tro lu cng sut. Tuy nhin.

11
1
1
Y
L =
Vi Y
11
= y
12
+ y
13
+ y
14
+ y
10

Bao gm s biu din tng dn tnh ph ti. T E
0
bng 0, thng s ng dy YL
10

khng c trong vic tnh ton, phng trnh in p cho nt 2 l:
E
2
= -Y.L
21
.E
1
- Y.L
25
.E
5
- Y.L
26
.E
6
- Y.L
28
.E
8
Vi nt 8 l nt mi. Trong trng hp ny phn t tng dn ng cho i vi nt 2
l:
Y
22
= y
21
+ y
25
+ y
26
+ y
20
+ y
28

Vi y
20
l tng dn tnh biu din ph ti, y
28
l tng dn tng ng ca my. Cng
thc i vi php lp Gauss - Seidel ca mng in trnh by trn hnh 8.6 l:

k k k k
E L Y E L Y E L Y E
4 14 3 13 2 12
1
1
. . . . . . =
+


8 28 6 26 5 25
1
1 21
1
2
. . . . . . . . E L Y E L Y E L Y E L Y E
k k k k
=
+ +


k k k
E L Y E L Y E
5 35
1
1 31
1
3
. . . . =
+ +


7 47 6 46
1
4 41
1
4
. . . . . . E L Y E L Y E L Y E
k k k
=
+ +


1
3 53
1
2 52
1
5
. . . .
+ + +
=
k k k
E L Y E L Y E

1
4 64
1
2 62
1
6
. . . .
+ + +
=
k k k
E L Y E L Y E
in p ca nt u tin thu c t cch gii tro lu cng sut trc s nhiu lon.
in p u tin i vi nt th 7 v 8 c c t mch tng ng biu din my
in. in p i vi nhng nt tip theo c tnh t phng trnh vi phn m t c
trng ca my in.
Trong qu trnh tnh ton th ln v gc lch pha ca in p nt sau tng dn tng
ng ca my in c gi khng i. Nu s c 3 pha th c m phng bng
cch t in p ti nt s c bng 0 v gi khng i.
Nu ma trn tr khng nt c s dng i vi vic nghin cu tnh n nh
ca qu trnh qu , th mt t c xem nh mt im quy chiu, bi v tt c in
p nt ca mng in ngoi tr nt s c thay i trong sut thi gian qu trnh qu .
khi cn hiu chnh ma trn tr khng nt i vi s thay i nt qui chiu, mt t
cng c s dng nh mt nt quy chiu trong vic tnh ton tro lu cng sut.
Khi t c s dng nh mt nt qui chiu i vi vic tnh ton tro lu cng
sut v ph ti c c trng nh ngun dng th ma trn tr khng nt ch gm t
in, b in khng v cc phn t ca ng dy i vi t. Trong trng hp ny
ma trn tr khng nt ri vo iu kin xu v tnh hi t ca cch gii khng t
c. Trong cch dn dt khc nu cc ph ti c c trng ch nh tr khng ci

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 119
thin c tnh hi t th nhng tr khng ny v ma trn tr khng nt s c hiu
chnh trong php gii lp i vi s thay i in p nt. khc phc kh khn ny
ch mt phn ca mi ph ti c c trng nh mt tr khng i vi t. Phn cn
li ca ph ti c th c c trng nh ngun dng m ngun dng thay i cng
vi in p nt sao cho tng dng in nt phi tha mn vi cng sut ca ph ti
xc nh.
Sau khi cch gii tro lu cng sut c c th ma trn tr khng phi c
hiu chnh bao gm cc phn t mi ca mng in, biu din my in v tnh ton i
vi nhng thay i trong s c trng ca ph ti. Mi c trng ca my in l mt
nhnh i vi nt mi, v mi s biu din ca phn t ph ti thay i l cng thm
mt nhnh b cy i vi t.
Cng thc lp i vi c tnh ca mng in trong sut thi gian qu s
dng t nh h quy chiu l:
f p n p I Z E
m n
q
q pq
k
p
= =

+
=
+
; ........, , 2 , 1 ) . (
1
1

Vi n l s nt ca mng in, m l s nt sau tr khng tng ng ca my in v
f l nt s c. Vect dng in I
q
c bao gm dng in ph ti hoc l dng in
khng i hoc l cng sut khng i v dng in c c t s mch tng
ng ca my in.
Trong s ng dng ca ma trn tr khng nt ch nhng hng v ct ph hp vi
my in, cng sut khng i, ngun dng khng i cn c gi li i vi cch
gii mng in. Tt c cc hng v ct phi c duy tr li, tuy nhin nu in p ca
h thng v lun cng sut c i hi trong vic tnh ton qu trnh qu .
Nhng phng php m t s dng ma trn tr khng v tng dn nt v vic biu
din mi my nh mt in p sau tr khng ca my l mt s ng dng ca nh l
Thevenins. Mt h thng xoay chiu c trng cho my in nh ngun dng gia nt
u cc my vi t v ni song song vi tr khng ca my. y l s ng dng ca
nh l Nortons. iu ny loi b yu cu thit lp nt ph sau tr khng ca mi
my. Dng in ca my c tnh ton bng cch s dng in p bn trong my v
tr khng ca my. Dng in ny c gi khng i trong cch gii lp ca mng
in.
8.5. K THUT GII QUYT.
8.5.1. Tnh ton m u.
Bc u tin ca vic nghin cu tnh n nh ca qu trnh qu l tnh ton
tro lu cng sut c c iu kin ca h thng trc s nhiu lon. Sau d
liu ca h thng phi c hiu chnh ph hp vi c trng mong mun i vi s
phn tch qu trnh qu . Hn na dng in ca my in trc s nhiu lon c
tnh ton t:
m i
E
jQ P
I
i t
i t i t
i t
........, , 2 , 1
*
=

=
Vi m l s my P
ti
v Q
ti
l cng sut c cho trong lch trnh hoc tnh ton cng
sut tc dng v phn khng trn cc my. Cng sut tnh ton cho my ti nt d b
nh hng v in p cc nt c c t li gii tro lu cng sut ban u. Cui cng
in p sau tr khng ca my phi c tnh li.
Khi my in th i c c trng bi ngun p sau in khng qu c ln
khng i th in p c c t:

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 120

i t i d i t i a i t i
I jx I r E E . .
' '
) 0 (
+ + =
Vi E
i(0)
= e
i(0)
+j f
i(0)
V E
i(0)
l gi tr ban u s dng trong li gii ca phng trnh vi phn, gc lch in
p u cc lc u l:
)
'
'
( . tan
) 0 (
) 0 (
1
) 0 (
i
i
i
e
f

=
Tc ban u w
i(0)
tnh bng radian trong mi giy l 2pf, m f l tn s trong mi
giy ca chu k. Cng sut c u tin a vo P
mi(0)
bng vi cng sut in khe h
khng kh P
ei
trc s nhiu lon c th thu c t.

i a i t i t i e
r I P P .
2
+ =
Vi |I
ti
|
2
.r
ai
biu th cho tn tht ca stato.
Khi nh hng ca ch li lm v s thay i ca t thng mc vng c a
vo tnh ton th in p sau khng in ng b ngang trc c s dng m t my
in. in p ny c tnh ton t:

i t i q i t i a i t i q
I jx I r E E . . + + =
M E
qi
= e
qi
+ jf
qi

Khi gc lch in p u cc my lc u l:
) ( tan
1
) 0 (
i q
i q
i
e
f

=
Khi biu din mt cch n gin ha th tc ban u bng f 2 v cng sut c ban
u bng cng sut in khe h khng kh P
ei
.
S tnh ton in p t l vi dng kch t E
ti
v in p t l vi t thng mc vng
E
qi(0)
cng yu cu i vi s bin i ny. in p ny c c t:

i t i q i d i d i t i a i t i T
I jx I jx I r E E . . . + + + =
V E
qi(0)
= E
qi
- (x
qi
- x
di
)I
di
Vi E
qi(0)
l gi tr ban u s dng trong li gii ca phng trnh vi phn, cui cng
in p kch t ban u E
fdi(0)
bng vi E
Ti
nu b qua s bo ha.
Bc tip theo l thay i cc thng s ca h thng m phng s nhiu lon. Vic
ct b cc phn t thch hp ca mng in c th nh hng n tn tht ca s pht
in, ph ti v thit b truyn dn. Mt s c 3 pha c th c m phng bng cch
t in p ti nt s c bng 0. Sau cc phng trnh ca mng in hiu chnh
c gii quyt c c trng thi ca h thng ti mt thi im tc thi sau khi
xy ra s nhiu lon.
Cc phng php k thut i vi cch gii tro lu cng sut c th c s dng
c c in p nt mi i vi mng in. Tuy nhin trong li gii lp th thanh gp
sau in khng ca my phi c x l khc nhau ty thuc vo c trng ca my.
Khi my in c c trng bi ngun p c ln khng i sau in khng qu
th in p ca nt bn trong my c gi c nh trong ton b qu trnh mt ln lp.
Khi my in c c trng bi thnh phn dc v ngang trc, th in p ca nt bn
trong my c gi c nh trong mt ln lp. Tuy nhin giai on cui ca mi php
lp in p phi c tnh li phn nh s thay i in p cc my E
ti
. Lc u
in p mi i vi thanh gp bn trong c c bng cch tnh ton dng in cc
my mi t:

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 121

i q i a
k
i t
k
i q
k
i t
jx r
E E I
+
=
+ +
1
) (
1 1

Sau thnh phn mi ca dng in dc theo trc dc c xc nh. Cui cng in
p sau in khng ng b ngang trc c tnh t:

1
) 0 (
1
) ' ( '
+ +
+ =
k
i d i d i q i q
k
i q
I x x E E
Vi E
qi(0)
v d
i(0)
gc lch ca E
qi
c gi c nh.
Khi li gii mng in t c th dng in cc my tr thnh gi tr ban u i
vi cch gii cc phng trnh vi phn. Phng trnh ny c s dng tnh ton
cng sut khe h khng kh ban u ca my.
) ' . Re(
*
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( i i t i e
E I P =
Khi ln ca in p sau khng in qu c gi c nh hoc t:
) . Re(
*
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( i q i t i e
E I P =
Khi nh hng ca nhng ch li lm v s thay i t thng mc vng c a vo
tnh ton. in p ban u E
qi(0)
c c cng t cch gii ca mng in ti thi im
tc thi sau s nhiu lon.
8.5.2. Phng php bin i Euler
Khi my in c c trng bng ngun p c ln khng i sau in khng
qu th n cn thit cho vic gii 2 phng trnh vi phn bc nht thu c s
bin thin gc lch in p bn trong d
i
, v tc my w
i
. Tht vy i vi m my m
tt c cc my c c trng mt cch n gin ha th cn gii 2m phng trnh cng
mt lc l iu cn thit. Nhng phng trnh l:
f
dt
d
t i
i

2
) (
= (8.11)
m i P P
H
f
dt
d
t i e i m
i
i
......., , 2 , 1 ) (
) (
= =


Nu khng c tc ng ca b iu chnh th P
mi
vn khng i v:
P
mi
= P
mi(0)
Trong vic p dng phng php bin i Euler, phng php c tnh ban u ca gc
lch in p bn trong v tc my ti thi im ) ( t t + c c t.
t
dt
d
t
i
t i t t i
+ =
+
) (
) 1 (
) (
) 0 (
) (


m i t
dt
d
t
i
t i t t i
....... , 2 , 1
) (
1
) (
) 0 (
) (
= + =
+


M cc o hm c tnh t phng trnh (8.11) v P
ei(t)
l cng sut ca my ti thi
im t. Khi t = 0 cng sut ca my P
ei(t)
c c t cch gii mng in ti thi im
sau khi xy ra nhiu lon.
c tnh th hai c c bng cch tnh cc o hm ti thi im t t + . iu ny i
hi c tnh ban u phi c xc nh i vi cng sut ca my ti thi im t t + .
Cng sut ny c c bng cch tnh ton cc thnh phn mi ca in p bn trong
t:

) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
cos ' '
t t i i t t i
E e
+ +
=

) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
sin ' '
t t i i t t i
E f
+ +
=
Sau cch gii ca mng in t c s cn bng th in p ti nt bn trong my
c nh. Khi c s c 3 pha trn nt f th in p nt E
f
cng gi c nh bng 0. vi s

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 122
tnh ton in p ca nt v in p bn trong th dng in u cc my c th c
tnh t:

di i a
t t i t t i t t i t
jx r
E E I
'
1
. ) ' (
) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
+
=
+ + +

V cng sut my tnh t:
{ }
* ) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
) ' ( . Re
t t i t t i t t t i e
E I P
+ + +
=
c tnh th hai i vi gc lch in p bn trong v tc my c c t .
t
dt
d
dt
d
t t
i
t
i
t i t t i

+
+ =
+
+
2
) ( ) (
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (


m i t
dt
d
dt
d
t t
i
t
i
t i t t i
......., , 2 , 1
2
) ( ) (
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
=

+
+ =
+
+


Vi f
dt
d
t t i
t t
i

2
) 0 (
) (
) (
=
+
+

) (
) 0 (
) (
) (
t t i e i m
i t t
i
P P
H
f
dt
d
+
+
=


in p cui cng ti thi im ) ( t t + i vi thanh gp bn trong my l:

) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
cos ' '
t t i i t t i
E e
+ +
=

) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
) (
sin ' '
t t i i t t i
E f
+ +
= i = 1, 2, ..............., m
Cc phng trnh ca mng c gii quyt tr li ly li in p cui cng ca h
thng ti thi im ) ( t t + . in p nt c s dng cng vi in p bn trong c
c dng in ca my, cng sut v lung cng sut ca mng in. Thi gian c
tng ln t v mt s th nghim ng mch xc nh, nu s vn hnh ca b ngt
tc ng hay l tnh trng s c b thay i. Nu s vn hnh c cho trong lch
trnh th s thay i thch hp l s ng mch cc thng s hay bin s ca mng in
hoc c hai. Cc phng trnh ca mng c gii quyt c c tnh trng ca h
thng ti thi im tc thi sau khi xy ra s thay i. Trong cch tnh ton ny in p
bn trong c gi c nh ti mt tr s ca dng in. Sau cc c tnh c c
i vi thi gian gia tng tip theo. Qu trnh c lp li cho n khi thi gian t
bng thi gian cc i T
max
nh trc.
Trnh t ca cc bc i vi s phn tch qu trnh qu bng phng php bin i
Euler v t cch gii tro lu cng sut bng phng php lp Gauss - Seidel s dng
Y
nt
. Phng php trnh by cng c tha nhn rng tt c cc ph ti ca h
thng c c trng nh tng dn c nh i vi t.
Khi nh hng ca ch li lm v s thay i t thng mc vng c tnh n trong
s c trng ca my in th cc phng trnh vi phn theo sau phi c gii quyt
ng thi.
f
dt
d
t i
i

2
) (
=

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 123
) (
) (t i e i m
i
i
P P
H
f
dt
d
=

(8.12)
) (
'
1
'
0
ti fdi
i d
qi
E E
T dt
dE
= i = 1, 2, ..............., m
Tr li, nu khng c tc ng ca b iu chnh th P
mi
vn c nh v P
mi
= P
mi(0)

Nu nh hng ca h thng iu khin kch t khng k n th E
fdi
vn khng i v
E
fdi
= E
fdi(0)

Nu mt my in ca h thng c m t bng phng trnh (8.12) th 3m phng
trnh c gii quyt cng mt lc.
8.5.3. Phng php Runge - Kuta.
Trong vic p dng th t bn php tnh gn ng ca Runge - Kuta, tr li i
vi s c trng n gin ha ca my th s thay i ca gc lch in p bn trong v
tc my in tnh t:
) 2 2 (
6
1
4 3 2 1 ) ( i i i i t t i
k k k k + + + =
+

) 2 2 (
6
1
4 3 2 1 ) ( i i i i t t i
l l l l + + + =
+

Cc ch s ca k v l c thay i trong d
i
v w
i
tun t c c bng cch s dng
cc o hm nh gi ti nhng thi im xc nh trc. Khi :
) 2 2 (
6
1
4 3 2 1 ) ( ) ( i i i i t i t t i
k k k k + + + + =
+
(8.13)
) 2 2 (
6
1
4 3 2 1 ) ( ) ( i i i i t i t t i
l l l l + + + + =
+

Nhng c tnh ban u ca s thay i thu c t.
t f k
t i i
= ). 2 (
) ( 1

t P P
H
f
l
t i e i m
i
i
= ). (
) ( 1


y w
i(t)
v P
ei(t)
l tc v cng sut khe h khng kh ca my ti thi im t. H
s ca c tnh th hai v s thay i trong d
i
v w
i
thu c t :
t f
l
k
i
t i i

+ = . 2
2
1
) ( 2

t P P
H
f
l
ei i m
i
i
= ). (
) 1 (
2

i = 1, 2, ..............., m
y
) 1 (
i e
P l cng sut ca my khi gc lch in p bn trong bng )
2
(
1
) (
i
t i
k
+ .
Tht vy, l
2i
c th c tnh trc, cc thnh phn mi ca in p cho cc nt bn
trong my phi c tnh t:
)
2
( cos ' '
1
) (
) 1 (
i
t i i i
k
E e + =
)
2
( sin ' '
1
) (
) 1 (
i
t i i i
k
E f + = i = 1, 2, ..............., m
Tip theo nhng phng trnh mng in c gii quyt c c in p nt i
vi s tnh ton cng sut ca my
) 1 (
i e
P .
c tnh th ba c c t:
t f
l
k
i
t i i

+ = . 2
2
2
) ( 3


GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 124
t P P
H
f
l
ei i m
i
i
= ). (
) 2 (
3

i = 1, 2, ..............., m
Vi
) 2 (
i e
P

c c t cch gii th hai ca cc phng trnh mng in vi gc lch in
p bng )
2
(
2
) (
i
t i
k
+ v cc thnh phn in p i vi thanh gp bn trong my bng:
)
2
( cos ' '
2
) (
) 2 (
i
t i i i
k
E e + =
)
2
( sin ' '
2
) (
) 2 (
i
t i i i
k
E f + = i = 1, 2, ..............., m
c tnh th t c c t:
( ) { } t f l k
i t i i
+ = . 2
3 ) ( 4

t P P
H
f
l
ei i m
i
i
= ). (
) 3 (
4

i = 1, 2, ..............., m
Vi P
ei(3)
c c t cch gii th 3 ca cc phng trnh mng in vi gc lch in
p bn trong bng d
i (t)
+ k
3i
v thnh phn in p bng.
) ( cos ' '
3 ) (
) 3 (
i t i i i
k E e + =
) ( sin ' '
3 ) (
) 3 (
i t i i i
k E f + = i = 1, 2, ..............., m
c tnh cui cng ca gc lch in p bn trong v tc my ti thi im ) ( t t +
c c bi s thay th cc ch s ca k v l vo phng trnh (8.13). Gc lch in p
bn trong
) ( t t i +
c s dng tnh ton nhng c tnh, i vi thnh phn in p
dng cho cc nt bn trong my in c tnh t:
) ( ) (
cos ' '
t t i i t t i
E e
+ +
=
) ( ) (
sin ' '
t t i i t t i
E f
+ +
= i = 1, 2, ..............., m
Cc phng trnh mng in c gii quyt n thi im th t c c
in p nt i vi s tnh ton ca dng in, cng sut my in v lun cng sut
ca mng in. Thi gian c tng ln t v cch gii ca mng in t c i vi
bt k s vn hnh ca b ngt c cho trong lch trnh v s thay i trong tnh trng
s c. Qu trnh ny c lp li cho n khi t = T
max
.
ng vi gi tr E
i
va tnh c ta quay li bi ton phn b cng sut tnh cc gi
tr in p nt v cng sut pht thi im ) ( t t + . Qu trnh tnh ton lp li cho ti
khi t = t
ct
. Sau cu trc mng thay i ta cng tip tc tnh n khi t = T
Max
th dng
li. Vi cc gi tr
i i
, tnh ton c ta v c tnh ) ( , ) ( t t
i i
minh ha r rng
hn bi ton n nh. S thut tnh ton n nh ng bng phng php bin i Euler
c trnh by di y.











GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 125















































Tnh ton phn b cng sut
trc s c
Thay i d liu h thng tng ng
cch biu din mi
Tnh ton dng my pht
G
G G
G
E
jQ P
I

=

Tnh in p tng ng sau khng qu
E
i(0)
= E
ti
+ r
ai
.I
ti
+ jx
di
.I
ti
t :=
0
Khi ngn mch b loi tr
t = t
ct
Thay i d liu mng
j :=
0
Tnh ton dng my pht
di ai
G G
G
jx r
E E
I
'
'
+

=

Tnh cng sut in
P
ti
-jQ
ti
= I
ti
.E
ti
j =
0
j =
1
j :=
0
t
T
c tnh th 1 ca , ti t + t.
t
t
d
t t t
t
i i i
+ = +
) (
) 1 ( ) 0 (
) ( ) ( ) (

t
t
d
t t t
t
i i i
+ = +
) (
) 1 ( ) 0 (
) ( ) ( ) (

c tnh th 1 ca in p
) ( cos ' ) (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( '
t t E t t e
i i i
+ = +
) ( sin ' ) (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( '
t t E t t f
i i i
+ = +
j :=
1
c tnh th 2 ca , ti t + t.
) ) ( ) ( (
2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
t t
i
t
i i i
t
d
t
d t
t t t
+
+

+ = +
) ) ( ) ( (
2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
t t
i
t
i i i
t
d
t
d t
t t t
+
+

+ = +


c tnh th 2 ca in p
) ( cos ' ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( '
t t E t t e
i i i
+ = +
) ( sin ' ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( '
t t E t t f
i i i
+ = +
j :=
2
Xem t tnh

Gii h phng trnh mng

= = + =
+ +
=
1
1 1 1
1 1
' .
p
q
m
i
i pi
n
p q
k
q pq
k
p pq
k
p
E YL E YL E YL E
p = 1, 2, ......n p f (f l nt khi ngn mch)

GIAI TCH MANG
Tr ang 126










GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 128
8.6. CC H THNG IU CHNH V B KCH T.
Trong k thut gii quyt m t trong phn 8.5 nh hng ca b kch t v
h thng iu khin van iu chnh ln s phn ng ca h thng cng sut c b
qua. Trong c trng in p kch t E
fd
v cng sut c P
m
c gi khng i
trong vic tnh ton qu trnh qu khi yu cu s nh gi chi tit vic phn ng li
ca h thng hoc thi gian phn tch ko di hn 1 giy th vic k n nh hng ca
b kch t v h thng van iu chnh rt quan trng.
H thng iu khin kch t cung cp in p kch t thch hp duy tr in p
ca h thng theo mong mun, thng l ti thanh gp in p cao ca nh my in.
Mt c trng quan trng ca h thng iu khin kch t l kh nng p ng mt
cch nhanh chng i vi lch in p trong c hai qu trnh iu khin h thng
bnh thng v h thng tnh trng s c trm trng. Nhiu kiu h thng iu khin
kch t khc nhau c s dng trong h thng cng sut. Nhng thnh phn c bn
ca h thng iu khin kch t l b iu chnh, b khuch i v b kch t. B
iu chnh o in p iu chnh thc v xc nh lch in p. Tn hiu lch sinh
ra bi b iu chnh th sau c khuch i cung cp tn hiu yu cu thay i dng
in kch t. iu ny c lm cho n khi to ra s thay i in p u ra ca b
kch t. S thay i ny ng vi kt qu ca mt mc kch t mi i vi ngun pht
in. Mt hnh thc thun tin ca s c trng h thng iu khin l mt dy s
khi lin h qua cc chc nng chuyn i bin s u vo v s u ra ca cc thnh
phn chnh yu ca h thng. Dy s khi dng c trng n gin ha s hot
ng lin tc ca h thng in khin b kch t c trnh by trn hnh 8.7. y l 1
trong nhng iu kin quan trng ca h thng iu khin b kch t. S c trng ny
bao gm nhng chc nng chuyn i m t b iu chnh, b khuch i, b kch
t v vng n nh. Vng n nh phi c iu chnh tng ng loi tr i nhng
dao ng khng mong mun v s vt qu in p iu chnh. Nhng phng trnh vi
phn lin quan n nhng bin s u vo, u ra ca b iu chnh, b khuch i, b
kch t v vng n nh mt cch ln lt l:
( )
v
t S
R
v
E E E
T dt
dE
=
1

+ =
iii iv
A
iii
v
A
A
iii
E E
K
E
E K
T dt
dE
0
1
(8.14)
( )
fd E
ii
A
d f
E K E
T dt
dE
=
1

=
iv fd
F
F
iv
E
dt
dE
K
T dt
dE 1

Vi: E
s
: L in p c ghi trong lch trnh tnh n v tng i.
iii
E
0
: L in p ly ra ca b khuch i trong n v tng i trc s nhiu
lon.





M

y

p
h

t

E
t

E
f
d


GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 129





































T
R
: L hng s thi gian ca b iu chnh.
K
A
: L h s khuych i ca b khuch i.
T
A
: L hng s thi gian ca b khuych i.
K
E
: L h s khuych i ca b kch t.
T
E
: L hng s thi gian ca b kch t.
K
F
: L h s khuch i ca vng n nh
T
F
: L hng s thi gian ca vng n nh.
V cc bin s trung gian c nh r bi E
ii
, E
iii
, E
iv
, E
v
v E
vi
. Bin s trung gian E
ii

l:

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 130
E
ii
= E
iii
- E
vi

M E
vi
tng ng vi nh hng ca s kh t do s bo ha trong b kch t. iu
ny c xc nh t
E
vi
= A
t
BE
fd









y A, B l cc hng s da vo c tnh bo ha ca b kch t.
tnh n cc nh hng ca h thng iu khin kch t, th cc phng trnh (8.14)
c gii ng thi vi cc phng trnh (8.12) m t my in.
Anh hng ca s iu chnh tc trong thi gian qu trnh qu c th c a
vo tnh ton bng cch s dng c im c n gin ha ca h thng iu
khin van iu chnh biu din trn hnh (8.8). c trng ny bao gm hm truyn m
t h thng x l hi vi hng s thi gian khng i T
s
v hm truyn m t h thng
iu khin vi hng s thi gian khng i T
e
. Cc phng trnh vi phn lin quan n
cc bin s u vo v u ra ca hm truyn mt cch ln lt l.
) (
1
m
i
m
s
m
P P
T dt
dP
=
) (
1
i
m
ii
m
c
i
m
P P
T dt
dP
= (8.15)
Trong : P
m
l cng sut c v cc bin s trung gian c nh r bi P
i
m
, P
ii
m
, P
iii
m
,
v P
iv
m
. Cc bin s P
ii
m
, P
iii
m
lin quan nh sau:
P
ii
m
= 0 P
iii
m
0
P
ii
m
= P
iii
m
0 < P
iii
m
< P
max
P
i
m
= P
max
P
iii
P
max
Vi P
max
: L dung lng cc i ca tua bin. Bin s trung gian P
iii
m
l:
P
iii
m
= P
m(0)
- P
iv
m
Trong : P
m(0)
: L cng sut c ban u. Bin s trung gian P
iv
m
l:
)
2
(
1
0
T
iv
m
DB
f R
P



y R l s iu chnh tc trong n v tng i v DB
T
l s dch chuyn
ca vng cht, l s thay i tc cn thit vt qua vng cht ca h thng van
iu chnh. Mt c tnh tiu biu ca van iu chnh c trnh by trong hnh 8.9.







fR 2
1
c
pT + 1
1
s
pT + 1
1
+ -
Vng cht
P
m
iv
P
iii
m
P
m(0)
-
+
Gii hn
0
P
(max)
P
ii
m
H thng
iu
khin
H thng
hi
Tua bin
P
m
P
i
m
Hnh 8.8 : S khi i vi s biu din n gin ha ca h thng iu chnh tc


0
0,
5
1,
0
1,0
5
iu chnh tc
= - 0,04
Vng cht =
0 0006
1,0
0
c

n
h

m

c

o
n
g

n

v

n
g

i

Ph ti nh mc
trong n v tng
i

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 131








Phng trnh (8.15) c gii ng thi vi phng trnh (8.12) nu nhng nh
hng ca h thng iu khin van iu chnh c tnh n.
8.7. RLE KHONG CCH.
S phi hp trong k hoch pht in, truyn ti in v vic thit k h thng
bo v rle c hiu qu l khng th thiu c i vi c trng tin cy ca h
thng in. Mc ch chnh ca rle l bo v h thng in khi nhng nh hng ca
s c bng s khi u vn hnh ct mch loi i nhng thit b h hng. Vic thit
k h thng bo v rle phi m bo vn hnh chn lc, khng ct nhm thit b
khc lm tng thm mc trm trng ca s nhiu lon v n phi m bo thit b h
hng c ct ra nhanh chng (kp thi) gim i nh hng ca s c. Hn na, h
thng rle phi khng gii hn kh nng thit k ca s pht in v thit b truyn ti.









Mt loi rle quan trng c s dng i vi vic bo v ng dy truyn ti cao p
l rle khong cch. Rle ny p ng vi t s in p v dng in o c m c th
xem nh mt tng tr. Mt cch thun tin ch ra c tnh vn hnh ca rle khong
cch l biu RX trn mt vng trn c v vi bn knh bng tng tr t nh hnh
8.10. Khi gi tr ca tng tr nhn thy bi rle ri vo trong ng trn th rle s tc
ng. d phng vic bo v chn lc, rle khong cch phi c 3 b phn. c tnh
tc ng ca mi b phn c th c iu chnh c lp. Hn na, chc nng chn lc
ca rle khong cch i hi kh nng phn bit hng. iu ny c cung cp bi
hoc b phn nh hng nh trong rle khong cch loi tng tr hoc l c sn trong
c tnh vn hnh ca rle, nh trong rle khong cch loi mho. c tnh vn hnh ca
hai loi rle ny c trnh by trong hnh 8.11. Cc vng trn tng ng vi 3 b phn
c nh du vng 1, vng 2 v vng 3.






Hnh 8.10 : c tnh vn hnh ca
rle khong cch trn biu h
trc RX
X
Z
R
0
X
R
c tnh ca
b phn
chnh hng
(a)
Vng
3
Vng
2
Vng
1
0
X
R
(b)
Vng 3
Vng
2
Vng

1
0

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 132







Khi s c xy ra v gi tr ca tng tr o c bi rle ri vo vng 1 v trn
ng c tnh ca b phn nh hng ca loi tng tr th tip im ca vng 1 s
ng v ct ngn mch tc thi. Trong trng hp ny tt c 3 b phn s khi ng
bi v vng 1 l vng trn nh nht. Khi tr khng gim xung v ri vo vng 2 v 3
hay vng 3 th tip im ca cc b phn tng ng s ng v cung cp nng lng
cho rle thi gian. Ti mt thi im t theo tnh ton th rle thi gian s ng b th
hai ca tip im tng ng vi vng 2. Nu b tip im u tin tng ng vi vng
2 c ng th my ct s c ct. Nu tip im vng 2 khng c ng, th tng
tr o c bi rle khng ri vo vng 2, khi rle thi gian sau thi gian chnh
nh s ng b tip im th 2 tng ng vi vng 3. Nu b tip im u tin tng
ng vi vng 3 c ng th khi my ct s c ct. Thi gian tr i vi vng 2
v 3 c th c t c lp. Vng 1 v 2 cung cp bo v on u tin i vi phn
ng dy truyn ti, ngc li vng 2 v 3 cung cp s bo v on sau, trong trng
hp h hng nhng rle hoc l ngn mch ca nhng thit b lin hp, lc ny vn vn
hnh hp l.
Trong sut s nhiu lon ca h thng v sau khi tc ng ca b ngt vn hnh
i ct thit b s c, s dao ng cng sut s xy ra trong h thng truyn ti cho
n khi trng thi vn hnh bn vng mi c xc lp. S dao ng ny khng lm
cho rle tng ng vi cc phn t khng h hng tc ng. S hot ng ca h thng
rle c th c kim tra i vi s nhiu lon khc nhau ca h thng in bng cch
tnh ton tr khng, biu kin tng bc trong sut s tnh ton qu trnh qu , l
tng tr thy c ca rle. Tng tr biu kin o c ti mi gia s thi gian c th
c so snh vi c tnh khi ng ca rle. Cch thun tin ca vic so snh ny l
lp biu cc gi tr ca tng tr trn biu RX ca rle nh trn hnh 8.12.













X
R
Hnh 8.12 : Qu o ca tng tr biu kin trong
dao ng cng sut
Vng
3
Vng
2
Vng

1
Tng
tr gi
tng
0

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 133
Tng tr biu kin c tnh t nhng kt qu cui cng c c t cch gii
ca mng in ti thi im t + t. u tin dng in trong ng dy truyn ti theo
l thuyt p-q c tnh t.
I
pq
= (E
p
- E
q
).y
pq
Khi tng tr biu kin i vi nt p l:
pq
p
p
I
E
Z =
Hay dng s phc
pq pq
p p
p p
jb a
jf e
jX R
+
+
= +
Trong :
2 2
. .
pq pq
pq p pq p
p
b a
b f a e
R
+
+
=

2 2
. .
pq pq
pq p pq p
p
b a
b e a f
X
+
+
=
Gi tr R
p
v X
p
l to ( n v tng i) trn th RX ca tng tr biu kin ti
thi im t + t.
Thng tin thng thng lin quan n c tnh vn hnh ca rle bao gm ng knh
ca nhng ng trn i vi mi vng, gc lin quan ti trc R v ng dc qua
tm ca ng trn, cc vng trn v v tr ca tm vng trn dc theo ng
dy.Thng tin ny c s dng xc nh ta trong n v tng i ca tm mi
vng trn. Nhng tm ny c xc nh t:

( )
cos
10
2
3
2

=
kv ban c v n
kva ban c v n
D
R
c


( )
sin
10
2
3
2

=
kv ban c v n
kva ban c v n
D
X
c

Vi D l ng knh ca ng trn trong n v ohms. Khong cch d gia tm C ca
ng trn v im tng tr Z
p
l:

2 2
) ( ) ( x R d + =
M R = R
p
- R
c
v x = x
p
- x
c

Nh trn hnh 8.13 gi tr ca d c so snh vi bn knh r trong n v tng i ca
ng trn.








X
R
Hnh 8.13 : So snh tng
tr biu kin v c
tnh vn hnh ca rle
X
p
X
c
Z
p
C

x

R

R
p
R
c


d
0

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 134




Trnh t ca cc bc i vi vic m phng s hot ng ca loi rle khong
cch mho trong vic nghin cu n nh ca qu trnh qu c trnh by trong hnh
8.14. i vi ng dy c th mt tng tr biu kin tnh ti t + t. c so snh vi
c tnh vn hnh ca mt trong ba vng. iu ny c tnh hon thnh bng cch tnh
cc khong cch d
11
, d
21
v d
31
t im tng tr biu kin n cc tm ca vng trn
trong vng 1, 2 v 3 mt cch ln lt. Mi khong cch c so snh vi bn knh
ng trn thch hp, l d
11
c so snh vi bn knh r
11
v d
21
c so snh vi r
21

v d
31
c so snh vi r
31
. Nu tr khng biu kin trong vng 1 th s hot ng ca
b ngt c tin hnh tc th. Nu tng tr biu kin ri vo vng 2 v 3 hoc vng 3
th nhng tip im tng ng C
21
v C
31
hoc C
31
c ng v rle thi gian T
1
bt
u hot ng. Khi thi gian c gia tng bi t th trong tnh ton qu trnh qu
rle thi gian T
1
phi c tng ln t, khi rle thi gian tin n thi gian t T
21
hoc
T
31
i vi vng 2 hoc 3 mt cch ln lt v tip im tng ng C
21
hoc C
31
c
ng s hot ng ca b ct c tin hnh.
Khi s hot ng c tin hnh thi gian ca b ct c xc nh bng cch cng
vo t + t ca rle c sn v thi gian mch ct T
il
, l thi gian yu cu i vi rle
v my ct ct ng dy. Nhng rle tc cao v mch ct hot ng xp x 0,04
(s). S hot ng ca b ct b nh hng trong tng bc tnh ton qu trnh qu ti
thi gian ghi trong lch trnh.























GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 135












LP CHNG TRNH GII QUYT CC BI TON TRONG H THNG
IN

Sau khi nghin nghin cu xong l thuyt, trong phn ny trnh by v cc
chng trnh tnh ton trong h thng in nh: Cch xy dng cc ma trn mng, bi
ton tro lu cng sut, ngn mch, n nh ...
CHN NGN NG LP TRNH:
i vi cc bi ton k thut ni chung v cc bi ton tnh ton h thng in
ni ni ring, thng lp trnh bng cc ngn ng nh Fortran, Basic, Pascal...Mi ngn
ng lp trnh u c nhng u im ring v c s dng trong nhng ng dng thch
hp. Chng hn chng ta thng hay gp Fortran trong cc bi ton c khi lng tnh
ton ln. Trong s cc chng trnh tnh ton li in ang s dng ti in lc
Nng ni ring v cng ty in lc 3 ni chung a s u s dng Fortran, v d chng
trnh tnh li in ca PC3, mun tnh ton ca chng trnh SwedNet (Thy in).
Tuy nhin, s dng thnh tho Fortran l vn khng n gin. Basic cng c nhc
im tng t l kh s dng.
Ring i vi Pascal, y l mt ngn ng (hay ni ng hn l mt trnh bin
dch) ni ting v quen thuc vi tt c lp trnh vin. Hu ht cc lp trnh vin Pascal
u yu thch tnh n nh ca trinhg bin dch, s uyn chuyn, mc d hiu v c
bit l tc m Pascal mang n.
Mi trng Windows pht trin, cc hng sn xut phn mn chuyn i v
pht trin cc ngn ng ni trn vi cc phin bn lp trnh ng dng Windows trc
quan (Visual), chng hn, hng Borland a ra sn phm Delphi m hin nay c
n phin bn th 6 (Delphi 6). Ngoi ra, trong lnh vc tnh ton k thut, cn c ngn
ng Mathlab, cng c mt cng c rt mnh phc v cc tnh ton phc tp.
Trong chuyn ny em chn ngn ng lp trnh Pascal gii quyt cc bi
ton trong h thng in.








GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 136












Chng trnh m phng


































GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 137














































Giao din chnh i n cc mc ca chng trnh
con.
S ca bi ton mu s l tm cc ma trn

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 138














































S biu din cho 1 mng ring, t y c th thm 1 nhnh cy hoc nhnh b cy
Giao din biu din hnh nh v cc ma trn mng

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 139














































S ca 1 mng c th tnh ton ngn mch
S c th tnh ton ngn mch
Biu din dng ngn mch trn s .

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 140














































Biu din cng sut chy trn ng dy
ng c tnh tc ca cc my pht khi trong
mng c s c.

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 141















KT LUN

Trong gii tch mng, mun nghin cu mt mng in u tin ta s dng
nhng kin thc v i s ma trn thnh lp nn nhng ma trn mng, t y c th
a ra m hnh ha cc phn t trong h thng in bng cc ma trn nh ma trn tng
tr z, ma trn nhnh cy...Ngy nay vi s pht trin ca khoa hc k thut cng vi
cng ngh my tnh ta c th xy dng nn cc ma trn mng trn my tnh nh ma trn
A, C, Y
nt
, Z
nt
, c bit ma trn Z
nt
bng phng php m rng dn s . T y c
th tnh c cng sut phn b trong mng in nh NEWTON - RAPHSON phng
php c hi t cao, thy c gii hn truyn ti ca ng dy v lch in
p ti cc nt. Vi ma trn Z
nt
, Z
vng
xy dng c vn dng tnh cc dng ngn mch
1 pha, 3 pha cng nh cc im ngn mch ca mng in. Cc phng trnh vi phn
ca my pht trong qu trnh qu khi mng c s c c gii bng phng php s
nh phng php Euler, Runge-Kutta. xt tnh n nh ng cho cc my pht khi
c s c trong mng ta dng phng php bin i Euler vi cc bc tnh c lng
a ra c ng c tnh ca cc my pht ti cc nt trong h thng in.

Nng, ngy 30 thng 05 nm 2003




TI LIU THAM KHO.


1. NG NGC DINH, TRN BCH, NG HNG QUANG, TRNH HNG
THM, H thng in Tp 1, 2, NXB, i hc v trung hc chuyn nghip, H
Ni, 1981.
2. L KIM HNG, ON NGC MINH T, Ngn mch trong h thng in,
NXB Gio dc, 1999.
3. TRN BCH, n nh ca h thng in, HBK H Ni, 2001.

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 142
4. GLENNN.W.STAGG
AHMED.H.EL-ABIAD
Computer methods in power system analysis, Mc Graw-Hill, 1988




MC LC
Li ni u .
CHNG 1: I S MA TRN NG DNG TRONG GII TCH MNG. 4
1.1. NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM C BN. 4
1.1.1. K hiu ma trn. 4
1.1.2. Cc dng ma trn. 4
1.2. CC NH THC. 6
1.2.2. nh ngha v cc tnh cht ca nh thc. 6
1.2.2. nh thc con v cc phn ph i s. 7
1.3. CC PHP TNH MA TRN. 7
1.3.1. Cc ma trn bng nhau. 7
1.3.2. Php cng (tr) ma trn. 7
1.3.3. Tch v hng ca ma trn. 8
1.3.4. Nhn cc ma trn. 8
1.3.5. Nghch o ma trn. 8
1.3.6. Ma trn phn chia. 9
1.4. S PH THUC TUYN TNH V HNG CA MA TRN. 10
1.4.1. S ph thuc tuyn tnh. 10
1.4.2. Hng ca ma trn. 10
1.5. H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH. 10

CHNG 2: GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S. 12
2.1. GII THIU. 12
2.2. GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S. 12
2.2.1. Phng php Euler. 12
2.2.2. Phng php bin i Euler. 13
2.2.3. Phng php Picard vi s xp x lin tc. 15
2.2.4. Phng php Runge-Kutta. 16
2.2.5. Phng php d on sa i. 18
2.3. GII PHNG TRNH BC CAO. 19
2.4. V D V GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S. 19

CHNG 3: M HNH HA CC PHN T TRONG H THNG IN. 29
3.1. GII THIU. 29
3.2. M HNH NG DY TRUYN TI. 29
3.2.1. ng dy di ng nht. 29
3.2.2. S tng ng ng dy di (l > 240). 31
3.2.3. S tng ng ca ng dy trung bnh. 32
3.2.4. Thng s A, B, C, D. 33
3.2.5. Cc dng tng tr v tng dn. 33
3.3. MY BIN P. 34
3.3.1. My bin p 2 cun dy. 34

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 143
3.3.2. My bin p t ngu.
35
3.3.3. My bin p c b iu p. 37
3.3.4. My bin p c t s vng khng ng nht. 37
3.3.5. My bin p chuyn pha. 39
3.3.6. My bin p ba cun dy. 39
3.3.7. Ph ti. 40
3.4. KT LUN. 41

CHNG 4: CC MA TRN MNG V PHM VI NG DNG. 42
4.1. GII THIU. 42
4.2. GRAPHS. 42
4.3. MA TRN THM VO. 44
4.3.1. Ma trn thm vo nhnh -nt . 44
4.3.2. Ma trn thm vo nt A. 45
4.3.3. Ma trn hng ng - nhnh cy K. 46
4.3.4. Ma trn vt ct c bn B. 46
4.3.5. Ma trn vt ct tng thm B

. 48
4.3.6. Ma trn thm vo vng c bn C. 49
4.3.7. Ma trn s vng tng thm C

. 50
4.4. MNG IN GC. 51
4.5. CCH THNH LP MA TRN MNG BNG S BIN I TRC TIP. 52
4.5.1. Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in. 52
4.5.2. Ma trn tng tr nt v ma trn tng dn nt. 53
4.5.3. Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy v tng dn nhnh cy. 54
4.5.4. Ma trn tng tr vng v ma trn tng dn vng. 55
4.6. CCH THNH LP MA TRN MNG BNG PHP BIN I PHC TP. 57
4.6.1. Ma trn tng tr nhnh v ma trn tng dn nhnh. 57
4.6.2. Ma trn tng tr vng v tng dn vng. 60
4.6.3. Ma trn tng dn vng thu c t ma trn tng dn mng thm vo. 62
4.6.4. Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy thu c t ma trn tng tr thm vo. 64
4.6.5. Thnh lp mt tng dn, tng tr nhnh cy t mt tng dn v tng tr nt
64
4.6.6. Thnh lp mt tng dn, tng tr nt t mt tng dn, tng dn nhnh cy. 65

CHNG 5: CC THUT TON DNG THNH LP NHNG MT MNG.
74
5.1. GII THIU. 74
5.2. XC NH MA TRN Y
NT
BNG PHNG PHP TRC TIP. 74
5.3. THUT TON THNH LP MA TRN TNG TR NT. 75
5.3.1. Phng trnh biu din ca mt mng ring. 75
5.3.2. S thm vo ca mt nhnh cy. 76
5.3.3. S thm vo ca mt nhnh b cy. 79

CHNG 6: TRO LU CNG SUT. 84
6.1. GII THIU. 84
6.2. THIT LP CNG THC GII TCH. 84
6.3. CC PHNG PHP GII QUYT TRO LU CNG SUT. 85
6.4. LCH V TIU CHUN HI TU. 85
6.5. PHNG PHP GAUSS-SEIDEL S DNG MA TRN Y
NT
. 87
6.5.1. Tnh ton nt P-V. 89

GIAI TCH MANG

Tr ang 144
6.5.2. Tnh ton dng chy trn ng dy v cng sut nt h thng. 90
6.5.3. Tng tc hi t. 90
6.5.4. u v nhc im ca phng php dng Y
nt
. 91
6.6. PHNG PHP S DNG MA TRN Z
NT
. 91
6.6.1. Phng php tha s zero. 92
6.6.2. Phng php s dng ma trn Z
nt
. 92
6.6.3. Phng php s dng ma trn Z
nt
vi h thng lm chun . 93
6.6.4. Phng php tnh lun c nt iu khin p. 94
6.6.5. Hi t v hiu qu tnh ton. 94
6.7. PHNG PHP NEWTON. 94
6.7.1. Gii quyt tro lu cng sut. 95
6.7.2. Phng php lch cng sut trong ta cc. 95

CHNG 7: TNH TON NGN MCH. 98
7.1. GII THIU. 98
7.2. TNH TON NGN MCH BNG CCH DNG MA TRN Z
NT
. 99
7.2.1. M t h thng. 99
7.2.2. Dng v p ngn mch. 99
7.3. TNH TON NM CHO MNG 3 PHA I XNG BNG CCH DNG Z
NT
.
103
7.3.1. Bin i thnh dng i xng. 103
7.3.2. Ngn mch 3 pha chm t. 106
7.3.3. Ngn mch 1 pha chm t . 109
7.4. TNH TON NGN MCH BNG CCH DNG Z
VNG
.

111
7.5. CHNG TRNH M T TNH TON NGN MCH . 115

CHNG 8: NGHIN CU TNH N NH CA QU TRNH QU . 117
8.1. GII THIU. 117
8.2. PHNG TRNH DAO NG. 118
8.3. PHNG TRNH MY IN. 120
8.3.1. My in ng b. 120
8.3.2. My in cm ng 122
8.4. PHNG TRNH H THNG IN . 123
8.4.1. c trng ca ph ti. 123
8.4.2. Phng trnh c trng ca mng in. 124
8.5. K THUT GII QUYT. 127
8.5.1. Tnh ton m u. 127
8.5.2. Phng php bin i Euler. 129
8.5.3. Phng php Runge-Kutta. 131
8.6. CC H THNG IU CHNH V B KCH T . 135
8.7. RLE KHONG CCH. 138

PH LC : CC HNH TIU BIU CHO CHNG TRNH TNH TON . 137
Kt lun. 146
Ti liu tham kho. 147
Mc lc.

CHUYN TT NGHIP
GIAI TCH MANG
Phan Cng Li nh L p 981A
Tr ang 145
MC LC
Li cm n. 2
Li ni u . 3
CHNG 1: I S MA TRN NG DNG TRONG GII TCH MNG. 4
1.1. NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM C BN. 4
1.1.1. K hiu ma trn. 4
1.1.2. Cc dng ma trn. 4
1.2. CC NH THC. 6
1.2.2. nh ngha v cc tnh cht ca nh thc. 6
1.2.2. nh thc con v cc phn ph i s. 7
1.3. CC PHP TNH MA TRN. 7
1.3.1. Cc ma trn bng nhau. 7
1.3.2. Php cng (tr) ma trn. 8
1.3.3. Tch v hng ca ma trn. 8
1.3.4. Nhn cc ma trn. 8
1.3.5. Nghch o ma trn. 8
1.3.6. Ma trn phn chia. 9
1.4. S PH THUC TUYN TNH V HNG CA MA TRN. 10
1.4.1. S ph thuc tuyn tnh. 10
1.4.2. Hng ca ma trn. 10
1.5. H PHNG TRNH TUYN TNH. 10

CHNG 2: GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S. 12
2.1. GII THIU. 12
2.2. GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S. 12
2.2.1. Phng php Euler. 12
2.2.2. Phng php bin i Euler. 13
2.2.3. Phng php Picard vi s xp x lin tc. 15
2.2.4. Phng php Runge-Kutta. 16
2.2.5. Phng php d on sa i. 18
2.3. GII PHNG TRNH BC CAO. 19
2.4. V D V GII PHNG TRNH VI PHN BNG PHNG PHP S. 19

CHNG 3: M HNH HA CC PHN T TRONG H THNG IN. 29
3.1. GII THIU. 29
3.2. M HNH NG DY TRUYN TI. 29
3.2.1. ng dy di ng nht. 29
3.2.2. S tng ng ng dy di (l > 240). 31
3.2.3. S tng ng ca ng dy trung bnh. 32
3.2.4. Thng s A, B, C, D. 33
3.2.5. Cc dng tng tr v tng dn. 33
3.3. MY BIN P. 34
3.3.1. My bin p 2 cun dy. 34
3.3.2. My bin p t ngu.
35
3.3.3. My bin p c b iu p. 37
3.3.4. My bin p c t s vng khng ng nht. 37
3.3.5. My bin p chuyn pha. 39
3.3.6. My bin p ba cun dy. 39
3.3.7. Ph ti. 40
3.4. KT LUN. 41
CHUYN TT NGHIP
GIAI TCH MANG
Phan Cng Li nh L p 981A
Tr ang 146

CHNG 4: CC MA TRN MNG V PHM VI NG DNG. 42
4.1. GII THIU. 42
4.2. GRAPHS. 42
4.3. MA TRN THM VO. 44
4.3.1. Ma trn thm vo nhnh -nt . 44
4.3.2. Ma trn thm vo nt A. 45
4.3.3. Ma trn hng ng - nhnh cy K. 46
4.3.4. Ma trn vt ct c bn B. 46
4.3.5. Ma trn vt ct tng thm B

. 48
4.3.6. Ma trn thm vo vng c bn C. 49
4.3.7. Ma trn s vng tng thm C

. 50
4.4. MNG IN GC. 51
4.5. CCH THNH LP MA TRN MNG BNG S BIN I TRC TIP. 52
4.5.1. Phng trnh c tnh ca mng in. 52
4.5.2. Ma trn tng tr nt v ma trn tng dn nt. 53
4.5.3. Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy v tng dn nhnh cy. 54
4.5.4. Ma trn tng tr vng v ma trn tng dn vng. 55
4.6. CCH THNH LP MA TRN MNG BNG PHP BIN I PHC TP. 57
4.6.1. Ma trn tng tr nhnh v ma trn tng dn nhnh. 57
4.6.2. Ma trn tng tr vng v tng dn vng. 60
4.6.3. Ma trn tng dn vng thu c t ma trn tng dn mng thm vo. 62
4.6.4. Ma trn tng tr nhnh cy thu c t ma trn tng tr thm vo. 64
4.6.5. Thnh lp mt tng dn, tng tr nhnh cy t mt tng dn v tng tr nt
64
4.6.6. Thnh lp mt tng dn, tng tr nt t mt tng dn, tng dn nhnh cy. 65

CHNG 5: CC THUT TON DNG THNH LP NHNG MT MNG.
67
5.1. GII THIU. 67
5.2. XC NH MA TRN Y
NT
BNG PHNG PHP TRC TIP. 67
5.3. THUT TON THNH LP MA TRN TNG TR NT. 68
5.3.1. Phng trnh biu din ca mt mng ring. 68
5.3.2. S thm vo ca mt nhnh cy. 69
5.3.3. S thm vo ca mt nhnh b cy. 72

CHNG 6: TRO LU CNG SUT. 77
6.1. GII THIU. 77
6.2. THIT LP CNG THC GII TCH. 77
6.3. CC PHNG PHP GII QUYT TRO LU CNG SUT. 78
6.4. LCH V TIU CHUN HI TU. 78
6.5. PHNG PHP GAUSS-SEIDEL S DNG MA TRN Y
NT
. 80
6.5.1. Tnh ton nt P-V. 82
6.5.2. Tnh ton dng chy trn ng dy v cng sut nt h thng. 83
6.5.3. Tng tc hi t. 83
6.5.4. u v nhc im ca phng php dng Y
nt
. 84
6.6. PHNG PHP S DNG MA TRN Z
NT
. 84
6.6.1. Phng php tha s zero. 85
6.6.2. Phng php s dng ma trn Z
nt
. 85
6.6.3. Phng php s dng ma trn Z
nt
vi h thng lm chun . 86
6.6.4. Phng php tnh lun c nt iu khin p. 87
CHUYN TT NGHIP
GIAI TCH MANG
Phan Cng Li nh L p 981A
Tr ang 147
6.6.5. Hi t v hiu qu tnh ton. 87
6.7. PHNG PHP NEWTON. 87
6.7.1. Gii quyt tro lu cng sut. 88
6.7.2. Phng php lch cng sut trong ta cc. 88

CHNG 7: TNH TON NGN MCH. 91
7.1. GII THIU. 91
7.2. TNH TON NGN MCH BNG CCH DNG MA TRN Z
NT
. 92
7.2.1. M t h thng. 92
7.2.2. Dng v p ngn mch. 92
7.3. TNH TON NM CHO MNG 3 PHA I XNG BNG CCH DNG Z
NT
.
96
7.3.1. Bin i thnh dng i xng. 96
7.3.2. Ngn mch 3 pha chm t. 99
7.3.3. Ngn mch 1 pha chm t . 102
7.4. TNH TON NGN MCH BNG CCH DNG Z
VNG
.

104
7.5. CHNG TRNH M T TNH TON NGN MCH . 108

CHNG 8: NGHIN CU TNH N NH CA QU TRNH QU . 110
8.1. GII THIU. 110
8.2. PHNG TRNH DAO NG. 111
8.3. PHNG TRNH MY IN. 113
8.3.1. My in ng b. 113
8.3.2. My in cm ng 115
8.4. PHNG TRNH H THNG IN . 116
8.4.1. c trng ca ph ti. 116
8.4.2. Phng trnh c trng ca mng in. 117
8.5. K THUT GII QUYT. 120
8.5.1. Tnh ton m u. 120
8.5.2. Phng php bin i Euler. 122
8.5.3. Phng php Runge-Kutta. 124
8.6. CC H THNG IU CHNH V B KCH T . 128
8.7. RLE KHONG CCH. 131

LP CHNG TRNH GII QUYT CC BI TON TRONG H THNG IN 136
Chn ngn ng lp trnh. 136
PH LC : CC HNH TIU BIU CHO CHNG TRNH TNH TON . 137
Kt lun. 143
Ti liu tham kho. 144
Mc lc. 145